Sample records for stress protein levels

  1. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A


    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density...

  2. Plasma levels of oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP) in rats subjected to physicochemical oxidative stresses.

    Yao, Takako; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Seko, Yoshinori


    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various disorders including atherosclerosis, aging and especially ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism has been uncertain. Recently, we identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in a hypoxia/reoxygenated medium of cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally modified secreted form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP). We developed a sandwich ELISA and confirmed that myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma levels of ORAIP. To investigate whether the role of ORAIP is common to various types of oxidative stress, we measured plasma ORAIP levels in rats subjected to three physicochemical models of oxidative stress including N2/O2 inhalation, cold/warm-stress (heat shock) and blood acidification. In all three models, plasma ORAIP levels significantly increased and reached a peak level at 10-30 min after stimulation, then decreased within 60 min. The (mean±S.E.M.) plasma ORAIP levels before and after (peak) stimulation were (16.4±9.6) and (55.2±34.2) ng/ml in N2/O2 inhalation, (14.1±12.4) and (34.3±14.6) ng/ml in cold/warm-stress, and (18.9±14.3) and (134.0±67.2) ng/ml in blood acidification study. These data strongly suggest that secretion of ORAIP in response to oxidative stress is universal mechanism and plays an essential role. ORAIP will be an important novel biomarker as well as a specific therapeutic target of these oxidative stress-induced cell injuries. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Brain and hepatic Hsp70 protein levels in heat-acclimated broiler chickens during heat stress

    EN Guerreiro


    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effects of heat acclimation on brain and hepatic Hsp70 protein levels and body temperature of broiler chickens in response to gradual heat stress. Two groups of broilers were raised up to 47 days of age under distinct temperature conditions: thermoneutral (TN, according to bird age or hot environmental (HS, 31-33°C. At 46 days of age, the birds reared at high ambient temperature were transferred to thermoneutrality conditions. After 18 h, these birds and the birds reared at thermoneutral temperature were submitted to gradual heat stress in a climatic chamber so that environment temperature was increased from 28 to 40ºC at a rate of 2ºC/h. Colonic temperature was measured using a thermometer sensor probe at each two hours, and hepatic and brain tissues were collected immediately after slaughter in order to assess Hsp70 protein level by Western blotting analysis. The colonic temperatures of birds reared at high temperature increased steeply during the first 2 h of heat stress (1.06ºC/h and more slowly thereafter (0.59ºC/h. Broilers reared at thermoneutral temperature showed a small increase in the first 4 h of heat stress (0.18ºC/h and then colonic temperature increased sharply (0.72ºC/h. Nevertheless, both groups presented similar final colonic temperature by the end of the stress period. Hsp70 levels (ng Hsp70 µg total protein-1 did not change in the liver or brain of the birds reared at high temperature. On the other hand, both liver and brain Hsp70 levels increased significantly during heat stress in the animals reared at thermoneutrality, with a higher expression of this peptide in brain tissue.

  4. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong


    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  5. Single prolonged stress enhances hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and phosphorylated protein kinase B levels

    Eagle, Andrew L.; Knox, Dayan; Roberts, Megan M.; Mulo, Kostika; Liberzon, Israel; Galloway, Matthew P.; Perrine, Shane A.


    Animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can explore neurobiological mechanisms by which trauma enhances fear and anxiety reactivity. Single prolonged stress (SPS) shows good validity in producing PTSD-like behavior. While SPS-induced behaviors have been linked to enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, the molecular ramifications of enhanced GR expression have yet to be identified. Phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) is critical for stress-mediated enhancement in general anxiety and memory, and may be regulated by GRs. However, it is currently unknown if pAkt levels are modulated by SPS, as well as if the specificity of GR and pAkt related changes contribute to anxiety-like behavior after SPS. The current study set out to examine the effects of SPS on GR and pAkt protein levels in the amygdala and hippocampus and to examine the specificity of these changes to unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Levels of GR and pAkt were increased in the hippocampus, but not amygdala. Furthermore, SPS had no effect on unconditioned anxiety-like behavior suggesting that generalized anxiety is not consistently observed following SPS. The results suggest that SPS-enhanced GR expression is associated with phosphorylation of Akt, and also suggest that these changes are not related to an anxiogenic phenotype. PMID:23201176

  6. Sex and ovarian steroids modulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in rat hippocampus under stressful and non-stressful conditions.

    Franklin, Tamara B; Perrot-Sinal, Tara S


    Abnormal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with major depression, a disorder with a higher incidence in women than men. Stress affects BDNF levels in various brain regions and thus, a heightened stress response in females could contribute to the development of depression. As well, ovarian hormones directly affect brain levels of BDNF mRNA and protein. Two experiments were performed to investigate the effects of stress and sex and gonadal hormones on BDNF protein levels in CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus. In the first experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one hour of restraint stress or control handling prior to sacrifice. In the second experiment, fifty-one female rats were ovariectomized and separated into stress and control conditions, as described for the first experiment. Stressed and handled groups received a single injection of estrogen (E; 53h prior to stress), estrogen and progesterone (EP; E given at 53h and P given 5h prior to stress), or vehicle (OVX). In both experiments BDNF protein was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme assay (ELISA) in micropunches of hippocampus. Gonadally intact females had significantly higher levels of BDNF in CA3, but significantly lower levels in DG, relative to males. In CA3, stress significantly decreased BDNF in both males and females. In DG of ovariectomized female rats, the effects of stress were significantly different following EP vs. vehicle treatment. Thus, stress increased BDNF levels in EP-treated rats but decreased BDNF levels in vehicle-treated rats. Reduced trophic support in DG in the presence of estrogen and progesterone could jeopardize neurogenesis and under certain conditions could be a contributing factor to the hippocampal atrophy associated with stress-induced affective disorders. These results emphasize the need to consider sex, gonadal steroids, and hippocampal subregion when examining the

  7. Differential levels of stress proteins (HSPs) in male and female Daphnia magna in response to thermal stress: a consequence of sex-related behavioral differences?

    Mikulski, Andrzej; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Grzesiuk, Małgorzata; Kloc, Małgorzata; Pijanowska, Joanna


    In two independent experiments, we compared: (1) water depth selection (and accompanying temperature selection) by male and female Daphnia magna under different kinds of environmental stress, including the presence of filamentous cyanobacteria, the risk of predation from fish, and the presence of toxic compounds; and (2) sex-dependent production of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70, and 90) in response to a sudden change in temperature. Male D. magna selected deep water strata, which offer a relatively stable environment, and thereby avoided the threat of predation and the presence of toxic compounds in surface waters. Correlated with this behavior, males reduce their molecular defenses against stress, such as the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), and do not maintain the physiological machinery that triggers an increase in HSP levels in response to stress. In contrast, female D. magna actively select habitats that offer optimal conditions for growth and production of offspring. Consequently, females are exposed to variable environmental conditions that may be associated with increased stress. To permit survival in these different habitats, D. magna females require molecular mechanisms to protect their cells from rapid changes in stress levels. Thus, they maintain high constitutive levels of the heat shock proteins from HSP 60, 70, and 90 families, and they have the potential to further enhance the production of the majority of these proteins under stress conditions. The results of this study indicate that the separate habitats selected by male and female D. magna result in different patterns of HSP production, leading us to hypothesize that that male and female Daphnia magna adopt different strategies to maximize the fitness of the species.

  8. Advanced oxidation protein product levels as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    Ozbay, I; Kucur, C; Koçak, F E; Savran, B; Oghan, F


    We aimed to determine whether advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels can serve as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis. Thirty children with chronic tonsillitis and 30 healthy children (control group) were recruited from the Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) and Paediatric Surgery departments, respectively, of Dumlupinar University Hospital. In the patient group, blood samples were collected before tonsillectomy, and tonsil tissue was sampled during the operation. Blood samples were also obtained from the control subjects. AOPP levels in the serum and tonsil tissue were measured by the spectrophotometric method. Serum AOPP levels were significantly higher in the patient group (13.1 ± 3.3 ng/ml) than in the control group (11.6 ± 2.3 ng/ml; P tonsil tissue in the patient group was significantly higher than the mean serum AOPP levels in the control and patient groups (P tonsil tissue and serum of patients with chronic tonsillitis compared to the serum AOPP levels in healthy controls. AOPPs may represent a novel class of pro-inflammatory molecules that are involved in oxidative stress in chronic tonsillitis. AOPPs may be used as a marker of oxidative stress in paediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  9. Neuroglobin in Breast Cancer Cells: Effect of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress on Protein Level, Localization, and Anti-Apoptotic Function

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Cipolletti, Manuela; Leone, Stefano; Naldini, Antonella; Carraro, Fabio; Giordano, Daniela; Verde, Cinzia; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria


    The over-expression of human neuroglobin (NGB), a heme-protein preferentially expressed in the brain, displays anti-apoptotic effects against hypoxic/ischemic and oxidative stresses enhancing neuron survival. As hypoxic and oxidative stress injury frequently occurs in fast proliferating neoplastic tissues, here, the effect of these stressors on the level, localization, and anti-apoptotic function of NGB in wild type and NGB-stable-silenced MCF-7 breast cancer cells has been assessed. The well-known endogenous NGB inducer 17β-estradiol (E2) has been used as positive control. The median pO2 present in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients (i.e., 2% O2) does not affect the NGB level in breast cancer cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide and lead(IV) acetate, which increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhance the NGB levels outside the mitochondria and still activate apoptosis. However, E2-induced NGB up-regulation in mitochondria completely reverse lead(IV) acetate-induced PARP cleavage. These results indicate that the NGB level could represent a marker of oxidative-stress in MCF-7 breast cancer cells; however, the NGB ability to respond to injuring stimuli by preventing apoptosis requires its re-allocation into the mitochondria. As a whole, present data might lead to a new direction in understanding NGB function in cancer opening new avenues for the therapeutic intervention. PMID:27149623

  10. Leveraging Stress Level

    Mitali PATHAK


    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  11. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the behaviour, physiology and stress protein levels of desert locusts.

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Shepherd, Sebastian; Sharkh, Suleiman; Jackson, Christopher W; Newland, Philip L


    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology. Here we utilise the accessible nervous system of the locust to ask how exposure to high levels of ELF EMF impact at multiple levels. We show that exposure to ELF EMFs above 4 mT leads to reduced walking. Moreover, intracellular recordings from an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron, show increased spike latency and a broadening of its spike in exposed animals. In addition, hind leg kick force, produced by stimulating the extensor tibiae muscle, was reduced following exposure, while stress-protein levels (Hsp70) increased. Together these results suggest that ELF EMF exposure has the capacity to cause dramatic effects from behaviour to physiology and protein expression, and this study lays the foundation to explore the ecological significance of these effects in other flying insects.

  12. Psychological stress as a determinant of protein levels and salivary-induced aggregation of Streptococcus gordonii in human whole saliva

    Bosch, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, T.J.M.; Bermond, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.


    Several pathologies of the oral cavity have been associated with stress, so we investigated salivary-induced aggregation during psychological stress. In addition, salivary total protein, alpha-amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) were assessed. In this longitudinal study, 28 dental

  13. Ischemia in tumors induces early and sustained phosphorylation changes in stress kinase pathways but does not affect global protein levels

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, DR; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gillette, Michael; Clauser, Karl; Qiao, Jana; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Davies, Sherri; Ruggles, Kelly; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R. T.; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narcisco; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W.; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D.; Mills, Gordon; Smith, Richard D.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.


    Advances in quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have sparked efforts to characterize the proteomes of tumor samples to provide complementary and unique information inaccessible by genomics. Tumor samples are usually not accrued with proteomic characterization in mind, raising concerns regarding effects of undocumented sample ischemia on protein abundance and phosphosite stoichiometry. Here we report the effects of cold ischemia time on clinical ovarian cancer samples and patient-derived basal and luminal breast cancer xenografts. Tumor tissues were excised and collected prior to vascular ligation, subjected to accurately defined ischemia times up to 60 min, and analyzed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics using isobaric tags and high-performance, multidimensional LC-MS/MS. No significant changes were detected at the protein level in each tumor type after 60 minutes of ischemia, and the majority of the >25,000 phosphosites detected were also stable. However, large, reproducible increases and decreases in protein phosphorylation at specific sites were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome starting as early as 5 minutes post-excision. Early and sustained activation of stress response, transcriptional regulation and cell death pathways were observed in common across tumor types. Tissue-specific changes in phosphosite stability were also observed suggesting idiosyncratic effects of ischemia in particular lineages. Our study provides insights into the information that may be obtained by proteomic characterization of tumor samples after undocumented periods of ischemia, and suggests caution especially in interpreting activation of stress pathways in such samples as they may reflect sample handling rather than tumor physiology.

  14. ER stress is associated with reduced ABCA-1 protein levels in macrophages treated with advanced glycated albumin - reversal by a chemical chaperone.

    Castilho, Gabriela; Okuda, Ligia S; Pinto, Raphael S; Iborra, Rodgiro T; Nakandakare, Edna R; Santos, Celio X; Laurindo, Francisco R; Passarelli, Marisa


    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 mediates the export of excess cholesterol from macrophages, contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) is prevalent in diabetes mellitus and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Independently of changes in ABCA-1 mRNA levels, AGE-alb induces oxidative stress and reduces ABCA-1 protein levels, which leads to macrophage lipid accumulation. These metabolic conditions are known to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We sought to determine if AGE-alb induces ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in macrophages and how disturbances to the ER could affect ABCA-1 content and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. AGE-alb induced a time-dependent increase in ER stress and UPR markers. ABCA-1 content and cellular cholesterol efflux were reduced by 33% and 47%, respectively, in macrophages treated with AGE-alb, and both were restored by treatment with 4-phenyl butyric acid (a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress), but not MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor). Tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inductor, also impaired ABCA-1 expression and cholesterol efflux (showing a decrease of 61% and 82%, respectively), confirming the deleterious effect of ER stress in macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Glycoxidation induces macrophage ER stress, which relates to the reduction in ABCA-1 and in reverse cholesterol transport, endorsing the adverse effect of macrophage ER stress in atherosclerosis. Thus, chemical chaperones that alleviate ER stress may represent a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in diabetes.

  15. Effects of Different Levels of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, Protein and Chlorophyll Content and Certain Anti-oxidative Enzymes in Tomato Plants

    Hatem Zgallai; Kathy Steppe; Raoul Lemeur


    A greenhouse experiment was performed in order to investigate the effects of different levels of water stress on leaf water potential (ψw), stomatal resistance (rs), protein content and chlorophyll (Chi) content of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Nikita). Water stress was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG 6 000) to the nutrient solution to reduce the osmotic potential (ψs). We investigated the behavior of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), during the development of water stress. Moderate and severe water stress (i.e.ψs= -0.51 and -1.22 MPa, respectively) caused a decrease in ψw for all treated (water-stressed) plants compared with control plants, with the reduction being more pronounced for severely stressed plants. In addition, rs was significantly affected by the induced water stress and a decrease in leaf soluble proteins and Chi content was observed. Whereas CAT activity remained constant, SOD activity was increased in water-stressed plants compared with unstressed plants. These results indicate the possible role of SOD as an anti-oxidant protector system for plants under water stress conditions. Moreover, it suggests the possibility of using this enzyme as an additional screening criterion for detecting water stress in plants.


    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon


    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (−)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  17. Protein stress and stress proteins: implications in aging and disease

    C Sőti; Péter Csermely


    Environmantal stress induces damage that activates an adaptive response in any organism. The cellular stress response is based on the induction of cytoprotective proteins, the so called stress or heat shock proteins. The stress response as well as stress proteins are ubiquitous, highly conserved mechanism, and genes, respectively, already present in prokaryotes. Chaperones protect the proteome against conformational damage, promoting the function of protein networks. Protein damage takes place during aging and in several degenerative diseases, and presents a threat to overload the cellular defense mechanisms. The preservation of a robust stress response and protein disposal is indispensable for health and longevity. This review summarizes the present knowledge of protein damage, turnover, and the stress response in aging and degenerative diseases.

  18. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F


    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  19. Ischemia in tumors induces early and sustained phosphorylation changes in stress kinase pathways but does not affect global protein levels.

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, D R; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Gillette, Michael A; Clauser, Karl R; Qiao, Jana W; Gritsenko, Marina A; Moore, Ronald J; Levine, Douglas A; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E; Davies, Sherri R; Ruggles, Kelly V; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R Thomas; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D; Mills, Gordon B; Smith, Richard D; Paulovich, Amanda G; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A


    Protein abundance and phosphorylation convey important information about pathway activity and molecular pathophysiology in diseases including cancer, providing biological insight, informing drug and diagnostic development, and guiding therapeutic intervention. Analyzed tissues are usually collected without tight regulation or documentation of ischemic time. To evaluate the impact of ischemia, we collected human ovarian tumor and breast cancer xenograft tissue without vascular interruption and performed quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics after defined ischemic intervals. Although the global expressed proteome and most of the >25,000 quantified phosphosites were unchanged after 60 min, rapid phosphorylation changes were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome, representing activation of critical cancer pathways related to stress response, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Both pan-tumor and tissue-specific changes were observed. The demonstrated impact of pre-analytical tissue ischemia on tumor biology mandates caution in interpreting stress-pathway activation in such samples and motivates reexamination of collection protocols for phosphoprotein analysis.

  20. Ischemia in Tumors Induces Early and Sustained Phosphorylation Changes in Stress Kinase Pathways but Does Not Affect Global Protein Levels*

    Mertins, Philipp; Yang, Feng; Liu, Tao; Mani, D. R.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Gillette, Michael A.; Clauser, Karl R.; Qiao, Jana W.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas A.; Townsend, Reid; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Davies, Sherri R.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Fenyo, David; Kitchens, R. Thomas; Li, Shunqiang; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Rodriguez, Henry; Chan, Daniel W.; Liebler, Daniel; White, Forest; Rodland, Karin D.; Mills, Gordon B.; Smith, Richard D.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.


    Protein abundance and phosphorylation convey important information about pathway activity and molecular pathophysiology in diseases including cancer, providing biological insight, informing drug and diagnostic development, and guiding therapeutic intervention. Analyzed tissues are usually collected without tight regulation or documentation of ischemic time. To evaluate the impact of ischemia, we collected human ovarian tumor and breast cancer xenograft tissue without vascular interruption and performed quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics after defined ischemic intervals. Although the global expressed proteome and most of the >25,000 quantified phosphosites were unchanged after 60 min, rapid phosphorylation changes were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome, representing activation of critical cancer pathways related to stress response, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Both pan-tumor and tissue-specific changes were observed. The demonstrated impact of pre-analytical tissue ischemia on tumor biology mandates caution in interpreting stress-pathway activation in such samples and motivates reexamination of collection protocols for phosphoprotein analysis. PMID:24719451

  1. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay controls the changes in yeast ribosomal protein pre-mRNAs levels upon osmotic stress.

    Elena Garre

    Full Text Available The expression of ribosomal protein (RP genes requires a substantial part of cellular transcription, processing and translation resources. Thus, the RP expression must be tightly regulated in response to conditions that compromise cell survival. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, regulation of the RP gene expression at the transcriptional, mature mRNA stability and translational levels during the response to osmotic stress has been reported. Reprogramming global protein synthesis upon osmotic shock includes the movement of ribosomes from RP transcripts to stress-induced mRNAs. Using tiling arrays, we show that osmotic stress yields a drop in the levels of RP pre-mRNAs in S. cerevisiae cells. An analysis of the tiling array data, together with transcription rates data, shows a poor correlation, indicating that the drop in the RP pre-mRNA levels is not merely a result of the lowered RP transcription rates. A kinetic study using quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the decrease in the levels of several RP-unspliced transcripts during the first 15 minutes of osmotic stress, which seems independent of MAP kinase Hog1. Moreover, we found that the mutations in the components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD, Upf1, Upf2, Upf3 or in exonuclease Xrn1, eliminate the osmotic stress-induced drop in RP pre-mRNAs. Altogether, our results indicate that the degradation of yeast RP unspliced transcripts by NMD increases during osmotic stress, and suggest that this might be another mechanism to control RP synthesis during the stress response.

