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Sample records for stress psychological abuse

  1. Cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress and abuse history: the role of occurrence, frequency, and type of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginty, Annie T; Masters, Nicole A; Nelson, Eliza B; Kaye, Karen T; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-03-01

    Extreme cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress have been associated with traumatic life experiences. Previous studies have focused on the occurrence or frequency of abuse rather than type of abuse. We examined how occurrence, frequency, and the type of abuse history are related to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to acute psychological stress. The study consisted of between group and continuous analyses to examine the association between occurrence, type, and frequency of abuse with cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Data from 64 participants were collected. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during a standard mental arithmetic stress task. Individuals who experienced abuse showed diminished CVR to acute psychological stress; this was driven specifically by the history of sexual abuse. Frequency of abuse did not relate to stress reactions. These findings accord with previous work suggesting a relationship between traumatic life experience and hypoarousal in physiological reactivity and extend previous findings by suggesting the relationship may be driven by sexual abuse.

  2. Do no more harm: the psychological stress of the medical examination for alleged child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.

  3. HPA axis response to psychological stress and treatment retention in residential substance abuse treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Richards, Jessica M; Gorka, Stephanie M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs are often characterized by high rates of premature treatment dropout, which increases the likelihood of relapse to drug use. Negative reinforcement models of addiction emphasize an individual's inability to tolerate stress as a key factor for understanding poor substance use treatment outcomes, and evidence indicates that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to an individual's inability to respond adaptively to stress. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HPA axis response to stress is predictive of treatment retention among a sample of drug users in residential substance abuse treatment. Prospective study assessing treatment retention among 102 individuals enrolled in residential substance abuse treatment. Participants completed two computerized stress tasks, and HPA axis response to stress was measured via salivary cortisol at five time points from baseline (pre-stress) to 30 min post-stress exposure. The main outcome measures were treatment dropout (categorical) and total number of days in treatment (continuous). A significantly higher salivary cortisol response to stress was observed in treatment dropouts compared to treatment completers. Further, Cox proportional hazards survival analyses indicated that a higher peak cortisol response to stress was associated with a shorter number of days to treatment dropout. Results indicate that a higher salivary cortisol level in response to stress is associated with an inability to remain in substance abuse treatment. These findings are the first to document a biological marker of stress as a predictor of substance abuse treatment dropout, and support the development and implementation of treatments targeting this vulnerability.

  4. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  5. Parental stress response to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stress responses of parents to the sexual and ritualistic abuse of their children in day-care centers. Sixty-five mothers and 46 fathers of children sexually abused in day-care centers completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a measure of psychological distress. These scores were compared with a carefully matched comparison group of parents of 67 nonabused children. Parents of abused children also completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure which indexes symptoms that characterize posttraumatic stress disorder. Parents of sexually abused children reported significantly more psychological distress than parents of nonabused children, with parents of ritually abused children displaying the most severe psychological distress. Parents of abused children reported symptom profiles on the SCL-90-R and IES consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder.

  6. Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

  7. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    1988-01-01

    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  8. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  9. Psychological Consequences of Wife Abuse | Chovwen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...

  10. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  11. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  12. The Psychological Impact of Abuse on Men and Women with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, A. C.; Clare, I. C. H.; Murphy, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In other populations, the psychological impact of abuse has been conceptualized as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994), but little is known about whether this is appropriate for adults with severe intellectual disabilities and very limited communication skills. Methods: An…

  13. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  14. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  15. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  16. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L

    2012-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  17. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  18. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  19. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

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    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  20. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  1. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  2. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure.

  3. A comparison of dysfunctional attitudes in substance abusers and control group and its psychological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.

  4. Psychological well-being and workability in child abuse investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, N

    2018-05-17

    Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.

  5. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse: The Role of Perpetrator Gender, Victim's Response, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.

  6. [Methods and Applications of Psychological Stress State Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Yadan; Hou, Yongjie; Chen, Zetao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the response of individual's physiological system under psychological stress state is discussed, and the theoretical support for psychological stress assessment research is provided. The two methods, i.e., the psychological stress assessment of questionnaire and physiological parameter assessment used for current psychological stress assessment are summarized. Then, the future trend of development of psychological stress assessment research is pointed out. We hope that this work could do and provide further support and help to psychological stress assessment studies.

  7. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  10. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.

  11. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  12. Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review.

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    Picard, Martin; McEwen, Bruce S

    Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies involved male laboratory animals, and most demonstrated that acute and chronic stressors influenced specific facets of mitochondrial function, particularly within the brain. Nineteen studies showed significant adverse effects of psychological stress on mitochondria and four found increases in function or size after stress. In humans, only six observational studies were available, none with experimental designs, and most only measured biological markers that do not directly reflect mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial DNA copy number. Overall, evidence supports the notion that acute and chronic stressors influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria. Limitations of current animal and human studies are discussed. Maladaptive mitochondrial changes that characterize this subcellular state of stress are termed mitochondrial allostatic load. Prospective studies with sensitive measures of specific mitochondrial outcomes will be needed to establish the link between psychosocial stressors, emotional states, the resulting neuroendocrine and immune processes, and mitochondrial energetics relevant to mind-body research in humans.

  13. Child abuse and work stress in adulthood: Evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Nilsen, Wendy; Colman, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between child abuse and work stress in adulthood. We used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Mental Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Canadians. This study included all participants aged 20years or older who reported being employed the past 12months (N=14,581). Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to several work stress-related indicators. Multiple linear and Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, marital status, occupation group, and any lifetime mental disorder. Child abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of high work stress (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.43) in adulthood. More specifically, child abuse was associated with greater odds of job dissatisfaction (IRR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.31-2.18), job insecurity (IRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.27-1.91), and self-perceived low support (IRR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.22-1.46). It was also associated with high levels of psychological demand (b=0.348; 95% CI: 0.229-0.467) and job strain (b=0.031; 95% CI: 0.019-0.043). Examination of the Karasek's Demand-Control Model using multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that child abuse was significantly associated with high strain (RRR:1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.72) and active (RRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.28-1.90) jobs. These findings suggest the negative influence of child abuse on work experience. Success in preventing child abuse may help reduce work-related stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Posttraumatic stress and depression may undermine abuse survivors' self-efficacy in the obstetric care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Natalie R; Tirone, Vanessa; Lillis, Teresa A; Holmgreen, Lucie; Chen-McCracken, Allison; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) are associated with increased risk of obstetric complications among pregnant survivors of trauma, abuse and interpersonal violence, but little is known about how PTS affects women's actual experiences of obstetric care. This study investigated the rate at which abuse history was detected by obstetricians, whether abuse survivors experienced more invasive exams than is typically indicated for routine obstetric care, and whether psychological distress was associated with abuse survivors' sense of self-efficacy when communicating their obstetric care needs. Forty-one pregnant abuse survivors completed questionnaires about abuse history, current psychological distress and self-efficacy for communicating obstetric care needs and preferences. Electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to examine frequency of invasive prenatal obstetric procedures (e.g. removal of clothing for external genital examination, pelvic exams and procedures) and to examine the detection rate of abuse histories during the initial obstetric visit. The majority of participants (83%) reported at least one past incident of violent physical or sexual assault. Obstetricians detected abuse histories in less than one quarter of cases. Nearly half of participants (46%) received invasive exams for non-routine reasons. PTS and depression symptoms were associated with lower self-efficacy in communicating obstetric care preferences. Women most at risk for experiencing distress during their obstetric visits and/or undergoing potentially distressing procedures may also be the least likely to communicate their distress to obstetricians. Results are discussed with implications for improving screening for abuse screening and distress symptoms as well as need for trauma-sensitive obstetric practices.

  15. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  16. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Psychological Abuse, Mental Health, and Acceptance of Dating Violence Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Hecht, Michael; Miller-Day, Michelle; Stuart, Gregory L; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin

    2016-08-01

    Existing literature indicates that acceptance of dating violence is a significant and robust risk factor for psychological dating abuse perpetration. Past work also indicates a significant relationship between psychological dating abuse perpetration and poor mental health. However, no known research has examined the relationship between acceptance of dating violence, perpetration of dating abuse, and mental health. In addition to exploring this complex relationship, the present study examines whether psychological abuse perpetration mediates the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and mental health (i.e., internalizing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility). Three waves of longitudinal data were obtained from 1,042 ethnically diverse high school students in Texas. Participants completed assessments of psychological dating abuse perpetration, acceptance of dating violence, and internalizing symptoms (hostility and symptoms of anxiety and depression). As predicted, results indicated that perpetration of psychological abuse was significantly associated with acceptance of dating violence and all internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, psychological abuse mediated the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and internalizing symptoms. Findings from the present study suggest that acceptance of dating violence is an important target for the prevention of dating violence and related emotional distress. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... found to be associated with adverse health outcomes and potentially suboptimal healthcare. The link between stress and multimorbidity could substantiate the efforts to develop management guidelines for primary care, stress‐targeted interventions, and to accommodate the healthcare system to better...... and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity...

  20. Adult Disclosure of Sexual Abuse: A Primary Cause of Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…

  1. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  2. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  3. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  6. The minimizing style: perceptions of psychological abuse and quality of past and current relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varia, R; Abidin, R R

    1999-11-01

    The goals of this current project were to expand and elaborate on the results of Varia, Abidin, and Dass' (1996) study to better understand what historical parenting factors may contribute in creating a "Minimizing" perception of childhood psychological abuse. A second objective included examining the association between perceptual styles and adult ratings of adult relationship satisfaction. Ninety individuals from a non-clinical adult sample completed self-report questionnaires regarding psychological maltreatment and adult relationship satisfaction. Three groups were created and compared using analysis of variance. The groups were (I) "Non-Abused," consistent reporters of no abuse; (II) "Acknowledgers," consistent reporters of abuse; and (III) "Minimizers," reporters of abuse, but do not label themselves as having been abused. Results indicated a continuum effect with the Non-Abused individuals reporting the highest level of maternal warmth and affection, the Acknowledgers reporting the lowest, with the Minimizers in the middle. The Non-Abused group reported the healthiest adjustment in terms of adult relationship satisfaction. While Minimizers and Acknowledgers reported similar levels of psychologically abusive experiences, Acknowledgers reported more difficulties with adult relationships. This study highlights the importance of studying Minimizers, a group which describes abusive events but minimizes the meaning and scope of these experiences. The relatively higher levels of maternal care which the Minimizers reported is hypothesized to be associated with their perceptions that they were not abused and acted as a protective factor associated with better quality adult relationships. The varying degrees of nurturance and care in the early family environment of abused individuals is speculated to be associated with distinct perceptual styles.

  7. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence.

  8. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Parental Hostility and Its Sources in Psychologically Abusive Mothers: A Test of the Three-Factor Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Max; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 44 psychologically abusing mothers and 128 nonabusing mothers determined that abusing mothers had higher levels of hostile feelings, associated with low marital coping skills, negative childhood upbringing, and high level of strain. (Author/JDD)

  10. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  11. A Sport and Exercise Psychology Perspective on Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces psychological perspectives on stress, noting conceptual models that guide sport and exercise psychology. After presenting key aspects of Lazarus' stress model, the paper reviews major lines of research related to stress within sport and exercise psychology. Lazarus suggests more information can be gained by considering emotion along…

  12. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  13. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  15. Medical and psychological examination of women seeking asylum: documentation of human rights abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A; Patsalides, B

    1997-01-01

    Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.

  16. Physical violence and psychological abuse among siblings :a theoretical and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Kristi L.

    1996-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates a theoretical model based on social learning, conflict, and feminist perspectives to explain teenage sibling physical violence and psychological abuse. Using regression analysis and data from 796 young adults, considerable support is found for all three theoretical approaches and suggests an integrated model best predicts acts of violence and abuse among siblings. For physical violence, males and brothers had significantly higher rates. Spousal...

  17. Use of abnormal and health psychology as topics in a classroom format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among college students at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, W M

    2001-12-01

    This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  19. Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H

    2011-03-01

    Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, C S

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.

  1. The intersection of stress, drug abuse and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Pushpa V

    2002-01-01

    Use or abuse of licit and illicit substances is often associated with environmental stress. Current clinical evidence clearly demonstrates neurobehavioral, somatic growth and developmental deficits in children born to drug-using mothers. However, the effects of environmental stress and its interaction with prenatal drug exposure on a child's development is unknown. Studies in pregnant animals under controlled conditions show drug-induced long-term alterations in brain structures and functions of the offspring. These cytoarchitecture alterations in the brain are often associated with perturbations in neurotransmitter systems that are intimately involved in the regulation of the stress responses. Similar abnormalities have been observed in the brains of animals exposed to other adverse exogenous (e.g., environmental stress) and/or endogenous (e.g., glucocorticoids) experiences during early life. The goal of this article is to: (1) provide evidence and a perspective that common neural systems are influenced during development both by perinatal drug exposure and early stress exposure; and (2) identify gaps and encourage new research examining the effects of early stress and perinatal drug exposure, in animal models, that would elucidate how stress- and drug-induced perturbations in neural systems influence later vulnerability to abused drugs in adult offspring.

  2. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  3. Pena Private Freedom with psychiatric treatment and psychological for Abused

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Maria Pedrosa Porto de Mendonça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the opinion of professionals in law and health areas on the profile of the sexual abuser of children within the family and the effectiveness of the type of penalty he suffers. The offender is someone who probably does not enjoy enough sanity to control its inclination to unlawful and may or may not be classified as mentally ill. The research covers the incidence and effects of this event on intra-family life. Deals with this issue in order to establish a new legal paradigm in the context of the penalties in the most private sphere of criminal law. The work aims to demonstrate the social relevance of the topic and the need for an effective regulatory sweater for sexual abusers, especially the intra-family and makes a clear proposal for legislative changes with regard to this type of crime, arguing the need to adapt the law the objective reality. It argues that psychoanalytic treatment of offenders as a means of punishment is more important than the simple deprivation of liberty. It argues that the current legislation is incipient and inadequate for such cases and this opinion supported by a significant number of experts. This is not to defend this criminal who practice sexual abuse, but to seek solutions to impunity and respect for the principle of individualization of punishment.

  4. Stress, positive psychology and the National Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire was administered to 120 first-year UK psychology students. Questions were asked which measured sources of stress when rated as likely to contribute to...

  5. Making sense of traumatic memories: memory qualities and psychological symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.

  6. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  8. The psychological impact of child sexual abuse on primary caregivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of psychological distress experienced by caregivers after an incident of CSA included anxiety, fear, depression, anger, insomnia, and functional impairment. About half the care givers in the study (n= 19, 55.88%) showed support and protection for their children; others (n = 15, 44.12%) were hostile toward and ...

  9. [Parental Alienation (Syndrome) - A serious form of child psychological abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boch-Galhau, Wilfrid

    2018-04-13

    Induced parental alienation is a specific form of psychological child abuse, which is listed in DSM-5, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), under diagnostic code V 995.51 "child psychological abuse". Untreated induced parental alienation can lead to long-term traumatic psychological and physical effects in the children concerned. This fact is still not given sufficient attention in family court cases. The article gives a condensed overview of parental alienation, summarising its definition, the symptoms and the various levels of severity. It also describes some major alienation techniques and possible psychosomatic and psychiatric effects of induced parental alienation. Finally, attention is drawn to programmes of prevention and intervention now used and evaluated in some countries. The article concludes with two real-life examples from psychiatric practice, and a comprehensive list of international references.

  10. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  11. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  12. Psychological and hormonal stress reactions during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  13. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  14. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.

  15. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.

  16. Psychological intervention in substance abusing women: A theoretical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruiz-Olivares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug use remains today one of the health problems of greatest concern to society. According to the most recent state epidemiological data, women's consumption continuously increases, becoming more and more similar to that of men. However, this same trend does not occur in terms of access to treatment, and when women seek treatment, there is a marked difficulty in adherence to treatment as abandoning it is often the case. Such is the importance of meeting the specific needs of substance-abusing women, that it is even highlighted as a priority and an integral element of the latest Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016 (Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas, 2013a. In this sense, at the empirical level, researchers have started to study the possible differences men and women may present in drug treatment, as well as the development of a gender-specific treatment. The aim of this theoretical review paper is to analyze the elements that characterize drug dependent women, establishing what aspects should be taken into account in the intervention with women from previous research or from on-going research, suggesting its implementation and future research directions.

  17. Psychological stress associated with cardiogenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatallah, Nadia; Silverstein, Louise B; Stolerman, Marina; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L; Marion, Robert W; Wasserman, David; Hreyo, Sarah; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2014-09-01

    Genetic testing now makes it possible to identify specific mutations that may lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This article presents data from a qualitative research study that explored the subjective experiences of individuals and families with cardiogenetic conditions. We focus on describing patients' experiences of psychological stresses associated with having a cardiogenetic condition, illustrating the importance of integrating psychological and medical care. This integration of care is particularly important as personalized genomic medicine continues to evolve and the implications of genetic testing have a profound effect on individuals and families. The researchers interviewed 50 participants from 32 families. The research team used a systematic, grounded theory procedure to code and analyze interview and focus group transcripts, incorporating multiple coders at several stages of the data analysis process. Three major themes emerged: a bereavement trajectory associated with sudden death in the absence of prior symptoms; high anxiety about transmitting a genetic mutation; and resilience reflected in positive lifestyle changes and participation in support groups. This article identifies patient perspectives on personalized genomic medicine in cardiogenetics that can improve clinical care, including: specialized bereavement counseling; improving education about cardiogenetic conditions for medical professionals; parent guidelines for discussing cardiogenetic conditions with their children; information about support groups; and the routine inclusion of clinical psychologists in interdisciplinary treatment teams. Given recent advances in technology and decreasing costs, whole-genome sequencing is likely to become common practice in the near future. Therefore, these recommendations are likely to be relevant for other genetic conditions, as well as the entire field of personalized genomic medicine.