  2. Stress proteins in CNS inflammation

    Noort, J.M. van


    Stress proteins or heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous cellular components that have long been known to act as molecular chaperones. By assisting proper folding and transport of proteins, and by assisting in the degradation of aberrant proteins, they play key roles in cellular metabolism. The

  3. The Arabidopsis translocator protein (AtTSPO is regulated at multiple levels in response to salt stress and perturbations in tetrapyrrole metabolism

    Umen James G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO, previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR, is important for many cellular functions in mammals and bacteria, such as steroid biosynthesis, cellular respiration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunomodulation, transport of porphyrins and anions. Arabidopsis thaliana contains a single TSPO/PBR-related gene with a 40 amino acid N-terminal extension compared to its homologs in bacteria or mammals suggesting it might be chloroplast or mitochondrial localized. Results To test if the TSPO N-terminal extension targets it to organelles, we fused three potential translational start sites in the TSPO cDNA to the N-terminus of GFP (AtTSPO:eGFP. The location of the AtTSPO:eGFP fusion protein was found to depend on the translational start position and the conditions under which plants were grown. Full-length AtTSPO:eGFP fusion protein was found in the endoplasmic reticulum and in vesicles of unknown identity when plants were grown in standard conditions. However, full length AtTSPO:eGFP localized to chloroplasts when grown in the presence of 150 mM NaCl, conditions of salt stress. In contrast, when AtTSPO:eGFP was truncated to the second or third start codon at amino acid position 21 or 42, the fusion protein co-localized with a mitochondrial marker in standard conditions. Using promoter GUS fusions, qRT-PCR, fluorescent protein tagging, and chloroplast fractionation approaches, we demonstrate that AtTSPO levels are regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels in response to abiotic stress conditions. Salt-responsive genes are increased in a tspo-1 knock-down mutant compared to wild type under conditions of salt stress, while they are decreased when AtTSPO is overexpressed. Mutations in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis genes and the application of chlorophyll or carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors also affect AtTSPO expression. Conclusion Our

  4. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia


    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Effect of BSA-induced ER stress on SGLT protein expression levels and alpha-MG uptake in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Lee, Yu Jin; Suh, Han Na; Han, Ho Jae


    Recent studies demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulates glucose homeostasis and that ER stress preconditioning which induces an adaptive, protective unfolded protein response (UPR) offers cytoprotection against nephrotoxins. Thus the aim of the present study was to use renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) to further elucidate the link between the BSA-induced ER stress and alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (alpha-MG) uptake and to identify related signaling pathways. Among ER stress inducers such as high glucose, BSA, H2O2, or tumicamycin, BSA pretreatment ameliorated the reduction of Na(+)-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) expression and alpha-MG uptake by gentamicin or cyclosporine A. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that BSA (10 mg/ml) stimulated the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress biomarker. In addition, BSA increased levels of GRP78 protein expression and eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection with a GRP78-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited BSA-stimulated SGLT expression and alpha-MG uptake. In experiments designed to unravel the mechanisms underlying BSA-induced ER stress, BSA stimulated the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked BSA-induced increases in GRP78 activation, eIF2alpha phosphorylation, SGLT expression, and alpha-MG uptake. Moreover, the cells upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA levels in response to BSA or troglitazone (a PPARgamma agonist), but BSA was ineffective in the presence of GW9662 (a PPARgamma antagonist). In addition, both BSA and troglitazone stimulated GRP78 and eIF2alpha activation, SGLT expression, and alpha-MG uptake, whereas GW9662 inhibited the effects of BSA. BSA also stimulated phosphorylation of JNK and NF-kappaB, and GW9662 or GRP78 siRNA attenuated this

  6. High-sensitive C-reactive protein level and oxidative stress-related status in former athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

    Pihl, E; Zilmer, K; Kullisaar, T; Kairane, C; Pulges, A; Zilmer, M


    To analyze systemic and cellular oxidative stress-related indices as well as C-reactive protein level in former top-level athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 53 former male athletes and 25 sedentary controls (age range: 39-59 years). We measured anthropometric factors (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), resting blood pressure (SBP, DBP), serum cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidized LDL-C (oxLDL), diene conjugates (DC), glutathione redox status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leisure-time physical activity. Physically active former athletes had significantly lower mean overweight (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), better spectrum of atherogenesis indicators (CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio) and lower oxidative stress (oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC) values than sedentary ex-athletes. No significant differences in these variables were found between the sedentary ex-athletes and control group. Significant associations were found between physical activity (METs), SBP, DBP, hypertension, CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio, oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC and hsCRP. A physically active lifestyle is related to a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile including a substantially lower systemic and cellular oxidative stress status as well as C-reactive protein level in middle-aged men. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Carotenoid-based plumage colouration is associated with blood parasite richness and stress protein levels in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    del Cerro, Sara; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Lobato, Elisa; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Martínez, Javier; Morales, Judith; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan


    Carotenoids are molecules that birds are not able to synthesize and therefore, must be acquired through their diet. These pigments, besides their function of giving birds red and yellow colouration when deposited in feathers, seem to act as immune-stimulators and antioxidants in the organism. Hence, only the healthiest individuals would be able to express carotenoid-based ornaments to a larger extent without compromising the physiological functions of carotenoids. Various studies have reported that birds infected by parasites are paler than those uninfected, but, to our knowledge, none of them has assessed the possible effect of multiple infections by blood parasites on plumage colour. By comparing the yellow colour in the breast plumage of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, between birds infected by different numbers of blood parasite genera, we found that those birds infected by more than one genus were paler than those parasitized just by one. In addition, we examined the potential role of carotenoid-based plumage colour of blue tits as a long-term indicator of other parameters of health status, such as body condition and immunoglobulin and heat shock protein (HSP) levels. Our results indicate that more brightly coloured birds had lower HSP70 levels than paler birds, but we did not find any significant association between colour and body condition or immunoglobulin levels. In addition, we found a positive significant association between Haemoproteus density of infection and HSP60 levels. Overall, these results support the role of carotenoid-based colours as indicators of health status in blue tits and show detrimental effects of parasitism on this character.

  8. Stress proteins induced by arsenic.

    Del Razo, L M; Quintanilla-Vega, B; Brambila-Colombres, E; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Manno, M; Albores, A


    The elevated expression of stress proteins is considered to be a universal response to adverse conditions, representing a potential mechanism of cellular defense against disease and a potential target for novel therapeutics. Exposure to arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo in a variety of model systems has been shown to cause the induction of a number of the major stress protein families such as heat shock proteins (Hsp). Among them are members with low molecular weight, such as metallotionein and ubiquitin, as well as ones with masses of 27, 32, 60, 70, 90, and 110 kDa. In most of the cases, the induction of stress proteins depends on the capacity of the arsenical to reach the target, its valence, and the type of exposure, arsenite being the biggest inducer of most Hsp in several organs and systems. Hsp induction is a rapid dose-dependent response (1-8 h) to the acute exposure to arsenite. Thus, the stress response appears to be useful to monitor the sublethal toxicity resulting from a single exposure to arsenite. The present paper offers a critical review of the capacity of arsenicals to modulate the expression and/or accumulation of stress proteins. The physiological consequences of the arsenic-induced stress and its usefulness in monitoring effects resulting from arsenic exposure in humans and other organisms are discussed.

  9. Intensive herbicide use has selected for constitutively elevated levels of stress-responsive mRNAs and proteins in multiple herbicide-resistant Avena fatua L.

    Keith, Barbara K; Burns, Erin E; Bothner, Brian; Carey, Charles C; Mazurie, Aurélien J; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Biyiklioglu, Sezgi; Budak, Hikmet; Dyer, William E


    Intensive use of herbicides has led to the evolution of two multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) Avena fatua (wild oat) populations in Montana that are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families available for A. fatua control in US small grain crops. We used transcriptome and proteome surveys to compare constitutive changes in MHR and herbicide-susceptible (HS) plants associated with non-target site resistance. Compared to HS plants, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with functions in xenobiotic catabolism, stress response, redox maintenance and transcriptional regulation that are similar to abiotic stress-tolerant phenotypes. Proteome comparisons identified similarly elevated proteins including biosynthetic and multifunctional enzymes in MHR plants. Of 25 DEGs validated by RT-qPCR assay, differential regulation of 21 co-segregated with flucarbazone-sodium herbicide resistance in F3 families, and a subset of 10 of these were induced or repressed in herbicide-treated HS plants. Although the individual and collective contributions of these DEGs and proteins to MHR remain to be determined, our results support the idea that intensive herbicide use has selected for MHR populations with altered, constitutively regulated patterns of gene expression that are similar to those in abiotic stress-tolerant plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Lead impact on nutrition, energy reserves, respiration and stress protein (hsp 70) level in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) populations differently preconditioned in their habitats.

    Knigge, T; Köhler, H R


    The impact of lead on food consumption, energy metabolism and the stress protein (hsp 70) level was investigated in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), a common representative of the saprophagous soil macrofauna. To examine possible acclimation or tolerance to lead in woodlice from a contaminated habitat, animals of two populations, one deriving from a lead-contaminated artillery range and one from an uncontaminated control stand, were exposed to a series of lead concentrations under otherwise constant laboratory conditions for a maximum of 80 days. The applied lead concentrations (at a maximum 7945 mg/kg food dry wt) did not have any significant quantitative effect on the food consumption of the isopods, although the population pre-exposed in the artillery range showed a tendency toward a higher food uptake than the control population. After 80 days of exposure, both populations showed an equal trend toward increasing their respiration as lead concentrations, that they had been fed on, were increased. Accordingly, the glycogen content of the body, in both populations, was elevated with increasing lead concentrations in the food. This effect was more pronounced in the pre-exposed isopod population than in the one from the control stand. The non-pre-exposed isopods showed a general tendency toward a lower protein content of their bodies than the pre-exposed ones, although no effect of the lead on this parameter could be statistically proven. The ability of the artillery range isopods to synthesise stress proteins (hsp 70) in response to lead contamination decreased at much lower lead concentrations in their food than in the non-pre-exposed control population, even though the artillery range isopods seemed to be equally or even slightly better equipped with energy storage products. Even though the better nutrient status of these animals might refer to some lead tolerance of the pre-exposed population, the stress protein data suggest that a metal

  11. c-Reactive protein levels as a biomarker of inflammation and stress in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from three southeastern USA estuaries.

    Karsten, A H; Rice, C D


    Circulating c-reactive protein (CRP) levels can be used as a bioindicator of the acute phase inflammatory response and as a possible biomarker of inflammation and neurogenic stress in vertebrates. Currently, there are no data describing the ranges of CRP levels in sharks living in different habitats, especially habitats of differing degrees of pollution. Developing antibodies against CRP is a first and critical step towards developing sensitive methods for quantifying CRP, and thus inflammatory and stress responses in sharks. Sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, serum C-reactive protein was purified sequentially over AH-sepharose 4B-PC and sepharose CL-4B columns and used to immunize balb/c mice for generating stocks of polyclonal anti-sera. Serum samples from 131 sharpnose sharks were collected from three different geographical regions along the coast of SC and GA, USA between June and November 2002. Total CRP concentrations were quantified by ELISA and found to be highest in the sharpnose shark population collected in the summer from Charleston, SC, compared to Beaufort, SC and Brunswick, GA. Seasonal comparisons indicated a higher CRP concentration in the summer of the Charleston, SC population compared to the fall. These data suggest that sharks living in the Charleston, SC harbor estuary may be exposed to a suite of pathogens or other stressors that are different than those found in the Beaufort, SC and Brunswick, GA estuaries. These data support the use of CRP as a bioindicator of health status in elasmobranchs.

  12. The levels of boron-uptake proteins in roots are correlated with tolerance to boron stress in barley

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient required for plant growth and development. Recently, two major B-uptake proteins, BOR1 and NIP5;1 have been identified and partially characterized. BOR1 is a high-affinity B transporter involved in xylem loading in roots, and NIP5;1 acts is a major boric-acid ...

  13. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...



    Jul 26, 2014 ... exposure and serum antioxidant vitamins' levels would certainly provide a clue towards stress ... vitamins. Key Words: Stress, oxidative stress, antioxidant, vitamin A, Vitamin C ... lipid peroxidation or by oxidizing DNA or protein.[9] Damages to DNA cause mutations ... paired comparison analysis[17].

  14. Misfolded proteins, endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurodegeneration

    Rao, Rammohan V.; Bredesen, Dale E.


    The accumulation of misfolded proteins (e.g. mutant or damaged proteins) triggers cellular stress responses that protect cells against the toxic buildup of such proteins. However, prolonged stress due to the buildup of these toxic proteins induces specific death pathways. Dissecting these pathways should be valuable in understanding the pathogenesis of, and ultimately in designing therapy for, neurodegenerative diseases that feature misfolded proteins.

  15. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Goochee, Charles F.


    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  16. Regulated protein aggregation: stress granules and neurodegeneration

    Wolozin Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract The protein aggregation that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases is classically thought to occur as an undesirable, nonfunctional byproduct of protein misfolding. This model contrasts with the biology of RNA binding proteins, many of which are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. RNA binding proteins use protein aggregation as part of a normal regulated, physiological mechanism controlling protein synthesis. The process of regulated protein aggregation is most evident in formation of stress granules. Stress granules assemble when RNA binding proteins aggregate through their glycine rich domains. Stress granules function to sequester, silence and/or degrade RNA transcripts as part of a mechanism that adapts patterns of local RNA translation to facilitate the stress response. Aggregation of RNA binding proteins is reversible and is tightly regulated through pathways, such as phosphorylation of elongation initiation factor 2α. Microtubule associated protein tau also appears to regulate stress granule formation. Conversely, stress granule formation stimulates pathological changes associated with tau. In this review, I propose that the aggregation of many pathological, intracellular proteins, including TDP-43, FUS or tau, proceeds through the stress granule pathway. Mutations in genes coding for stress granule associated proteins or prolonged physiological stress, lead to enhanced stress granule formation, which accelerates the pathophysiology of protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. Over-active stress granule formation could act to sequester functional RNA binding proteins and/or interfere with mRNA transport and translation, each of which might potentiate neurodegeneration. The reversibility of the stress granule pathway also offers novel opportunities to stimulate endogenous biochemical pathways to disaggregate these pathological stress granules, and perhaps delay the progression of disease.

  17. Influence of Dietary Energy Level on Hepatic70-kDa Heat Shock Protein Expression in Broiler Chickens Submitted to Acute Heat Stress

    Gabriel JE


    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of dietary energy on the colonic temperature and hepatic Hsp70 content in broiler chicken at room temperature and after heat stress conditions. Broiler chickens were reared up to 51 days of life, and fed diets containing high (HE -13,186 kJ ME/kg or low (LE -12,139 kJ ME/kg energy. At 21 and 51 days of age, the colonic temperature was measured at room temperature and liver samples were obtained for Hsp70 quantification by Western blotting analysis. It was also investigated at these ages the time course response of colonic temperature and hepatic Hsp70 level during heat stress (35º C/5 h. The data showed that at early age, at room temperature, colonic temperature or hepatic Hsp70 levels were not affected by dietary energy, but at 51 days of life low energy fed broilers had lower Hsp70 concentration in the liver. During heat stress, the increase in both colonic temperature and hepatic Hsp70 concentration were significantly less in high energy fed birds. The findings of this study suggest that hepatic Hsp70 synthesis is affected by dietary energy, and that broiler chicken fed high-energy diet can change the thermoresistance during acute heat stress.

  18. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard


    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  19. Changing stress levels through gaining information on stress

    S.N. Madu


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the Information Phase of a Stress Management Program (SMP on the perceptions of participants about their stress levels. Method: A total sample of 100 workers (nursing staff, private business men and women, laboratory assistants, the protective services [foreman and security staff], as well as people in human resources departments took part in this study. All the participants were from the Northern and Gauteng Provinces in South Africa. The Combined Hassles and Uplifts Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1989 was used as an instrument to measure the perceived stress level of participants in a SMP. Result: A significant reduction in stress levels was achieved among those who received the Information Phase of the SMP only, as well as those who received the whole stress management techniques. There was no significant difference between the amount of reduction in perceived stress-levels achieved among those that received the Information Phase of the SMP only, compared to that of those who received the whole techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that where the resources are limited, only the information phase of a SMP may be given to desiring clients. That should help to save time and money spent on participating in SMPs. This should however not discourage the use of the whole SPM, where affordable. Keywords: Stress Management Programs, Information Phase, Perception, Stress Level.

  20. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon


    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  1. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.


    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released (/sup 3/H)methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress.

  2. Are stress proteins induced during PUVA therapy?

    Al-Masaud, A.S. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom); Cunliffe, W.J.; Holland, D.B. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)


    Heat shock or stress proteins are produced in practically all cell types when they are exposed to temperatures a few degrees above normal. Measurement of the skin temperature of patients undergoing psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) cabinet treatment for psoriasis revealed that the outer layers of the skin experience a mean temperature rise of 5.3{sup o}C. However, this did not produce a detectable stress response in epidermal samples taken after PUVA treatment. In vitro exposure of epidermis from biopsies or of cultured keratinocytes to a 5-7{sup o}C temperature rise produced a heat shock response, as measured by an increase in the production of proteins of the HSP90 and HSP70 families. These results were confirmed by the use of specific monoclonal antibodies. The corresponding mRNAs were also analysed using labelled probes. In an in vitro system, following simulated PUVA treatment of cultured keratinocytes, increases in the synthesis of HSP90 and HSP70 were detected but these increases did not correlate with changes in mRNA levels. (author).

  3. Arabidopsis Reduces Growth Under Osmotic Stress by Decreasing SPEECHLESS Protein

    Kumari, Archana; Jewaria, Pawan K.; Bergmann, Dominique C.; Kakimoto, Tatsuo


    Plants, which are sessile unlike most animals, have evolved a system to reduce growth under stress; however, the molecular mechanisms of this stress response are not well known. During programmed development, a fraction of the leaf epidermal precursor cells become meristemoid mother cells (MMCs), which are stem cells that produce both stomatal guard cells and epidermal pavement cells. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants, in response to osmotic stress, post-transcriptionally decrease the protein level of SPEECHLESS, the transcription factor promoting MMC identity, through the action of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The growth reduction under osmotic stress was lessened by inhibition of the MAPK cascade or by a mutation that disrupted the MAPK target amino acids in SPEECHLESS, indicating that Arabidopsis reduces growth under stress by integrating the osmotic stress signal into the MAPK–SPEECHLESS core developmental pathway. PMID:25381317

  4. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid; Efecto de los campos electromagneticos a 2,45 GHz sobre los niveles de proteinas de estres celular HSP-90 y 70 en el toroides de rata

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.


    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  5. Cloning of three heat shock protein genes (HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β) and their expressions in response to thermal stress in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with different levels of vitamin C.

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian


    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 90 (HSP90) are the most broadly studied proteins in HSP families. They play key roles in cells as molecular chaperones, in response to stress conditions such as thermal stress. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β from loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were cloned. The full-length cDNA of HSP70 in loach was 2332bp encoding 644 amino acids, while HSP90α and HSP90β were 2586bp and 2678bp in length, encoding 729 and 727 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP70 in loach shared the highest identity with those of Megalobrama amblycephala and Cyprinus carpio. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP90α and HSP90β in loach both shared the highest identity with those of M. amblycephala. Their mRNA tissue expression results showed that the maximum expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β were respectively present in the intestine, brain and kidney of loach. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyze the temporal expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β in livers of loaches fed with different levels of vitamin C under thermal stress. Expression levels of the three HSP genes in loach fed the diet without vitamin C supplemented at 0 h of thermal stress were significantly lower than those at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of thermal stress. It indicated that expressions of the three HSP genes were sensitive to thermal stress in loach. The three HSP genes in loaches fed with 1000 mg/kg vitamin C expressed significantly lower than other vitamin C groups at many time points of thermal stress, suggesting 1000 mg/kg dietary vitamin C might decrease the body damages caused by the thermal stress. This study will be of value for further studies into thermal stress tolerance in loach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Evolution of Light Stress Proteins in Photosynthetic Organisms

    Iwona Adamska


    Full Text Available The Elip (early light-inducible protein family in pro- and eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms consists of more than 100 different stress proteins. These proteins accumulate in photosynthetic membranes in response to light stress and have photoprotective functions. At the amino acid level, members of the Elip family are closely related to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (Cab antenna proteins of photosystem I and II, present in higher plants and some algae. Based on their predicted secondary structure, members of the Elip family are divided into three groups: (a one-helix Hlips (high light-induced proteins, also called Scps (small Cab-like proteins or Ohps (one-helix proteins; (b two-helix Seps (stress-enhanced proteins; and (c three-helix Elips and related proteins. Despite having different physiological functions it is believed that eukaryotic three-helix Cab proteins evolved from the prokaryotic Hlips through a series of duplications and fusions. In this review we analyse the occurrence of Elip family members in various photosynthetic prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and discuss their evolutionary relationship with Cab proteins.

  7. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    Pang Qishen [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andreassen, Paul R., E-mail: [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Levels of meaning in family stress theory.

    Patterson, J M; Garwick, A W


    Major stressful life events, particularly those that have chronic hardships, create a crisis for families that often leads to reorganization in the family's style of functioning. A major factor in this reorganization is the meaning the family gives to the stressful event. Often the meaning extends beyond the event itself and leads to a changed view of the family system and even to a changed view of the world. Building on other family stress models, we elaborate the family's definition of the stressor into three levels of family meanings: (1) situational meanings, (2) family identity, and (3) family world view. Examples from clinical work and studies of families adapting to chronic illness are used to illustrate the relationship between these three levels of meaning, particularly as they change in response to crisis. Implications for clinical and empirical work are discussed.

  9. The signaling mechanisms of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress affecting neuronal plasticity-related protein levels in high fat diet-induced obese rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Cai, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Li; Xin, Lei; Li, Feng; Lou, Shu-Jie


    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to reduce the levels of neuronal plasticity-related proteins, specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN), in the hippocampus. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating gene expression and protein production by affecting stress signaling pathways and ER functions of protein folding and post-translational modification in peripheral tissues of obese rodent models. Additionally, HFD that is associated with hyperglycemia could induce hippocampal ERS, thus impairing insulin signaling and cognitive health in HFD mice. One goal of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia could cause hippocampal ERS in HFD-induced obese SD rats, and explore the potential mechanisms of ERS regulating hippocampal BDNF and SYN proteins production. Additionally, although regular aerobic exercise could reduce central inflammation and elevate hippocampal BDNF and SYN levels in obese rats, the regulated mechanisms are poorly understood. Nrf2-HO-1 pathways play roles in anti-ERS, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis in peripheral tissues. Therefore, the other goal of this study was to determine whether aerobic exercise could activate Nrf2-HO-1 in hippocampus to alleviate obesity-induced hippocampal ERS, which would lead to increased BDNF and SYN levels. Male SD rats were fed on HFD for 8weeks to establish the obese model. Then, 8weeks of aerobic exercise treadmill intervention was arranged for the obese rats. Results showed that HFD-induced obesity caused hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and significantly promoted hippocampal glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) protein expression. These results were associated with the activation of hippocampal ERS and ERS-mediated apoptosis. At the same time, we found that excessive hippocampal ERS not only

  10. Chromatin proteins: key responders to stress.

    Karen T Smith

    Full Text Available Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress.

  11. The effect of aluminium-stress and exogenous spermidine on chlorophyll degradation, glutathione reductase activity and the photosystem II D1 protein gene (psbA) transcript level in lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Sen, Gulseren; Eryilmaz, Isil Ezgi; Ozakca, Dilek


    In this study, the effects of short-term aluminium toxicity and the application of spermidine on the lichen Xanthoria parietina were investigated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. Our results suggest that aluminium stress leads to physiological processes in a dose-dependent manner through differences in lipid peroxidation rate, chlorophyll content and glutathione reductase (EC activity in aluminium and spermidine treated samples. The expression of the photosystem II D1 protein (psbA) gene was quantified using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Increased glutathione reductase activity and psbA mRNA transcript levels were observed in the X. parietina thalli that were treated with spermidine before aluminium-stress. The results showed that the application of spermidine could mitigate aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll degradation on lichen X. parietina thalli through an increase in psbA transcript levels and activity of glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G


    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p <0.05) between the mean values of all critical areas and the concentrations of glucose values have been highlighted with the correlation index of Pearson. Multiple linear regression confirmed these findings, showing that the critical dimensions resulting from the questionnaire were the significant variables that can increase the levels of blood glucose. The preliminary results indicate that perceived work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  13. Chronic stress alters the expression levels of longevity-related genes in the rat hippocampus.