  18. Substance abuse, memory, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-07-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  20. Psychological Stress, Cocaine and Natural Reward Each Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Genes in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovsky, Ashly A.; Boehning, Darren; Li, Dingge; Zhang, Yafang; Fan, Xiuzhen; Green, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently it is unknown the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychologi...

  1. Taxonomy and hierarchy of psychological abuse strategies in intimate partner relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking a psychosocial perspective this study analyses the components of psychological abuse in intimate adult partner violence against women. Following a review of studies on the subject the main objective that emerged was the need for a new taxonomy of psychological abuse strategies, one which should include their corresponding operational definitions. The proposed new classification was then evaluated by means of a Delphi study involving 32 experts from the academic and professional worlds. These experts were asked to assess the suitability of the system categories and to rate the severity of the impact made by each of the strategies on the global phenomenon of psychological abuse in couples. The results show that the experts ratified the new classification of strategies and the corresponding operational definitions, thereby endorsing their content and construct validity. When rating the strategies according to the severity of their impact, those of an emotional nature were considered the most severe, followed by those related to the immediate context, those of a cognitive nature and, finally, behavioural strategies. We discuss the results and their implications.

  2. The Role of Gluococorticoids and Neuroinflammation in Mediating the Effects of Stress on Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    exposed to a drug of abuse do not develop addiction, or abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for...addiction, nor abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for pain relief while hospitalized do not develop... drugs of abuse. Though this project has been completed, our future plans are clearly centered around understanding how HMGB1 mediates stress-induced

  3. Substance Abuse and Its Relationship with Household Dysfunction and Psychological Distress among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between experiencing household dysfunction and substance abuse in adulthood among Jamaican university students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which consisted of university students who were 18 years or older. Systematic sampling techniques were utilized to identify participants spanning across all faculties of a single university. The questionnaire utilized for this study included questions from several standardized scales: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission/Organization of American States (CICAD/OAS drug use questionnaire and the household dysfunction scale from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE questionnaire. Results:A total of 382 students participated in the study (279 females and 103 males. More than a third of the students (38.9% reported substance use, with 13.6% being substance abusers. Seven of every ten respondents were raised in a dysfunctional household. A significant positive relationship was observed between household dysfunction and substance abuse, where higher levels of household dysfunction were found to be associated with substance abuse: χ2 (2, n = 382 = 7.685, p < 0.05. Additionally, witnessing a mother or caregiver being violently treated, living with an alcoholic family member or a household member who attempted suicide was found to be associated with substance abuse during adulthood. Conclusion:These findings highlight the role of household dysfunction as a serious risk factor for adult drug abuse and can be used to help guide and inform drug prevention and intervention strategies.

  4. [Correlation between childhood traumatic stress and present drug abuse: results of a nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation facilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeno, Mitsuru; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koda, Minoru; Abe, Yukie; Endo, Keiko; Yabe, Yohko; Hirai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aikawa, Yuzo; Senoo, Eiichi; Nakatani, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is known to correlate with drug abuse and interferes with recovery from substance-related disorders. To determine the prevalence and severity of child abuse among drug addicts, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of residents and outpatients at drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) in Japan. A total of 445 participants gave informed consent and completed a self-reporting questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of participants had experienced some kind of child abuse by the time they reached junior high school. The kinds of abuse experienced were physical (53.7%), psychological (60.4%), sexual (5.4%) abuse and neglect (24.5%). Comparison of female and male participants revealed that more female than male participants had experienced psychological (76.9% vs. 58.2%) and sexual (17.5% vs. 4.0%) abuse. Comparison of participants who had experienced some kind of child abuse ("Abused" group 68.3%) and those who had not experienced abuse ("Non-abused" group 24.3%) revealed that the "Abused" group was younger than the "Non-abused" group (35.7 SD9.0 vs. 39.7 SD10.8). Participants in the "Abused" group were found to have more severe psychological difficulties than those in the "Non-abused" group for the following: anxiety (73.0% vs. 61.1%), delusional atmosphere (48.0% vs. 28.7%), lack of energy (53.9% vs. 40.7%), ideas of persecution (48.7% vs. 29.6%), depression (62.2% vs. 43.5%) and suicidal ideation in the previous year (50.7% vs. 24.3%). The present results suggest that additional program that prepared to care the drug addicts who experienced child abuse and are experiencing suicidal ideation is needed. Furthermore, intervention for families with risk factors for child abuse should be developed in order to prevent the victim from suffering not only from post traumatic stress disorder but also from substance related disorders.

  5. The influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert; Bovberg, Dana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the available evidence for the hypothesis that reduced resistance caused by psychological stress may influence the development of clinical disease in those exposed to an infectious agent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 prospective studies...... examining the association between psychological stress and subsequent upper respiratory infection (URI). RESULTS: The results revealed a significant overall main effect of psychological stress on the risk of developing URI (effect size correlation coefficient, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.......15-0.27). Further analyses showed that effect sizes for the association did not vary according to type of stress, how URI was assessed, or whether the studies had controlled for preexposure. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analytical findings confirmed the hypothesis that psychological stress is associated with increased...

  6. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Darlene Kordich

    1999-01-01

    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have…

  7. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  8. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  10. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  11. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  12. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  13. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  14. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  15. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Pphysiotherapy students, with academic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  17. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  18. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Safranoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  20. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J; Luippold, R S; Nagy, L; Liese, B; Bigelow, C; Mundt, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.

  1. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  2. [Effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Tao, N; Jia, J M; Qin, X; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Liu, J W

    2016-04-20

    To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. The correlation of psychological stress with three subscales of job content was evaluated using the Pearson' s correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for psychological stress. The PEST score of young recruits was 49.98±9.98. Forty-five (7.68%)out of them had scores of ≥70 points and were diagnosed with high levels of psychological stress. When the subjects were grouped based on socio-demographic characteristics, a high level of psychological stress was significantly more frequent in subjects less than 20 years of age than in those not less than 20 years of age, in smoking subjects than in non-smoking subjects, and in urban residents than in rural residents (10.42% vs 5.03%, P0.05). In various job content domains that had impacts on psychological stress, subjects with a low score of social support had significantly higher PEST scores than those with a high score of social support (50.96±10.35 vs 48.49±9.22, Pautonomy and social support (r=-0.103, Pjob requirement and social support were influencing factors for psychological stress (OR=0.718, 95% CI= 0.718 (0.607~0.851), Pjob requirement subscale and social support subscale may be potential protective factor and risk factor for psychological stress, respectively.

  3. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  4. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...

  5. Stress- and glucocorticoid-induced priming of neuroinflammatory responses: potential mechanisms of stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2011-06-01

    Stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs) sensitize drug abuse behavior as well as the neuroinflammatory response to a subsequent pro-inflammatory challenge. Stress also predisposes or sensitizes individuals to develop substance abuse. There is an emerging evidence that glia and glia-derived neuroinflammatory mediators play key roles in the development of drug abuse. Drugs of abuse such as opioids, psychostimulants, and alcohol induce neuroinflammatory mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL)-1β), which modulate drug reward, dependence, and tolerance as well as analgesic properties. Drugs of abuse may directly activate microglial and astroglial cells via ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which mediate the innate immune response to pathogens as well as xenobiotic agents (e.g. drugs of abuse). The present review focuses on understanding the immunologic mechanism(s) whereby stress primes or sensitizes the neuroinflammatory response to drugs of abuse and explores whether stress- and GC-induced sensitization of neuroimmune processes predisposes individuals to drug abuse liability and the role of neuroinflammatory mediators in the development of drug addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acoso laboral - daño psíquico Laboral abuse - psychological damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Varela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.

  7. Relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rostami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is behavior in which child faces physical, sexual, negligence and emotional abuses. This study’s aimed to investigate relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies among women. Statistical population included all of married women in Tehran. The sample contains 182 participants who were selected by convenience sampling method entertainment centers, shopping centers, health centers and cultural centers. The data were collected by Mohammad Khani’s self-report questionnaire, Neff's self-compassion scale and coping strategies of Blings and Mous. The findings showed that emotional abuse with mean of 23.54 was the hisgest and physical abuse with mean of 7.87 was the lowest one. Results showed that there is negative relationship between the abuse’s total score and self-compassion’s total score. All physical abuse's subscales, emotional abuse and negligence can predict the self-compassion except sexual abuse. Also none of the abuse subscales can predict the stress-coping methods. The results have shown that the experience of abuse in childhood injury ,can be affected him in adulthood on self-concept and coping responces to stress and problems.

  8. Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D L; Levendosky, A A

    1999-11-01

    To examine attachment style and coping strategies as potential mediating variables between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological and interpersonal functioning in an attempt to explain variability in extent of disorder and level of functioning. Eighty adolescent females, aged 14-16 years, answered questions regarding abuse history, attachment style, coping with an interpersonal stressor, depression and trauma symptomatology, and conflict with a best friend. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that attachment style mediates the effects of CSA and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. Avoidant and cognitive coping strategies also served as mediators in the models, accounting for most of the effects of the other variables on interpersonal conflict. The findings indicate that attachment style and coping strategies influence psychological and interpersonal functioning, mediating the direct effects of CSA and other types of child abuse and neglect. These results have implications for therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced child abuse.

  9. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  10. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs.[4] ... [13] High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  11. Investigation of Relationship between Addictive Substances Abuse and Psychological Hardiness, Quality of Life, and Self-Concept in Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bagheri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Narcotics addiction is a chronic and relapsing  psychological disorder, which is associated with severe motivational disorders and loss of behavioural control. Addiction and abuse of narcotic substances have various predisposing factors in the areas of attitude, environment, and society. On the other hand, previous researches have shown that addiction causes transformation in the perception of social issues and type of attitude toward this problem. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between abuse of narcotic substances and psychological obstinacy, quality of life, and self-concept in the addicts. Methods: This research was a correlational study. Statistical population included individuals covered by addiction withdrawal centers of Qom city, who were selected (250 subjects by convenience sampling. Data collection was performed using drug screening, self-concept, psychological obstinacy and quality of life questionnaires. To analyse the data, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression tests, were used. Results: There was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 level, between narcotics abuse and psychological obstinacy (-0.531. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 levels, between narcotics abuse and quality of life (0.285. Also, there was a significant negative correlation at the 0.05 levels, between narcotics abuse and self-concept (-0.475. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is significant correlation (in 0.05 levels between narcotics abuse and psychological obstinacy, life quality, and self-concept, and individuals with higher narcotic abuse have lower psychological obstinacy, quality of life, and self-concept.

  12. Childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence during pregnancy, and posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Howard, Louise Michele; Lobato, Gustavo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the pathways by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, and other covariates relate to each other and to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the postpartum period. The sample comprised 456 women who gave birth at a maternity service for high-risk pregnancies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed at 6-8 weeks after birth. A path analysis was carried out to explore the postulated pathways between exposures and outcome. Trauma History Questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scales and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist were used to assess information about exposures of main interest and outcome. The link between CSA and PTSD symptoms was mediated by history of trauma, psychiatric history, psychological IPV, and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Physical IPV was directly associated with postnatal PTSD symptoms, whereas psychological IPV connection seemed to be partially mediated by physical abuse and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. The role of CSA, IPV, and other psychosocial characteristics on the occurrence of PTSD symptoms following childbirth as well as the intricate network of these events should be acknowledged in clinic and intervention approaches.

  13. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SOURCES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AND THE LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM AMONG FOOTBALL REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    Charbi Belkacem,; Khader Salih

    2018-01-01

    This survey aims at revealing the relationship of sources of psychological stress to the level of self-esteem. It focused mainly on the following questions: Is there a correlation between fear of physical abuse and self-esteem? Is there a correlation between rewards, incentives, and self-esteem? Is there a correlation between conflict of social dimension and level of self-esteem? Is there a correlation between media dimension and level of self-esteem? Is there a correlat...

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  16. Job Stress, Coping Strategies, and Burnout among Abuse-Specific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sam Loc; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether effective coping strategies play an important role to reduce burnout levels among sexual or substance abuse counselors. The authors examined whether coping strategies mediated or moderated relations between job stress and burnout in a sample of 232 abuse-specific counselors. Results indicated…

  17. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  19. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  20. [Association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P occupational psychological stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P 0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3.126 times those in the people with mild stress exposure. There were significant differences in the detection rates of abdominal obesity, high TG

  1. Psychological stress and its relationship with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Farid, Alaa Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. A possible relationship with psychological stress may exist. The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment and thereby quality of life (QOL) of patients. Patients with PAR (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and imipramine. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with PAR, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of imipramine and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained. 3b.

  2. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological and drug abuse symptoms associated with nonmedical use of opioid analgesics among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of

  4. Topics of Stress and Abuse in Picture Books for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-D'Arezzo, Wendy M.; Thompson, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Numerous children face abuse at home and in the workplace. These situations of domestic and societal abuse are found depicted in children's books for younger and younger ages. This manuscript examines books in several genres, both fiction and non-fiction. The books are analyzed for the quality of the writing, the depiction of an authentic story,…

  5. Association of psychological stress with skin symptoms among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A. Bin Saif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9% students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0.39; highly stressed students, n=136, PSQ index greater than 0.61; and moderately stressed students, n=258. Older age, female gender, during exam weeks, and fourth and fifth years of medical school (all p less than 0.01 were associated with the highest perceived stress levels. When compared to least stressed students, highly stressed students suffered from more oily, waxy patches or flakes on scalp (p≤0.0001, dry/sore rash (p≤0.0001, warts (p≤0.0001, pimples (p≤0.0001, itchy skin (p≤0.0001, hands itchy rash (p≤0.0001, hair loss (p≤0.0001, pull-out own hair (p=0.008, scaly skin (p=0.012, troublesome sweating (p=0.016, nails biting (p=0.028, and other rashes on face (p= 0.028. Conclusion: Various common skin conditions could appear in context of psychological stress among medical students.

  6. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Bayne

    1999-10-01

    Die doel van die studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om duidelikheid te kry oor die verband tussen sielkundige stres en Prikkelbare Dermsindroom (PDS, deur te bepaal of individue wat aan PDS ly geringe stres anders ervaar as gesonde individue in terme van gereeldheid of intensiteit. Die tweede doelwit was meer algemeen en spreek die kwessie van teorie ontwikkeling aan in 'n veld gevul met dubbelsinningheid en verwarring. Twee groepe, een bestaande uit PDS lyers en die ander 'n gesonde kontrolegroep, het die "Daily Stress Inventory'' en die "Occupational Stress Inventory" voltooi. Die vraelyste is ontwerp om onderskeidelik daaglikse stres en werkstres te meet. Die resultate dui daarop dat PDS lyers nie meer stres ervaar as die gesonde individue nie, maar dat hulle wel die stressors ervaar met groter intensiteit.

  8. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  9. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  10. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  11. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  12. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  14. Association between childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychological outcomes among youth in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  16. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...

  17. Economic abuse between intimate partners in Australia: prevalence, health status, disability and financial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well understood. Our hypothesis is that allopregnanolone, during gestation, plays a particularly vital role in mitigating effects of stress on the developing fetus and may mediate, in part, alterations apparent throughout the lifespan. Specifically, altered balance between glucocorticoids and progestogens during critical periods of development (stemming from psychological, immunological, and/or endocrinological stressors during gestation may permanently influence behavior, brain morphology, and/or neuroendocrine-sensitive processes. 5α-reduced progestogens are integral in the developmental programming of sex-typical, stress-sensitive, and/or disorder-relevant phenotypes. Prenatal stress may alter these responses and dysregulate allopregnanolone and its normative effects on stress axis function. As an example of a neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and/or neurodegenerative process, this review focuses on responsiveness to drugs of abuse, which is sensitive to prenatal stress and progestogen milieu. This review explores the notion that allopregnanolone may effect, or be influenced by, prenatal stress, with consequences for neurodevelopmental-, neuropsychiatric- and/or neurodegenerative- relevant processes, such as addiction.

  20. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  1. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional Abuse: How the Concept Sheds Light on the Understanding of Psychological Harassment (in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Harvey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al

  3. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  4. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-11-01

    Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Popium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  5. Stress management for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: a holistic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Debra Rose

    2010-02-01

    Among the many sequelae of childhood sexual abuse is a maladaptive response to stress. Stress has been linked to a reduction in the immune system's ability to resist disease. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-method study is to examine the experience of stress management training for 35 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Data gathered for analysis include pre- and postintervention saliva samples for sIgA, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a postintervention qualitative interview. Stress management strategies enhance immunity (increase in salivary immunoglobulin A, p < .05) and coping (less distancing, p < .001; less escape-avoidance, p < .001; more planful problem solving, p < .01; and more positive reappraisal, p < .001). Grounded theory analysis finds three themes emerging: hypervigilance , an outward-focused hyperawareness; somatic detachment, a lack of inward focus on self; and healing pathway, the process of healing from the abuse. Healing is possible.

  6. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  7. Psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward each induce endoplasmic reticulum stress genes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovsky, A A; Boehning, D; Li, D; Zhang, Y; Fan, X; Green, T A

    2013-08-29

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated is unknown. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychological stress or cocaine. Rats were subjected to acute or repeated restraint stress or cocaine treatment and mRNA was isolated from dorsal striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens brain tissue. ER stress gene mRNA expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RNA sequencing. Restraint stress and cocaine-induced transcription of the classic ER stress-induced genes (BIP, CHOP, ATF3 and GADD34) and of two other ER stress components x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and ATF6. In addition, rats living in an enriched environment (large group cage with novel toys changed daily) exhibited rapid induction of GADD34 and ATF3 after 30 min of exploring novel toys, suggesting these genes are also involved in normal non-pathological signaling. However, environmental enrichment, a paradigm that produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats, attenuated the rapid induction of ATF3 and GADD34 after restraint stress. These experiments provide a sensitive measure of ER stress and, more importantly, these results offer good evidence of the activation of ER stress mechanisms from psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward. Thus, ER stress genes may be targets for novel therapeutic targets for depression and addiction. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  9. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  10. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  11. Elder abuse as a risk factor for psychological distress among older adults in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane C; Qin, Min; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2017-10-22

    This study examines the association between elder abuse and psychological distress among older adults in India and explores whether this association varies by the level of psychosocial and material resources. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. The data are drawn from a representative sample of 9589 adults aged 60 and above in seven Indian states-Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu-in 2011. Secondary analysis, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, is conducted using the United Nations Population Fund project Building Knowledge Base on Ageing in India survey. Elder abuse (physical and/or emotional) emanating from family members in the previous month before the survey is examined. Multivariate models are run on the total analytical sample and for men and women separately. The overall prevalence of psychological distress among persons aged 60 and over living in the seven Indian States is 40.6%. Among those older persons who experienced some form of physical or emotional abuse or violence in the last month, the prevalence of psychological distress is much higher than that in the general older population, at 61.6% (pwealth has an inverse relationship with mental health, with the association between experiencing elder abuse and reporting poor mental health being strongest among older people in wealthy households. Elder abuse in India is currently a neglected phenomenon, and greater recognition of the link between abuse and mental health is critical to improve the well-being of vulnerable older adults, some of whom may be 'hidden' within well-off households. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Parenting stress and social support of mothers who physically abuse their children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y C

    1994-03-01

    Thirty-seven identified abusive mothers were matched on demographic and socioeconomic parameters with a known nonabusive comparison sample in order to examine the role of parenting stress and maternal social support. The mothers were assessed using a personal (demographic) questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Maternal Support Index (MSSI). Demographic data showed that the two groups were comparable on all variables except abusive mothers had significantly more children (p = .01). Abusive mothers showed significantly more stress on total PSI scores (p = .005), as well as in all three of the subjects: Child Domain (p = .007) Parent Domain (p = .02), and Life Stress (p = .016). Abusive mothers scored lower in all seven items on the MSSI. The difference was significant on the MSSI as a whole (p = .007) and on four subsets: number of people to count on in time of need (p = .02), perceived neighborhood support (p = .04), satisfaction with spousal relationship (p = .01), and degree of community involvement (p = .03). The greatest percentage (74.32%) of correct predictions of child abuse was achieved by combining the number of children, the Life Stress Scale and the MSSI. Implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  14. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  15. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  16. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  17. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse PRINCIPAL...10/27/2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 — 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for...insights into mechanism; (2) suppression of noradrenergic signaling decreases alcohol drinking in rats with a history of traumatic stress , but not in

  18. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  19. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  20. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  1. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A., E-mail: david.lawrence@health.ny.gov

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic reticulum

  2. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  3. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  4. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia.

  5. The Association of Sibling Relationship and Abuse with Later Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…

  6. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  7. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  8. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations (Stress et aide psychologique dans les operations militaires modernes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...

  10. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  11. Identification of Psychological Stresses for Astronauts and Cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Melinda

    As humans continue to explore and expand in the solar system, psychological problems brought about by high stress of living in the space environment will continue to increase. Unfortunately, due to many reasons, including relative difficulties with gaining access to astronauts and cosmonauts and to gather psychological data from them regarding stressors, this area is not very well known and discussed. Five astronauts and cosmonauts from three space agencies: ESA, RSA, and JAXA were unoffi- cially surveyed regarding their experiences with ten general categories of psychological stressors as well as eight subcategories of interpersonal conflict stressors accepted in space related community of psychologists. The two subjects in space for longer periods of time reported more stressors and were likely to rate stressors as having a greater effect on the chance of mission failure. Shorter duration flyers reported nearly all general stressors were likely to increase in the event of a longer duration space flight. With the increased interest in long duration spaceflight, psychological stressors are more likely to affect mission success.

  12. Stress psychobiology in the context of addiction medicine: from drugs of abuse to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of psychological stress on iron absorption in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Min

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress (PS is recognized as an important pathogenic factor which leads to metabolism disorder in many diseases. Previous studies have shown that systemic iron homeostasis in mammalians was changed under specific stress conditions. Methods In present study, we used communication box to create psychological stress model and investigated the iron apparent absorption, iron accumulation in the apical poles of villous enterocytes and protein expressions of ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1. Results Our study showed that iron apparent absorption decreased and iron significantly accumulated in the apical poles of villous enterocytes in 3 d and 7 d PS groups. The expression of intestinal FPN1 in 3 d and 7 d PS groups was lower than that of control, while the change of intestinal ferritin was opposite. However, the expression of DMT1 did not change. Conclusion These results demonstrate that PS can decrease iron absorption in rats, which might be related to regulation expression of iron transporters.

  14. Direct and indirect effects of child abuse and environmental stress: A lifecourse perspective on adversity and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Prince, Dana; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2018-01-01

    There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time. In this longitudinal study, we used path analyses to examine the cumulative effects of physical child abuse and environmental stressors on adult depressive symptoms among a sample of children followed into adulthood (N = 356). The goal was to assess whether chronic physical child abuse remains an independent predictor of adult outcomes once we accounted for the cumulative effects of household and neighborhood stressors across the lifecourse. Cumulative measures of physical child abuse and environmental stress each independently predicted a higher likelihood of adult depressive symptoms (ß = .122, p < .01 and ß = .283, p < .001, respectively). After accounting for adolescent depressive symptoms, only cumulative environmental stressors independently predicted depressive symptoms (ß = .202, p < .001). Tests of the indirect effect of cumulative environmental stress on the relationship between cumulative physical abuse and adult depressive symptoms were marginally statistically significant. Results add to literature that examines child abuse, adversity, and lifecourse perspectives on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  16. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  17. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  18. Workplace violence, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health in Chinese doctors: a large cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. Objectives This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. Design A cross-sectional online survey study. Setting The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. Participants A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. Results The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. Conclusion In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top

  19. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  1. The Role of Psychological Stress Reactions in the Longitudinal Relation Between Workplace Bullying and Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Hogh, Annie; Kaerlev, Linda; Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association between workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment, and to investigate whether psychological stress reactions constitute a potential pathway linking workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment. We used questionnaire data on workplace bullying and psychological stress reactions and register data on change of job/unemployment. We applied a multiple pathway approach to estimate the proportion of the association between workplace bullying and subsequent change of job/unemployment that was potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions. Workplace bullying was associated with risk of change of job (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.72; 24% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions) and unemployment (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 3.18-7.55; 19% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions). Workplace bullying has important consequences for labor market outcomes. Psychological stress reactions may play a vital role in this process.

  2. THE COMPARISON OF SUICIDAL THOUGHTS, DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND STRESS AMONG ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS ABUSING DRUG AND ADOLESCENTS WITHOUT DRUG ABUSE IN ZABOL, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Behnampoor 1 , Mohamad Reza Havasian2 , Halime Aali3 , Fatemeh Parooei4 , Morteza Salarzaei4 , Zohreh Mahmoodi

    2017-01-01

    Addiction and drug abuse are among the issues that have been greatly adverted by the clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Suicide attempt, like other social phenomena, is not uni-causal; a variety of factors affects this phenomenon. Thus, having an exact awareness of suicide factors and studying the importance of the factors seem necessary. The present research aims at studying suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescent suicide attempters abusing drug and adolesc...

  3. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  4. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  5. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cammaert, P. C

    2006-01-01

    ... to provide psychological support to deployed troops. Key factors in Stress Management are realistic training, fostering unit cohesion in arduous environments, communicating and providing time outs...

  6. Perseverative Cognitions and Stress Exposure: Comparing Relationships With Psychological Health Across a Diverse Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-03-29

    Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.

  7. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614

  9. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keikha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (P<0.0001 for all. Periodic change was 9.8 times higher among opium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of <15 beats/min, which indicates lack of beat-to-beat variability, was significantly higher in the fetuses of addicted mothers (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Considering significant abnormal patterns in FHR characteristics among the opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  10. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1997-01-01

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  13. Stress appraisals and cellular aging: A key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E.; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic psychological stressis a risk factor formultiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N= 50; M age = 62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic care giving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (β = −.32, p = .03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (β = −.36, p = .006)and retrospective (β = −.29, p = .03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, care giving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging. PMID:22293459

  14. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.

  15. Psychological stress and musculoskeletal pain: the moderating effect of childhood and adulthood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, April

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of widespread musculoskeletal pain is complex. Psychological stress is a robust predictor of symptom onset and persistence but not everyone who experiences stress goes on to develop widespread pain. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to ascertain whether individuals with a history of trauma have an increased susceptibility to widespread pain when they experience psychological stress; to identify psychosocial mediators of the stress pain relationship, and ascerta...

  16. Roots run deep: Investigating psychological mechanisms between history of family aggression and abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    significant effects of work-stress, frustration and depression on ... psychological attributes such as emotional labour, psychological ... explosions, oil spills, accidents and bomb attack can also contribute to ..... indicating a positive overall effect of frustration on psychological ..... symptoms within a country police force. Occup.

  18. Genetic modulation of plasma NPY stress response is suppressed in substance abuse: association with clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Hong, Kwangik Adam; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hauger, Richard L; Goldman, David; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in stress regulation. Genetic variations predict plasma NPY and neural correlates of emotion and stress. We examined whether the functional NPY haplotype modulates stress-induced NPY and anxiety responses, and if plasma NPY stress responses are associated with substance dependence outcomes. Thirty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent substance dependent (SD) patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs) characterized on NPY diplotypes (HH: high expression; HLLL: intermediate/low expression) were exposed to stress, alcohol/drug cues and neutral relaxing cues, using individualized guided imagery, in a 3-session laboratory experiment. Plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety were assessed. Patients were prospectively followed for 90-days post-treatment to assess relapse outcomes. HH individuals showed significantly lower stress-induced NPY with greater heart rate and anxiety ratings, while the HLLL group showed the reverse pattern of NPY, anxiety and heart rate responses. This differential genetic modulation of NPY stress response was suppressed in the SD group, who showed no stress-related increases in NPY and higher heart rate and greater anxiety, regardless of diplotype. Lower NPY predicted subsequent higher number of days and greater amounts of post-treatment drug use. These preliminary findings are the first to document chronic drug abuse influences on NPY diplotype expression where NPY diplotype modulation of stress-related plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety responses was absent in the substance abuse sample. The finding that lower stress-related NPY is predictive of greater relapse severity provides support for therapeutic development of neuropeptide Y targets in the treatment of substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress and Physical Abuse among Homeless Women and Infant Health Outcomes in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Ray M.; Richards, Rickelle; Sloan, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study examines whether the relationship between maternal stress or abuse situations and infant birth weight differs between homeless and non-homeless women. Methods. Analyses are based on data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2002–2007. Results. Homeless women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events, abusive situations, and poor maternal health than non-homeless women during pregnancy. Birth weight among infant...

  20. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  1. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  2. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  3. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  4. Chinese Employees' Psychological Responses to Abusive Supervisors: The Roles of Gender and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Liuqin; Shing Chan, Darius Kwan

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the relations between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion and intent to leave were examined, as well as the gender differences in these relations. Moreover, the moderating effect of self-esteem was tested in an integrated model stipulating that the gender-moderating effect was mediated by the abusive supervision × self-esteem interaction. Data were collected from 264 employees (111 men; M age = 32.0 years; M tenure = 9.2 years). Results of regression analyses indicated that abusive supervision was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion and intent to leave. Women reported higher emotional exhaustion and intent to leave than men. The relations of interest were stronger among employees with higher self-esteem (emotional exhaustion: β = 0.44; intent to leave: β = 0.53). The interaction of abusive supervision × self-esteem mediated the gender-moderating effect. Women's stronger responses to abusive supervision may be related to their higher self-esteem, possibly because of the importance of employment to Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  6. The effect of occupational stress, psychological stress and burnout on employee performance: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Hashemnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.

  7. The Role of Psychological Stress Reactions in the Longitudinal Relation Between Workplace Bullying and Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Conway, Paul Maurice

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment, and to investigate whether psychological stress reactions constitute a potential pathway linking workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment. METHODS: We used questionnaire data on workplace...... bullying and psychological stress reactions and register data on change of job/unemployment. We applied a multiple pathway approach to estimate the proportion of the association between workplace bullying and subsequent change of job/unemployment that was potentially mediated by psychological stress...... reactions. RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with risk of change of job (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.72; 24% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions) and unemployment (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 3.18-7.55; 19% potentially mediated by psychological stress...

  8. Thinner inhalation effects on oxidative stress and DNA repair in a rat model of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Gallegos-Corona, Marco-Antonio; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Hernández-Chan, Nancy Georgina; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2010-04-01

    Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Numerous studies of workers for genotoxic effects of thinner exposure have yielded conflicting results, perhaps because co-exposure to variable other compounds cannot be avoided in workplace exposure studies. In contrast, there is no data concerning the genotoxic effects of intentional inhalation abuse. The aim of this project was to examine the genotoxic effects of thinner inhalation in an animal model of thinner abuse (rats exposed to 3000 ppm toluene, a high solvent concentration over a very short, 15 min time period, twice a day for 6 weeks). The data presented here provides evidence that thinner inhalation in our experimental conditions is able to induce weight loss, lung abnormalities and oxidative stress. This oxidative stress induces oxidative DNA damage that is not a characteristic feature of genotoxic damage. No significant difference in DNA damage and DNA repair (biomarkers of genotoxicity) in lymphocytes from thinner-treated and control rats was found. Lead treatment was used as a positive control in these assays. Finally, bone marrow was evaluated as a biomarker of cellular alteration associated with thinner inhalation. The observed absence of hemopoietic and genetic toxicity could be explained in part by the absence of benzene, the only carcinogenic component of thinner; however, benzene is no longer a common component of thinner. In conclusion, thinner did not cause genotoxic effects in an experimental model of intentional abuse despite the fact that thinner inhalation induces oxidative stress. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Childhood sexual abuse: long-term effects on psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Leitenberg, H; Cado, S; Tarran, M J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the experience of childhood sexual abuse is related to long-term psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent community sample of women. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,500 nurses and returned anonymously. Fifty-four women who had been sexually abused as children (age 15 or younger) responded. These subjects were then matched with 54 nonabused control subjects. Although there was no difference on a measure of self-esteem, the abused group reported more symptoms of distress on the Global Severity Index and on seven out of nine subscales of the Derogatis Brief Symptom Inventory. They also reported more disturbance on a scale which examined psychological symptoms that have been commonly reported in the literature to be particularly associated with sexual abuse. These differences between the abused and nonabused groups were evident even after controlling for differences in subjects' perceptions of parental emotional support. Unlike the results for psychological adjustment, however, the abused subjects did not differ from the control subjects on self-reported levels of sexual satisfaction or sexual dysfunction.

  10. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  11. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  12. Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps < .05). In conclusion, moderate stress exposure was associated with indicators of psychological resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. Methods A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18–30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. Results The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, pbleaching (Indirect Effect=0.03, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. Conclusion The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma. PMID:27019771

  14. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18-30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma.

  15. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  16. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Winters

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of

  17. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  18. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  19. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  20. Psychological stress in hydro workers of the 1998 ice storm : a longitudinal investigation (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzimra, Y.

    2003-07-01

    This thesis examined occupational stress in terms of the stressful transactions that take place between workers and their workplace. In particular, it documented some of the experiences of hydro workers during the ice storm of 1998 which hit eastern Canada. In addition to identifying stressors, this study assessed the worker's levels of psychological stress and distress 5 and 10 months following the storm. It also examined differences in psychological stress and distress levels between workers with different levels of exposure to the storm. The added contribution of appraised extra-organization stressors to the prediction of psychological stress was also assessed along with the added contribution of extra-organizational sources of support to the prediction of psychological stress. The objective was to test an integrative model of workplace stress and overall distress to better understand the relationship between psychological stress and distress levels over time. Two phases of data, 5 months apart, were collected from full-time employees of Hydro-Quebec, including both men and women who filled out questionnaires about perceived social support and other indicators of overall stress. The results revealed different experiences of the recovery effort workers during and after the ice storm. The experiences of different groups of workers varied depending on the type and degree of involvement in the recovery efforts from the storm. The results emphasized the importance of considering appraised organization stressors when predicting psychological stress. The study revealed that psychological stress 5 months following the ice storm did not add significantly to the prediction of psychological distress 5 months later, once the contribution of psychological distress at the first phase was accounted for.