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ana C; Muñoz, Mario F; Herrera, Antonio J; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Stowell, Rianne; Ayala, Antonio; Machado, Alberto; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M


    The molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effects of psychological stress on cellular stress during aging and neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of chronic psychological stress, and the consequent increase of circulating glucocorticoids, on several hippocampal genes involved in longevity. Sirtuin-1, p53, thioredoxin-interacting protein, and heat shock protein 70 were studied at the mRNA and protein levels in stressed and non-stressed animals. Stress treatment for 10 days decreased sirtuin-1 and heat shock protein 70 levels, but increased levels of p53, thioredoxin-interacting protein and the NADPH oxidase enzyme. Examination of protein expression following two months of stress treatment indicated that sirtuin-1 remained depressed. In contrast, an increase was observed for thioredoxin-interacting protein, heat shock protein 70, p53 and the NADPH oxidase enzyme. The effect of stress was reversed by mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that chronic stress could contribute to aging in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  15. Oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients

    Eskandani M


    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin. Genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmunity, and neurochemical agents might be contributing factors for the development of the disease. Aims: To evaluate the oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients and to compare them with healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: We used Comet assay to evaluate DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood cells of active vitiligo patients. We then extracted total protein from lesional and nonlesional skin of ten selected patients. Tyrosinase activity was found to play a crucial role in melanogenesis. Results: The basal level of systemic oxidative DNA strand breaks in leukocytes increased in vitiligo patients compared to healthy participants. We observed that tyrosinase activity in lesional skin was lower than in nonlesional skin. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that increased levels of oxidative stress might impact tyrosinase activity and eumelanin synthesis via anabolism pathway of melanin synthesis. In sum, we observed a negative correlation between levels of systemic oxidative stress and of tyrosinase activity.

  16. Heat Stress Level among Construction Workers.

    Aliasghar Farshad


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the level of heat stress to construction workers using Thermal Work Limit (TWL and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT indices and by measuring Urine Specific Gravity (USG among construction workers in Iran and comparing the appropriateness of these indices for measuring heat stress in Iran climate.This comparative and experimental study was conducted during September 2012 in Baghe Ketabe Tehran, one of the large size construction sites in Tehran City, Iran. Sixty participants were randomly selected in two groups (exposed to sun and non-exposed among the construction workers in a construction campus with similar work type, climate and diet. TWL and WBGT and USG were measured in two consequent days and at the beginning, mid and end of the work shift, for both groups.The mean WBGT index was 22.6 ± 0.9 °C for control group and 27.5 ± 1.2 °C for exposure group, the mean TWL index measure was 215.8 ± 5.2 W/m(2 for control group and 144 ± 9.8 W/m(2 for exposure group and the mean USG was 1.0213 ± 0.0054 in control group and 1.026 ± 0.005 in exposure group. There was a significant difference in TWL, WBGT and USG between exposed and non-exposed group (P<0.01.workers were at an allowed level of heat stress. TWL, WBGT and USG measures were significantly correlated; however as TWL level enabled classification based on required intervention, it had some merit over WBGT index.

  17. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    Tao Zhang


    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43 is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. RNA-Processing Protein TDP-43 Regulates FOXO-Dependent Protein Quality Control in Stress Response

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou


    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  19. Identification and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Bingru Huang; Chenping Xu


    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to heat stress would facilitate the development of heat-tolerant cultivars for improving productivity in warm climatic regions. Protein metabolism involving protein synthesis and degradation is one of the most sensitive processes to heat stress. Changes in the level and expression pattern of some proteins may play an important role in plant adaptation to heat stress. The identification of stress-responsive proteins and pathways has been facilitated by an increasing number of tools and resources, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the rapidly expanding nucleotide and amino acid sequence databases. Heat stress may induce or enhance protein expression or cause protein degradation. The induction of heat-responsive proteins, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs), plays a key role in plant tolerance to heat stress. Protein degradation involving various proteases is also important in regulating plant responses to heat stress. This review provides an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress.

  20. Arabidopsis reduces growth under osmotic stress by decreasing SPEECHLESS protein.

    Kumari, Archana; Jewaria, Pawan K; Bergmann, Dominique C; Kakimoto, Tatsuo


    Plants, which are sessile unlike most animals, have evolved a system to reduce growth under stress; however, the molecular mechanisms of this stress response are not well known. During programmed development, a fraction of the leaf epidermal precursor cells become meristemoid mother cells (MMCs), which are stem cells that produce both stomatal guard cells and epidermal pavement cells. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants, in response to osmotic stress, post-transcriptionally decrease the protein level of SPEECHLESS, the transcription factor promoting MMC identity, through the action of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The growth reduction under osmotic stress was lessened by inhibition of the MAPK cascade or by a mutation that disrupted the MAPK target amino acids in SPEECHLESS, indicating that Arabidopsis reduces growth under stress by integrating the osmotic stress signal into the MAPK-SPEECHLESS core developmental pathway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  1. Plasma levels of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and beta-endorphin as indicators of stress, pain and prognosis in horses with colic.

    Niinistö, Kati E; Korolainen, Raija V; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna K; Koho, Ninna M; Ruohoniemi, Mirja O; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Pösö, A Reeta


    A prospective observational study was performed to evaluate whether the plasma concentration of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) or beta-endorphin is related to clinical signs, blood chemistry, or severity of pain of colic. Seventy-seven horses with colic and 15 clinically healthy controls were studied. The horses were divided into four groups which reflected increasing severity of colic, from normal control horses to horses with mild, moderate and severe colic. Blood samples were collected before any treatment. Packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma HSP72, beta-endorphin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lactate concentrations were measured. Plasma beta-endorphin was related with severity of colic and survival, as well as with plasma cortisol, ACTH and lactate concentrations, heart rate, PCV and pain score. High plasma HSP72 concentration may indicate circulatory deficits, but was not associated with clinical signs of colic. Plasma lactate still seemed to be the most useful single prognostic parameter in horses with colic.

  2. Characterization of proteins in soybean roots under flooding and drought stresses.

    Oh, MyeongWon; Komatsu, Setsuko


    Flooding and drought affect soybean growth because soybean is a stress-sensitive crop. In 2-day-old plants exposed to 2-day flooding or drought, the fresh weight of roots was markedly suppressed, although the root morphology clearly differed between two conditions. To understand the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses, a gel-free proteomic technique was used. A total of 97 and 48 proteins were significantly changed in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes displayed a similar tendency to the changes in protein abundance. These results suggest that S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the regulation of stress response because it was changed in response to flooding and drought stresses. This study reported on the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses using the gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to

  3. Stress level and stress management skills of admitted baccalaureate nursing students.

    Murdock, Calla; Naber, Jessica; Perlow, Michael


    The purpose of this study was to review the stress levels and the stress management skills of admitted baccalaureate nursing students at a rural public university. Subjects completed a questionnaire to estimate stress levels, causes of stress, stress management skills, and the use of stress management skills. Stress levels by gender and group were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). No significant differences in stress levels by semester were discovered. A significant difference was discovered when stress levels were compared by gender. Subjects also responded that students should be taught stress management skills upon admission into the program. Additionally, stress management skills should be reinforced each semester to help students identify causes and better manage their stress. Research in the area of stress and nursing students has been sporadically attempted through the years. However, focus on stress, gender, and program placement is far less evident. The purpose of this study was to answer the following research question: What are the stress levels and the stress management skills of baccalaureate nursing students? To that end, a questionnaire was developed to identify the stress and stress management skills of the baccalaureate nursing students with the results analyzed for frequency and percentages. This study looked not only at the stress levels and stress management skills of the baccalaureate nursing student, but also took into account the subject's gender and program placement.

  4. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides.

    Gebicki, Janusz M


    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione.

  5. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric


    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level....... These changes affect different cell functions, including energy metabolism, defense systems, maintenance of the redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways.......Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...... of protein expression, stress-induced premature senescence and replicative senescence are different phenotypes sharing however similarities. In this study, we identified 30 proteins showing changes of expression level specific or common to replicative senescence and/or stress-induced premature senescence...

  6. Voluntary exercise protects against stress-induced decreases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression.

    Adlard, P A; Cotman, C W


    Exercise is increasingly recognized as an intervention that can reduce CNS dysfunctions such as cognitive decline, depression and stress. Previously we have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is increased in the hippocampus following exercise. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise can counteract a reduction in hippocampal BDNF protein caused by acute immobilization stress. Since BDNF expression is suppressed by corticosterone (CORT), circulating CORT levels were also monitored. In animals subjected to 2 h immobilization stress, CORT was elevated immediately following, and at 1 h after the cessation of stress, but remained unchanged from baseline up to 24 h post-stress. The stress protocol resulted in a reduction in BDNF protein at 5 and 10 h post-stress that returned to baseline at 24 h. To determine if exercise could prevent this stress-induced reduction in BDNF protein, animals were given voluntary access to running wheels for 3 weeks prior to the stress. Stressed animals, in the absence of exercise, again demonstrated an initial elevation in CORT (at 0 h) and a subsequent decrease in hippocampal BDNF at the 10 h time point. Exercising animals, both non-stressed and stressed, demonstrated circulating CORT and hippocampal BDNF protein levels that were significantly elevated above control values at both time points examined (0 and 10 h post-stress). Thus, the persistently high CORT levels in exercised animals did not affect the induction of BDNF with exercise, and the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF protein was overcome. To examine the role of CORT in the stress-related regulation of BDNF protein, experiments were carried out in adrenalectomized (ADX) animals. BDNF protein was not downregulated as a result of immobilization stress in ADX animals, while there continued to be an exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF. This study demonstrates that CORT modulates stress-related alterations in BDNF protein. Further, exercise

  7. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha


    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  8. Stress levels, gender and personality factors in teachers.

    Fontana, D; Abouserie, R


    The study reports an investigation of stress levels, gender and personality dimensions in a sample of school teachers. The Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) was used to assess teachers' stress levels and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to define their personality dimensions (Extroversion-Introversion, Neuroticism-High Psychoticism-Low Psychoticism). The study sample consisted of 95 teachers, 51 females and 44 males. Results revealed that the majority of teachers sampled, 72.6 per cent, were experiencing moderate levels of stress, and 23.2 per cent serious levels. T-test results showed no significant difference between male and female teachers in stress levels. Correlation analysis between stress level and personality dimensions revealed significant positive correlation between stress and psychoticism. A significant negative correlation emerged between stress and extroversion, and a significant positive correlation between stress and neuroticism. A multiple regression analysis revealed that extroversion and neuroticism were the best predictors of stress levels. Overall, the results therefore indicated that personality dimensions appear to contribute more to stress levels than do the variables of either age or gender.

  9. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M


    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  10. Altered localization of amyloid precursor protein under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Kudo, Takashi; Okumura, Masayo; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Araki, Wataru; Morihara, Takashi; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Kamagata, Eiichiro; Tabuchi, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Ryo; Kanayama, Daisuke; Fukumori, Akio; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu; Kubo, Mikiko; Tanii, Hisashi; Tohyama, Masaya; Tabira, Takeshi; Takeda, Masatoshi


    Recent reports have shown that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Following the amyloid cascade hypothesis, we therefore attempted to investigate the effects of ER stress on amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) generation. In this study, we found that ER stress altered the localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) from late compartments to early compartments of the secretory pathway, and decreased the level of Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 release by beta- and gamma-cutting. Transient transfection with BiP/GRP78 also caused a shift of APP and a reduction in Abeta secretion. It was revealed that the ER stress response facilitated binding of BiP/GRP78 to APP, thereby causing it to be retained in the early compartments apart from a location suitable for the cleavages of Abeta. These findings suggest that induction of BiP/GRP78 during ER stress may be one of the regulatory mechanisms of Abeta generation.

  11. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén


    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko


    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress.

  13. Identification of nuclear proteins in soybean under flooding stress using proteomic technique.

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko


    Flooding stress restricts soybean growth, it results in decrease the production. In this report, to understand how nuclear proteins in soybean affected by flooding, abundance changes of those proteins was analyzed. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the root tips of soybean treated with or without flooding stress. The extracted proteins were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomic technique. Of a total of 94 nuclear proteins that were found to be responsive to flooding, the 19 and 75 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively. The identified flooding-responsive proteins were functionally classified, revealing that 8 increased proteins changed in protein synthesis, posttranslational modification, and protein degradation, while 34 decreased proteins were involved in transcription, RNA processing, DNA synthesis, and chromatin structure maintenance. Among these proteins, those whose levels changed more than 10 fold included two poly ADP-ribose polymerases and a novel G-domain-containing protein that might be involved in RNA binding. The mRNA expression levels of these three proteins indicated a similar tendency to their protein abundance changes. These results suggest that acceleration of protein poly-ADP-ribosylation and suppression of RNA metabolism may be involved in root tip of soybean under flooding stress.

  14. Prevalence of stress and stress tolerance levels among adolescent boys - a district level cross sectional study in South India.

    Roy, Kallol; Kamath, Veena G; Kamath, Asha; Alex, Johnson; Hegde, Asha


    Adolescence is a tumultuous period of hormonal and psychological transitions ranging from 10 to 19 years (WHO). This growth phase is usually accompanied by stressors. Very few studies have reported the prevalence of stress levels among adolescent boys. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and determinants of stress and its tolerance levels among high school boys. A cross sectional study design was selected for this purpose. A standardized self reported questionnaire was administered to 1153 high school boys. A score of 130 and more was used to classify the participants as stressed. The prevalence of stress and its tolerance levels was found to be 55% and 33.7%, respectively. Also correlations suggest that parental education and occupational status play a significant role in adolescent stress. Together, these findings suggest necessitating an intervention to counter the same. The proportion of stressed adolescent boys (55.5%) reported to have poor stress tolerance (41%). Studies addressing stress among high school adolescents remain unexplored. The basic determinants of stress are not researched upon these age groups. Our study reports the prevalence of stress to be 55% among high school boys. This could be the fundamental basis of designing suitable stress management programs for adolescents that could reduce their stress levels.

  15. Phospholemman: a novel cardiac stress protein.

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Chan, Tung O; Wang, Jufang


    Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine(68), PLM stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na(+) overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and potentially L-type Ca(2+) channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 189-196.

  16. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Dianne Bautista Solis


    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  17. Psychological Needs as the Predictor of Teachers' Perceived Stress Levels

    Avci, Ahmet; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Kesici, Sahin


    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels. First of all, the differentiation status of teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels in terms of gender, type of institution and type of the school variables was examined. Then, the psychological need's level…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has ... to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a ... and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers ...

  19. On the Wind Stress - Sea Level Power Law.


    The response of coastal sea level to local forcing by synpotic scale winds is usually assumed to be linear in wind stress . However, the response of...response to wind stress may allow significant improvement in the analysis of some sea-level problems. (Author)

  20. Stress level of people with psoriasis at a public hospital*

    Leovigildo, Érida Silva; David, Rose Ana Rios; Mendes, Andreia Santos


    Background Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis of unknown etiology with a tendency to relapse after treatment. The disease is frequently linked to psychological stress due to the embarrassment caused by the lesions. Objective To analyze the stress level presented by psoriasis patients followed at the Dermatology Service of a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study of a consecutive convenience sample composed of 60 participants. We used Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults to assess stress levels. The questionnaire identifies and classifies physical and psychological symptoms according to three stages of stress: alarming, resistance, and exhaustion. We also collected socio-demographic and clinical data that could be associated with psoriasis. Results 85% of the participants presented stress. Lipp's questionnaire results revealed that 48% were in the resistance stage and 37% in the exhaustion stage. Women presented higher levels of stress. Of the total 28 women, 64% were in exhaustion stage, 29% in the resistance stage, and only 7% presented no stress symptoms. Of the total 32 men, 44% were in resistance stage, 34% in exhaustion stage, and 22% presented no stress symptoms. Regarding physical and psychological symptoms, psychological symptomatology was prevalent (55%). Conclusions Based on the number of patients in exhaustion stage, we can conclude that stress levels of the participants were high regardless the type of psoriasis and treatment duration. PMID:27579739

  1. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca


    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  2. The Leader Protein of Cardioviruses Inhibits Stress Granule Assembly ▿

    Borghese, Fabian; Michiels, Thomas


    Stress granules (SG) are cytoplasmic aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes that form in cells exposed to various environmental stresses. Here, we show that stress granules assemble in cells infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mutants carrying alterations in the leader (L) protein, but not in cells infected with wild-type TMEV. Stress granules also formed in STAT1-deficient cells, suggesting that SG formation was not a consequence of increased type I interferon (IFN) production when cells were infected with the mutant virus. Ectopic expression of the wild-type L protein was sufficient to inhibit stress granule formation induced by sodium arsenite or thapsigargin treatment. In conclusion, TMEV infection induces stress granule assembly, but this process is inhibited by the L protein. Unlike poliovirus-induced stress granules, TMEV-induced stress granules did not contain the nuclear protein Sam68 but contained polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-interacting protein. Moreover, G3BP was not degraded and was found in SG after TMEV infection, suggesting that SG content could be virus specific. Despite the colocalization of PTB with SG and the known interaction of PTB with viral RNA, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assays failed to detect viral RNA trapped in infection-induced SG. Recombinant Theiler's viruses expressing the L protein of Saffold virus 2 (SAFV-2), a closely related human theilovirus, or the L protein of mengovirus, an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) strain, also inhibited infection-induced stress granule assembly, suggesting that stress granule antagonism is a common feature of cardiovirus L proteins. PMID:21752908

  3. The leader protein of cardioviruses inhibits stress granule assembly.

    Borghese, Fabian; Michiels, Thomas


    Stress granules (SG) are cytoplasmic aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes that form in cells exposed to various environmental stresses. Here, we show that stress granules assemble in cells infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mutants carrying alterations in the leader (L) protein, but not in cells infected with wild-type TMEV. Stress granules also formed in STAT1-deficient cells, suggesting that SG formation was not a consequence of increased type I interferon (IFN) production when cells were infected with the mutant virus. Ectopic expression of the wild-type L protein was sufficient to inhibit stress granule formation induced by sodium arsenite or thapsigargin treatment. In conclusion, TMEV infection induces stress granule assembly, but this process is inhibited by the L protein. Unlike poliovirus-induced stress granules, TMEV-induced stress granules did not contain the nuclear protein Sam68 but contained polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-interacting protein. Moreover, G3BP was not degraded and was found in SG after TMEV infection, suggesting that SG content could be virus specific. Despite the colocalization of PTB with SG and the known interaction of PTB with viral RNA, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assays failed to detect viral RNA trapped in infection-induced SG. Recombinant Theiler's viruses expressing the L protein of Saffold virus 2 (SAFV-2), a closely related human theilovirus, or the L protein of mengovirus, an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) strain, also inhibited infection-induced stress granule assembly, suggesting that stress granule antagonism is a common feature of cardiovirus L proteins.

  4. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    MyeongWon eOh


    Full Text Available Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress.

  5. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  6. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen


    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  7. Protein Methylation and Stress Granules: Posttranslational Remodeler or Innocent Bystander?

    Wen Xie


    Full Text Available Stress granules contain a large number of post-translationally modified proteins, and studies have shown that these modifications serve as recruitment tags for specific proteins and even control the assembly and disassembly of the granules themselves. Work originating from our laboratory has focused on the role protein methylation plays in stress granule composition and function. We have demonstrated that both asymmetrically and symmetrically dimethylated proteins are core constituents of stress granules, and we have endeavored to understand when and how this occurs. Here we seek to integrate this data into a framework consisting of the currently known post-translational modifications affecting stress granules to produce a model of stress granule dynamics that, in turn, may serve as a benchmark for understanding and predicting how post-translational modifications regulate other granule types.

  8. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina;


    After oxidative stress proteins which are oxidatively modified are degraded by the 20S proteasome. However, several studies documented an enhanced ubiquitination of yet unknown proteins. Since ubiqutination is a prerequisite for degradation by the 26S proteasome in an ATP-dependent manner......, we were able to confirm an increase of ubiquitinated proteins 16h upon oxidative stress. Therefore, we isolated ubiquitinated proteins from hydrogen peroxide treated cells, as well as from control and lactacystin, an irreversible proteasome inhibitor, treated cells, and identified some......, ubiquitinated proteins confirm the thesis that ubiquitination upon oxidative stress is no random process to degrade the mass of oxidized proteins, but concerns a special group of functional proteins....

  9. Stress Levels of Nurses in Oncology Outpatient Units.

    Ko, Woonhwa; Kiser-Larson, Norma


    Oncology nursing is often a source of substantial stress for nurses. Many nurses, particularly novice nurses, have inadequate preparation to care for patients at the end of life and their families. Unless nurses prevent or manage work-related stress by using effective coping strategies, oncology nursing staff will continue to suffer from burnout and compassion fatigue. The purpose of this article is to identify stress levels and stressful factors of nurses working in oncology outpatient units and to explore coping behaviors for work-related stress of oncology staff nurses in outpatient units. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to identify stress levels and stressful factors for outpatient oncology nurses, investigate differences in stress levels among nurses' demographic characteristics, and explore coping behaviors of the nurses. Study participants (N = 40) included RNs and licensed practical nurses who completed the Nursing Stress Scale, three open-ended questions, and a demographic questionnaire. The highest sources of stress were workload and patient death and dying. Demographic variables of age and work experience in nursing showed a significant positive relationship to work-related stress scores. The three most frequently used coping behaviors were verbalizing, exercising or relaxing, and taking time for self. Continuing education programs on stress management are highly recommended. Outpatient oncology nurses should be nurtured and supported through tailored interventions at multiple levels to help them find effective coping strategies and develop self-care competencies. Although younger and less experienced nurses had lower mean stress scores than older and more experienced nurses, the continuing education programs and tailored interventions would be helpful for all oncology nursing staff.

  10. Protein glutathionylation protects wheat (Triticum aestivum Var. Sonalika) against Fusarium induced oxidative stress.

    Mohapatra, Subhalaxmi; Mittra, Bhabatosh


    Fusarium induced oxidative stress could be recovered by reversible protein oxidative modification through the process of glutathionylation in co-stressed (low-dose (50 μM) Cd(2+) pre-treatment followed by Fusarium inoculation) wheat seedlings. Co-stressed seedlings showed low disease severity index as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings. A reduced level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and carbonyl contents due to irreversible protein oxidation were observed in co-stressed seedlings as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings. Further, a comparative biochemical assay showed an enhanced glutathione content in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. In an investigation, reduced glutathione pre-coated agarose gel beads were used to pull down proteins having affinity with GSH. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase and 3-Phosphoglycerate kinase were observed to be co-existed in co-stressed seedlings when analysed by LC-MS/MS after being processed through protein-pull assay. Co-stressed tissues showed an enhanced free protein thiol content as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. The ratio of free thiol to thiol disulfides was also observed to be increased in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. In contrast, the quantitative assay by Ellman's reagent and qualitative analysis by diagonal gel electrophoresis showed enhanced protein thiol disulfides in Fusarium infected tissues as compared to co-stressed tissues. Further, glutaredoxin, responsible for the reverse reduction of proteins was observed to be enhanced in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. Thus, a low dose Cd(2+) triggered glutathionylation is suggestive of offering tolerance against Fusarium induced oxidative stress and protects target proteins from irreversible modification and permanent damage in wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.