  1. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of "disgust" in traumatic stress and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)-Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES-General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors.

  2. Personal and psychosocial predictors of psychological abuse by partners during and after pregnancy: a longitudinal cohort study in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, V; Royo-Marqués, M; Artazcoz, L; Romito, P; Ruiz-Pérez, I; Martín-Baena, D

    2013-04-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors of psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the first year after childbirth. Longitudinal cohort study. Nine primary care centers in the Valencia Region (Spain). A consecutive sample of 1400 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, attending the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region of Spain in 2008, with follow-up in the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 5 and 12 months postpartum. A total of 888 women (66.5%) participated in all four phases. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of previous partner violence, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs and social support on subsequent psychological partner violence. Psychological IPV during follow-up. We observed an increase in the incidence of psychological IPV after birth, particularly at 5 months postpartum. The strongest predictor of psychological IPV was having experienced abuse 12 months before pregnancy (OR 10.46, 95%CI 2.40-45.61). Other predictors were consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs by the partner or a family member (OR3.50, 95%CI 1.38-8.85) and lack of affective social support (OR2.83, 95%CI 1.31-6.11). Previous abuse and psychosocial risk factors predict partner psychological abuse after birth. Monitoring psychological IPV and effective interventions are needed not only during pregnancy but also during the postpartum period. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  3. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  4. Abuses, resilience, behavioural problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms among unaccompanied migrant minors: an Italian cross-sectional exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to explore the type and prevalence of pre-/peri-migratory trauma experiences in unaccompanied minors and the prevalence of mental health problems and resilience. The study included 19 unaccompanied migrant minors aged 16–17 years coming from Egypt, Albania, Senegal, Bangladesh, Gambia, Morocco and Mali. The participants completed self-report questionnaires on emotional and behavioural problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms, abuse and resilience. All the unaccompanied migrant minors in our study were physically and psychologically abused at least once in their life and more than half were sexually abused before or during their migration. The most frequent abuses were: being hit with an object, being punished at school and at home with torture and infliction of pain, being forced to do something dangerous, being insulted, undergoing theft or damage of personal objects, being forced to look at sexual photos or videos and being sexually abused. The scores on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and dissociation are above the clinical cut-off point. Mean scores in the scales of resilience are generally in line with normative data. These scores show that despite their traumatic pre-migratory and peri-migratory experiences of abuse and the clinical psychopathological effects, the minors interviewed proved to have good sources of resilience. Immigration policies however should be based not only on admittance to emergency refuge centres but also on assessing the subjects and providing them with psychological support for the traumas experienced in order to achieve a successful integration process in the host society

  5. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  6. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  7. The feeling of discomfort during vaginal examination, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2017-08-01

    To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering

  8. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  9. Recovery from depressive symptoms, state anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in women exposed to physical and psychological, but not to psychological intimate partner violence alone: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Manuela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that intimate male partner violence (IPV has a high impact on women's mental health. It is necessary to further investigate this impact longitudinally to assess the factors that contribute to its recovery or deterioration. The objective of this study was to assess the course of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and suicidal behavior over a three-year follow-up in female victims of IPV. Methods Women (n = 91 who participated in our previous cross-sectional study, and who had been either physically/psychologically (n = 33 or psychologically abused (n = 23 by their male partners, were evaluated three years later. A nonabused control group of women (n = 35 was included for comparison. Information about mental health status and lifestyle variables was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Results Results of the follow-up study indicated that while women exposed to physical/psychological IPV recovered their mental health status with a significant decrease in depressive, anxiety and PTSD symptoms, no recovery occurred in women exposed to psychological IPV alone. The evolution of IPV was also different: while it continued across both time points in 65.21% of psychologically abused women, it continued in only 12.12% of physically/psychologically abused women while it was reduced to psychological IPV in 51.5%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that cessation of physical IPV and perceived social support contributed to mental health recovery, while a high perception of lifetime events predicted the continuation of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows that the pattern of mental health recovery depends on the type of IPV that the women had been exposed to. While those experiencing physical/psychological IPV have a higher likelihood of undergoing a cessation or reduction of IPV over time and, therefore, could recover, women exposed to

  10. Recovery from depressive symptoms, state anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in women exposed to physical and psychological, but not to psychological intimate partner violence alone: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Sánchez-Lorente, Segunda; Martinez, Manuela

    2010-11-25

    It is well established that intimate male partner violence (IPV) has a high impact on women's mental health. It is necessary to further investigate this impact longitudinally to assess the factors that contribute to its recovery or deterioration. The objective of this study was to assess the course of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and suicidal behavior over a three-year follow-up in female victims of IPV. Women (n = 91) who participated in our previous cross-sectional study, and who had been either physically/psychologically (n = 33) or psychologically abused (n = 23) by their male partners, were evaluated three years later. A nonabused control group of women (n = 35) was included for comparison. Information about mental health status and lifestyle variables was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Results of the follow-up study indicated that while women exposed to physical/psychological IPV recovered their mental health status with a significant decrease in depressive, anxiety and PTSD symptoms, no recovery occurred in women exposed to psychological IPV alone. The evolution of IPV was also different: while it continued across both time points in 65.21% of psychologically abused women, it continued in only 12.12% of physically/psychologically abused women while it was reduced to psychological IPV in 51.5%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that cessation of physical IPV and perceived social support contributed to mental health recovery, while a high perception of lifetime events predicted the continuation of PTSD symptoms. This study shows that the pattern of mental health recovery depends on the type of IPV that the women had been exposed to. While those experiencing physical/psychological IPV have a higher likelihood of undergoing a cessation or reduction of IPV over time and, therefore, could recover, women exposed to psychological IPV alone have a high probability of continued exposure

  11. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  12. Childhood Abuse and Aggression in Adolescent Girls Involved in Child Welfare: The Role of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Wendy; Sterzing, Paul; Threlfall, Jennifer; Gerke, Donald; Edmond, Tonya

    This study investigated the relationship between histories of childhood abuse and aggressive behaviors among adolescent girls involved in child welfare, and determined whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression mediated this relationship. Participants were 237 girls ages 12-19 years. Overall, results indicated 89 % of the adolescents endorsed at least one aggressive behavior towards others. Specifically, 72.0 % engaged in physical aggression, 78.5 % engaged in non-physical aggression, and 51.5 % endorsed relational aggression. Greater severity of emotional and physical abuse were significantly associated with a higher frequency of aggressive behaviors. Sexual abuse was not significantly related to aggression. Post-traumatic stress and depression fully mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and aggression, controlling for race, service use, and living situation. The linkages between physical abuse and aggression were not mediated by either post-traumatic stress or depression. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls with histories of emotional abuse, post-traumatic stress and depression represent potential modifiable risk factors to target for reducing aggression.

  13. Reduced NK cell IFN-γ secretion and psychological stress are independently associated with herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (Pherpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.

  14. Workplace violence, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health in Chinese doctors: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua

    2017-12-07

    Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. A cross-sectional online survey study. The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society. © Article author(s) (or

  15. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  16. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  17. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  19. Subjective stress reactivity in psoriasis - a cross sectional study of associated psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, Charlotta; Sjöström, Karin; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-02

    Stress or psychological distress is often described as a causative or maintaining factor in psoriasis. Psychological traits may influence the appraisal, interpretation and coping ability regarding stressful situations. Detailed investigations of psychological traits in relation to stress reactivity in psoriasis are rare. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with psoriasis who report an association between psychological distress and exacerbation, "stress reactors" (SRs), differ psychologically from those with no stress reactivity "non-stress reactors" (NSRs). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with plaque psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed including questions concerning stress reactivity in relation to onset and exacerbation. Three validated self-rating scales were used: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Form-Y), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Independent samples t-tests, Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA analyses were used for group comparisons when appropriate. A logistic regression model was designed with SR as the dependent variable. Sixty-four patients (63%) reported a subjective association between disease exacerbation and stress (SRs). Patients defined as SRs reported significantly higher mean scores regarding state and trait anxiety, depression, and also five SSP scale personality traits, i.e. somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, lack of assertiveness and mistrust, compared with NSRs. In multivariate analysis, SSP-stress susceptibility was the strongest explanatory variable for SR, i.e. OR (95% CI)=1.13 (1.02 - 1.24), p=0.018. According to our results, patients who perceive stress as a causal factor in their psoriasis might have a more vulnerable psychological constitution. This finding suggests important opportunities for clinicians to identify patients who may benefit

  20. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-02-01

    To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse.

  1. Stress in adolescence and drugs of abuse in rodent models: Role of dopamine, CRF, and HPA axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew R.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Research on adolescence and drug abuse increased substantially in the past decade. However, drug-addiction related behaviors following stressful experiences during adolescence are less studied. We focus on rodent models of adolescent stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. Objectives Review the ontogeny of behavior, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent rodents. We evaluate evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence engender hypersensitivity to drugs of abuse and offer potential neural mechanisms. Results and Conclusions Much evidence suggests that final maturation of behavior, dopamine systems, and HPA axis occurs during adolescence. Stress during adolescence increases amphetamine- and ethanol-stimulated locomotion, preference, and self-administration under many conditions. The influence of adolescent stress on subsequent cocaine- and nicotine-stimulated locomotion and preference is less clear. The type of adolescent stress, temporal interval between stress and testing, species, sex, and the drug tested are key methodological determinants for successful cross-sensitization procedures. The sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system is proposed to underlie stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse in both adolescents and adults through modulation by CRF. Reduced levels of mesocortical dopamine appear to be a unique consequence of social stress during adolescence. Adolescent stress may reduce the final maturation of cortical dopamine through D2 dopamine receptor regulation of dopamine synthesis or glucocorticoid-facilitated pruning of cortical dopamine fibers. Certain rodent models of adolescent adversity are useful for determining neural mechanisms underlying the cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:24370534

  2. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  3. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  4. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems

  5. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  6. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  7. Usefulness of hair analysis and psychological tests for identification of alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in driving license regranting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Gomez-Fraguela, Xosé A; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of the points-based driving license helps to change the drivers' behavior and is related to a reduction of traffic accidents and fatalities. In Spain, when a driver loses all points, the driving license is revoked, so the driver must enroll on a Driver Awareness and Re-education (DARE) course. However, at the moment offenders are not submitted to any test to confirm absence of alcohol or drugs of abuse consumption, even when 9% of Spanish drivers lose their driving license for driving under the influence (DUI). The objective of this pilot study was the comparison of the usefulness of psychological tests and hair analysis to identify those individuals with a chronic consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among drivers performing DARE courses. Volunteers were submitted to the AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. Also a hair sample was collected and analyzed for ethylglucuronide (EtG) (LOQ 5pg/mg) and 35 licit and illicit drugs (LOQ 5-50pg/mg) by LC-MS/MS. Sixty-one participants with a mean age of 37.2±11.6years, and mainly men (90.2%), were recruited and performed AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. All hair samples were analyzed for EtG and 17 samples for licit and illicit drugs. Mean AUDIT score was 9.6 (SD=7.5), showing a value ≥8 (indicator of hazardous and harmful alcohol use) in 52.4% of cases. Mean DAST-10 score was 2.9 (SD=3.3), but a score ≥6 was detected in 21.3% of cases (indicating drug abuse or dependence). Twenty-two samples were positive for EtG, 8 for drugs of abuse (8 cocaine, 2 opioids, 1 amphetamines, 1 cannabis), and 3 for medicines. EtG concentration (20.7-1254.1pg/mg) was higher than the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) cut-off for chronic alcohol consumption (≥30pg/mg) in 21 cases. All positive cases for methadone and cannabis, and half of positive cases for opioids and cocaine presented higher concentrations than SoHT cut-offs for chronic consumption. Higher AUDIT score and higher EtG concentration in hair were statistically associated

  8. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  9. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  10. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  12. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  13. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  14. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  17. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  18. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  20. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  1. Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after gastrostomy placement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsland, Tone Lise; Faugli, Anne; Pripp, Are Hugo; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Bjørnland, Kristin; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate stress in mothers of children with feeding problems before and after gastrostomy placement, and to identify changes in child health and variables affecting maternal stress. Psychological distress and parenting stress in 34 mothers of children referred for gastrostomy were assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) (overall psychological distress), impact of event scale (IES) (intrusive stress related to child's feeding problems), and parenting stress index (PSI) (stress related to parenting) before, 6, and 18 months after placement of a gastrostomy. Information of child health and long-term gastrostomy complications were recorded. A semistructured interview constructed for the present study explored maternal preoperative expectations and child's quality of life. Insertion of a gastrostomy did not significantly influence vomiting or the number of children with a low weight-for-height percentile. All of the children experienced peristomal complications. Despite this, mothers' overall psychological distress was significantly reduced after 6 and 18 months, and the majority of mothers (85%) reported that their preoperative expectations were fulfilled and that the child's quality of life was improved after gastrostomy placement. Maternal concerns for the child's feeding problems, measured as intrusive stress, had effect on maternal overall psychological distress. Despite frequent stomal complications the gastrostomy significantly reduced the mothers' psychological distress and improved the child's quality of life as reported by the mother.

  2. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  3. Children in Sport: Participation Motives and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passer, Michael W.

    1981-01-01

    Research on children's sport participation motives is examined to provide insight about potential sources of stress in organized youth sports. A four-stage model of stress is outlined, and topics that deserve further research are discussed. (CJ)

  4. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  5. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  6. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2015-12-22

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  7. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  9. Childhood exposure to emotional abuse and later life stress among Kenyan women: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Gutarra, Claudia; Billingsley, Katherine M; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-07-01

    We explore whether perceived stress among Kenyan mothers is predicted by childhood exposure to emotional abuse - both witnessed among parents and experienced directly. Further, we explore whether this association is mediated by social support, family functioning and polygynous marriage. We used cross-sectional data from a systematic random sample (n = 1974) of mothers in semi-rural Kenya. Data were collected using validated scales and trained interviewers. Analyses were conducted using bootstrapped structural equation models and fixed-effects linear regression models, controlling for age and household wealth. Reported experience of emotional abuse - both directly experienced and observed among household adults - was high in the present population (72.5% and 69%, respectively). Perceived stress among women was significantly higher if they were exposed to more emotional abuse during childhood (p emotional abuse exposure during childhood and adult perceived stress. Future research should investigate whether social integration, identity formation and self-esteem underlie observed dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to promote social integration and support should target children currently experiencing emotional abuse, and may include child-targeted high quality television programing and adult-targeted media and celebrity campaigns.

  10. Mediating and moderating effects of work-home interference upon farm stresses and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.

  11. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  12. Stress among School-Going Adolescents in Relation to Psychological Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the stress among school-going adolescents in relation to psychological hardiness and also to study the gender and locale-wise differences in various dimensions and components of stress. The study was conducted over a sample of 200 (100 rural and 100 urban) adolescents studying in 10+1 and 10+2 classes…

  13. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Sluiter, J.K.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Broersen, J.P.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  14. [Study on the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia; Zhan, Chenglie; Zhao, Xiaoguo

    2002-02-01

    To study the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers. 1,230 oil workers in 122 work types of oil industry were selected and written occupational stress questionary(OSQ) and symptom check list (SCL-90). Petroleum workers' psychological health states were poor with increasing occupational stress degree. The scores in physical symptoms(1.87 +/- 0.80, 1.72 +/- 0.70), depression(1.74 +/- 0.76, 1.62 +/- 0.67), horror(1.48 +/- 0.65, 1.39 +/- 0.55) in the high and medium stress group were obviously higher than those in low stress group(1.55 +/- 0.61, 1.43 +/- 0.54, 1.28 +/- 0.46, respectively, P < 0.05). The score of mood state in the high and medium stress group was obviously higher than that in low stress group(P < 0.05). Psychological health states and mood state in the petroleum workers with short service length are significantly poorer than that with long service length(P < 0.01). Occupational stress should affect psychological health state of petroleum workers.

  15. Psychological stress and short-term hospitalisations or death in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrighi, R.; Waters, A.J.; Gottlieb, S.S.; Harris, K.M.; Wawrzyniak, A.J.; Bekkouche, N.S.; Li, Y.; Kop, W.J.; Krantz, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Standard predictors do not fully explain variations in the frequency and timing of heart failure (HF) adverse events (AEs). Psychological stress can trigger acute cardiovascular (CV) events, but it is not known whether stress can precipitate AEs in patients with HF. We investigated

  16. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  17. Moving beyond "sticks and stones": chronic psychological trauma predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Whitney K; Brannon, Laura A

    2014-01-01

    To date, trauma research has focused on the impact of physical trauma on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Sometimes psychological trauma is measured with instances of physical trauma; however, less is known about solely psychological trauma. The current study addresses this by examining psychological trauma and PTS symptoms using the chronic relational trauma (CRT) model. The CRT model examines physical and possible concurrent psychological childhood, peer, and intimate partner trauma; however, psychological trauma alone has yet to be tested. A total of 232 female undergraduates (M age = 18.32, SD = 1.60) completed a series of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling indicated that childhood, peer, and intimate partner psychological trauma predict current PTS symptoms. Contributions of these findings are discussed.

  18. 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding during psychological stress in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the changes in 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding with psychological stress in a rat model. Six male Wistar rats were placed under psychological stress for 1 hour by using a communication box. No physical stress was not received. 1.85 MBq of 125 I-IMZ was injected into the lateral tail vein and the rat was killed 3 hours later. Twenty-micormeter-thick sections of the brain were collected and % injected dose per body weight (% ID/BW) of eleven regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortices, caudate putamen, accumubens nuclei, globus pallidus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus and hypothalamus) were calculated by autoradiography. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress was compared with that of 6 control rats. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress diffusely tended to show a reduction in 125 I-IMZ-BZR binding. A significant decrease in BZR binding was observed in the hippocampus of the rats which were placed under psychological stress. 125 I-IMZ-BZR binding tended to decrease throughout the brain. (author)

  19. {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding during psychological stress in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the changes in {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding with psychological stress in a rat model. Six male Wistar rats were placed under psychological stress for 1 hour by using a communication box. No physical stress was not received. 1.85 MBq of {sup 125}I-IMZ was injected into the lateral tail vein and the rat was killed 3 hours later. Twenty-micormeter-thick sections of the brain were collected and % injected dose per body weight (% ID/BW) of eleven regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortices, caudate putamen, accumubens nuclei, globus pallidus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus and hypothalamus) were calculated by autoradiography. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress was compared with that of 6 control rats. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress diffusely tended to show a reduction in {sup 125}I-IMZ-BZR binding. A significant decrease in BZR binding was observed in the hippocampus of the rats which were placed under psychological stress. {sup 125}I-IMZ-BZR binding tended to decrease throughout the brain. (author)

  20. Dietary modification of brain function: effects on neuroendocrine and psychological determinants of mental health- and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waladkhani, A R; Hellhammer, J

    2008-01-01

    Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by different food ingredients, and how stress affects health behavior, for example food choice. It becomes obvious that nutrition is closely linked to food choice and that food ingredients affect a broad range of neuroendocrine and related psychological processes, which regulate adaptation to chronic stress. Thus, dietary modification may become a valuable tool to modify the susceptibility to stress and stress-related disorders.

  1. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  2. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.

  3. Drugs of abuse in pregnancy, poor neonatal development, and future neurodegeneration. Is oxidative stress the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Riezzo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of licit and illicit drugs is a worldwide issue that is a cause for concern in pregnant women. It may lead to complications in pregnancy that may affect the mother, fetus, and /or neonate. The effects of any substance on the developing embryo and fetus are dependent upon dosing, timing, duration of drug exposure, and the extent of drug distribution. Teratogenic effects have been described when exposure takes place during the embryonic stage; however drugs have subtle effects, including abnormal growth and/or maturation, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and brain organization. The mechanisms by which intrauterine exposure to many substances may result in neuronal injury have not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress and epigenetic changes have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long - term adverse health sequelae, and neuro-developmental impairment in the offspring of addicted mothers. Transgenerational epigenetics may also explain the alarming datum that developmental abnormalities, impairment in learning and memory, and attention deficit can occur even in the absence of direct fetal exposure, when drugs are consumed prior to conception. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating a link between redox state unbalance, epigenetic markers, developmental anomalies, and neurodegeneration. The reviewed literature data uphold redox homeostasis disruption as an important factor in the pathogenesis of drug of abuse- induced neurodegeneration, and highlight the potential for new therapies that could prevent neurodegeneration through antioxidant and epigenetic modulatory mechanisms. This therefore reveals important targets for novel neuroprotective strategies.

  4. The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-03-01

    This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.

  5. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  6. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  8. Avoidance / approach motivation: relation with psychological stress and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Grakauskas, Žygimantas

    2006-01-01

    The impact of the BIS/BAS systems on various instances of psychic activities and behaviour (information processing, problem resolution, behaviour, results) is well-researched. However, there is almost no research on how these systems affect human behaviour under stress. Our research aimed to assess the relation between the BIS/BAS motivational systems and emotional reactions under stress, as well as the choice of stress management methods. 225 subjects took part in the research. The following...

  9. Dynamic regulation of cerebral DNA repair genes by psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kristin; Aalling, Nadia; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal genotoxic insults from oxidative stress constitute a putative molecular link between stress and depression on the one hand, and cognitive dysfunction and dementia risk on the other. Oxidative modifications to DNA are repaired by specific enzymes; a process that plays a critical role...... restraint stress (6h/day) or daily handling (controls), and sacrificed after 1, 7 or 21 stress sessions. The mRNA expression of seven genes (Ogg1, Ape1, Ung1, Neil1, Xrcc1, Ercc1, Nudt1) involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction...

  10. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African adolescent community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Karl D.; Pillay, Basil J.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traumatic stress may arise from various incidents often leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is estimated at 1% – 2% in Western Europe, 6% – 9% in North America and at just over 10% in countries exposed to long-term violence. In South Africa, the lifetime prevalence for PTSD in the general population is estimated at 2.3%. Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related psychological functioning in a ...

  11. Effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eskiocak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.

  12. The effect of various physical exercise modes on perceived psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes Das Neves, M K; Loots, J M; van Niekerk, R L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems OBJECTIVE: To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise METHODS: This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an ...

  13. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  14. Emotional mediators of psychological capital on well-being: The role of stress, anxiety, and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rahimnia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have tried to investigate multiple factors affecting employees' social, emotional, and psychological well-being. In this study particularly, nurses' emotional and psychological well-being is considered. Of most important factors affecting well-being in place of work has known to be busy work and stress, constructive and destructive emotions, and psychological capital which. Present study considered to test a developed model of psychological capital, constructive and destructive emotions, stress, anxiety, and depression as antecedents of well-being. 296 nurses took part in the survey, using path analysis method hypotheses were tested, and the proposed model was evaluated. Results indicated that nurses' high psychological capital increases their constructive emotions, reduces destructive emotions and eventually increase their well-being. The role of destructive emotions was more prominent in increasing wellbeing as well. Furthermore, stress had an incremental influence on well-being. In general, research results emphasize the need for more attention to the components of psychological capital, and intervention and coping strategies. The conclusions of a more detailed is that to improve nurses' well-being the more emphasize should be on decreasing destructive emotions than increasing constructive ones. In addition, keeping an optimal level of stress is necessary for good functioning and improvement of overall well-being.

  15. "Transcend": initial outcomes from a posttraumatic stress disorder/substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, B; Padin-Rivera, E; Kowaliw, S

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive treatment program for combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance abuse (SA). Outcome data are presented on 46 male patients who completed treatment between 1996 and 1998. The treatment approach, defined by a detailed manual, integrates elements of cognitive-behavioral skills training, constructivist theory approaches, SA relapse prevention strategies, and peer social support into a group-focused program. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were used to assess treatment effectiveness at discharge and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Significant symptom changes revealed on CAPS and ASI scores at discharge and follow-up are analyzed. Discussion focuses on hypotheses regarding treatment effectiveness, study limitations, and suggestions for further research.

  16. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3.2) patients had both depression and anxiety. Eighty three (90.2%) patients were in the active and productive age group with 13 patients (prevalence of 14.1%) having depression and 20 patients (prevalence of 21.7%) with anxiety. Conclusion: We recommend the screening or assessment for psychological distress ...

  17. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  19. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  20. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged Chinese: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]. Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609 and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514, respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0] to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender.

  1. Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Özgür Kasımay; Ellek, Nurfitnat; Salehin, Nabila; Hamamcı, Rabia; Keleş, Hülya; Kayalı, Damla Gökçeoğlu; Akakın, Dilek; Yüksel, Meral; Özbeyli, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction. Anxiety and cognitive functions were evaluated by hole-board and object recognition tests. The brain glutathione and malondialdehyde assays, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), luminol and lucigenin activity and histological examination were done. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. The depressed cognitive function with chronic stress exposure and the increased anxiety-like behavior with both stress inductions were improved via both caffeine applications (pcaffeine pretreatments in chronic stressed rats, and chronic caffeine in acute stressed ones reduced the elevated myeloperoxidase activities (pcaffeine (pcaffeine (pcaffeine decreased SOD activity (pcaffeine. The increased anxiety-like behavior and depleted cognitive functions under stress conditions were improved with both acute and predominantly chronic caffeine pretreatments by decreasing oxidative damage parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between maternal psychological stress and inflammatory cytokines in allergic young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Tsuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children.Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS for perceived stress.Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant.Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children.

  3. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  4. How accurately does the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire identify workers with or without potential psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Eguchi, Hisashi

    2017-07-27

    The manual for the Japanese Stress Check Program recommends use of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) from among the program's instruments and proposes criteria for defining "high-stress" workers. This study aimed to examine how accurately the BJSQ identifies workers with or without potential psychological distress. We used an online survey to administer the BJSQ with a psychological distress scale (K6) to randomly selected workers (n=1,650). We conducted receiver operating characteristics curve analyses to estimate the screening performance of the cutoff points that the Stress Check Program manual recommends for the BJSQ. Prevalence of workers with potential psychological distress defined as K6 score ≥13 was 13%. Prevalence of "high-risk" workers defined using criteria recommended by the program manual was 16.7% for the original version of the BJSQ. The estimated values were as follows: sensitivity, 60.5%; specificity, 88.9%; Youden index, 0.504; positive predictive value, 47.3%; negative predictive value, 93.8%; positive likelihood ratio, 6.0; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.4. Analyses based on the simplified BJSQ indicated lower sensitivity compared with the original version, although we expected roughly the same screening performance for the best scenario using the original version. Our analyses in which psychological distress measured by K6 was set as the target condition indicate less than half of the identified "high-stress" workers warrant consideration for secondary screening for psychological distress.

  5. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  6. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Miyasaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a “neuropsychiatry phenotype” in asthma.

  8. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  9. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  11. Relationship between Menstrual Profile and Psychological Stress with Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam; Mulyanusa Amarullah Ritonga; Istriati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps is the most common menstrual complaint among reproductive women in developing countries. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea is ranged from 19–91%. Many studies showed that factors associated with dysmenorrhea include a younger age, nulliparity, family history of dysmenorrhea, prolonged menstrual duration, high menstrual flow, psychological factors, and lifestyle. The objective of this study was to compare female medical students with dysmenorrhea and w...

  12. Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Anke; Bisson, Jonathan; Clark, David M.; Creamer, Mark; Pilling, Steven; Richards, David; Schnurr, Paula P.; Turner, Stuart; Yule, William

    2010-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Benish, Imel, and Wampold (2008, Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 746–758) concluded that all bona fide treatments are equally effective in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In contrast, seven other meta-analyses or systematic reviews concluded that there is good evidence that trauma-focused psychological treatments (trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) are effective in PTSD; but that treatments that do not f...

  13. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  14. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses.

  16. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTSD). ... Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related ... Methods: Home interviews with adolescents and their maternal caregivers were ... The Child Behaviour Checklist was completed by the caregivers.

  17. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  18. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  19. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  20. The impact of psychological stress on immune function in the athletic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, A; Hucklebridge, F

    2001-01-01

    In many ways, the physiological and immune consequences of acute bursts of physical exercise parallel the effect of an acute psychological stressor. Similarly, the net effects of endurance training resemble chronic psychological stress, whereas the physiological milieu associated with overtraining resembles that of melancholic depression. We suggest that the prolonged psychological stress often associated with athletic training and competition may make athletes more vulnerable to the negative health effects of training. Furthermore, a relationship between anxiety and life events on susceptibility to injury is well documented. Individual differences in self-confidence and self-esteem are also known to relate to the occurrence of injury as well as recovery from injury. We suggest that these two observations may be linked. It is the purpose of this paper to review the most recent evidence that psychological stress does impact upon the balance of the immune system in such a way as to be relevant to health outcomes and that the athletic population, in particular those with low self-esteem, may be especially vulnerable due to the probable synergistic effects of both physical and psychological stress.

  1. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, P D; Chatterton, R T; Swisher, T; Park, S

    2000-04-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and alpha-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N = 20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game stressor, and 20 min post-stress. Subjects showed a significant reduction in NP and a decrease in reaction time (RT) after the video game. Moreover, alpha-amylase levels increased significantly after the stressor, indicating the role of NE in the acute stress response. While CORT levels remained unchanged after stress, CORT correlated significantly with both NP scores and RT after the stressor. These results imply that mild psychological stress can significantly alter attentional processes. Given the increase in alpha-amylase and the correlation between attention and CORT after stress, it seems likely that attentional processes are under tight control by brain systems which mediate the fight-or-flight response.

  3. Psychological stress associated with aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, A.; Hassan, S.H.; Khan, D.A.; Chaudhary, M.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi, from Oct 2015 to May 2016. Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were selected. Group I included 119 patients presenting with Aphthous Ulcers while group II had 64 subjects with complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a thorough history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess stress in the patients. AHADS-A score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D score of 7 depicted significant depression. Both groups were then subjected to laboratory examinations. Serum cortisol levels were assessed for both groups while Serum Folate, Ferritin and Vitamin B12 level for group I only. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 to calculate descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations as well as frequencies and percentages. Relationship between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: For TMDs, 53 (82.8%) patients were found positive for stress while for aphthous ulcers, 61 (51.3%) were positive for stress. The correlation between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was found significant for both groups at a p=<0.001. Conclusions: Patients showed a high prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders in a local setting. (author)

  4. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  5. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.

  6. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  7. The Structural Model of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being for Pregnancy-Specific Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Dilgony, Taibeh; Shams, Jamal; Zaeri, Farid

    2017-12-01

    Women experience different types of stress in their lifetime. The present study was conducted to examine the structural model of spirituality and psychological well-being for pregnancy-specific stress. The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 450 pregnant Iranian women (150 women from each trimester) in Dehdasht city in 2015. Data were collected using the personal-social questionnaire, the pregnancy-specific stress questionnaire, the spirituality questionnaire and the psychological well-being questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 and Lisrel-8.8 for carrying out a path analysis. The fit indices of the model indicate the good fit and high compatibility of the model and rational relationships between the variables (GFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.94 and RMSEA = 0.048). Of the variables that affected pregnancy-specific stress through both paths, spirituality had a positive effect (B = 0.11) and the personal-social variable a negative effect (B = -0.37). Psychological well-being affected pregnancy-specific stress negatively and directly and through one path only (B = -0.59). The results obtained through the model confirm the effect of spirituality and psychological well-being in reducing pregnancy-specific stress. Given that handling stress has a major role in the quality of daily life in pregnant women, stress management skills are recommended to be promoted among pregnant women so as to mitigate stress and its negative consequences.

  8. Psychological stress for alternatives of decontamination of TMI-2 reactor building atmosphere. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.; Gatchel, R.; Streufert, S.; Baum, C.S.; Fleming, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of the report is to consider the nature and level of psychological stress that may be associated with each of several alternatives for decontamination. The report briefly reviews some of the literature on stress, response to major disaster or life stressors, provides opinion on each decontamination alternative, and considers possible mitigative actions to reduce psychological stress. The report concludes that any procedure that is adapted for the decontamination of the reactor building atmosphere will result in some psychological stress. The stress, however, should abate as contamination is reduced and uncertainty is diminished. The advantages of the purge alternative are the rapid completion of the decontamination and the consequent elimination of future uncontrolled release. Severe stress effects are less likely if the duration of stressor exposure is reduced, if the feeling of public control is increased and if the degree of perceived safety is increased. The long delays, continued uncertainty, and possibility of uncontrolled release that characterize the other alternatives may offset the perception that they are safer. In addition, chronic stress could be a consequence of long delays and continued uncertainty

  9. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  10. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  11. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.

  12. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  13. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  14. Money Matters: Recommendations for Financial Stress Research in Occupational Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H

    2016-08-01

    Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.

  16. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  18. Neural correlates of the classic color and emotional stroop in women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J Douglas; Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Afzal, Nadeem; Schmahl, Christian; Elzinga, Bernet; Charney, Dennis S

    2004-03-15

    The anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the inhibition of responses, as measured by the Stroop task, as well as in emotional regulation. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to use the Stroop task as a probe of anterior cingulate function in PTSD. Women with early childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD (n = 12) and women with abuse but without PTSD (n = 9) underwent positron emission tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow during exposure to control, color Stroop, and emotional Stroop conditions. Women with abuse with PTSD (but not abused non-PTSD women) had a relative decrease in anterior cingulate blood flow during exposure to the emotional (but not color) classic Stroop task. During the color Stroop there were also relatively greater increases in blood flow in non-PTSD compared with PTSD women in right visual association cortex, cuneus, and right inferior parietal lobule. These findings add further evidence for dysfunction of a network of brain regions, including anterior cingulate and visual and parietal cortex, in abuse-related PTSD.

  19. Forensic Interviews for Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: An Investigation into the Effects of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Stress Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse.

  20. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal

  1. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real

  2. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  3. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  4. STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail; Siegel, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the indiv...