    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each nurs

  12. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.


    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  13. Anxiety and Stress Levels on Liver Transplantation Candidates.

    Teixeira, H R S; Marques, D M; Lopes, A R F; Ziviani, L C; Magro, J T J; Mente, Ênio D; Castro-E-Silva, O; Galvão, C M; Mendes, K D S


    The objective of the present study was to determine the anxiety and stress levels of liver transplant candidates during the preoperative period. A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on 52 liver transplantation candidates seen at a specialized public hospital outpatient clinic in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected from November 2014 to April 2015 using a self-applicable questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, short version) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale), in addition to sociodemographic and clinic characterization. The mean (±SD) anxiety level detected was 23.06 ± 5.51 points, with 1.92% of the subjects showing minimum levels (0 to 12 points), 59.62% a medium level (12 to 24 points), 36.54% a moderate level (24 to 36 points), and 1.92% a severe level (36 to 48 points) of anxiety. The mean level on the stress scale was 12.10 ± 5.62 points, with 7.69% of the subjects showing high stress levels. When individuals with good and poor stress levels were compared, a significant difference was observed between them (P = .0004). The Spearman correlation test showed that the higher the stress, the higher the levels of anxiety (r = 0.4258), P stress levels since the waiting period for the organ generates emotional changes that can affect the quality of life of the patient and the success of this complex therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress protein expression in early phase spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury*

    Shanyong Zhang; Dankai Wu; Jincheng Wang; Yongming Wang; Guoxiang Wang; Maoguang Yang; Xiaoyu Yang


    Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is a stress injury to the spinal cord. Our previous studies using differential proteomics identified 21 differential y expressed proteins (n > 2) in rabbits with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Of these proteins, stress-related proteins included protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70. In this study, we established New Zealand rabbit models of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by abdominal aorta occlusion. Results demonstrated that hind limb function initial y improved after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, but then deteriorated. The pathological morphology of the spinal cord became aggravated, but lessened 24 hours after reperfusion. However, the numbers of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord gradual y decreased. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and heat shock cognate protein 70 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The expression of these proteins increased within 12 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased, reached a minimum at 24 hours, but subsequently increased again to similar levels seen at 6–12 hours, showing a characterization of induction-inhibition-induc-tion. These three proteins were expressed only in cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression was higher in interneurons than in motor neurons, and the survival rate of interneurons was greater than that of motor neurons. It is assumed that the expression of stress-related proteins exhibited a protective effect on neurons.

  15. Study on determination of stress level by seismic stress drops and the stress axis deflections before and after large earthquakes

    WAN Yong-ge


    To obtain the stress level at the earthquake source, this paper sets forth the solution of the stress magnitude at the earthquake source by seismic stress drop and the stress axis deflections before and after large earthquakes. The pre-seismic and post-seismic stress direction can be statistically determined by a large collection of foreshock and aftershock focal mechanism data while the stress drop can be determined through the source fracture inversion from seismic wave data or crust deformation data. The paper attempts to make a fundamental contribution to seismic dynamics.

  16. α-突触核蛋白的表达与氧化应激水平的相互影响%The interaction between the oxidative stress level and α-synuclein protein expression

    沈原; 赵永波; 刘功禄; 赵圣杰


    Objective To investigate the interaction between the oxidative stress and the expression of α- synuclein protein in PC12 cells. Methods The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various groups of PC12 cells, including non-transfected, transfected with empty vector, transfected with wild-type α- synuclein and transfected with mutant-type α- synuclein, were detected. The expression of α- synuclein was analyzed by realtime PCR and Western blot in the WT-type and A53T-type PC12 cells after the treatment of different concentrations of H2O2 (0, 50, 100 and 250 nmol/L). Results (1) α- synuclein increased the levels of intracellular ROS. Based on the increased amount of intracellular ROS, the PC12 cell groups were lined up as following: PC12 cells < empty-vector-type PC12 cells < WT-type PC12 cells < A53T-type PC12 cells (P<0. 05). (2) Different concentrations of H2O2 did not cause statistical significance in the mRNA expression of α-synuclein in the WT-type PC12 cells (P>0. 05), neither in the A53T-type PC12 cells (P>0. 05). In Western blotting test, the expression of α-synuclein in the WT-type PC12 cells decreased in 50, 100 and 250 nmol / L H2O2 group as compared with 0 nmol / L H2O2 concentration group, and significant difference was also present among the different H2O2 concentration groups (P<0.05). The expression of α-synuclein in the A53T-type PC12 cells increased in 50, 100 and 250 nmol / L H2O2 group as compared with 0 nmol / L H2O2 concentration group, and the increase was significant among the different concentration groups (P<0. 05). Conclusions α-synuclein caused oxidative stress on the PC12 cells, and the different levels of oxidative stress had different influences on the expression of α-synuclein in the WT-type and A53T-type PC12 cells.%目的 探讨氧化应激与在稳定转染α-突触核蛋白(α-synuelein)的大鼠嗜铬细胞瘤细胞(PC12细胞)中α-突触核蛋白表达的相互影响.方法 测定末转染、转染

  17. The Level of Stress in Male and Female School Students

    Khan, Zamirullah; Lanin, Abul Barkat; Ahmad, Naseem


    This study aimed at the level of stress in male and female school students. For the purpose of the study the researcher randomly selected 64 school students aged between 14-18 years. To collect the data researcher used students stress scale (SSS) developed by Dr. Zaki Akhtar (2011). During collection of data researcher used means and method fit…

  18. Stress level and academic performance of university students in ...

    Stress level and academic performance of university students in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... organize stress management seminars and workshops in collaboration with the Counselling and Human Development department.

  19. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels


    to be resilient. So what is salivary alpha amylase ? To start, an amylase is enzyme in the body that hydrolyzes starch (breaks it down) into...Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  20. Relationship between changes in mRNAs of the genes encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage in head kidney and plasma levels of cortisol in response to different kinds of acute stress in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Geslin, Malika; Auperin, Benoit


    In this study, the expression of several genes involved in cortisol synthesis in head kidneys, the site of cortisol production, and in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was examined in response to two different acute stressors and an acute ACTH treatment. mRNAs levels of the "steroidogenic acute regulatory" (StAR) sterol transport protein, which transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane as well as cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450(SCC)) were determined in head kidney (containing the interrenal tissue). In one experiment, we also quantified 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3B-HSD) and cytochrome P450(11beta) (11B-H) mRNAs. The presence of these four transcripts in the head kidney was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. For each stress condition, mRNA levels were quantified by quantitative or real-time RT-PCR. The results of these two methods were highly correlated. An acute stress induced by capture, short confinement (2min), and anesthesia (3min) resulted in significant elevation of plasma cortisol (30-fold higher than controls) and an increase in levels of StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs 3h post-stress. When fish were submitted to an acute stress caused by 5min of chase with a net in a tank, plasma cortisol reached a peak within 1h, but after 3h, levels were only 5-fold higher in stressed trout than in controls and no variations in the expression of StAR, P450(SCC), 3B-HSD, and 11B-H were observed whatever the time post-stress. One hour after acute ACTH stimulation (5IU/kg), plasma cortisol level was 4-fold higher than in control trout and no changes in StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs levels were detected. The data suggest that the high levels of cortisol after stress need an activation of genes involved in cortisol synthesis, but lower levels do not. Futhermore, under these three test conditions, we always found a strong positive correlation between mRNA levels of StAR and P450(SCC), in contrast to what has been described in

  1. Expression Profiling of Abiotic Stress-Inducible Genes in response to Multiple Stresses in Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Contrasting Level of Stress Tolerance

    Supratim Basu


    Full Text Available The present study considered transcriptional profiles and protein expression analyses from shoot and/or root tissues under three abiotic stress conditions, namely, salinity, dehydration, and cold, as well as following exogenous abscisic acid treatment, at different time points of stress exposure in three indica rice varieties, IR-29 (salt sensitive, Pokkali, and Nonabokra (both salt tolerant. The candidate genes chosen for expression studies were HKT-1, SOS-3, NHX-1, SAPK5, SAPK7, NAC-1, Rab16A, OSBZ8, DREBP2, CRT/DREBP, WRKY24, and WRKY71, along with the candidate proteins OSBZ8, SAMDC, and GST. Gene expression profile revealed considerable differences between the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice varieties, as the expression in the latter was higher even at the constitutive level, whereas it was inducible only by corresponding stress signals in IR-29. Whether in roots or shoots, the transcriptional responses to different stressors peaked following 24 h of stress/ABA exposure, and the transcript levels enhanced gradually with the period of exposure. The generality of stress responses at the transcriptional level was therefore time dependent. Heat map data also showed differential transcript abundance in the three varieties, correlating the observation with transcript profiling. In silico analysis of the upstream regions of all the genes represented the existence of conserved sequence motifs in single or multiple copies that are indispensable to abiotic stress response. Overall, the transcriptome and proteome analysis undertaken in the present study indicated that genes/proteins conferring tolerance, belonging to different functional classes, were overrepresented, thus providing novel insight into the functional basis of multiple stress tolerance in indica rice varieties. The present work will pave the way in future to select gene(s for overexpression, so as to generate broad spectrum resistance to multiple stresses simultaneously.

  2. A carvacrol-thymol blend decreased intestinal oxidative stress and influenced selected microbes without changing the messenger RNA levels of tight junction proteins in jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets.

    Wei, H-K; Xue, H-X; Zhou, Z X; Peng, J


    Recent studies indicate that intestinal oxidative stress and microbiota imbalance is involved in weaning-induced intestinal dysfunction in piglets. We have investigated the effect of feeding a carvacrol-thymol blend supplemented diet on intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations and the intestinal barrier in weaning piglets. The piglets (weaned at 21 days of age) were randomly allocated to two groups with six pens per treatment and 10 piglets per pen. At weaning day (21 days of age), six piglets were sacrificed before weaning to serve as the preweaning group. The weaned group was fed with a basal diet, while the weaned-CB group was fed with the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg carvacrol-thymol (1 : 1) blend for 14 days. On day 7 post-weaning, six piglets from each group were sacrificed to determine intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of intestinal barrier function. Weaning resulted in intestinal oxidative stress, indicated by the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances present in the intestine. Weaning also reduced the population of Lactobacillus genus and increased the populations of Enterococcus genus and Escherichia coli in the jejunum, and increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In addition, decreased mRNA levels of zonula occludens and occludin in the jejunal mucosa and increased plasma diamine oxidase concentrations indicated that weaning induced dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. On day 7 post-weaning, supplementation with the carvacrol-thymol blend restored weaning-induced intestinal oxidative stress. Compared with the weaned group, the weaned-CB group had an increased population of Lactobacillus genus but reduced populations of Enterococcus genus and E. coli in the jejunum and decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α. The

  3. Differential protein levels and post-translational modifications in spinal cord injury of the rat.

    Afjehi-Sadat, Leila; Brejnikow, Mika; Kang, Sung Ung; Vishwanath, Vinay; Walder, Nadja; Herkner, Kurt; Redl, Heinz; Lubec, Gert


    Although changes in protein expression in spinal cord injury (SCI) would be of pivotal interest, information so far is limited. It was therefore the aim of the study to determine protein levels and post-translational modifications in the early phase following SCI in the rat. SCI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats and sham operated rats served as controls. A gel-based proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by quantification with specific software and subsequent identification of differentially expressed proteins by nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS was applied. Proteins of several pathways and cascades were dysregulated in SCI: 14-3-3 epsilon protein, dynein light chain 1, and tubulin beta-5 chain showed higher levels in SCI, whereas adenylyl cyclase associated protein 1, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, F-actin capping protein subunit beta, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 and transthyretin showed lower levels in the injured tissue. Post-translational modifications indicated free oxygen radical attack on proteins in SCI. The occurrence of stress is indicated by deranged stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 and signaling abnormalities are reflected by adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 and 14-3-3 epsilon protein. The findings propose the involvement of the corresponding cascades and challenge further work into aberrant signaling and oxidative stress in SCI, which may form the basis for experimental intervention for spinal cord trauma.

  4. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J


    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P levels were also decreased after quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Drinking behaviors by stress level in Korean university students.

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Young


    The purposes of this study are to estimate the stress level of university students, and to verify the relationships between stress level and drinking behavior. A questionnaire survey was administered to 430 university students in the Gangwon area in Korea from November 5 to November 28, 2008, and data from 391 students were used for the final statistical analysis. The most stressful factor was "Worry about academic achievements" (2.86 by Likert-type 4 point scale). The subjects were divided into two groups, a low stress group (≤ 65.0) and a high stress group (≥ 66.0), by the mean value (65.1) and median value (66.0) of the stress levels. The drinking frequency was not different between the two stress groups, but the amount of alcohol consumption was significantly different (P negatively correlated with drinking frequency and the amount of alcohol consumption (P negatively correlated with the amount of drinking (P effect of drinking was "Drinking enables me to get together with people and shape my sociability" (2.73). The higher stress group showed significantly higher scores on several items in the categories of motives (P negative experience (P effects (P alcohol consumption.

  6. Protein Mediated Oxidative Stress in Patients with Diabetes and its Associated Neuropathy: Correlation with Protein Carbonylation and Disease Activity Markers

    Almogbel, Ebtehal


    Introduction Free radicals have been implicated as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) contributors in type 2 DM and its associated Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathy (DMN). However, the potential for protein mediated oxidative stress to contribute disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Aim To investigate the status and contribution of protein mediated oxidative stress in patients with DM or DMN and to explore whether oxidative protein modification has a role in DM progression to DM associated neuropathy. Materials and Methods Sera from 42 DM and 37 DMN patients with varying levels of disease activities biomarkers (HbA1C, patients’ age or disease duration) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated for serum levels of protein mediated oxidative stress. Results Serum analysis showed significantly higher levels of protein carbonyl contents in both DM and DMN patients compared with healthy controls. Importantly, not only was there an increased number of subjects positive for protein carbonylation, but also the levels of protein carbonyl contents were significantly higher among DM and DMN patients, whose HbA1C were ≥8.8 as compared with patients with lower HbA1C (HbA1Cdiabetes to diabetes neuropathy. Conclusion These findings support an association between protein oxidation and DM or DMN progression. The stronger response observed in patients with higher HbA1C or patients’ ages or disease durations suggests, that protein mediated oxidative stress may be useful in evaluating the progression of DM and its associated DMN and in elucidating the mechanisms of these disorders pathogenesis.

  7. Antioxidant defence and stress protein induction following heat stress in the Mediterranean snail Xeropicta derbentina.

    Troschinski, Sandra; Dieterich, Andreas; Krais, Stefanie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R


    The Mediterranean snail Xeropicta derbentina (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae), being highly abundant in Southern France, has the need for efficient physiological adaptations to desiccation and over-heating posed by dry and hot environmental conditions. As a consequence of heat, oxidative stress manifests in these organisms, which, in turn, leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we focused on adaptations at the biochemical level by investigation of antioxidant defences and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) induction, both essential mechanisms of the heat stress response. We exposed snails to elevated temperature (25, 38, 40, 43 and 45°C) in the laboratory and measured the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), determined the Hsp70 level and quantified lipid peroxidation. In general, we found a high constitutive level of CAT activity in all treatments, which may be interpreted as a permanent protection against ROS, i.e. hydrogen peroxide. CAT and GPx showed temperature-dependent activity: CAT activity was significantly increased in response to high temperatures (43 and 45°C), whereas GPx exhibited a significantly increased activity at 40°C, probably in response to high levels of lipid peroxides that occurred in the 38°C treatment. Hsp70 showed a maximum induction at 40°C, followed by a decrease at higher temperatures. Our results reveal that X. derbentina possesses a set of efficient mechanisms to cope with the damaging effects of heat. Furthermore, we demonstrated that, besides the well-documented Hsp70 stress response, antioxidant defence plays a crucial role in the snails' competence to survive extreme temperatures.

  8. Analysis of Protein Import into Chloroplasts Isolated from Stressed Plants.

    Ling, Qihua; Jarvis, Paul


    Chloroplasts are organelles with many vital roles in plants, which include not only photosynthesis but numerous other metabolic and signaling functions. Furthermore, chloroplasts are critical for plant responses to various abiotic stresses, such as salinity and osmotic stresses. A chloroplast may contain up to ~3,000 different proteins, some of which are encoded by its own genome. However, the majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol, and these proteins need to be imported into the chloroplast through translocons at the chloroplast envelope membranes. Recent studies have shown that the chloroplast protein import can be actively regulated by stress. To biochemically investigate such regulation of protein import under stress conditions, we developed the method described here as a quick and straightforward procedure that can easily be achieved in any laboratory. In this method, plants are grown under normal conditions and then exposed to stress conditions in liquid culture. Plant material is collected, and chloroplasts are then released by homogenization. The crude homogenate is separated by density gradient centrifugation, enabling isolation of the intact chloroplasts. Chloroplast yield is assessed by counting, and chloroplast intactness is checked under a microscope. For the protein import assays, purified chloroplasts are incubated with (35)S radiolabeled in vitro translated precursor proteins, and time-course experiments are conducted to enable comparisons of import rates between genotypes under stress conditions. We present data generated using this method which show that the rate of protein import into chloroplasts from a regulatory mutant is specifically altered under osmotic stress conditions.

  9. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.


    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...... concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum...

  10. Increased temporal cortex ER stress proteins in depressed subjects who died by suicide.

    Bown, C; Wang, J F; MacQueen, G; Young, L T


    Regulation of ER stress proteins, such as the 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (GRP78) by chronic treatment with mood stabilizing drugs suggests that this family of proteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Indeed, increased levels of GRP78, GRP94, and calreticulin, a third member of the ER stress protein family, were found in temporal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder who died by suicide compared with controls and subjects who died by other means. No such differences were found in subjects with other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. These data suggest a potential role for ER stress proteins in severe depression that merits further study.

  11. How do membrane proteins sense water stress?

    Poolman, Bert; Blount, Paul; Folgering, Joost H.A.; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Moe, Paul C.; Heide, Tiemen van der


    Maintenance of cell turgor is a prerequisite for almost any form of life as it provides a mechanical force for the expansion of the cell envelope. As changes in extracellular osmolality will have similar physicochemical effects on cells from all biological kingdoms, the responses to osmotic stress m

  12. How do membrane proteins sense water stress?

    Poolman, Bert; Blount, Paul; Folgering, Joost H.A.; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Moe, Paul C.; Heide, Tiemen van der


    Maintenance of cell turgor is a prerequisite for almost any form of life as it provides a mechanical force for the expansion of the cell envelope. As changes in extracellular osmolality will have similar physicochemical effects on cells from all biological kingdoms, the responses to osmotic stress

  13. ER Dysfunction and Protein Folding Stress in ALS

    Soledad Matus


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most frequent paralytic disease in adults. Most ALS cases are considered sporadic with no clear genetic component. The disruption of protein homeostasis due to chronic stress responses at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the accumulation of abnormal protein inclusions are extensively described in ALS mouse models and patient-derived tissue. Recent studies using pharmacological and genetic manipulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, an adaptive reaction against ER stress, have demonstrated a complex involvement of the pathway in experimental models of ALS. In addition, quantitative changes in ER stress-responsive chaperones in body fluids have been proposed as possible biomarkers to monitor the disease progression. Here we review most recent advances attributing a causal role of ER stress in ALS.


    Timofeyev M.A


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a study of the influence different stressful factor on syntheses and activity of the stress proteins (HSP70, sHSP and peroxidase of freshwater organism. Six freshwater amphipod species were investigated: Eulimnogammarus cyaneus (Dyb., E verrucosus (Gerstf., E vittatus (Dyb. - endemic species from Lake Baikal which were compared with Palearctic species - Gammarus lacustris Sars., G tigrinus (Sexton, Chaetogammarus ischnus (Stebbins. It was shown expression of sHSP by heat and toxic stresses for all amphipods species. Oxidative stress induced HSP70 for Palearctic species G tigrinus and C ischnus but not for baikalian species. Heat stress did not caused the increase of HSP70 level for Baikalian species of amphipods. The activity of the peroxidase was decrease by heat and toxic stresses. Oxidative stress caused the increase of peroxidase activity for Palearctic species, and the decrease for Baikalian once.

  15. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi


    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk.

  16. RNA Recognition and Stress Granule Formation by TIA Proteins

    Saboora Waris


    Full Text Available Stress granule (SG formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cell undergoes cellular stresses (including heat, oxidative, viral infection, starvation. In particular, the sequestration of specifically targeted translationally stalled mRNAs into SGs limits the expression of a subset of genes, but allows the expression of heatshock proteins that have a protective effect in the cell. The importance of SGs is seen in several disease states in which SG function is disrupted. Fundamental to SG formation are the T cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA proteins (TIA-1 and TIA-1 related protein (TIAR, that both directly bind to target RNA and self-associate to seed the formation of SGs. Here a summary is provided of the current understanding of the way in which TIA proteins target specific mRNA, and how TIA self-association is triggered under conditions of cellular stress.

  17. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  18. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu


    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  19. Are PTH levels related to oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis?

    Marcel Jaqueto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients at end stage renal disease have higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress than the general population. Many factors contribute to these issues, and the parathyroid hormone (PTH is also implicated. Objective: The study was conducted in order to assess the relationship between PTH levels and inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients of two hemodialysis facilities in Londrina, Brazil. Patients with other conditions known to generate oxidative stress and inflammation were excluded. Blood levels of PTH and biochemical parameters of inflammation (interleukins 1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oxidative stress (total plasma antioxidant capacity, malonic dialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxidation, advanced oxidation protein products, quantification of nitric oxide metabolites, and 8-isoprostane were measured before a dialysis session. Then, we made correlation analyses between PTH levels - either as the continuous variable or categorized into tertiles-, and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Results: PTH did not show any correlation with the tested inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, nor as continuous variable neither as categorical variable. Conclusion: In this descriptive study, the results suggest that the inflammation and oxidative stress of hemodialysis patients probably arise from mechanisms other than secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  20. A cellulose synthase-like protein is required for osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Zhu, Jianhua


    Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have previously identified salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants of Arabidopsis that fall into five loci, SOS1 to SOS5. These loci are required for the regulation of ion homeostasis or cell expansion under salt stress, but do not play a major role in plant tolerance to the osmotic stress component of soil salinity or drought. Here we report an additional sos mutant, sos6-1, which defines a locus essential for osmotic stress tolerance. sos6-1 plants are hypersensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress imposed by mannitol or polyethylene glycol in culture media or by water deficit in the soil. SOS6 encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein, AtCSLD5. Only modest differences in cell wall chemical composition could be detected, but we found that sos6-1 mutant plants accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under osmotic stress and are hypersensitive to the oxidative stress reagent methyl viologen. The results suggest that SOS6/AtCSLD5 is not required for normal plant growth and development but has a critical role in osmotic stress tolerance and this function likely involves its regulation of ROS under stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris


    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  2. Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein.