  5. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  6. [Psychological stress and quality of life in patients with persistent asthma in Manzanillo, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez Sánchez, Pedro Manuel; Brocard Arencibia, Ileana; Menéndez Porto, Lourdes

    2014-07-30

    Psychological stress is part of people's lives and can sometimes contribute to exacerbation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Asthma is prevalent in all age groups. Acute asthma attacks can be triggered by stress, thus impacting control of the disease and overall quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of psychological stress as a trigger in poorly controlled asthma patients and its implications in their quality of life. A descriptive study was conducted in the city of Manzanillo, Cuba, in the course of one year, from January to December, 2010, which included 33 patients with persistent asthma. They were grouped according to severity as suffering from moderate or severe asthma, and all of them met the criteria for poorly controlled disease. They were surveyed to gather data about family and personal history of atopy, age of first asthma crisis, and environmental as well as other factors. Two surveys were used: a list of indicators of vulnerability to stress and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Most patients with poorly controlled asthma were in their forties. Female patients were more frequently affected than men were (28 females or 84.8%, and 5 males or 15.1%), and most patients had a family history of atopic disease. Almost all patients had high vulnerability to stress as well as low overall quality of life in all the areas surveyed. Psychological counseling is advised for asthma patients in order to reduce their stress levels.

  7. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  8. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-10-01

    Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.

  9. Modulation of immune response to rDNA hepatitis B vaccination by psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jabaaij (Lea); J. van Hattum (Jan); A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Ad); F.G. Oostveen (Frank); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); R.E. Ballieux (Rudy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a previous study it was shown that antibody formation after vaccination with a low-dose recombinant DNA (rDNA) hepatitis B vaccine was negatively influenced by psychological stress. The present study was designed to assess whether the same inverse relation between HBs-antibody levels

  10. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  11. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  12. Psychological Properties and Stress Tolerance of High-Qualified Athletes Specializing in Athletic Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Vasylyuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of sports, there is a strong interest in the behavioral strategies of professional athletes, thus the study of the psychological characteristics of highly skilled athletes is a very topical issue. The article raises the question of the characteristics of the sports environment and the manifestations of stress among athletes. In the paper the psychological features of the personalities of highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking on a scale of neuroticism and extraversion are investigated and the level of neuro-psychological stability of highly skilled athletes specializing in athletic walking is revealed. The main factors of stress in sports activities are: intense competition during a sporting contestation aimed at establishing a record or achieving victory over the rival; maximum physical and psychological stress during the contestation; systematic, long and intense training, which significantly affect the daily regime and everyday life. Two types of stress among athletes are singled out: social-emotional and training. A study of 12 highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking showed that most of them (50 % have ambivert abilities. They are concordants and normostenics that are characterized by significant emotional stability, good adaptability, resistance to external influences. However, among the respondents there were some with low and below average neuropsychic stability.

  13. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina

    2004-01-01

    This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the…

  15. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  16. Salivary kynurenic acid response to psychological stress: inverse relationship to cortical glutamate in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M; Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Thomas, Marian A R; Pocivavsek, Ana; Jones, Aaron; Wisner, Krista; Kochunov, Peter; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L Elliot

    2018-04-18

    Frontal glutamatergic synapses are thought to be critical for adaptive, long-term stress responses. Prefrontal cortices, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) contribute to stress perception and regulation, and are involved in top-down regulation of peripheral glucocorticoid and inflammatory responses to stress. Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in saliva increase in response to psychological stress, and this stress-induced effect may be abnormal in people with schizophrenia. Here we test the hypothesis that ACC glutamatergic functioning may contribute to the stress-induced salivary KYNA response in schizophrenia. In 56 patients with schizophrenia and 58 healthy controls, our results confirm that levels of KYNA in saliva increase following psychological stress. The magnitude of the effect correlated negatively with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) glutamate + glutamine (r = -.31, p = .017) and glutamate (r = -0.27, p = .047) levels in the ACC in patients but not in the controls (all p ≥ .45). Although, a causal relationship cannot be ascertained in this cross-sectional study, these findings suggest a potentially meaningful link between central glutamate levels and kynurenine pathway response to stress in individuals with schizophrenia.

  17. Childhood Cancer in Context: Sociodemographic Factors, Stress, and Psychological Distress Among Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Heather; Yarboi, Janet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Desjardins, Leandra; Murphy, Lexa K; Rodriguez, Erin M; Compas, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between sociodemographic factors (single parenthood, family income, education level, race), stress, and psychological distress among pediatric cancer patients and their mothers. Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, general stress, and cancer-related stress within the first year of the child's (ages 5-17 years) cancer diagnosis or relapse. Mothers (N = 318) provided self-reports and parent report of their children; children aged 10-17 years (N = 151) completed self-reports. Each sociodemographic variable demonstrated unique associations with mothers' and children's stress and distress in bivariate analyses. A cumulative sociodemographic risk measure was positively correlated with all stress and distress variables. In regression analyses predicting mothers' and children's distress, independent and cumulative sociodemographic measures were no longer significant when accounting for levels of stress. Findings highlight the need to consider the ecological context of pediatric cancer, particularly the impact of sociodemographic disadvantage on stress and distress in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heizomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  20. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of conditioned psychological stress on immunological recovery in mice exposed to low-dose x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Flood, J.F.; Makinodan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effects of psychological stress on the immune response in BALB/c mice recovering from exposure to a low dose of ionizing radiation. Mice were first subjected to conditioning training for 12 days, then exposed to 200 R, subjected to psychological stress for 14 days, and assessed for peak anti-sheep RBC response. The seven treatment groups included two unirradiated groups and five irradiated groups. Mice exposed to 200 R and then subjected to conditioned psychological stress responded less vigorously to antigenic stimulation than those of the other irradiated groups. The psychological stress imposed upon these mice did not influence the antibody-forming capacity of unirradiated mice. These results indicate that a psychological stress which did not affect the immunological activity of unirradiated mice can curtail the immunological recovery of mice exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

  3. Sex differences in drug-related stress-system changes: implications for treatment in substance-abusing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.

  4. Moral reasoning in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Anthony; Walaszczyk, Victoria; Frewen, Paul; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Moral reasoning performance was assessed in 28 women with PTSD related to prolonged childhood trauma and 19 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using 12 modified moral dilemmas and was queried in three domains: utilitarian/deontological sacrificial dilemmas (personal and impersonal), social order vs. compassion, and altruism vs. self-interest. Participants were asked whether a proposed action was morally acceptable or unacceptable and whether or not they would perform this action under the circumstances described. Women with PTSD were less likely to carry out utilitarian actions in personal, sacrificial moral dilemmas, a choice driven primarily by consequential intrapersonal disapproval. Increased concern regarding intrapersonal disapproval was related to higher symptoms of guilt in the PTSD group. Patients with PTSD demonstrated less altruistic moral reasoning, primarily associated with decreased empathic role-taking for beneficiaries. Women with PTSD due to childhood trauma show alterations in moral reasoning marked by decreased utilitarian judgment and decreased altruism. Childhood trauma may continue to impact moral choices made into adulthood.

  5. Comprehension of affective prosody in women with post-traumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R

    2015-05-01

    Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Moral reasoning in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Nazarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Method: Moral reasoning performance was assessed in 28 women with PTSD related to prolonged childhood trauma and 19 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using 12 modified moral dilemmas and was queried in three domains: utilitarian/deontological sacrificial dilemmas (personal and impersonal, social order vs. compassion, and altruism vs. self-interest. Participants were asked whether a proposed action was morally acceptable or unacceptable and whether or not they would perform this action under the circumstances described. Results: Women with PTSD were less likely to carry out utilitarian actions in personal, sacrificial moral dilemmas, a choice driven primarily by consequential intrapersonal disapproval. Increased concern regarding intrapersonal disapproval was related to higher symptoms of guilt in the PTSD group. Patients with PTSD demonstrated less altruistic moral reasoning, primarily associated with decreased empathic role-taking for beneficiaries. Conclusions: Women with PTSD due to childhood trauma show alterations in moral reasoning marked by decreased utilitarian judgment and decreased altruism. Childhood trauma may continue to impact moral choices made into adulthood.

  7. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m 2 , respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm 3 ), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  8. Childhood Abuse and Aggression in Adolescent Girls Involved in Child Welfare: The Role of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Auslander, Wendy; Sterzing, Paul; Threlfall, Jennifer; Gerke, Donald; Edmond, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between histories of childhood abuse and aggressive behaviors among adolescent girls involved in child welfare, and determined whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression mediated this relationship. Participants were 237 girls ages 12?19 years. Overall, results indicated 89 % of the adolescents endorsed at least one aggressive behavior towards others. Specifically, 72.0 % engaged in physical aggression, 78.5 % engaged in non-physical aggre...

  9. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  10. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  11. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  12. Stress, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy: investigating the relationship between psychological factors and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael; Harold, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between psychological factors (anxiety, stress, and depression) and seizures. In this longitudinal cohort study, data on anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and seizure recency (time since last seizure) and frequency were collected at two time points using standard validated questionnaire measures. Empirically based models with psychological factors explaining change in (1) seizure recency and (2) seizure frequency scores across time were specified. We then tested how these psychological factors acted together in predicting seizure recency and frequency. Our data were used to test whether these models were valid for the study population. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Four hundred thirty-three of the 558 individuals who initially consented to participate provided two waves of data for this analysis. Stress (beta=0.25, Panxiety (beta=0.30, Pdepression (beta=0.30, Pdepression that mediated the relationship of both anxiety and stress with modeled change in seizure recency (beta=0.19, PDepression mediates the relationship between stress and anxiety and change in seizure recency and seizure frequency. These findings highlight the importance of depression management in addition to seizure management in the assessment and treatment of epilepsy in an adult population.

  13. Parenting stress and children's problem behavior in China: the mediating role of parental psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

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    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401

  15. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.

  16. Effect of psychological stress on gastric motility assessed by electrical bio-impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Ramirez-Padilla, Lorena

    2012-09-28

    To evaluate gastric motility using electrical bio-impedance (EBI) and gastric changes as a result of stress induced by psychological tests. A group of 57 healthy women, aged 40-60 years, was recruited, and a clinical history and physical examination were performed. The women were free from severe anxiety, chronic or acute stress, severe depression, mental diseases and conditions that affect gastric activity. The women were evaluated under fasting conditions, and using a four-electrode configuration, the gastric signals were obtained through a BIOPAC MP-150 system. The volunteers were evaluated using the following paradigm: basal state, recording during the Stroop Test, intermediate resting period, recording during the Raven Test, and a final resting period. We analyzed the relative areas of the frequency spectrum: A1 (1-2 cpm), A2 (2-4 cpm), A3 (4-8 cpm), and A4 (8-12 cpm), as well as the median of area A2 + A3. The data were analyzed by an autoregressive method using a Butterworth filter with MatLab and Origin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman ANOVA (for nonparametric variables) were performed; in addition, pairs of groups were compared using the T dependent and Wilcoxon T tests. The results of the main values of area A2 were not significantly different comparing the five steps of the experimental paradigm. Nevertheless, there was a tendency of this A2 region to decrease during the stress tests, with recuperation at the final resting step. When an extended gastric region was considered (1-4 cpm), significant differences with the psychological stress tests were present (F = 3.85, P = 0.005). The A3 region also showed significant changes when the stress psychological tests were administered (F = 7.25, P stress test showed significant changes (F = 5.5, P stress test (P stress can be evaluated by short-term EBI.

  17. Is Political Activism on Social Media an initiator of Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.

  18. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  19. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  20. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Katholi, Charles R; McCreath, Heather; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, David R; Zhu, Sha; Markovitz, Jerry H

    2004-07-06

    A longstanding but controversial hypothesis is that individuals who exhibit frequent, large increases in blood pressure (BP) during psychological stress are at risk for developing essential hypertension. We tested whether BP changes during psychological stress predict incident hypertension in young adults. We used survival analysis to predict hypertensive status during 13 years of follow-up in a sample of >4100 normotensive black and white men and women (age at entry, 18 to 30 years) enrolled in the CARDIA study. BP responses to 3 psychological challenges--cold pressor, star tracing, and video game tasks--were measured. Hypertensive status was defined as use of antihypertensive medication or measured BP > or =140/90 mm Hg. After adjustment for race, gender, covariates (education, body mass index, age, and resting pressure), and their significant interactions, the larger the BP responses were to each of the 3 tasks, the earlier hypertension occurred (Pvideo game was apparent for men. Young adults who show a large BP response to psychological stress may be at risk for hypertension as they approach midlife.

  1. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  2. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  3. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  4. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S

    2013-08-03

    Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.

  5. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sian; Kidd, Martin; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-12-21

    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified. Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures located at chromosomal ends that protect them from premature degradation. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. Relative quantification of telomeric repeats using qPCR was performed to investigate whether shorter relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a cohort of 64 rape victims was associated with resilience, the development of rape trauma-related major depressive disorder (MDD) or the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 3 months. Out of the 64 participants, 23 participants were diagnosed with MDD at baseline and 31 after 3 months. Nine participants were diagnosed with PTSD (MDD and PTSD specifically related to the trauma). No significant associations were observed between relative LTL and resilience or the development of MDD at either baseline or after 3 months in this cohort. However, a marginally significant association was evident between relative LTL and PTSD status. The significant association between relative LTL and PTSD suggests that shorter relative LTL might have acted as a predisposing factor in the development of PTSD after a severely traumatic event. The results of this study indicate that telomere shortening may be an important marker of PTSD risk, with implications for early intervention and timely treatment, and as such warrant replication in a larger cohort. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant population in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Östman, Margareta; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and analyze associations with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in pregnancy, by ethnic background. This is a cross-sectional study of the Swedish data from the Bidens cohort study. Ethnicity was categorized as native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Women completed a questionnaire while attending routine antenatal care. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) assessed a history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The Edinburgh Depression Scale-5 measured symptoms of depression. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) included intrusion, avoidance and numbness. Of 1003 women, 78.6% were native and 21.4% were non-native Swedish-speakers. Native and non-native Swedish-speakers experienced a similar proportion of lifetime abuse. Moderate emotional and physical abuse in childhood was significantly more common among non-native Swedish-speakers. Sexual abuse in adulthood was significantly more prevalent among native Swedish-speakers. Emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of depression for both natives and non-natives. Physical abuse was significantly associated with symptoms of depression for non-natives only. All types of abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of PTS for both native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Adding ethnicity to the multiple binary regression analyses did not really alter the association between the different types of abuse and symptoms of depression and PTS. The prevalence of lifetime abuse did not differ significantly for native and non-native Swedish-speakers but there were significant differences on a more detailed level. Abuse was associated with symptoms of depression and PTS. Being a non-native Swedish-speaker did not influence the association much. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding psychological stress, its biological processes, and impact on primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Justin M; Thebarge, Ronald W

    2006-10-01

    Psychological stress is generally acknowledged to be a central contributor to primary headache. Stress results from any challenge or threat, either real or perceived, to normal functioning. The stress response is the body's activation of physiological systems, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to protect and restore functioning. Chronic activation of the stress response can lead to wear and tear that eventually can predispose an individual to disease. There are multiple ways that stress and headache are closely related. Stress can (a) be a predisposing factor that contributes to headache disorder onset, (b) accelerate the progression of the headache disorder into a chronic condition, and (c) precipitate and exacerbate individual headache episodes. How stress impacts headache is not often understood. However, stress is assumed to affect primary headache by directly impacting pain production and modulation processes at both the peripheral and central levels. Stress can also independently worsen headache-related disability and quality of life. Finally, the headache experience itself can serve as a stressor that compromises an individual's health and well-being. With the prominent role that stress plays in headache, there are implications for the evaluation of stress and the use of stress reduction strategies at the various stages of headache disorder onset and progression. Future directions can help to develop a better empirical understanding of the pattern of the stress and headache connections and the mechanisms that explain the connections. Further research can also examine the interactive effects of stress and other factors that impact headache disorder onset, course, and adjustment.

  8. Psychological distress and work stress in correctional officers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014. The databases used were the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Web of Science, and Scopus, and the descriptors were psychological distress, stress and correctional officers. We analyzed 40 articles, mainly about stress. The concept of burnout appeared in several works. The United States is the country that most publishes on the subject. There is little interest about the subject in the journals of Public Health. In Latin America we found only four studies, all Brazilian. The number of publications has gradually intensified over the years, and there was methodological improvement in the development and assessment scales, mainly regarding stress and burnout. Work overload, lack of material and human resources, level of contact with the inmates, overcrowding, perceptions of fear or danger, and the paradox of punish / reeducate were some of the risk factors encountered, among others. The protective factors refer to social support within the prison environment, and the coping strategies are related to the improvement of officer training, stimulating social support, and offering psychological care.

  9. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  10. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  11. Psychological stress impairs short-term muscular recovery from resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function, perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness in the first hour after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Thirty-one undergraduate resistance training students (age = 20.26 ± 1.34 yr) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ; a measure of life event stress) and completed fitness testing. After 5 to 14 d of recovery, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10-repetition maximum (RM) leg press test plus six sets: 80%-100% of 10 RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF) was assessed before exercise, after exercise, and at 20, 40, and 60 min postexercise. Participants also reported their levels of perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (P = 0.013) and squared (P = 0.05) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Likewise, perceived stress moderated linear recovery of MIF (P = 0.023). Neither USQ nor Perceived Stress Scale significantly moderated changes in energy, fatigue, or soreness. Life event stress and perceived stress both moderated the recovery of muscular function, but not psychological responses, in the first hour after strenuous resistance exercise.

  12. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  13. Mindfulness training and stress reactivity in substance abuse: results from a randomized, controlled stage I pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Sinha, Rajita; Chen, Justin A; Michalsen, Ravenna N; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Grier, Aleesha; Bergquist, Keri L; Reis, Deidre L; Potenza, Marc N; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2009-01-01

    Stress is important in substance use disorders (SUDs). Mindfulness training (MT) has shown promise for stress-related maladies. No studies have compared MT to empirically validated treatments for SUDs. The goals of this study were to assess MT compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in substance use and treatment acceptability, and specificity of MT compared to CBT in targeting stress reactivity. Thirty-six individuals with alcohol and/or cocaine use disorders were randomly assigned to receive group MT or CBT in an outpatient setting. Drug use was assessed weekly. After treatment, responses to personalized stress provocation were measured. Fourteen individuals completed treatment. There were no differences in treatment satisfaction or drug use between groups. The laboratory paradigm suggested reduced psychological and physiological indices of stress during provocation in MT compared to CBT. This pilot study provides evidence of the feasibility of MT in treating SUDs and suggests that MT may be efficacious in targeting stress.

  14. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  15. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  16. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  17. The effects of yoga on stress and psychological health among employees: an 8- and 16-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Rachel E; Daukantaité, Daiva; Tellhed, Una

    2018-03-01

    The stresses of modern work life necessitate effective coping strategies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Yoga has been found to reduce stress in clinical samples, but studies are needed to examine standard gym yoga classes among functional individuals. This study investigated the effects of 8- and 16-week gym yoga on stress and psychological health. Ninety individuals reporting moderate-to-high stress were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga, or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for 8 weeks then practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Stress and psychological health variables were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Significant reductions in stress and all psychological health measures were found within the Yoga group over 16 weeks. When compared to the control group, yoga practitioners showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, and general psychological health, and significant increases in well-being. The group who did not practice yoga showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia after they crossed over and practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Gym yoga appears to be effective for stress amelioration and promotion of psychological health among workers experiencing stress.

  18. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  19. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  20. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed.

  1. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of social support and psychological stress on anxiety and depressive symptoms in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Sen; Peng, Rou-Jun; Qin, Tao; Shi, Yan-Xia; Teng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Qing; Yuan, Zhong-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of psychological stress and social support with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Four hundred and one patients with breast cancer were recruited. Their demographic characteristics, psychological stress and social support were determined with a structured questionnaire, and their anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychological stressors caused by breast cancer diagnosed originated from five major sources, as determined by factor analysis. These included "Worrying about health being harmed, " "Fear of decline of physical function, " "Fear of work being harmed, " "Worry about daily life and social relationship being restricted, " and "Fear of family being harmed. " Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational level, and duration of illness, solid social support can alleviate such symptoms. The results of this study suggest that there are strong associations between patients' needs and psychological distress with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Social support might affect these associations in Chinese women with breast cancer.

  3. Finding the Most Uniform Changes in Vowel Polygon Caused by Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using vowel polygons, exactly their parameters, is chosen as the criterion for achievement of differences between normal state of speaker and relevant speech under real psychological stress. All results were experimentally obtained by created software for vowel polygon analysis applied on ExamStress database. Selected 6 methods based on cross-correlation of different features were classified by the coefficient of variation and for each individual vowel polygon, the efficiency coefficient marking the most significant and uniform differences between stressed and normal speech were calculated. As the best method for observing generated differences resulted method considered mean of cross correlation values received for difference area value with vector length and angle parameter couples. Generally, best results for stress detection are achieved by vowel triangles created by /i/-/o/-/u/ and /a/-/i/-/o/ vowel triangles in formant planes containing the fifth formant F5 combined with other formants.

  4. Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses' turnover intentions and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeleye, Olubunmi; Hanson, Patricia; O'Connor, Nancy; Dunn, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives.

  5. Psychological stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction: the role of metabolic syndrome and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Brnayan, Kayla W; DeVallance, Evan; Skinner, Roy; Lemaster, Kent; Sheets, J Whitney; Pitzer, Christopher R; Asano, Shinichi; Bryner, Randall W; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? How does chronic stress impact cerebrovascular function and does metabolic syndrome accelerate the cerebrovascular adaptations to stress? What role does exercise training have in preventing cerebrovascular changes to stress and metabolic syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Stressful conditions lead to pathological adaptations of the cerebrovasculature via an oxidative nitric oxide pathway, and the presence of metabolic syndrome produces a greater susceptibility to stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction. The results also provide insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the influence of stress and the role of exercise in preventing the negative actions of stress on cerebrovascular function and structure. Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17 weeks old) following 8 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction. In healthy lean Zucker rats (LZR), UCMS decreased (28%, P stress and increased production of nitric oxide in the cerebral vessels. In conclusion, UCMS significantly impaired MCA structure and function, but the effects of UCMS were more substantial in OZR vs. LZR. Importantly, aerobic exercise when combined with UCMS prevented the MCA dysfunction through subtle shifts in nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the cerebral microvasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  6. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Health effects and psychological stress in pregnant women engaged in work outside the home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Ayumi; Shiiba, Michiyo; Sibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Modern society demands working conditions in which pregnant women can successfully deliver children and maintain a professional position. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of work on the health and psychological stress in working women and their newborns. We reviewed twenty-eight publications and found that health problems in working women occur at high rates. However, there is no report investigating the mechanism by which health problems occur, or describing the precise working conditions and symptoms in pregnant women who are engaged in work outside the home. In addition, the literature uses subjective evaluations, including psychological tests, to quantify stress and anxiety, but no biochemical analyses of stress-related substances were conducted. We suggest that a standard index to represent working conditions and job category, as well as an investigation of the workload of house-keeping, is needed to understand the total work effort by pregnant women in modern times. Finally, measurement of stress-related biological markers may be effective in the investigation from various perspectives of occupational stress in pregnant women.

  8. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  10. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  12. Abuso físico infantil: avaliando fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores notificados Child physical abuse: evaluating psychological risk factors in accused caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Paula D. Bérgamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se em que medida variáveis cognitivas e afetivas/emocionais diferenciariam cuidadores notificados por abusos físicos (G1 de cuidadores sem esse histórico (G2. O Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP foi utilizado para avaliar fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores. Um Questionário de Caracterização sócio-demográfica e outro econômico também foram empregados para equiparar os grupos. G1 apresentou um potencial de risco superior a G2, e maiores níveis de Angústia, Rigidez, Problemas com a Criança e Consigo, Problemas com os Outros, e um menor nível de Força do Ego. Essas variáveis se articulam para compor o risco de abuso físico, pois segundo o Modelo do Processamento da Informação Social, remeteriam a processos básicos cognitivos/afetivos subjacentes a percepções e avaliações/interpretações, associados ao comportamento parental abusivo.It was verified to what extent cognitive and affective/emotional variables could distinguish caregivers accused of committing physical abuse (G1 from those without physical abuse records (G2. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP, which is an instrument designed to assess psychological risk factors in caregivers, was used. A questionnaire on socio-demographic characterization and another on economic classification were also employed to equate the groups. G1 presented a greater potential risk than G2, higher levels of Distress, Rigidity, Problems with the Child and with Themselves, Problems with Others, and a lower level of Ego Strength. These variables contribute with the composition of physical abuse risk, since, in agreement with the Social Information Processing Model, they would be related to cognitive and affective basic processes which are veiled to the perceptions and evaluation/interpretations, associated to abusive parental behavior.

  13. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  14. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Burnout and Stress Among US Surgery Residents: Psychological Distress and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebares, Carter C; Guvva, Ekaterina V; Ascher, Nancy L; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Harris, Hobart W; Epel, Elissa S

    2018-01-01

    Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance, and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that can contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees. An online survey was distributed in September 2016 to all ACGME-accredited general surgery programs. Burnout was assessed with an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Stress, anxiety, depression, resilience, mindfulness, and alcohol use were assessed and analyzed for prevalence. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the magnitude of presumed risk and resilience factors. Among 566 surgical residents who participated in the survey, prevalence of burnout was 69%, equally driven by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Perceived stress and distress symptoms (depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety) were notably high across training levels, but improved during lab years. Higher burnout was associated with high stress (OR 7.8; p burnout (OR 0.24; p stress (OR 0.15; p burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms are experienced throughout general surgery training, with some improvement during lab years. In this cross-sectional study, trainees with burnout and high stress were at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower risk of burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms, supporting the potential of mindfulness training to promote resilience during surgery residency. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  17. A Cross-Lagged Panel Study of Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current prospective study assessed the temporal relations between dissociation and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in a sample of treatment-seeking female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PTS refers to symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the absence...... clinical implications that may affect their treatment and trauma recovery....

  18. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  19. The effect of psychological stress on diet-induced thermogenesis and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weststrate, J A; Van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P; Hautvast, J G

    1990-04-01

    The effect of psychological stress on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was assessed in 12 healthy young non-obese men of body weight 70.2 +/- 1.2 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.) and age 25 +/- 0.6 years. Two types of commercially available motion pictures (video films) were shown to the subjects during the measurements, ie stress-inducing horror films and as a control, romantic family films. The study was conducted according to a cross-over design. RMR and respiratory quotients were not significantly influenced by the type of film shown to the subjects. DIT, assessed over 4 h, was significantly increased by the stress-inducing treatment, 0.95 +/- 0.05 kJ/min (mean +/- s.e.m.) versus 0.76 +/- 0.06 kJ/min (control). No significant effect was observed of psychological stress on postprandial substrate oxidation rates, nutrient balances, and urinary catecholamine excretion.

  20. The Impact of Community-Based Outreach on Psychological Distress and Victim Safety in Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse and migraine: new findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, B Lee; Rosso, Andrea L; Sheftell, Fred D; Libon, David J; Mossey, Jana M; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be associated with migraine and drug abuse. This was an analysis of data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) to evaluate the association of PTSD in those with episodic migraine (EM) and chronic daily headache (CDH). Our sample consisted of 5,692 participants. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were increased in those with EM and CDH. After adjustments, the lifetime odds ratio (OR) of PTSD was greater in those with EM (OR 3.07 confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 4.46) compared to those without headache; was greater in men than women with EM (men: OR 6.86; CI: 3.11, 15.11; women: OR 2.77; CI: 1.83, 4.21); and was comparable or greater than the association between migraine with depression or anxiety. The lifetime OR of PTSD was also increased in CDH sufferers. The OR of illicit drug abuse was not increased in those with EM or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression. The lifetime and 12-month OR of PTSD is increased in those with migraine or CDH, and is greater in men than women with migraine. The lifetime and 12-month OR of illicit drug abuse is not increased in those with migraine or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression.

  2. Does Work Stress Predict the Occurrence of Cold, Flu and Minor Illness Symptoms in Clinical Psychology Trainees?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C.; Sheffield, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the three/four-day lagged relationship between daily work stress and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and other minor illness symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four postgraduate clinical psychology trainees completed work stress, cold/flu symptoms and somatic symptoms checklists daily for four weeks. Results: Increases in work stress were observed two days prior to a cold/flu episode but not three or four days preceding a cold/flu episode. Work stress wa...

  3. Loss of melanocortin-4 receptor function attenuates HPA responses to psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Karen K; Mul, Joram D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    function. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous MC4R signaling contributes to the HPA axis response to stress. Because MC4R plays a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, the present work suggests that it may also serve as an important communication link between brain metabolic...... in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation. The present work investigated the role of chronic Mc4r function to modulate basal HPA axis tone and to facilitate acute HPA responses to psychological stress, using a novel rat model with Mc4r loss-of-function. In this study, adult male rats were......The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), well-known for its role in the regulation of energy balance, is widely expressed in stress-regulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the medial amygdala (MeA). In agreement with this, MC4R has been implicated...

  4. An assessment of psychological stress and symptomatology for didactic phase physician assistant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, William A; May, Ryan K; Ball, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the amount of psychological stress experienced by didactic phase, physician assistant (PA) students. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) survey was administered to 81 students in 2011 during the first two didactic phase semesters at two PA programs. Using ANOVA and t-tests, several variables were analyzed for significance. The SCL-90-R results portray that a significant proportion of the students from both programs reported elevated levels of stress during the first and second semester of the didactic year. Although several significant levels were noted throughout this study, it is not known how these scores from PA students would compare to other medical and/or nonmedical graduate students. Additional studies of stress from both medical and nonmedical graduate students would be beneficial for comparison to PA students.

  5. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence.

  6. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  7. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achnak, Safâa; Griep, Yannick; Vantilborgh, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees). Note that the unit of analysis is “observations” rather than “respondents,” resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1) and 374 (Study 2) observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach—stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach—stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:29559935

  8. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safâa Achnak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees. Note that the unit of analysis is “observations” rather than “respondents,” resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1 and 374 (Study 2 observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach—stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach—stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achnak, Safâa; Griep, Yannick; Vantilborgh, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees). Note that the unit of analysis is "observations" rather than "respondents," resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1) and 374 (Study 2) observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach-stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach-stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Psychological Stress Increases Risk for Peptic Ulcer, Regardless of Helicobacter pylori Infection or Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenstein, Susan; Rosenstock, Steffen; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is controversy over whether psychological stress contributes to development of peptic ulcers. We collected data on features of life stress and ulcer risk factors from a defined population in Denmark and compared these with findings of confirmed ulcers during the next 11......, smoking, H pylori infection, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of a population-based Danish cohort, psychological stress increased the incidence of peptic ulcer, in part by influencing health risk behaviors. Stress had......-12 years. METHODS: We collected blood samples and psychological, social, behavioral, and medical data in 1982-1983 from a population-based sample of 3379 Danish adults without a history of ulcer participating in the World Health Organization's MONICA study. A 0- to 10-point stress index scale was used...

  11. The study of personal familial and psychological characteristics and drug abuse among in bed patients with suicide intention in Shohadaye Ashayer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohmoudi GhA2, Soultani far M3, Saki M4, Farhadi A5 1. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of forensic medicine, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. General practitioner 4. Instructor, Department of nursing, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of psychology and health, Faculty of medicine, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences Abstract Background: Suicide is one of the social problem which brings about death of active characters in the society and it is considered as a remarkable problem for health. Suicide is the number 9 factor of death in America. Nearly 85 cases of suicide happen per day within 20 minutes each. Drug abuse is of psychiatric urgency and it is regarded as an important variable related to suicide. Materials and methods: All clients who committed suicide and were hospitalized in Shohadaye Ashayer hospital were included in this study ( from July 83 to January 83 . Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and chronic organic disease among patients with suicide intention . Among 67 suicide cases, 55.2% were male and 44.8% were female. The highest frequency (55.2% covered the age group (19–26 .Most of the cases were unmarried. 47.8% were unemployed . 79.1 % were city residents and 21.9 % were living in the country. 53.7% of the participants had elementary school and junior high school education . Conclusion: The study was to determine the frequency of personal, familial psychological characteristics and drug abuse among clients with suicide. The results emphasize on the preventive effect of the level of education in this Province. The results also showed that the more the number of people in the family, the more suicide cases in the family. Further more among married ones, cases

  12. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild

    2013-08-13

    Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students. A total of 288 students (mean age = 23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the 'General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire' and additional indices of compliance. Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges'g 0.65, CI = .41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges'g 0.40, CI = .27, .63) and the mindfulness facet 'non-reacting' (Hedges'g 0.33, CI = .10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet 'non-judging'. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed. Female medical and psychology

  14. Effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in a clinically relevant model of visceroception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderigo, Till; Benson, Sven; Schöls, Margarita; Hetkamp, Madeleine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Enck, Paul; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence to suggest a role of emotions in placebo and nocebo effects, but whether acute psychological stress changes the magnitude of placebo or nocebo responses has not been tested. In a clinically relevant model of visceroception, we assessed effects of acute psychological stress on changes in urgency and pain in response to positive or negative treatment suggestions. In 120 healthy volunteers, perceived urge-to-defecate and pain in response to individually calibrated rectal distensions were measured with visual analogue scales during a BASELINE. Participants then underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 60) or a simple cognitive task (control, N = 60) and were randomized to positive (placebo), negative (nocebo), or neutral treatment information regarding intravenous administration of saline. The series of distensions was repeated, and changes in visual analogue scales from BASELINE to TEST were compared between groups using analysis of covariance and planned post hoc tests. Treatment information emerged as a main factor (P effects for both urgency and pain. Effects for urgency were modulated by stress (interaction effect: P stressed groups. For pain, effects of stress emerged for nocebo responses, which were only evident in stressed groups (P = 0.009). This is the first experimental study supporting effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in visceroception. Results call for mechanistic as well as patient studies to assess how psychological stress shapes patients' treatment expectations and thereby affects health outcomes.

  15. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  16. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McAlpine, Donna D; Henning-Smith, Carrie E

    2014-11-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008-2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability.

  17. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  18. Influence of life stress on immunological reactivity to mild psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J. F.; Benschop, R. J.; Godaert, G. L.; Olff, M.; de Smet, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of self-reported life stress and locus of control on reactivity of several immune parameters to a mild and short-lasting interpersonal stressor. Subjects were 86 male teachers aged 24 to 55 years. Immune reactivity was defined as changes in numbers of monocytes.