    Tom J Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some cancers are mediated by an interplay between tissue damage, pathogens and localised innate immune responses, but the mechanisms that underlie these linkages are only beginning to be unravelled. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we identify a strong signature of adaptive evolution on the DNA sequence of the mammalian stress response gene SEP53, a member of the epidermal differentiation complex fused-gene family known for its role in suppressing cancers. The SEP53 gene appears to have been subject to adaptive evolution of a type that is commonly (though not exclusively associated with coevolutionary arms races. A similar pattern of molecular evolution was not evident in the p53 cancer-suppressing gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our data thus raises the possibility that SEP53 is a component of the mucosal/epithelial innate immune response engaged in an ongoing interaction with a pathogen. Although the pathogenic stress mediating adaptive evolution of SEP53 is not known, there are a number of well-known candidates, in particular viruses with established links to carcinoma.

  3. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)


    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  4. Acid stress response and protein induction in Campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance

    Birk Tina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the transmission route from poultry to the human host, the major foodborne pathogen C. jejuni may experience many types of stresses, including low pH caused by different acids. However, not all strains are equally sensitive to the stresses. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to acid stress of three sequenced C. jejuni strains with different acid tolerances using HCl and acetic acid. Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for proteomic analysis and proteins were radioactively labelled with methionine to identify proteins only related to acid exposure. To allow added radioactive methionine to be incorporated into induced proteins, a modified chemically defined broth was developed with the minimal amount of methionine necessary for satisfactory growth of all strains. Protein spots were analyzed using image software and identification was done with MALDI-TOF-TOF. The most acid-sensitive isolate was C. jejuni 327, followed by NCTC 11168 and isolate 305 as the most tolerant. Overall, induction of five proteins was observed within the pI range investigated: 19 kDa periplasmic protein (p19, thioredoxin-disulfide (TrxB, a hypothetical protein Cj0706 (Cj0706, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein (MogA, and bacterioferritin (Dps. Strain and acid type dependent differences in the level of response were observed. For strain NCTC 11168, the induced proteins and the regulator fur were analysed at the transcriptomic level using qRT-PCR. In this transcriptomic analysis, only up-regulation of trxB and p19 was observed. Conclusions A defined medium that supports the growth of a range of Campylobacter strains and suitable for proteomic analysis was developed. Mainly proteins normally involved in iron control and oxidative stress defence were induced during acid stress of C. jejuni. Both strain and acid type affected sensitivity and response.

  5. Using Conjugate Gradient Network to Classify Stress Level of Patients.

    Er. S. Pawar


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of stress is important because it can cause many diseases e.g., heart disease, headache, migraine, sleep problems, irritability etc. Diagnosis of stress in patients often involves acquisition of biological signals for example heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyography signals (EMG etc. Stress diagnosis using biomedical signals is difficult and since the biomedical signals are too complex to generate any rule an experienced person or expert is needed to determine stress levels. Also, it is not feasible to use all the features that are available or possible to extract from the signal. So, relevant features should be chosen from the extracted features that are capable to diagnose stress. Electronics devices are increasingly being seen in the field of medicine for diagnosis, therapy, checking of stress levels etc. The research and development work of medical electronics engineers leads to the manufacturing of sophisticated diagnostic medical equipment needed to ensure good health care. Biomedical engineering combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve health care diagnosis and treatment.

  6. [Glycation of mitochondrial proteins, oxidative stress and aging].

    Naudí, Alba; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald


    Mitochondrial proteins can be modified by glycation reactions from endogenous dicarbonyl compounds such as physiologically generated methylglyoxal and glyoxal. This modification could cause structural and functional changes in the proteins Consequently, dicarbonyl attack of the mitochondrial proteome may be an event leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and thus, to oxidative stress. These protein chemical modifications can play an important role in the physiological aging process and age-associated diseases, where both mitochondrial defects and increased dicarbonyl concentrations have been found. Future research should address the functional changes in mitochondrial proteins that are the targets for dicarbonyl glycation.

  7. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    Fanucchi, Francesca


    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  9. Yoga practice improves executive function by attenuating stress levels.

    Gothe, Neha P; Keswani, Rahul K; McAuley, Edward


    Prolonged activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system is thought to have deleterious effects on brain function. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that brain exposure to higher cortisol concentrations contribute to cognitive deficits as we age. Mind-body techniques such as yoga have shown to improve stress levels by restoring the body's sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The objective of this study was to determine whether yoga practice moderated the stress response resulting in improved executive function. Sedentary community dwelling older adults (N=118, Mean age=62.02) were randomized to an 8-week yoga intervention or a stretching control group. At baseline and following 8 weeks, all participants completed measures of executive function, self-reported stress and anxiety and provided saliva samples before and after cognitive testing to assess cortisol. Yoga participants showed improved accuracy on executive function measures and an attenuated cortisol response compared to their stretching counterparts who showed increased cortisol levels and poor cognitive performance at follow up. The change in cortisol levels as well as self-reported stress and anxiety levels predicted performance on the running span task, n-back working memory and task switching paradigm (β's=0.27-0.38, p's≤0.05 for yoga and β's=-0.37-0.47, p's≤0.01 for stretching control). Eight weeks of regular yoga practice resulted in improved working memory performance that was mediated by an attenuated response to stress as measured by self-report stress and objective salivary cortisol measurements. This trial offers evidence for non-traditional physical activity interventions such as yoga that may be helpful in restoring HPA balance in older adults, thereby preventing cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L


    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  11. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon


    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  12. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon


    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  13. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    aDepartment of Human Biology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa ... (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of .... –70 °C if not analysed on the day of collection and used within a.

  14. Level of occupational stress of court probation officers and style of coping with stress

    Łukasz Wirkus


    Full Text Available Background The relationship between a court probation officer and their ward is a specific one and is frequently connected with enormous individuals costs. This fact is connected with the character of the job, and with the conditions determining its character. Psychosocial threats may influence both mental and somatic health, directly or indirectly, by means of the influence exerted by stress. Participants and procedure The main study was conducted at the offices of the teams of the Court Probation Service. The teams of the Court Probation Service are part of the structure of the following 9, randomly selected, district courts (DCs: DC Wrocław, DC Bydgoszcz, DC Szczecin, DC Poznań, DC Łódź, DC Lublin, DC Kraków, DC Katowice and DC Białystok. Participation in the research was voluntary and anonymous; the tools were arranged in sets, and the sequence of those sets was random. The sets of research tools were received by 1,000 individuals altogether. Results The conducted research confirmed the need to verify the significance of the feeling of occupational stress of court probation officers at the workplace and the correlations between it and a number of variables. Below, I present statistical analyses concerning various aspects of occupational stress experienced in the studied group, including correlations between the general level of occupational stress and the dimensions of it, and organizational predictors. The objective of the research was to indicate the styles of coping with stress and the correlations of them with the stress felt by court probation officers. Conclusions The research confirms a significant influence exerted by organizational determinants upon the general level of felt occupational stress. Professional court probation officers experience a higher level of felt occupational stress; what is conducive to that is high encumbrance with occupational responsibilities, and also functioning directly in structures of the court of

  15. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst


    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  16. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.

    Katharina M Gross

    Full Text Available Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2 were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

  17. Computational protein structure modeling and analysis of UV-B stress protein in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Rahman, Md Akhlaqur; Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Sinha, Sukrat; Pandey, Paras Nath; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar; Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh


    This study focuses on Ultra Violet stress (UVS) gene product which is a UV stress induced protein from cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PCC 6803. Three dimensional structural modeling of target UVS protein was carried out by homology modeling method. 3F2I pdb from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 was selected as a suitable template protein structure. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in modeled UV-B stress protein. The top five probable ligand binding sites were predicted and the common binding residues between target and template protein was analyzed. It has been validated for the first time that modeled UVS protein structure from Synechocystis PCC 6803 was structurally and functionally similar to well characterized UVS protein of another cyanobacterial species, Nostoc sp PCC 7120 because of having same structural motif and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigations revealed that UVS protein from Synechocystis sp. might play significant role during ultraviolet resistance. Thus, it could be a potential biological source for remediation for UV induced stress.

  18. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    Mounia N Hocine

    Full Text Available We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention.

  19. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

    Masaaki Adachi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  20. The p66(Shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response in early bovine embryos.

    Dean H Betts

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.

  1. Assessment of stress level of forestry experts with academic education.

    Landekić, Matija; Martinić, Ivan; Lovrić, Marko; Sporcić, Mario


    This paper provides the results of an applied research of forests engineers connected to their risk of mental stress occurrence in everyday work. This paper also has a component of a basic research, in which the adequacy and reliability of applied methodology in this kind of researches is examined. The mental stress induced risk is tested by usage of an e-mail survey which consists out of 23-part ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) questionnaire. For the assessment of mental stress exposure level following indicators have been used: 1) ERI--ratio of devoted effort and achieved reward, and 2) overcommitment. These indicators have been analyzed in comparison to the demographic parameters (gender, age) and the complexity of assigned jobs of the interviewees. The interview was applied on a randomly sampled forestry experts employed in public and private sector. The analysis of reliability of the three components of ERI questionnaire has showed satisfactory internal consistency. Descriptive statistics has been done regarding gender and the complexity of assigned jobs. The testing of the "devoted effort/achieved reward" variable (E/R index) has shown a statistically significant difference of the index value between male interviewees on managerial and standard expert positions. The value of E/R index was x > or = 1 at 18.97% of the sampled interviewees, which indicates a divergence between devoted effort and achieved reward, and also points to a possibility of mental stress occurrence risk. Multiple response tables have shown that female interviewees with less than 20 years of professional experience manifest stress related symptoms earlier than their male colleagues with similar professional experience do. Regression analysis has shown a significant correlation of E/R index to gender, internship and overcommitment. This research also assesses the viability of the applied method as an instrument of forestry experts' mental stress level determination.

  2. NBR1-mediated selective autophagy targets insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates in plant stress responses.

    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Plant autophagy plays an important role in delaying senescence, nutrient recycling, and stress responses. Functional analysis of plant autophagy has almost exclusively focused on the proteins required for the core process of autophagosome assembly, but little is known about the proteins involved in other important processes of autophagy, including autophagy cargo recognition and sequestration. In this study, we report functional genetic analysis of Arabidopsis NBR1, a homolog of mammalian autophagy cargo adaptors P62 and NBR1. We isolated two nbr1 knockout mutants and discovered that they displayed some but not all of the phenotypes of autophagy-deficient atg5 and atg7 mutants. Like ATG5 and ATG7, NBR1 is important for plant tolerance to heat, oxidative, salt, and drought stresses. The role of NBR1 in plant tolerance to these abiotic stresses is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Unlike ATG5 and ATG7, however, NBR1 is dispensable in age- and darkness-induced senescence and in resistance to a necrotrophic pathogen. A selective role of NBR1 in plant responses to specific abiotic stresses suggest that plant autophagy in diverse biological processes operates through multiple cargo recognition and delivery systems. The compromised heat tolerance of atg5, atg7, and nbr1 mutants was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble, detergent-resistant proteins that were highly ubiquitinated under heat stress. NBR1, which contains an ubiquitin-binding domain, also accumulated to high levels with an increasing enrichment in the insoluble protein fraction in the autophagy-deficient mutants under heat stress. These results suggest that NBR1-mediated autophagy targets ubiquitinated protein aggregates most likely derived from denatured or otherwise damaged nonnative proteins generated under stress conditions.

  3. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Luciana Segato


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  4. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    L. Segato


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  5. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T


    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (pcorrelated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, pstress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A hormone-responsive C1-domain-containing protein At5g17960 mediates stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Ravindran Vijay Bhaskar

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play a critical role in mediating plant stress response. They employ a variety of proteins for coordinating such processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, some members of a Cys-rich protein family known as C1-clan proteins were involved in stress response, but the actual function of the protein family is largely unknown. We studied At5g17960, a C1-clan protein member that possesses three unique C1 signature domains viz. C1_2, C1_3 and ZZ/PHD type. Additionally, we identified 72 other proteins in A. thaliana that contain all three unique signature domains. Subsequently, the 73 proteins were phylogenetically classified into IX subgroups. Promoter motif analysis of the 73 genes identified the presence of hormone-responsive and stress-responsive putative cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, we observed that transcript levels of At5g17960 were induced in response to different hormones and stress treatments. At1g35610 and At3g13760, two other members of subgroup IV, also showed upregulation upon GA3, biotic and abiotic stress treatments. Moreover, seedlings of independent transgenic A. thaliana lines ectopically expressing or suppressing At5g17960 also showed differential regulation of several abiotic stress-responsive marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that C1-domain-containing proteins have a role to play in plant hormone-mediated stress responses, thereby assigning a putative function for the C1-clan protein family.

  7. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  8. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria


    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  9. Chronic stress adaptation of the nitric oxide synthases and IL-1β levels in brain structures and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity induced by homotypic stress.

    Gadek-Michalska, A; Tadeusz, J; Rachwalska, P; Bugajski, J


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of repeated restraint stress (RS) on a single restraint (homotypic) stress-induced expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus and their adaptational changes in chronic stress. Also the involvement of plasma IL-1β in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion during chronic stress was investigated. Rats were subjected to a single restraint for 10 minutes or restrained twice a day for 3, 7 and 14 consecutive days and 24 hours after the last stress period rats were restrained for 10 min and rapidly decapitated 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours later. The IL-1β, nNOS and iNOS protein levels in brain structures samples were analyzed by Western blot procedure and IL-1β, ACTH and corticosterone levels were determined in plasma. Single restraint induced a strongest decrease of iNOS protein levels (1-3 h) in the PFC and a weaker decline in the hippocampus and hypothalamus (3 h) after stress cessation. Single restraint markedly increased IL-1β protein level in PFC and hippocampus. In the PFC repeated restraint for 3 days significantly increased the homotypic stress induced iNOS and IL-1β protein levels and this increase gradually declined after 7 and 14 days of repeated restraint. Much weaker yet a parallel changes appeared with neuronal NOS level. In the hippocampus prior stress for 3, 7 and 14 days significantly increased the homotypic stress induced iNOS protein level parallel with IL-1β level which gradually declined with prolonged period of repeated restraint. In the hippocampus a longer restraint period, 7 and 14 days markedly decreased nNOS protein level evoked by homotypic stress. In the hypothalamus prior stress for 3 days strongly enhanced the homotypic stress-induced iNOS level and repeated stress for 7 and 14 days blunted this effect. Repeated stress increased IL-1

  10. Quantification of Protein Levels in Single Living Cells

    Chiu-An Lo


    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the amount of specific protein a cell produces is important for investigating basic molecular processes. We have developed a technique that allows for quantitation of protein levels in single cells in vivo. This protein quantitation ratioing (PQR technique uses a genetic tag that produces a stoichiometric ratio of a fluorescent protein reporter and the protein of interest during protein translation. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the number of molecules produced of the protein of interest and is used to determine the relative amount of protein within the cell. We use PQR to quantify protein expression of different genes using quantitative imaging, electrophysiology, and phenotype. We use genome editing to insert Protein Quantitation Reporters into endogenous genomic loci in three different genomes for quantitation of endogenous protein levels. The PQR technique will allow for a wide range of quantitative experiments examining gene-to-phenotype relationships with greater accuracy.

  11. Up-expression of NapA and other oxidative stress proteins is a compensatory response to loss of major Helicobacter pylori stress resistance factors.

    Olczak, Adriana A; Wang, Ge; Maier, Robert J


    Twenty-six Helicobacter pylori targeted mutant strains with deficiencies in oxidative stress combating proteins, including 12 double mutant strains were analyzed via physiological and proteomic approaches to distinguish the major expression changes caused by the mutations. Mutations were introduced into both a Mtz(S) and a Mtz(R) strain background. Most of the mutations caused increased growth sensitivity of the strains to oxygen, and they all exhibited clear compensatory up-expression of oxidative stress resistance proteins enabling survival of the bacterium. The most frequent up-expressed oxidative stress resistance factor (observed in 16 of the mutants) was the iron-sequestering protein NapA, linking iron sequestration with oxidative stress resistance. The up-expression of individual proteins in mutants ranged from 2 to 10 fold that of the wild type strain, even when incubated in a low O(2) environment. For example, a considerably higher level of catalase expression (4 fold of that in the wild-type strain) was observed in ahpC napA and ahpC sodB double mutants. A Fur mutant up-expressed ferritin (Pfr) protein 20-fold. In some mutant strains the bacterial DNA is protected from oxidative stress damage apparently via overexpression of oxidative stress-combating proteins such as NapA, catalase or MdaB (an NADPH quinone reductase). Our results show that H. pylori has a variety of ways to compensate for loss of major oxidative stress combating factors.

  12. Yeast prions: Paramutation at the protein level?

    Tuite, Mick F


    Prions are proteins that have the potential to refold into a novel conformation that templates the conversion of like molecules to the altered infectious form. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, trans-generational epigenetic inheritance can be mediated by a number of structurally and functionally diverse prions. Prionogenesis can confer both loss-of-function and gain-of-function properties to the prion protein and this in turn can have a major impact on host phenotype, short-term adaptation and evolution of new traits. Prionogenesis shares a number of properties in common with paramutation and can be considered as a mitotically and meiotically heritable change in protein conformation induced by trans-interactions between homologous proteins.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels

    Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that oxidative stress and/or mercury compounds play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. This study compared for the first time the cerebellar levels of the oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, mercury (Hg and the antioxidant selenium (Se levels between control and autistic subjects. Tissue homogenates were prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors from the frozen cerebellar tissue of control (n=10; mean age, 15.5 years; mean PMI, 15.5 hours and autistic (n=9; mean age 12.1 years; mean PMI, 19.3 hours subjects. The concentration of cerebellar 3-NT, determined by ELISA, in controls ranged from 13.69 to 49.04 pmol g-1 of tissue; the concentration of 3-NT in autistic cases ranged from 3.91 to 333.03 pmol g-1 of tissue. Mean cerebellar 3-NT was elevated in autism by 68.9% and the increase was statistically significant (p=0.045. Cerebellar Hg, measured by atomic absorption spectrometry ranged from 0.9 to 35 pmol g-1 tissue in controls (n=10 and from 3.2 to 80.7 pmol g-1 tissue in autistic cases (n=9; the 68.2% increase in cerebellar Hg was not statistically significant. However, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar 3-NT and Hg levels (r=0.7961, p=0.0001. A small decrease in cerebellar Se levels in autism, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, was not statistically significant but was accompanied by a 42.9% reduction in the molar ratio of Se to Hg in the autistic cerebellum. While preliminary, the results of the present study add elevated oxidative stress markers in brain to the growing body of data reflecting greater oxidative stress in autism.

  14. Animal performance and stress: responses and tolerance limits at different levels of biological organisation.

    Kassahn, Karin S; Crozier, Ross H; Pörtner, Hans O; Caley, M Julian


    Recent advances in molecular biology and the use of DNA microarrays for gene expression profiling are providing new insights into the animal stress response, particularly the effects of stress on gene regulation. However, interpretation of the complex transcriptional changes that occur during stress still poses many challenges because the relationship between changes at the transcriptional level and other levels of biological organisation is not well understood. To confront these challenges, a conceptual model linking physiological and transcriptional responses to stress would be helpful. Here, we provide the basis for one such model by synthesising data from organismal, endocrine, cellular, molecular, and genomic studies. We show using available examples from ectothermic vertebrates that reduced oxygen levels and oxidative stress are common to many stress conditions and that the responses to different types of stress, such as environmental, handling and confinement stress, often converge at the challenge of dealing with oxygen imbalance and oxidative stress. As a result, a common set of stress responses exists that is largely independent of the type of stressor applied. These common responses include the repair of DNA and protein damage, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, changes in cellular metabolism that reflect the transition from a state of cellular growth to one of cellular repair, the release of stress hormones, changes in mitochondrial densities and properties, changes in oxygen transport capacities and changes in cardio-respiratory function. Changes at the transcriptional level recapitulate these common responses, with many stress-responsive genes functioning in cell cycle control, regulation of transcription, protein turnover, metabolism, and cellular repair. These common transcriptional responses to stress appear coordinated by only a limited number of stress-inducible and redox-sensitive transcription factors and signal transduction pathways, such as the

  15. Oxidative stress and pathology in muscular dystrophies: focus on protein thiol oxidation and dysferlinopathies.

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Lemckert, Frances A; Arthur, Peter G; Grounds, Miranda D


    The muscular dystrophies comprise more than 30 clinical disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for pathogenesis generally remains unknown. It is considered that disturbed levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathology of many muscular dystrophies. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress may cause cellular damage by directly and irreversibly damaging macromolecules such as proteins, membrane lipids and DNA; another major cellular consequence of reactive oxygen species is the reversible modification of protein thiol side chains that may affect many aspects of molecular function. Irreversible oxidative damage of protein and lipids has been widely studied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and we have recently identified increased protein thiol oxidation in dystrophic muscles of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This review evaluates the role of elevated oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other forms of muscular dystrophies, and presents new data that show significantly increased protein thiol oxidation and high levels of lipofuscin (a measure of cumulative oxidative damage) in dysferlin-deficient muscles of A/J mice at various ages. The significance of this elevated oxidative stress and high levels of reversible thiol oxidation, but minimal myofibre necrosis, is discussed in the context of the disease mechanism for dysferlinopathies, and compared with the situation for dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  16. [Free radical modification of proteins in brain structure of Sprague-Dawley rats and some behaviour indicators after prenatal stress].

    V'iushina, A V; Pritvorova, A V; Flerov, M A


    We studied the influence of late prenatal stress on free radical oxidation processes in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus proteins. It was shown that after prenatal stress most changes were observed in hypothalamus and hippocampus. It was shown that in hypothalamus spontaneous oxidation level increased, but level of induced oxidation decreased, the opposite changes were found in hippocampus. Simultaneously minor changes of protein modification were observed in cortex and striatum. It was shown that prenatal stress changed both correlation of proteins free radical oxidation in studied structures and values of these data regarding to control. In test of "open field" motor activity in rats after prenatal stress decreased and time of freezing and grooming increased; opposite, in T-labyrinth motor activity and time of grooming in rats after prenatal stress increased, but time of freezing decreased.

  17. Glucokinase of Escherichia coli: induction in response to the stress of overexpressing foreign proteins.

    Arora, K K; Pedersen, P L


    A variety of stressful conditions, such as heat shock, ethanol, osmotic shock, glucose deprivation, and oxidative stress, are known to induce the synthesis of specific proteins. Here, we report the induction in Escherichia coli of a protein elicited in response to a hitherto unidentified stress condition, i.e., the overexpression of foreign proteins. The induced protein identified as glucokinase (EC is produced at a level > or = 20-fold higher than the level in wild-type E. coli when foreign proteins are expressed under the control of the alkaline phosphatase (phoA) promoter. The bacterial glucokinase is shown to have a mass of approximately 47 kDa determined by a "renaturation activity stain assay" in situ following sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and exhibits a high specificity for the phosphorylation of glucose. The apparent Km values for glucose and ATP for the enzyme are 0.15 and 0.50 mM, respectively, indicating that the E. coli enzyme is a low Km glucose hexokinase. The enzyme cross-reacts with rabbit antisera raised against hexokinase from higher eukaryotes, implicating some sequence similarity with mammalian hexokinases. Under normal conditions, E. coli glucokinase plays a minor role in glucose metabolism. However, under anabolic stress conditions, this glycolytic enzyme may be required to supplement levels of glucose 6-phosphate. Alternatively, glucokinase, which is predicted in analogy to other hexose-utilizing kinases to have structural folds characteristic of hsp 70, may itself, or in combination with other E. coli proteins, function in the stabilization of newly synthesized proteins.

  18. Morpho-Physiological and Proteome Level Responses to Cadmium Stress in Sorghum

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Kim, Sang-Woo; Oh, Myeong-Won; Lee, Moon-Soon; Chung, Keun-Yook; Xin, Zhanguo; Woo, Sun-Hee


    Cadmium (Cd) stress may cause serious morphological and physiological abnormalities in addition to altering the proteome in plants. The present study was performed to explore Cd-induced morpho-physiological alterations and their potential associated mechanisms in Sorghum bicolor leaves at the protein level. Ten-day-old sorghum seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0, 100, and 150 μM) of CdCl2, and different morpho-physiological responses were recorded. The effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in S. bicolor were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in samples derived from the leaves of both control and Cd-treated seedlings. The observed morphological changes revealed that the plants treated with Cd displayed dramatically altered shoot lengths, fresh weights and relative water content. In addition, the concentration of Cd was markedly increased by treatment with Cd, and the amount of Cd taken up by the shoots was significantly and directly correlated with the applied concentration of Cd. Using the 2-DE method, a total of 33 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Of these, treatment with Cd resulted in significant increases in 15 proteins and decreases in 18 proteins. Major changes were absorbed in the levels of proteins known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, translation and stress responses. Proteomic results revealed that Cd stress had an inhibitory effect on carbon fixation, ATP production and the regulation of protein synthesis. Our study provides insights into the integrated molecular mechanisms involved in responses to Cd and the effects of Cd on the growth and physiological characteristics of sorghum seedlings. We have aimed to provide a reference describing the mechanisms involved in heavy metal damage to plants. PMID:26919231

  19. Yokukansan inhibits neuronal death during ER stress by regulating the unfolded protein response.

    Toru Hiratsuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, several studies have reported Yokukansan (Tsumura TJ-54, a traditional Japanese medicine, as a potential new drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD, particularly in neuronal death. Therefore, we examined the effect of Yokukansan on ER stress-induced neurotoxicity and on familial AD-linked presenilin-1 mutation-associated cell death. METHODS: We employed the WST-1 assay and monitored morphological changes to evaluate cell viability following Yokukansan treatment or treatment with its components. Western blotting and PCR were used to observe the expression levels of GRP78/BiP, caspase-4 and C/EBP homologous protein. RESULTS: Yokukansan inhibited neuronal death during ER stress, with Cnidii Rhizoma (Senkyu, a component of Yokukansan, being particularly effective. We also showed that Yokukansan and Senkyu affect the unfolded protein response following ER stress and that these drugs inhibit the activation of caspase-4, resulting in the inhibition of ER stress-induced neuronal death. Furthermore, we found that the protective effect of Yokukansan and Senkyu against ER stress could be attributed to the ferulic acid content of these two drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Yokukansan, Senkyu and ferulic acid are protective against ER stress-induced neuronal cell death and may provide a possible new treatment for AD.

  20. Activation of the low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase in keratinocytes exposed to hyperosmotic stress.

    Rodrigo A Silva

    Full Text Available Herein, we provide new contribution to the mechanisms involved in keratinocytes response to hyperosmotic shock showing, for the first time, the participation of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP activity in this event. We reported that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress mediates alterations in the phosphorylation of pivotal cytoskeletal proteins, particularly Src and cofilin. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of the phosphorylated form of LMWPTP, which was followed by an augment in its catalytic activity, was observed. Of particular importance, these responses occurred in an intracellular milieu characterized by elevated levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Altogether, our results suggest that hyperosmostic stress provides a favorable cellular environment to the activation of LMWPTP, which is associated with increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, high levels of GSH and inhibition of Src kinase. Finally, the real contribution of LMWPTP in the hyperosmotic stress response of keratinocytes was demonstrated through analysis of the effects of ACP1 gene knockdown in stressed and non-stressed cells. LMWPTP knockdown attenuates the effects of sorbitol induced-stress in HaCaT cells, mainly in the status of Src kinase, Rac and STAT5 phosphorylation and activity. These results describe for the first time the participation of LMWPTP in the dynamics of cytoskeleton rearrangement during exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic shock, which may contribute to cell death.

  1. The Arabidopsis RNA-Binding Protein AtRGGA Regulates Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stress

    Ambrosone, Alfredo


    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress.

  2. An Arabidopsis mitochondrial uncoupling protein confers tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions.

  3. Serum Levels of Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Differ according to Sasang Constitutional Type

    Hyeong Geug Kim


    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated whether Sasang constitutional type is associated with differences in the serum levels of stress hormones and oxidative stress. Methods. A total of 236 participants (77 males and 159 females were enrolled. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenaline, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA were analyzed. Results. The distribution of Sasang constitutional types was as follows: Taeumin, 35.6%; Soumin, 33.0%; and Soyangin, 31.4%. The serum cortisol levels of Taeumin were significantly lower than Soumin (p<0.1 in both sexes and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. The adrenaline levels were also significantly lower in Taeumin than in Soumin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females and Soyangin (p<0.1 in males. Serum ROS levels were significantly higher in Soyangin than in Taeumin and Soumin (p<0.05 in males, whereas MDA levels were significantly lower in Taeumin compared with Soumin and Soyangin (p<0.05 in males and p<0.1 in females. Conclusion. Taeumin type may tolerate psychological or oxidative stress better than other types, which suggests a biological mechanism to explain the different pathophysiological features of Sasang constitutional types.

  4. Effect of oxidative stress on homer scaffolding proteins.

    Igor Nepliouev

    Full Text Available Homer proteins are a family of multifaceted scaffolding proteins that participate in the organization of signaling complexes at the post-synaptic density and in a variety of tissues including striated muscle. Homer isoforms form multimers via their C-terminal coiled coil domains, which allows for the formation of a polymeric network in combination with other scaffolding proteins. We hypothesized that the ability of Homer isoforms to serve as scaffolds would be influenced by oxidative stress. We have found by standard SDS-PAGE of lysates from adult mouse skeletal muscle exposed to air oxidation that Homer migrates as both a dimer and monomer in the absence of reducing agents and solely as a monomer in the presence of a reducing agent, suggesting that Homer dimers exposed to oxidation could be modified by the presence of an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Analysis of the peptide sequence of Homer 1b revealed the presence of only two cysteine residues located adjacent to the C-terminal coiled-coil domain. HEK 293 cells were transfected with wild-type and cysteine mutant forms of Homer 1b and exposed to oxidative stress by addition of menadione, which resulted in the formation of disulfide bonds except in the double mutant (C246G, C365G. Exposure of myofibers from adult mice to oxidative stress resulted in decreased solubility of endogenous Homer isoforms. This change in solubility was dependent on disulfide bond formation. In vitro binding assays revealed that cross-linking of Homer dimers enhanced the ability of Homer 1b to bind Drebrin, a known interacting partner. Our results show that oxidative stress results in disulfide cross-linking of Homer isoforms and loss of solubility of Homer scaffolds. This suggests that disulfide cross-linking of a Homer polymeric network may contribute to the pathophysiology seen in neurodegenerative diseases and myopathies characterized by oxidative stress.


    Retno Lestari


    Full Text Available Introduction: A nurse who experience burnout feelings will influence their motivation, and quality performance. This situation is probably affecting a decline in work quality towards the caring behaviour demonstrated by nurses to their patiens, particularly for a nurse who are working in the long-stay installation room facing directly to patient's problems. The purpose of this research is to identify the work stress level of nurse towards the nurse's caring behaviour in the long-stay installation room (IRNA in general hospital in Malang. Method: This research used descriptive – correlational, the sampling was Non Probability Purposive Sampling with 93 nurses as the corresponds. The data was analyzed by operating Correlation Pearson, with a significance of p < 0.05. Result: The result found that there was a substantial correlation between the work stress level and the nurse's caring behaviour with p = 0.008 and r = -0.274, and it was a negative correlation. Discussion: It means that when the stress level of nurses will declined, the nurse's caring behavior automatically will beamplified. Conversely, if the stess level of nurses intensively increased, the nurse's caring behaviour become decreased. Thus, this research is needed to be analyzed further in order to asses the quality of caring behaviour by expanding the connected indicator and variable. It is aimed to improve the professionalism and quality of nurses in giving the best service to patients this research need to be continued further in order to asses the quality of nurse's caring behavior by expanding the variable, which is related to internal factors, such as knowledge, perception, emotion, ect and also connected to external factors, such as environment, both physically and non physically like: climate, human being, social economic, culture and ect.

  6. Lysosome dysfunction enhances oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through ubiquitinated protein accumulation in Hela cells.

    Yu, Chunyan; Huang, Xiaowei; Xu, Ye; Li, Hongyan; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jiateng; Kang, Jinsong; Liu, Yuhe; Sun, Liankun


    The role of lysosomal system in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cancer cells is not fully understood. Menadione is frequently used as oxidative stress model. It is indicated that menadione could induce autophagy in Hela cells. In the present study, we examined whether the lysosomal inhibitor, ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl) could prevent the autophagy flux by inhibiting the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes and enhance apoptosis induced by menadione via mitochondrial pathway. The results demonstrated generation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins and GRP78 in cells treated with both menadione and NH(4)Cl. Our data indicates that lysosomal system through autophagy plays an important role in preventing menadione-induced apoptosis in Hela cells by clearing misfolded proteins, which alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  7. Protein Thiols as an Indication of Oxidative Stress

    Yousef Rezaei Chianeh


    Full Text Available Thiol is an organic compound that contain sulphhydryl group that have a critical role in preventing any involvement of oxidative stress in the cell. These defensive functions are generally considered to be carried out by the low molecular weight thiol glutathione and by cysteine residues in the active sites of proteins such as thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin. In addition, there are thiols exposed on protein surfaces that are not directly involved with protein function, although they can interact with the intracellular environment.The process of protection of the cell against an oxidative damage occur by thiol and cystein residue that has a low molecular weight. These residue are present in the active sites of a protein like, peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin. Apart from intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism by protein thiol, there are presence of thiol in outer surface of protein that are not involved with the function of protein, even though they can interact with intracellular part of the cell. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 443-456

  8. Increased heat shock protein expression after stress in Japanese quail.

    Hoekstra, K A; Iwama, G K; Nichols, C R; Godin, D V; Cheng, K M


    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been shown to provide information on the biological impact of environmental stress to organisms, yet none have investigated the HSP response to stress in birds. Japanese quail were exposed to seven different stressors (mild restraint, loud noise, inescapable irritation, cold temperature, isolation in darkness, and two stressful social situations) and expression of HSP30, 60, 70, and 90 in heart, liver, lung, kidney and gonads was examined. Tonic Immobility (TI) tests were also conducted to assess whether the stressors increased fear response. Increased expression of HSP70 was found in the myocardial tissue of birds exposed to loud noise, inescapable irritation, cold temperature, and isolation in darkness. Increased expression of other HSPs was not apparent in the heart or any of the other all tissues examined. Longer TI was observed only in birds exposed to the noise stress. Evidence is presented that a fairly wide range of stressors caused increased expression of HSP70 in the Japanese quail myocardial tissue and that HSPs may provide useful biomarkers for the study of environmental stress in birds.

  9. [Stress hormones liberated by fangotherapy. ACTH and beta-endorphin levels under heat stress].

    Giusti, P; Cima, L; Tinello, A; Cozzi, F; Targa, L; Lazzarin, P; Todesco, S


    In 6 healthy subjects submitted to fango therapy in the Euganean thermal baths (Italy), the plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and ACTH increased transitorily but significantly. These results correlate with the release of these peptides by the pituitary in response to thermal stressing. The analgesic and hypothermic action responsible for good toleration of thermal stress induced by fango therapy, can be explained by this increase in plasma beta-endorphin. The repeated brief increases in plasma beta-endorphin during thermal treatment result in progressive improvement in articular and muscular symptomatology. The results of our study on plasma levels of ACTH confirm that the thermal stress associated with fango therapy activates the pituitary gland. Immunomodulatory effects are discussed.

  10. Increased oxidative stress and plasma Hsp70 levels among gasoline filling station attendants.

    Xia, Bing; Chen, Kangcheng; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Liu, Jing; Liang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Li'e; Wang, Fenfen; Su, Cheng; Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo


    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) and is used as an antiknock agent and octane enhancer in gasoline. In this article, we tested the oxidative stress and heat stress protein (Hsp) 70 levels of gasoline station attendants to explore potential plasma biomarkers. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship was also identified. A total of 144 workers, including 96 petrol fillers and 48 cashiers, participated in the study. Ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and Mn were monitored at nine filling stations. During the measuring process, the individual cumulative exposure index was calculated. Plasma oxidative stress and Hsp70 levels were also analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The BTEX time-weighted average in office areas was significantly lower than in refuelling areas ( p stress indicators compared with the control group, respectively: superoxide dismutase (SOD), 39.18 ± 6.05 U/mL versus 52.84 ± 3.87 U/mL; glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), 186.07 ± 15.63 U versus 194.38 ± 10.42 U; and malondialdehyde (MDA), 1.68 ± 0.52 nmol/L versus 1.43 ± 0.64 nmol/L (in all comparisons, p level in the exposed group (2.77 ± 0.64 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.32 ± 0.87 ng/mL; p levels were inversely correlated with the activities of SOD ( r = -0.305) and GSH-Px ( r = -0.302) in the exposed group ( p levels and plasma MDA levels ( p stress among filling station attendants. Plasma Hsp70 levels could be used as a sensitive responsive biomarker for exposed workers.

  11. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: the protein and methionine connection.

    Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo


    Caloric restriction (CR) decreases aging rate and mitochondrial ROS (MitROS) production and oxidative stress in rat postmitotic tissues. Low levels of these parameters are also typical traits of long-lived mammals and birds. However, it is not known what dietary components are responsible for these changes during CR. It was recently observed that 40% protein restriction without strong CR also decreases MitROS generation and oxidative stress. This is interesting because protein restriction also increases maximum longevity (although to a lower extent than CR) and is a much more practicable intervention for humans than CR. Moreover, it was recently found that 80% methionine restriction substituting it for l-glutamate in the diet also decreases MitROS generation in rat liver. Thus, methionine restriction seems to be responsible for the decrease in ROS production observed in caloric restriction. This is interesting because it is known that exactly that procedure of methionine restriction also increases maximum longevity. Moreover, recent data show that methionine levels in tissue proteins negatively correlate with maximum longevity in mammals and birds. All these suggest that lowering of methionine levels is involved in the control of mitochondrial oxidative stress and vertebrate longevity by at least two different mechanisms: decreasing the sensitivity of proteins to oxidative damage, and lowering of the rate of ROS generation at mitochondria.

  12. Whey protein inhibits iron overload-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Kim, Jungmi; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Yoh-Chang; Park, Eunju


    In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein on oxidative stress in rats that were subjected to oxidative stress induced by iron overload. Thirty male rats were assigned to 3 groups: the control group (regular [50 mg/kg diet] dose of iron+20% casein), iron overload group (high [2,000 mg/kg] dose of iron+20% casein, IO), and whey protein group (high dose of iron+10% casein+10% whey protein, IO+whey). After 6 wk, the IO group showed a reduction in the plasma total radical trapping antioxidant parameter and the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and an increase in lipid peroxidation (determined from the proportion of conjugated dienes). However, whey protein ameliorated the oxidative changes induced by iron overload. The concentration of erythrocyte glutathione was significantly higher in the IO+whey group than in the IO group. In addition, whey protein supplementation fully inhibited iron overload-induced DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between plasma iron levels and DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. These results show the antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of whey protein in an in vivo model of iron overload-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Structure of the stress response protein DR1199 from Deinococcus radiodurans: a member of the DJ-1 superfamily.

    Fioravanti, Emanuela; Durá, M Asunción; Lascoux, David; Micossi, Elena; Franzetti, Bruno; McSweeney, Sean


    The expression level of protein DR1199 is observed to increase considerably in the radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans following irradiation. This protein belongs to the DJ-1 superfamily, which includes proteins with diverse functions, such as the archaeal proteases PhpI and PfpI, the bacterial chaperone Hsp31 and hyperosmotic stress protein YhbO, and the human Parkinson's disease-related protein DJ-1. All members of the superfamily are oligomeric, and the oligomerization interface varies from protein to protein. Although for many of these proteins, their function remains obscure, most of them are involved in cellular protection against environmental stresses. We have determined the structure of DR1199 to a resolution of 2.15 A, and we have tested its function and studied its role in the response to irradiation and more generally to oxidative stress in D. radiodurans. The protein is a dimer displaying an oligomerization interface similar to that observed for the YhbO and PhpI proteins. The cysteine in the catalytic triad (Cys 115) is oxidized in our structure, similar to modifications seen in the corresponding cysteine of the DJ-1 protein. The oxidation occurs spontaneously in DR1199 crystals. In solution, no proteolytic or chaperone activity was detected. On the basis of our results, we suggest that DR1199 might work as a general stress protein involved in the detoxification of the cell from oxygen reactive species, rather than as a peptidase in D. radiodurans.

  14. Creep and Fracture of a Protein Gel under Stress

    Leocmach, Mathieu; Perge, Christophe; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien


    Biomaterials such as protein or polysaccharide gels are known to behave qualitatively as soft solids and to rupture under an external load. Combining optical and ultrasonic imaging to shear rheology we show that the failure scenario of a protein gel is reminiscent of brittle solids: after a primary creep regime characterized by a power-law behavior whose exponent is fully accounted for by linear viscoelasticity, fractures nucleate and grow logarithmically perpendicularly to shear, up to the sudden rupture of the gel. A single equation accounting for those two successive processes nicely captures the full rheological response. The failure time follows a decreasing power law with the applied shear stress, similar to the Basquin law of fatigue for solids. These results are in excellent agreement with recent fiber-bundle models that include damage accumulation on elastic fibers and exemplify protein gels as model, brittlelike soft solids.

  15. Lipid-protein interactions: Lessons learned from stress.

    Battle, A R; Ridone, P; Bavi, N; Nakayama, Y; Nikolaev, Y A; Martinac, B


    Biological membranes are essential for normal function and regulation of cells, forming a physical barrier between extracellular and intracellular space and cellular compartments. These physical barriers are subject to mechanical stresses. As a consequence, nature has developed proteins that are able to transpose mechanical stimuli into meaningful intracellular signals. These proteins, termed Mechanosensitive (MS) proteins provide a variety of roles in response to these stimuli. In prokaryotes these proteins form transmembrane spanning channels that function as osmotically activated nanovalves to prevent cell lysis by hypoosmotic shock. In eukaryotes, the function of MS proteins is more diverse and includes physiological processes such as touch, pain and hearing. The transmembrane portion of these channels is influenced by the physical properties such as charge, shape, thickness and stiffness of the lipid bilayer surrounding it, as well as the bilayer pressure profile. In this review we provide an overview of the progress to date on advances in our understanding of the intimate biophysical and chemical interactions between the lipid bilayer and mechanosensitive membrane channels, focusing on current progress in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems. These advances are of importance due to the increasing evidence of the role the MS channels play in disease, such as xerocytosis, muscular dystrophy and cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, insights gained from lipid-protein interactions of MS channels are likely relevant not only to this class of membrane proteins, but other bilayer embedded proteins as well. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

    Mohammad-Zaman Nouri


    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4, type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress.

  17. Differential proteins of the optic ganglion in octopus vulgaris under methanol stress revealed using proteomics.

    Huang, Lin; Huang, Qing-Yu; Chen, Hai-Bin; Huang, Fu-Sheng; Huang, He-Qing


    An analytical approach using the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) technique separated the proteome from the optic ganglia of Octopus vulgaris (OVOG). Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the extraction when applying 150 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 5.0-8.0. Compared to the control, significant changes of 18 protein spots were observed in OVOG under the stress of native seawater containing 2% methanol for 72 h. Among these spots, we found that eight were down-regulated and ten were up-regulated in the gels, which were further identified using both peptide mass fingerprinting and database searches. Significant proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were up-regulated proteins, whereas putative ABC transporter was a down -regulated protein. These differential proteins at the level of subcellular localization were further classified using LOCtree software with a hierarchical system of support vector machines. We found that most of the differential proteins in the gel could be identified as mitochondrial proteins, suggesting that these protective or marker proteins might help to prevent methanol poisoning via the mitochondria in the optical ganglia. The results indicated that both beta-tubulin and beta-actin were potential biomarkers as up-regulated proteins for monitoring methanol toxicosis associated with fish foods such as octopus and shark.