  19. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  20. Psychological stress in undergraduate dental students: baseline results from seven European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Blinkhorn, Andy; Freeman, Ruth; Gorter, Ronald; Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Murtomaa, Heikki; O'Sullivan, Robin; Splieth, Christian

    2002-02-01

    To determine the degree of psychological distress, the experience of emotional exhaustion, and the extent of stress associated with course work in dental students and to compare these measurements among seven European dental schools. Multi-centred survey. Dental Schools at Amsterdam, Belfast, Cork, Greifswald, Helsinki, Liverpool and Manchester. 333 undergraduate first-year dental students. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES), demographic variables. Questionnaire administered to all students attending first year course. Completed questionnaires sent to central office for processing. Seventy-nine percent of the sampled students responded. Over a third of the students (36%) reported significant psychological distress (morbidity) at the recommended cut-off point (>3 on GHQ). These scores were similar to those reported for medical undergraduates. Twenty-two percent recorded comparatively high scores on emotional exhaustion. A wide variation in these 2 measurements was found across schools (p'sStress levels indicated by the DES were less variable (p>0.5). Some evidence showed that contact with patients and the level of support afforded by living at home may be protective. Higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate dental students in Europe.

  1. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools. Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress. Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention. Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  2. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  3. Effects of a cardiac rehabilitation course on psychological stresses in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complications of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs include psychological stresses such as anxiety, depression, and hostility. They cause disease exacerbation and prolongation and delayed improvement. Some studies have reported rehabilitation and stress management interventions to be helpful in reducing such stresses. Due to the high prevalence of CVDs in Isfahan, Iran, the present study evaluated the effects of a cardiac rehabilitation course on psychological stresses in an Iranian population. METHODS: A total number of 190 patients (40 females and 150 males, who have been introduced by cardiologists to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center for rehabilitation following the myocardial infarction and open heart surgery, participated in this study. Patients all took part in an exercise program including 24 one-hour sessions (three sessions per week. Each session consisted of warm-up (20 minutes, aerobic exercise and relaxation (40 minutes. Cognitive-therapeutic group therapy sessions, supervised by a psychiatrist, were also held for 1-2 hours weekly. Furthermore, patients' nutritional pattern was controlled by a nutritionist. All the individuals underwent exercise test at the beginning and the end of the exercise. In addition, anxiety, depression, and hostility were assessed by symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90 before and after the course. The data was analyzed by paired-t and independent-t tests in SPSS. RESULTS: The exercise volume in all the patients (42.7 ± 81.56 in males and 39.88 ± 33.36 in females significantly increased at the end of the course. Moreover, scores of anxiety (-17.86 ± 68.49 in males and -32.33 ± 49.53 in females, depression (-12.80 ± 67.4 in males and -16.50 ± 57.84 in females, and hostility (-19.26 ± 71.86 in males and -12.80 ± 123.60 in females showed a significant reduction at the end of the course (P < 0.001. Similar results were seen in both sexes. CONCLUSION: According to the changes found after

  4. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

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    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  5. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

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    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  6. The Relationship between Financial Strain, Perceived Stress, Psychological Symptoms, and Academic and Social Integration in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…

  7. Development and evaluation of targeted psychological skills training for oncology nurses in managing stressful patient and family encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Lara; Park, Elyse R; Sporn, Nora; Repper-DeLisi, Jennifer; Convery, Mary Susan; Jacobo, Michelle; Pirl, William F

    2013-07-01

    To reduce workplace stress by developing a brief psychological skills training for nurses and to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in decreasing burnout and stress. Intervention development and evaluation. Outpatient chemotherapy unit at a comprehensive cancer center. 26 infusion nurses and oncology social workers. Focus groups were conducted with nurses. Results informed the development and evaluation of training for nurses. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale post-training. Burnout and stress. Focus groups indicated strong commitment among nurses to psychosocial care and supported the idea that relationships with patients and families were sources of reward and stress. Stressors included factors that interfered with psychosocial care such as difficult family dynamics, patient behaviors and end-of-life care issues. Psychological skills training was developed to address these stressors. Evaluations suggested that the program was feasible and acceptable to nurses. At two months, participants showed reductions in emotional exhaustion (p = 0.02) and stress (p = 0.04). Psychological skills training for managing difficult encounters showed feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefit in reducing emotional exhaustion and stress. Brief training that targets sources of clinical stress may be useful for nurses in outpatient chemotherapy units. Specific stressors in relationships with patients and families present challenges to nurses' therapeutic use of self. Targeted psychological skills training may help nurses problem-solve difficult encounters while taking care of themselves. System-level strategies are needed to support and promote training participation.

  8. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  9. Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes.

  10. [Two scales for job stress and psychological health investigation: type-A personality and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.

  11. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  12. Children staying in hospital: a research on psychological stress of caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commodari Elena

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a child hospitalized is a stressful event for parents. Previous studies have found increased stress in families with children affected by different kinds of pathologies, and analyzed disease related objective variables producing stress. However, most of these studies recruited caregivers of children with chronic or serious illnesses, and focused on evaluation of objective environmental stressors and did not consider subjective "perception" of stress. The aim of this study was to investigate perception of acute stress in caregivers taking care of children without serious physical damage that were hospitalized for short periods. Moreover, some variables, such as recreational and school services offered to children, influencing perception of cognitive, physiological and behavioral state relating to the sensation of "being stressed" were analyzed. Methods This study was realized with a sample of caregivers of children hospitalized for mild acute diseases. Research was conducted using two standardized tests, PSM (Psychological Stress Measure and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, whose characteristics of reliability and validity had been successfully established. Results Present data showed that caregivers of hospitalized children perceived high levels of stress and anxiety. Perception of stress was influenced by the degree of kindred with patients, length of hospitalization, and, notably, participation in some of the activities offered to children, mainly school services. Discussion Findings showed that child hospitalization is a stressful event for caregivers, even if hospitalization is for middle and transient pathologies. Perception of stress was influenced by length of hospitalization, and by degree of kindred. Findings even suggest that some services offered to children can modulate caregivers' perception of stress and impact of hospitalization. Caregivers whose children used school services describe themselves as

  13. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    used were not sophisticated enough to elucidate the pattern. Using a more advanced statistical approach (e.g., Canonical discriminitive analysis...corticotrophin-releasing factor in stress-induced relapse to alcohol- seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:317-324. Lex BW (1991) Some gender ...Prunell M, Dimitsantos V, Nadal R, Escorihuela RM (2006) Environmental enrichment effects in social investigation in rats are gender dependent

  14. Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation

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    Isao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation. The mechanisms underlying this process may involve a pathological series of events from the brain to the lungs, which is attracting attention as a conceptually advanced phenotype in asthma pathogenesis. This review presents insights into the critical role of psychological stress in the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, with a special focus on our own data that emphasizes on the continuity from the central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  15. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Psychological and Work Stress Assessment of Patients following Angioplasty or Heart Surgery: Results of 1-year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiabane, Elena; Giorgi, Ines; Candura, Stefano M; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in subjective psychological health and perceived work stress among patients who returned to work (RTW) after a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following cardiac interventions. A total of 108 patients were evaluated at the beginning of their CR, at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, illness perception and work stress at each time stage. Results showed reports of depressive symptoms significantly decreased (p work stress after their RTW. Patients' psychological health and work stress need to be assessed during the CR and should be also carefully monitored after the RTW in order to identify patients' psychological and work-related barriers and facilitate a safe and successful work reintegration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Is the psychological refractory period effect for ideomotor compatible tasks eliminated by speed-stress instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun Kyoung; Cho, Yang Seok; Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    It has been argued that the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect is eliminated with two ideomotor compatible tasks when instructions stress fast and simultaneous responding. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In all experiments, Task 1 required spatially compatible manual responses (left or right) to the direction of an arrow, and Task 2 required saying the name of the auditory letter A or B. In Experiments 1 and 3, the manual responses were keypresses made with the left and right hands, whereas in Experiment 2 they were left-right toggle-switch movements made with the dominant hand. Instructions that stressed response speed reduced reaction time and increased error rate compared to standard instructions to respond fast and accurately, but did not eliminate the PRP effect on Task 2 reaction time. These results imply that, even when response speed is emphasized, ideomotor compatible tasks do not bypass response selection.

  18. EFFECT OF STRESS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL OVERLOAD AT WORK ON PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREK ŠOLC

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The workload represents a factor which acts burdensome on human organism and, depending on its level affects well-being, or leads to disease or injury. As a result, there is a distortion in optimal working relationship in the system man – machine – environment, which may be reflected in the reduction of productivity and efficiency throughout the system. The contribution deals with the issue of the effects of stress and psychological overload at work, which affects significantly the performance of employees. The article describes the basic legislation regarding the workload in conditions of the Slovak Republic, it describes the types of loads, different causes, manifestations and consequences of load. According to theoretical knowledge about stress and loads, the questionnaire method was applied for assessment of mental workload in terms of working conditions level in the unnamed service organization.

  19. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African adolescent community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl D. Swain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic stress may arise from various incidents often leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is estimated at 1% – 2% in Western Europe, 6% – 9% in North America and at just over 10% in countries exposed to long-term violence. In South Africa, the lifetime prevalence for PTSD in the general population is estimated at 2.3%. Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related psychological functioning in a community sample of adolescents. Setting: Low-socioeconomic communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: Home interviews with adolescents and their maternal caregivers were used to collect the data using standardised instruments. Adolescents completed the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children; Children’s Depression Inventory; Children’s Somatization Inventory; and Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale. The Child Behaviour Checklist was completed by the caregivers. The sample comprised Grade 7 (n = 256 and Grade 10 (n = 68 learners. Sixty-five percent of the sample was female, and ages ranged from 9 to 18 (M = 13.11, s.d. = 1.54. Results: Almost 6% of the sample endorsed PTSD and an additional 4% of the participants had clinically significant traumatic stress symptomatology. There was a significant, large, positive correlation between posttraumatic stress and anxiety, and medium positive correlations between posttraumatic stress and depression and somatic symptoms. Conclusion: Posttraumatic stress symptomatology can be debilitating, often co-occurring with symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatic complications. This may lead to long-term academic, social and emotional consequences in this vulnerable group.

  20. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  1. Psychological stress moderates the relationship between running volume and CD4+ T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, K E; Sunesara, I; Tull, M T; Marshall, G D

    2016-01-01

    Endurance-based exercise training can lead to alterations in components of the immune system, but it is unknown how psychological stress (another potent immunomodulator) may impact these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating role of psychological stress on exercise-induced immune changes. Twenty-nine recreational runners were recruited for this study four weeks before completing a marathon. Each subject reported: weekly training volume (miles/wk) for the week prior to the study visit; completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ); and donated blood for assessment of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and mitogen-induced cytokine production. Participants ran an average of 30 (±13.4) miles (1 mile=1.6 km) per week. Average values (SD) for immune biomarkers were: regulatory T cells (Treg), 3.2% (±1.2%); type 1 regulatory cells (Tr1), 27.1% (±8.3%); T helper 3 (Th3), 1.8% (±0.7%); interferon gamma (IFNγ), 3.1 pg/ml (±1.0); interleukin (IL)-4, 1.4 pg/ml (±1.1); IFNγ/IL-4, 8.6 (±1.2); IL-10, 512 pg/ml (±288). There was a significant relationship between running volume and both Treg cell numbers (slope of the regression line (β)=0.05, p less than 0.001) and IL-10 production β=-10.6, p=0.002), and there was a trending relationship between running volume and Tr1 cell numbers (β=-0.2%, p=0.064). Perceived stress was a trending moderator of the running volume-Treg relationship, whereas worry was a significant moderator of the running volume-IFNγ and running volume-IFNγ/IL-4 relationships. These data indicate that various forms of psychological stress can impact endurance exercise-based changes in certain immune biomarkers. These changes may reflect an increased susceptibility to clinical risks in some individuals.

  2. Associations Between Childhood Abuse, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Implicit Emotion Regulation Deficits: Evidence From a Low-Income, Inner-City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including increased risk for development of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to examine associations between child abuse, PTSD symptoms, and performance on an emotional conflict regulation task that assesses implicit emotion regulation abilities. The sample consisted of 67 (94% African American) females recruited from a public, urban hospital. Childhood abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was measured using the modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Task accuracy and implicit emotion regulation were measured through an emotional conflict regulation behavioral task. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that exposure to moderate to severe childhood abuse was significantly related to worse emotional conflict regulation scores independent of current PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and adult trauma exposure, suggesting a deficit in implicit emotion regulation. We also found an interaction between PTSD symptoms and abuse exposure in predicting accuracy on the behavioral task; high levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer task accuracy among individuals who reported moderate to severe exposure to childhood abuse. However, no relationship between implicit emotion regulation abilities and overall PTSD symptom severity was found. This study provides preliminary evidence of an implicit emotion regulation deficit for individuals exposed to significant childhood abuse and further supports the growing evidence that addressing various aspects of emotion dysregulation, such as awareness of emotions and strategies to manage strong emotions, in the context of treatment would be valuable.

  3. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  4. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder in eating disorder patients: The roles of psychological distress and timing of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Backholm, Klas; Birgegård, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to traumatic events may be a risk factor for subsequent development of an eating disorder (ED). In a previous study, we showed that trauma exposure impacted symptom load in ED patients. We also saw an effect of trauma on general psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ED severity, to focus on the mediating role of psychological distress for the association, and to assess the role of timing of trauma in relation to emergence of ED. Participants were Swedish adult ED patients with a history of traumatic exposure (N=843, Mean age 27.2, 97.3% female). One fourth (24.1%) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PTSD had an impact on ED severity, but the impact was mediated by psychological distress. When stratifying the sample based on timing of trauma a significant effect was present only in those with trauma within a year of emergence of ED. The results suggest emotion regulation as a possible underlying factor of interest in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-12-01

    In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect histories assessed for PTSD in adulthood. Across all types of abuse/neglect, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk. Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD.

  7. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  8. {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi E-mail: GZL13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p<0.05). Serum corticosterone level ratio appeared to be slightly elevated in 3-DAY and 5-DAY, although this elevation was not significant. These data suggest that {sup 125}I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress.

  9. Alleged sexual abuse at a day care center: impact on parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Holen, Are; Steinberg, Alan M; Rodriguez, Ned; Pynoos, Robert S

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the cascade of stressful events and secondary life changes experienced by parents in a case of alleged sexual abuse at a day care program. The study evaluated parents' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and general psychological responses to the stressful events 4 years after the alleged abuse, and explored predictive factors of parental distress. A total of 39 parents were interviewed about stressful events, life changes, and social support. Current distress reactions, psychological wellbeing, and locus of control were assessed with a battery of standardized measures. Hearing about the sexual abuse, testifying in court, hearing the verdict, and being exposed in media reports were all rated by the parents as distressing events. The majority of the parents experienced secondary life changes after the alleged sexual abuse. Four years after the alleged sexual abuse, one-third of the parents reported a high level of PTSD Intrusive symptoms and one-fourth reported a high level of PTSD Avoidance symptoms. There was a significant positive correlation between a measure of psychological wellbeing and PTSD. Secondary life changes and locus of control significantly predicted PTSD. This study demonstrates that the alleged sexual abuse of children in day care and the resulting events in the legal system and the media constitute significant and chronic stressors in the lives of the children's parents. These findings underscore the need to expand the focus of trauma-related sequelae from the child victim to their parents and family.

  10. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  11. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41) or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40). Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs) measured. Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  12. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  13. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  14. Post-inflammatory fatigue in sarcoidosis: personality profiles, psychological symptoms and stress hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Ingrid H E; Grutters, Jan C; van den Bosch, Jules M M; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2012-02-01

    Chronic fatigue following inflammatory diseases has been well documented. However, little is known about possible risk factors of chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of the disease sarcoidosis is associated with specific dimensions of personality, psychological symptoms and baseline levels of stress hormones. Thirty-seven non-fatigued and 33 fatigued patients in clinical remission of sarcoidosis were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-short form (TCI); the Symptom CheckList-90 (SCL), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Baseline levels of ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma. Principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was conducted on all personality, psychological and stress hormone data in order to obtain a smaller set of components. Logistic regression was performed to associate these components with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. Principal component analyses identified 5 components, of which two components were significantly associated with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The first component comprised the personality trait Harm Avoidance and all SCL-subscales except Sleep. The second component consisted of baseline levels ACTH and cortisol, and showed an inverse association with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The 3 other components, consisting of respectively SCL-Sleep, TCI-Novelty Seeking-Reward Dependence-Self Transcendence, and TCI-Persistence, were not significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of sarcoidosis is associated with a triad of risk factors: a specific personality profile with profound neurotic characteristics in combination with high levels of psychological distress, and decreased baseline ACTH/cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  16. Supervisors' attitudes and skills for active listening with regard to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinate workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineyama, Sachiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takao, Soshi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-03-01

    We investigated whether supervisors' listening attitudes and skills were related to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among their subordinates. The subjects included 41 male supervisors and their immediate subordinates (n=203). The supervisors completed a short version of the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS) consisting of two subscales: Listening Attitude and Listening Skill for Active Listening. The subordinates rated working conditions and their psychological stress reactions using selected scales of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill reported a more favorable psychological stress reaction than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Skill reported higher worksite support than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude reported higher job control than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude. A supervisor's listening attitude and skill appeared to affect psychological stress reactions predominantly among male subordinates than among female subordinates. Psychological stress reactions were lower among younger subordinates who worked under sup