  18. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W


    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  19. Surfactant protein A2 mutations associated with pulmonary fibrosis lead to protein instability and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Maitra, Meenakshi; Wang, Yongyu; Gerard, Robert D; Mendelson, Carole R; Garcia, Christine Kim


    Rare heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2, SFTPA2) are associated with adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis and adenocarcinoma of the lung. We have previously shown that two recombinant SP-A2 mutant proteins (G231V and F198S) remain within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of A549 cells and are not secreted into the culture medium. The pathogenic mechanism of the mutant proteins is unknown. Here we analyze all common and rare variants of the surfactant protein A2, SP-A2, in both A549 cells and in primary type II alveolar epithelial cells. We show that, in contrast with all other SP-A2 variants, the mutant proteins are not secreted into the medium with wild-type SP-A isoforms, form fewer intracellular dimer and trimer oligomers, are partially insoluble in 0.5% Nonidet P-40 lysates of transfected A549 cells, and demonstrate greater protein instability in chymotrypsin proteolytic digestions. Both the G231V and F198S mutant SP-A2 proteins are destroyed via the ER-association degradation pathway. Expression of the mutant proteins increases the transcription of a BiP-reporter construct, expression of BiP protein, and production of an ER stress-induced XBP-1 spliced product. Human bronchoalveolar wash samples from individuals who are heterozygous for the G231V mutation have similar levels of total SP-A as normal family members, which suggests that the mechanism of disease does not involve an overt lack of secreted SP-A but instead involves an increase in ER stress of resident type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  20. A novel role of c-FLIP protein in regulation of ER stress response.

    Conti, Silvia; Petrungaro, Simonetta; Marini, Elettra Sara; Masciarelli, Silvia; Tomaipitinca, Luana; Filippini, Antonio; Giampietri, Claudia; Ziparo, Elio


    Cellular-Flice-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an apoptosis modulator known to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway thus blocking Caspase-8 processing in the Death Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC). We previously demonstrated that c-FLIP localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that c-FLIP-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display an enlarged ER morphology. In the present study, we have addressed the consequences of c-FLIP ablation in the ER stress response by investigating the effects of pharmacologically-induced ER stress in Wild Type (WT) and c-FLIP-/- MEFs. Surprisingly, c-FLIP-/- MEFs were found to be strikingly more resistant than WT MEFs to ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Analysis of Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathways revealed that Pancreatic ER Kinase (PERK) and Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1) branch signalling is compromised in c-FLIP-/- cells when compared with WT cells. We found that c-FLIP modulates the PERK pathway by interfering with the activity of the serine threonine kinase AKT. Indeed, c-FLIP-/- MEFs display higher levels of active AKT than WT MEFs upon ER stress, while treatment with a specific AKT inhibitor of c-FLIP-/- MEFs subjected to ER stress restores the PERK but not the IRE1 pathway. Importantly, the AKT inhibitor or dominant negative AKT transfection sensitizes c-FLIP-/- cells to ER stress-induced cell death while the expression of a constitutively active AKT reduces WT cells sensitivity to ER stress-induced death. Thus, our results demonstrate that c-FLIP modulation of AKT activity is crucial in controlling PERK signalling and sensitivity to ER stress, and highlight c-FLIP as a novel molecular player in PERK and IRE1-mediated ER stress response.

  1. Epsilon PKC increases brain mitochondrial SIRT1 protein levels via heat shock protein 90 following ischemic preconditioning in rats.

    John W Thompson

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning is a neuroprotective mechanism whereby a sublethal ischemic exposure is protective against a subsequent lethal ischemic attack. We previously demonstrated that SIRT1, a nuclear localized stress-activated deacetylase, is vital for ischemic preconditioning neuroprotection. However, a recent study demonstrated that SIRT1 can also localize to the mitochondria. Mitochondrial localized SIRT1 may allow for a direct protection of mitochondria following ischemic preconditioning. The objective of this study was to determine whether ischemic preconditioning increases brain mitochondrial SIRT1 protein levels and to determine the role of PKCɛ and HSP90 in targeting SIRT1 to the mitochondria. Here we report that preconditioning rats, with 2 min of global cerebral ischemia, induces a delayed increase in non-synaptic mitochondrial SIRT1 protein levels which was not observed in synaptic mitochondria. This increase in mitochondrial SIRT1 protein was found to occur only in neuronal cells and was mediated by PKCε activation. Inhibition of HSP90, a protein chaperone involved in mitochondrial protein import, prevented preconditioning induced increases in mitochondrial SIRT1 and PKCε protein. Our work provides new insights into a possible direct role of SIRT1 in modulating mitochondrial function under both normal and stress conditions, and to a possible role of mitochondrial SIRT1 in activating preconditioning induced ischemic tolerance.

  2. Disease progression and oxidative stress are associated with higher serum ferritin levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Ferreira, Katerine Panichi Zanin; Oliveira, Sayonara R; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio R; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson B; de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Mezzaroba, Leda; Dichi, Isaias; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Simão, Andréa Name Colado


    Hyperferritinemia and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ferritin and to verify their association with oxidative stress markers and MS progression. This study included 164 MS patients, which were divided in two groups according to their levels of ferritin (cut off 125.6μg/L). Oxidative stress was evaluated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence (CL-LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), carbonyl protein, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), sulfhydryl groups of protein and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). MS patients with elevated levels of ferritin showed higher disease progression (p=0.030), AOPP (p=0.001), and lower plasma NOx levels (p=0.031) and TRAP (p=0.006) than MS patients with lower ferritin levels. The multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that increased AOPP and progression of disease were significantly and positively associated with increase of ferritin. The combination of serum ferritin levels and oxidative stress markers were responsible for 13,9% in the disease progression. In conclusion, our results suggest that ferritin could aggravate oxidative stress in patients with MS and contribute to progression of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Exercise Decreases Tribbles Homolog 3 Protein Levels in the Hypothalamus of Obese Rats.

    Rodrigues, Barbara De Almeira; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; DE Souza, Claudio Teodoro; DA Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos; Cintra, Dennys Esper Correa; Marinho, Rodolfo; DE Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eloize Cristina Chiarreotto; Botezelli, José Diego; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo


    This study aims to evaluate the effects of acute exercise on tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) protein levels and on the interaction between TRB3 and Akt proteins in the hypothalamus of obese rats. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between TRB3 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and verified whether an acute exercise session influences them. In the first part of the study, the rats were divided into three groups: control (lean), fed standard rodent chow; DIO, fed a high-fat diet; and DIO-EXE, fed a high-fat diet and submitted to a swimming acute exercise protocol. In the second part of the study, we used three other groups: control (lean) group receiving an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of vehicle, lean group receiving an i.c.v. infusion of thapsigargin, and lean group receiving an i.c.v. infusion of thapsigargin and performing an acute exercise session. Four hours after the exercise session, food intake was measured, and the hypothalamus was dissected and separated for subsequent protein analysis by immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The acute exercise session reduced TRB3 protein levels, disrupted the interaction between TRB3 and Akt proteins, increased the phosphorylation of Foxo1, and restored the anorexigenic effects of insulin on the hypothalamus of DIO rats. Interestingly, the suppressive effects of acute exercise on TRB3 protein levels may be related, at least in part, to decreased ER stress (evaluated though pancreatic ER kinase phosphorylation and C/EBP homologous protein levels) in the hypothalamus. Exercise-mediated reduction of hypothalamic TRB3 protein levels may be associated with reduction of ER stress. These data provide a new mechanism by which an acute exercise session improves insulin sensitivity in the hypothalamus and restores food intake control in obesity.

  4. Expression levels of urotensin II are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in patients with severe preeclampsia.

    He, W-Y; Chen, G-J; Lai, X; Wu, F; Tang, C-S; Zhang, A-H


    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. We aim to study urotensin II (UII) and its association with the markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in placentas of patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE). Thirty-three patients with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and twenty-two healthy pregnant women designated as healthy controls were recruited. Expression levels of UII, UII receptor (GPR14) and the markers of ERS in placenta specimens of patients were performed. Plasma and urinary UII levels were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Our study showed that the plasma levels of UII in patients with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, the urinary levels of UII had no difference in two groups. The expression level of mRNA and protein of UII, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose regulation protein 78 in placentas of SPE was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the expression levels of UII and ERS markers were mainly located in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblastic cells. Moreover, expression level of UII mRNA and protein was positively correlated with that of the markers of ERS. The positive correlation between UII and ERS markers expression level also corresponded with the level of patient's systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. In conclusion, we first verify that expression of UII is associated with ERS in patients with SPE. Our results indicate that UII may trigger ERS in placental trophoblastic cells in patients with preeclampsia.

  5. Cold-stress-induced modulation of antioxidant defence: role of stressed conditions in tissue injury followed by protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation

    Şahin, E.; Gümüşlü, S.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cold stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and examine protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in various tissues (brain, liver, kidney, heart and stomach). Twenty male Wistar rats (3 months old) weighing 220 +/- 20 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten: the control group and the cold stress group. Cold stress was applied to the animals by maintaining them in a cold room (5 °C) for 15 min/day for 15 days. Blood samples were taken for measuring plasma corticosterone levels. Tissues were obtained from each rat for measuring the antioxidant enzyme activities, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Corticosterone levels were increased in the cold stress group. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the brains, livers and kidneys, whereas they decreased in the hearts and stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Catalase activities were increased in the brains, livers, kidneys and hearts, whereas they decreased in the stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the brain, liver, heart and stomach. Reduced glutathione levels were decreased, while levels of protein carbonyl, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased in all tissues of the cold stress group. These results lead us to conclude that cold stress can disrupt the balance in an oxidant/antioxidant system and cause oxidative damage to several tissues by altering the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation.

  6. Proteomic analysis of stress-related proteins in transgenic broccoli harboring a gene for cytokinin production during postharvest senescence.

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Li, Hui-Chun; Chang, You-Min; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver


    Our previous study revealed a cytokinin-related retardation of post-harvest floret yellowing in transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) that harbored the bacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) gene. We aimed to investigate the underlining mechanism of this delayed post-harvest senescence. We used 2D electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry for a proteomics analysis of heads of ipt-transgenic and non-transgenic inbred lines of broccoli at harvest and after four days post-harvest storage. At harvest, we found an accumulation of stress-responsive proteins involved in maintenance of protein folding (putative protein disulfide isomerase, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and chaperonins), scavenging of reactive oxygen species (Mn superoxide dismutase), and stress protection [myrosinase-binding protein, jasmonate inducible protein, dynamin-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 and stress-inducible tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein]. After four days' post-harvest storage of non-transgenic broccoli florets, the levels of proteins involved in protein folding and carbon fixation were decreased, which indicates cellular degradation and a change in metabolism toward senescence. In addition, staining for antioxidant enzyme activity of non-transgenic plants after post-harvest storage revealed a marked decrease in activity of Fe-superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus, the accumulation of stress-responsive proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in ipt-transgenic broccoli are most likely associated with retardation of post-harvest senescence.

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atm-Deficient Thymocytes and Thymic Lymphoma Cells Are Attributable to Oxidative Stress

    Mingshan Yan


    Full Text Available Both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress have been implicated in carcinogenesis. It is well documented that cells deficient in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM gene undergo oxidative stress, which is critically involved in thymic lymphomagenesis in Atm-/- mice. Here we demonstrate that undifferentiated Atm-/- thymocytes show signs of ER stress and of the unfolded protein response (UPR. Using two-dimensional (2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS analysis, we identified 22 differentially expressed proteins, including the ER stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, in Atm-/- thymocytes and in Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cells relative to Atm+/+ thymocytes. The phosphorylated α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2α, a UPR marker, was also increased in Atm-/- thymocytes. Cells of the ATL-1 line, which were derived from an Atm-/- mouse thymic lymphoma, were more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than were Atm+/+ thymic leukemia ASL-1 cells. Notably, treatment with hydrogen peroxide duplicated the effects of ATM deficiency in cultured thymocytes, and treatment with the novel cell-permeable thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4 reduced elevated p-eIF2α levels in thymocytes of Atm-/- mice. Thus, we propose that ER stress and the UPR are secondary to oxidative stress in Atm-/- thymocytes.

  8. Psychological stress has no association with salivary levels of β-defensin 2 and β-defensin 3.

    Forte, Lilibeth Ferraz de Brito Penna; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cortelli, José Roberto; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Campos, Maria Valéria Costa; Cogo, Karina; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre


    Recent studies suggest that stress can predispose an individual to the development of periodontal disease, but the exact biological mechanism is unknown. Considering that psychological stress can down-regulate the production of β-defensins (antimicrobial peptides produced in the oral cavity), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between stress and salivary levels of β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and β-defensin 3 (HBD-3). For this purpose, seventy five volunteers, classified as periodontally healthy, were submitted to a psychological evaluation using a validated questionnaire (Questionnaire of Lipp-ISS). Following analysis of the questionnaires, the subjects were divided in two groups (Group A: Absence of stress and Group B: Presence of stress). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected and the concentration of total protein was determined using the BCA method, and the concentrations of HBD-2 and HBD-3 were determined by ELISA. The levels of total protein did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups. Analyses of HBD-2 and HBD-3 concentrations indicate that the stress condition was not associated with the levels of either peptide in saliva (P=0.3664 for HBD-2 and P=0.3608 for HBD-3). In periodontally healthy subjects, HBD-2 and HBD-3 levels are not influenced by stress. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.


    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  10. Imbalance of heterologous protein folding and disulfide bond formation rates yields runaway oxidative stress

    Tyo Keith EJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein secretory pathway must process a wide assortment of native proteins for eukaryotic cells to function. As well, recombinant protein secretion is used extensively to produce many biologics and industrial enzymes. Therefore, secretory pathway dysfunction can be highly detrimental to the cell and can drastically inhibit product titers in biochemical production. Because the secretory pathway is a highly-integrated, multi-organelle system, dysfunction can happen at many levels and dissecting the root cause can be challenging. In this study, we apply a systems biology approach to analyze secretory pathway dysfunctions resulting from heterologous production of a small protein (insulin precursor or a larger protein (α-amylase. Results HAC1-dependent and independent dysfunctions and cellular responses were apparent across multiple datasets. In particular, processes involving (a degradation of protein/recycling amino acids, (b overall transcription/translation repression, and (c oxidative stress were broadly associated with secretory stress. Conclusions Apparent runaway oxidative stress due to radical production observed here and elsewhere can be explained by a futile cycle of disulfide formation and breaking that consumes reduced glutathione and produces reactive oxygen species. The futile cycle is dominating when protein folding rates are low relative to disulfide bond formation rates. While not strictly conclusive with the present data, this insight does provide a molecular interpretation to an, until now, largely empirical understanding of optimizing heterologous protein secretion. This molecular insight has direct implications on engineering a broad range of recombinant proteins for secretion and provides potential hypotheses for the root causes of several secretory-associated diseases.

  11. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis.

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo; Chambrone, Leandro


    Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in plants.

    Wan, Shucen; Jiang, Liwen


    Being a major factory for protein synthesis, assembly, and export, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a precise and robust ER quality control (ERQC) system monitoring its product line. However, when organisms are subjected to environmental stress, whether biotic or abiotic, the levels of misfolded proteins may overwhelm the ERQC system, tilting the balance between the capacity of and demand for ER quality control and resulting in a scenario termed ER stress. Intense or prolonged ER stress may cause damage to the ER as well as to other organelles, or even lead to cell death in extreme cases. To avoid such serious consequences, cells activate self-rescue programs to restore protein homeostasis in the ER, either through the enhancement of protein-folding and degradation competence or by alleviating the demands for such reactions. These are collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Long investigated in mammalian cells and yeasts, the UPR is also of great interest to plant scientists. Among the three branches of UPR discovered in mammals, two have been studied in plants with plant homologs existing of the ER-membrane-associated activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of these two types of UPR in plants, as well as the consequences of insufficient UPR, with a focus on experiments using model plants.

  13. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.


    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  14. Using Co-Expression Analysis and Stress-Based Screens to Uncover Arabidopsis Peroxisomal Proteins Involved in Drought Response.

    Jiying Li

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are essential organelles that house a wide array of metabolic reactions important for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge regarding the role of peroxisomal proteins in various biological processes, including plant stress response, is still incomplete. Recent proteomic studies of plant peroxisomes significantly increased the number of known peroxisomal proteins and greatly facilitated the study of peroxisomes at the systems level. The objectives of this study were to determine whether genes that encode peroxisomal proteins with related functions are co-expressed in Arabidopsis and identify peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response using in silico analysis and mutant screens. Using microarray data from online databases, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis to generate a comprehensive view of transcript level changes for Arabidopsis peroxisomal genes during development and under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Many genes involved in the same metabolic pathways exhibited co-expression, some genes known to be involved in stress response are regulated by the corresponding stress conditions, and function of some peroxisomal proteins could be predicted based on their co-expression pattern. Since drought caused expression changes to the highest number of genes that encode peroxisomal proteins, we subjected a subset of Arabidopsis peroxisomal mutants to a drought stress assay. Mutants of the LON2 protease and the photorespiratory enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase 1 (HPR1 showed enhanced susceptibility to drought, suggesting the involvement of peroxisomal quality control and photorespiration in drought resistance. Our study provided a global view of how genes that encode peroxisomal proteins respond to developmental and environmental cues and began to reveal additional peroxisomal proteins involved in stress response, thus opening up new avenues to investigate the role of peroxisomes in plant adaptation to

  15. Economic Stress and Suicide: Multilevel Analyses. Part 2: Cross-Level Analyses of Economic Stress and Suicidal Ideation.

    Dooley, David; And Others


    Conducted two studies on economic stress and suicide on same population. Second study combined aggregate economic indicators with individual-level measures of stressful events, symptoms, and suicidal ideation obtained in survey of Los Angeles, California (1978-82). Findings revealed small associations between economic stress and suicide or…

  16. Aging induces cardiac diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts and protein modification.

    Li, Shi-Yan; Du, Min; Dolence, E Kurt; Fang, Cindy X; Mayer, Gabriele E; Ceylan-Isik, Asli F; LaCour, Karissa H; Yang, Xiaoping; Wilbert, Christopher J; Sreejayan, Nair; Ren, Jun


    Evidence suggests that aging, per se, is a major risk factor for cardiac dysfunction. Oxidative modification of cardiac proteins by non-enzymatic glycation, i.e. advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), has been implicated as a causal factor in the aging process. This study was designed to examine the role of aging on cardiomyocyte contractile function, cardiac protein oxidation and oxidative modification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in ventricular myocytes from young (2-month) and aged (24-26-month) mice using a MyoCam system. The mechanical indices evaluated were peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt). Oxidative stress and protein damage were evaluated by glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase was determined by immunoblotting. Aged myocytes displayed a larger cell cross-sectional area, prolonged TR90, and normal PS, +/- dL/dt and TPS compared with young myocytes. Aged myocytes were less tolerant of high stimulus frequency (from 0.1 to 5 Hz) compared with young myocytes. Oxidative stress and protein oxidative damage were both elevated in the aging group associated with significantly enhanced p47phox but not gp91phox expression. In addition, level of cardiac AGEs was approximately 2.5-fold higher in aged hearts than young ones determined by AGEs-ELISA. A group of proteins with a molecular range between 50 and 75 kDa with pI of 4-7 was distinctively modified in aged heart using one- or two-dimension SDS gel electrophoresis analysis. These data demonstrate cardiac diastolic dysfunction and reduced stress tolerance in aged cardiac myocytes, which may be associated with enhanced cardiac oxidative damage, level of AGEs and protein modification by AGEs.

  17. A novel approach in psoriasis: first usage of known protein oxidation markers to prove oxidative stress.

    Yazici, Cevat; Köse, Kader; Utaş, Serap; Tanrikulu, Esen; Taşlidere, Nazan


    Oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, an inflammatory/hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by the cutaneous accumulation of neutrophils releasing reactive oxygen species, as revealed in a number of studies. This study was performed to demonstrate the presence of oxidative stress in psoriasis, as measured by protein oxidation markers. Twenty-nine psoriasis patients were selected based on disease severity assessment using body surface area as well as the psoriasis area severity index (PASI), and were grouped as mild (PASI ≤ 10) and moderate-to-severe (PASI > 10). The measured parameters in psoriatic patients and fourteen healthy volunteers were as follows: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, neopterin, total lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), pyrrolized protein (PP), protein carbonyl compounds (PCC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiol levels, along with complete blood count. Except lower thiols, all parameters were found to be higher in total patients as well as in subgroups, compared to controls. There was no significant difference among the subgroups. In conclusion, protein oxidation in psoriatics, not only in moderate-to-severe, but also in mild patients, may be explained by the findings of inflammation, phagocytic cell oxidation, and MPO-hypochlorous acid-oxidation reactions; as reflected by increased total/differential leucocytes counts, CRP, ESR as well as MPO, neopterin, AOPP, PCC, PP, LHP, and decreased thiol levels. Demonstrating the AOPP and PP formation for the first time, oxidants from active neutrophils/monocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, leading to oxidative stress, especially by protein oxidation.

  18. Absence of functional TolC protein causes increased stress response gene expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Moreira Leonilde M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TolC protein from Sinorhizobium meliloti has previously been demonstrated to be required for establishing successful biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis with Medicago sativa. It is also needed in protein and exopolysaccharide secretion and for protection against osmotic and oxidative stresses. Here, the transcriptional profile of free-living S. meliloti 1021 tolC mutant is described as a step toward understanding its role in the physiology of the cell. Results Comparison of tolC mutant and wild-type strains transcriptomes showed 1177 genes with significantly increased expression while 325 had significantly decreased expression levels. The genes with an increased expression suggest the activation of a cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic stress responses possibly mediated by the sigma factor RpoH1 and protein homologues of the CpxRA two-component regulatory system of Enterobacteria, respectively. Stress conditions are probably caused by perturbation of the cell envelope. Consistent with gene expression data, biochemical analysis indicates that the tolC mutant suffers from oxidative stress. This is illustrated by the elevated enzyme activity levels detected for catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. The observed increase in the expression of genes encoding products involved in central metabolism and transporters for nutrient uptake suggests a higher metabolic rate of the tolC mutant. We also demonstrated increased swarming motility in the tolC mutant strain. Absence of functional TolC caused decreased expression mainly of genes encoding products involved in nitrogen metabolism and transport. Conclusion This work shows how a mutation in the outer membrane protein TolC, common to many bacterial transport systems, affects expression of a large number of genes that act in concert to restore cell homeostasis. This finding further underlines the fundamental role of this protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti biology.

  19. The Adaptogens Rhodiola and Schizandra Modify the Response to Immobilization Stress in Rabbits by Suppressing the Increase of Phosphorylated Stress-activated Protein Kinase, Nitric Oxide and Cortisol

    Alexander Panossian


    Full Text Available Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK, the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO, cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the fi nal treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200–300% cf basal levels following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their anti-depressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.

  20. The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol.

    Panossian, Alexander; Hambardzumyan, Marina; Hovhanissyan, Areg; Wikman, Georg


    Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO), cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E(2), leukotriene B(4) and thromboxane B(2) were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the final treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200-300% cf basal levels) following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their antidepressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.

  1. Protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 during reperfusion in human kidney transplants with delayed graft function.

    Ollinger, Robert; Kogler, Pamela; Biebl, Matthias; Sieb, Michael; Sucher, Robert; Bösmüller, Claudia; Troppmair, Jakob; Mark, Walter; Weiss, Helmut; Margreiter, Raimund


    Delayed graft function (DGF) as a consequence of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with a decrease in long-term allograft survival. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress responsive gene that is highly expressed in multiple pathological processes. The aim of our study was to analyze whether HO-1 protein levels in human kidney transplants during IRI correlate with the incidence of DGF. Kidney biopsies were obtained from 27 kidney allografts at two time points: at the end of cold storage and shortly after reperfusion. Samples were analyzed for HO-1 protein levels by Western blot. Heme oxygenase-1 protein levels were significantly higher in post-reperfusion biopsies (39.4 vs. 13.7 arbitrary units, p = 0.001). In pre-reperfusion biopsies no association was observed between HO-1 protein levels and DGF. In post-reperfusion biopsies, higher levels of HO-1 protein were measured in kidneys with DGF (53.7 vs. 36.2 arbitrary units, p = 0.064). DGF kidneys showed a significantly higher increase from pre- to post-reperfusion in HO-1 protein (42.0 vs. 18.7 arbitrary units, p = 0.025). Heme oxygenase-1 protein levels shortly after allograft reperfusion are closely related with initial graft function. Assessment thereof may be considered a valuable tool to predict DGF.

  2. Comparative proteomic study and functional analysis of translationally controlled tumor protein in rice roots under Hg2+ stress

    Feijuan Wang; Yongshen Shang; Ling Yang; Cheng Zhu


    So far,very little is known about mercury stress-induced intercellular metabolic changes in rice roots at the proteome level.To investigate the response of rice roots to mercury stress,changes in protein expression in rice roots were analyzed using a comparative proteomics approach.Six-leaf stage rice seedlings were treated with 50 μmol/L HgCl2 for 3 hr; 29 protein spots showed a significant changes in abundance under stress when compared with the Hg2+-tolerant rice mutant and wild type (Zhonghua 11).Furthermore,all these protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry to match 27 diverse protein species.The identified proteins were involved in several processes,including stress response,redox homeostasis,signal transduction,regulation and metabolism; some were found to be cellular structure proteins and a few were unknown.Among the up-regulated proteins,OsTCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) was chosen to perform hetereologous expression in yeast which was presumed to participate in the Hg2+ tolerance of rice,providing evidence for its role in alleviating Hg2+ damage.Among the many tests,we found that OsTCTP-overexpressed yeast strains were more resistant to Hg2+ than wild-type yeast.Thus,we propose that OsTCTP contributes to Hg2+ resistance.Here we present,for the first time,the functional characterization of OsTCTP in connection with Hg2+ stress in plants.

  3. Protein phosphorylation is involved in the water stress induced ABA accumulation in the roots of Malus hupehensis Rehd


    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation plays a key role in the root to shoot communication and/or the cell to cell signaling under the soil stresses. The signaling of the water stress itself that leads to the accumulation, however, is less known. In this study, we subjected the roots of Malus hupehensis seedlings to water stress treatment and investigated the ABA accumulation in relation to protein phosphorylation. Our results showed that ABA accumulation could be substantially triggered in 40 min and reached 4 folds in 100 min after treatment with 30% PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol). The water stress treatment also led to a substantial enhancement of total kinase activity, assessed with histone-Ⅲ as substrate, in 15 min and a maximum enhancement in 30 min before it declined to initial level. The Ca2+-dependent kinase activity showed a similar, if not more sensitive, trend. When the roots were fed with labeled 32pATP, water stress enhanced the labeling of proteins, which showed a maximum labeling at 40 min. Two inhibitors of protein kinases, Quercetin and H7, effectively diminished or completely blocked the ABA accumulation under the stress treatment. It is therefore suggest that protein phosphorylation is involved in the signaling of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation.

  4. Enriched environment upregulates growthassociated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring

    Zhengyu Zhang; Hua Zhang; Baoling Du; Zhiqiang Chen


    In our previous study, we reported that prenatal restraint stress could induce cognitive deficits, which correlated with a change in expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the hippocampus.In this study, we investigated the effects of enriched environment on cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay results revealed that growth-associated protein 43 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated on postnatal day 15 in the prenatal restraint stress group. Growth-associated protein 43 expression was significantly lower in the prenatal restraint stress group compared with the negative control and prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment groups on postnatal days 30 and 50. Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive abilities were noticeably increased in rats from the prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment group on postnatal day 50. These results indicate that enriched environment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring by upregulating growth-associated protein 43 expression.

  5. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    Torres, Lucas


    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention.

  6. Low level genome mistranslations deregulate the transcriptome and translatome and generate proteotoxic stress in yeast

    Paredes João A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. Results In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down-regulate chaperones linked to ribosomes. Conclusions We provide the first global view of transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to global gene translational errors and we postulate that they cause gradual cell degeneration through synergistic effects of overloading protein quality control systems and deregulation of protein synthesis, but generate adaptive phenotypes in unicellular organisms through activation of stress cross-protection. We conclude that these genome wide gene translational infidelities can be degenerative or adaptive depending on cellular context and physiological condition.

  7. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.


    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  8. Distribution of Vibrational Energy Levels of Protein Molecular Chains

    PANG Xiao-Feng; CHEN Xiang-Rong


    The distributions of the quantum vibrational energy levels of the protein molecular chain are found by the discretely nonlinear Schrodinger equation appropriate to protein obtained from the Davydov theory. The results calculated by this method are basically consistent with the experimental values. Furthermore, the energy spectra at high excited states have also been obtained for the molecular chain which is helpful in researching the properties of infrared absorption and Raman scattering of the protein molecules.

  9. Stress levels of student population in Costa Rica. Differences according to socioeconomic, academic achievement, educational level, and geographic location variables

    Sebastien Belhumeur


    Full Text Available : In this paper are described the stress levels of the student population about the variables: socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic level, geographical area and gender. For this purpose, a survey was administered to a randomized sample of 112 students of different careers from the main campus of the University of Costa Rica. Results showed that the major sources of stress in students are academic and financial pressures. Also, results showed that students whose place of origin is far from the main campus of the university have higher levels of stress and finally, women tend to handle higher levels of stress than men.

  10. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    Xing W.


    Full Text Available Growth rate hypothesis (GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios of Potamogeton maackianus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum had no consistent trends with growth rates. However, protein:RNA ratios of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and V. natans all correlated negatively with growth rates, demonstrating GRH can apply to freshwater submerged macrophytes, even though they are threatening by eutrophication stress. Protein:RNA ratios positively correlated with N:P ratios in culture media and tissues in submerged macrophytes except in P. maackianus (30d, suggesting effects of varying N:P ratios in culture media on protein:RNA ratios are basically in concert with tissue N:P ratios under short-time eutrophication stress. Stoichiometric homeostasis coefficients (HN:P indicated submerged macrophytes have weak homeostasis. Stoichiometric homeostasis of V. natans was stronger than those of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and C. demersum. The differences in GRH and homeostasis of the four submerged macrophytes may be due to species traits.

  11. The Arabidopsis DJ-1a protein confers stress protection through cytosolic SOD activation.

    Xu, Xiang Ming; Lin, Hong; Maple, Jodi; Björkblom, Benny; Alves, Guido; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir


    Mutations in the DJ-1 gene (also known as PARK7) cause inherited Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by neuronal death. Although DJ-1 is thought to be an antioxidant protein, the underlying mechanism by which loss of DJ-1 function contributes to cell death is unclear. Human DJ-1 and its Arabidopsis thaliana homologue, AtDJ-1a, are evolutionarily conserved proteins, indicating a universal function. To gain further knowledge of the molecular features associated with DJ-1 dysfunction, we have characterized AtDJ-1a. We show that AtDJ-1a levels are responsive to stress treatment and that AtDJ-1a loss of function results in accelerated cell death in aging plants. By contrast, transgenic plants with elevated AtDJ-1a levels have increased protection against environmental stress conditions, such as strong light, H(2)O(2), methyl viologen and copper sulfate. We further identify superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) as interaction partners of both AtDJ-1a and human DJ-1, and show that this interaction results in AtDJ-1a- and DJ-1-mediated cytosolic SOD1 activation in a copper-dependent fashion. Our data have highlighted a conserved molecular mechanism for DJ-1 and revealed a new protein player in the oxidative stress response of plants.

  12. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress.

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong


    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress.

  13. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance of ...



    Jul 18, 2008 ... tion in dietary protein level without affecting fish growth ... management, environmental factors and fish size can .... water quality is thus considered suitable for fish ... Specific growth rate follows the same trend, it increases.

  14. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios


    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  15. Absorption of Some Nutrient as Affected by Mycorrhizae, Different Levels of Zinc and Drought Stress in Maize

    N.A Sajedi


    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate absorption of some nutrient as affected by mycorrhizae, different levels of zinc and drought stress in maize (KSC 704, an experiment was carried out in research farm of Islamic Azad University–Arak in 2006-2007. The Experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consist of irrigation levels: I1= %100, I2= %75 and I3= %50 crop water requirement, mycorrhiza fungus (Glumus intraradices at two levels (inoculation and non inoculation and zinc sulfate at three levels: 0, 25 and 45 kg ha-1. Results showed that drought stress increased absorption of nitrogen, potassium and protein percentage, but reduced absorption of phosphorous. Inoculation with mycorrhizae increased absorption of nutrients. Using of zinc sulfate increased absorption of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and protein percentage. Inoculation of mycorrhiza under drought stress had not significant effect on absorption of nutrients and protein percentage of grain. Using of zinc sulfate under drought stress increased absorption of nitrogen, potassium and protein percentage of grain but reduced absorption of phosphorous. interactions effects of mycorrhizae and zinc sulfate increased absorption of nutritional elements. The highest amounts of nitrogen and potassium absorption and protein percentage of grain were observed in combination of irrigation equal to 50% of crop water demand, mycorrhiza + 25 kg ha-1 zinc sulfate. The highest grain yield was observed from combination of optimum irrigation, without mycorrhiza + 45 kg ha-1 zinc sulfate. It was concluded that with irrigation equal to 75% water requirement + inoculation with mycorrhiza + 45kg ha-1 zinc sulfate optimum crop yield could be obtained. Keywords: Drought stress, Mycorrhiza, Nutrition of elements, Protein, Maize

  16. Three-dimensional stress field around a membrane protein: atomistic and coarse-grained simulation analysis of gramicidin A.

    Yoo, Jejoong; Cui, Qiang


    Using both atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models, we compute the three-dimensional stress field around a gramicidin A (gA) dimer in lipid bilayers that feature different degrees of negative hydrophobic mismatch. The general trends in the computed stress field are similar at the atomistic and CG levels, supporting the use of the CG model for analyzing the mechanical features of protein/lipid/water interfaces. The calculations reveal that the stress field near the protein-lipid interface exhibits a layered structure with both significant repulsive and attractive regions, with the magnitude of the stress reaching 1000 bar in certain regions. Analysis of density profiles and stress field distributions helps highlight the Trp residues at the protein/membrane/water interface as mechanical anchors, suggesting that similar analysis is useful for identifying tension sensors in other membrane proteins, especially membrane proteins involved in mechanosensation. This work fosters a connection between microscopic and continuum mechanics models for proteins in complex environments and makes it possible to test the validity of assumptions commonly made in continuum mechanics models for membrane mediated processes. For example, using the calculated stress field, we estimate the free energy of membrane deformation induced by the hydrophobic mismatch, and the results for regions beyond the annular lipids are in general consistent with relevant experimental data and previous theoretical estimates using elasticity theory. On the other hand, the assumptions of homogeneous material properties for the membrane and a bilayer thickness at the protein/lipid interface being independent of lipid type (e.g., tail length) appear to be oversimplified, highlighting the importance of annular lipids of membrane proteins. Finally, the stress field analysis makes it clear that the effect of even rather severe hydrophobic mismatch propagates to only about two to three lipid layers, thus putting a

  17. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.


    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  18. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    Metts, Gary A.


    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  19. Bisecting GlcNAc modification stabilizes BACE1 protein under oxidative stress conditions.

    Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Miyako; Kitazume, Shinobu; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi C; Taniguchi, Naoyuki


    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is a protease essential for amyloid-β (Aβ) production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 protein is known to be up-regulated by oxidative stress-inducing stimuli but the mechanism for this up-regulation still needs to be clarified. We have recently found that BACE1 is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III, encoded by the Mgat3 gene) and that GnT-III deficiency reduces Aβ-plaque formation in the brain by accelerating lysosomal degradation of BACE1. Therefore, we hypothesized that bisecting GlcNAc would stabilize BACE1 protein on oxidative stress. In the present study, we first show that Aβ deposition in the mouse brain induces oxidative stress, together with an increase in levels of BACE1 and bisecting GlcNAc. Furthermore, prooxidant treatment induces expression of BACE1 protein in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), whereas it reduces BACE1 protein in GnT-III (Mgat3) knock-out MEFs by accelerating lysosomal degradation of BACE1. We purified BACE1 from Neuro2A cells and performed LC/ESI/MS analysis for BACE1-derived glycopeptides and mapped bisecting GlcNAc-modified sites on BACE1. Point mutations at two N-glycosylation sites (Asn(153) and Asn(223)) abolish the bisecting GlcNAc modification on BACE1. These mutations almost cancelled the enhanced BACE1 degradation seen in Mgat3(-/-) MEFs, indicating that bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1 indeed regulates its degradation. Finally, we show that traumatic brain injury-induced BACE1 up-regulation is significantly suppressed in the Mgat3(-/-) brain. These results highlight the role of bisecting GlcNAc in oxidative stress-induced BACE1 expression and offer a novel glycan-targeted strategy for suppressing Aβ generation.

  20. Vascular plant one-zinc-finger protein 1/2 transcription factors regulate abiotic and biotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Nakai, Yusuke; Nakahira, Yoichi; Sumida, Hiroki; Takebayashi, Kosuke; Nagasawa, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kanako; Akiyama, Masako; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fujiwara, Sumire; Shiina, Takashi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H


    Plants adapt to abiotic and biotic stresses by activating abscisic acid-mediated (ABA) abiotic stress-responsive and salicylic acid-(SA) or jasmonic acid-mediated (JA) biotic stress-responsive pathways, respectively. Although the abiotic stress-responsive pathway interacts antagonistically with the biotic stress-responsive pathways, the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain largely unknown. In this study, we provide insight into the function of vascular plant one-zinc-finger proteins (VOZs) that modulate various stress responses in Arabidopsis. The expression of many stress-responsive genes was changed in the voz1voz2 double mutant under normal growth conditions. Consistent with altered stress-responsive gene expression, freezing- and drought-stress tolerances were increased in the voz1voz2 double mutant. In contrast, resistance to a fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum higginsianum, and to a bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, was severely impaired. Thus, impairing VOZ function simultaneously conferred increased abiotic tolerance and biotic stress susceptibility. In a chilling stress condition, both the VOZ1 and VOZ2 mRNA expression levels and the VOZ2 protein level gradually decreased. VOZ2 degradation during cold exposure was completely inhibited by the addition of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, MG132, a finding that suggested that VOZ2 degradation is dependent on the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. In voz1voz2, ABA-inducible transcription factor CBF4 expression was enhanced significantly even under normal growth conditions, despite an unchanged endogenous ABA content. A finding that suggested that VOZs negatively affect CBF4 expression in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that VOZs function as both negative and positive regulators of the abiotic and biotic stress-responsive pathways, and control Arabidopsis adaptation to various stress conditions. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Proteomic analysis of stress-related proteins and metabolic pathways in Picea asperata somatic embryos during partial desiccation.

    Jing, Danlong; Zhang, Jianwei; Xia, Yan; Kong, Lisheng; OuYang, Fangqun; Zhang, Shougong; Zhang, Hanguo; Wang, Junhui


    Partial desiccation treatment (PDT) stimulates germination and enhances the conversion of conifer somatic embryos. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the responses of somatic embryos to PDT, we used proteomic and physiological analyses to investigate these responses during PDT in Picea asperata. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that, during PDT, stress-related proteins were mainly involved in osmosis, endogenous hormones, antioxidative proteins, molecular chaperones and defence-related proteins. Compared with those in cotyledonary embryos before PDT, these stress-related proteins remained at high levels on days 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) of PDT. The proteins that differentially accumulated in the somatic embryos on D7 were mapped to stress and/or stimuli. They may also be involved in the glyoxylate cycle and the chitin metabolic process. The most significant difference in the differentially accumulated proteins occurred in the metabolic pathways of photosynthesis on D14. Furthermore, in accordance with the changes in stress-related proteins, analyses of changes in water content, abscisic acid, indoleacetic acid and H2 O2 levels in the embryos indicated that PDT is involved in water-deficit tolerance and affects endogenous hormones. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the transition from morphologically mature to physiologically mature somatic embryos during the PDT process in P. asperata. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Acute ER stress regulates amyloid precursor protein processing through ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    Jung, Eun Sun; Hong, HyunSeok; Kim, Chaeyoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee


    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. APP is an integral membrane protein, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD; however, the biological function of APP is still unclear. The present study shows that APP is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the CHO cell line in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, such as calcium ionophore, A23187, induced calcium influx. Increased levels of intracellular calcium by A23187 induces polyubiquitination of APP, causing its degradation. A23187-induced reduction of APP is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, an increase in levels of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) marker, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, proteasome activity, and decreased levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP25 were observed during ER stress. In addition, we found that APP interacts with USP25. These findings suggest that acute ER stress induces degradation of full-length APP via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  3. The clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency: : a relation to clinical thrombotic risk-factors and to levels of protein C and protein S

    Henkens, C. M. A.; van der Meer, J.; Hillege, J. L.; Bom, V. J. J.; Halie, M. R.; van der Schaaf, W.

    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  4. Identification and characterization of a salt stress-inducible zinc finger protein from Festuca arundinacea

    Martin Ruth C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased biotic and abiotic plant stresses due to climate change together with an expected global human population of over 9 billion by 2050 intensifies the demand for agricultural production on marginal lands. Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop productivity worldwide and the salinization of arable land has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Consequently, as land becomes less amenable for conventional agriculture, plants grown on marginal soils will be exposed to higher levels of soil salinity. Forage grasses are a critical component of feed used in livestock production worldwide, with many of these same species of grasses being utilized for lawns, erosion prevention, and recreation. Consequently, it is important to develop a better understanding of salt tolerance in forage and related grass species. Findings A gene encoding a ZnF protein was identified during the analysis of a salt-stress suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH expression library from the forage grass species Festuca arundinacea. The expression pattern of FaZnF was compared to that of the well characterized gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis, which was also identified in the salt-stress SSH library. The FaZnF and P5CS genes were both up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses suggesting a role in dehydration stress. FaZnF was also up-regulated in response to heat and wounding, suggesting that it might have a more general function in multiple abiotic stress responses. Additionally, potential downstream targets of FaZnF (a MAPK [Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase], GST [Glutathione-S-Transferase] and lipoxygenase L2 were found to be up-regulated in calli overexpressing FaZnF when compared to control cell lines. Conclusions This work provides evidence that FaZnF is an AN1/A20 zinc finger protein that is involved in the regulation

  5. Sir2 is induced by oxidative stress in a yeast model of Huntington disease and its activation reduces protein aggregation.

    Sorolla, M Alba; Nierga, Clara; Rodríguez-Colman, M José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Arenas, Alicia; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa


    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats, leading to an elongated polyglutamine sequence (polyQ) in the huntingtin protein. Misfolding of mutant polyQ proteins with expanded tracts results in aggregation, causing cytotoxicity. Oxidative stress in HD has been documented in humans as important to disease progression. Using yeast cells as a model of HD, we report that when grown at high glucose concentration, cells expressing mutant polyQ do not show apparent oxidative stress. At higher cell densities, when glucose becomes limiting and cells are metabolically shifting from fermentation to respiration, protein oxidation and catalase activity increases in relation to the length of the polyQ tract. Oxidative stress, either endogenous as a result of mutant polyQ expression or exogenously generated, increases Sir2 levels. Δ sir2 cells expressing expanded polyQ lengths show signs of oxidative stress even at the early exponential phase. In a wild-type background, isonicotinamide, a Sir2 activator, decreases mutant polyQ aggregation and the stress generated by expanded polyQ. Taken together, these results describe mutant polyQ proteins as being more toxic in respiring cells, causing oxidative stress and an increase in Sir2 levels. Activation of Sir2 would play a protective role against this toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    RL Furlan


    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  7. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Parvaiz eAhmad


    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  8. Sweet craving and ghrelin and leptin levels in women during stress.

    Macedo, Danielle Marques; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda


    Ingesting sweet substances in excess may attenuate the effects of stress in women and impact leptin levels, which are also affected by alcohol dependence and overeating. Excess intake of sweet substances also influences ghrelin levels, involved in the onset of food intake and stress. This paper aimed to identify sweet craving (SC) in women with stress to assess how it impacts basal leptin and active ghrelin levels, anthropometric measurements, and body composition. This observational, transversal study included 57 women and used the Stress Symptoms Inventory Lipp in Adults (ISSL); it verified that 31 of the participants were stressed, whereas 26 were symptom-free. The Questionnaire for Assessment of Sweet Substance Dependence and Abuse helped to characterize SC. ELISA furnished leptin and active ghrelin serum levels. HOMA was also evaluated. Electrical bioimpedance provided body composition values. Among the women with stress, 77.42% had SC, and they behaved differently from women without SC. Women with SC exhibited significantly higher basal leptin levels (P stress did not differ statistically in terms of leptin levels. Active ghrelin levels in stressed and non-stressed women and in women with and without SC were similar. A larger number of women with SC presented body fat percentage higher than 30% (P Stressed women had significantly higher waist circumference than non-stressed women (P Stressed women are more prone to SC, and this condition is associated with increased basal leptin levels, larger hip circumference, and altered body composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – A Controversial Role of Protein Disulphide Isomerase

    Merja eJaronen


    Full Text Available Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress could lead to neurodegeneration and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI is a disulfide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS.

  10. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm


    in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...

  11. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    C. Yang


    Full Text Available Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD. In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  12. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)


    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  13. Characterization of the Bat proteins in the oxidative stress response of Leptospira biflexa

    Stewart Philip E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospires lack many of the homologs for oxidative defense present in other bacteria, but do encode homologs of the Bacteriodes aerotolerance (Bat proteins, which have been proposed to fulfill this function. Bat homologs have been identified in all families of the phylum Spirochaetes, yet a specific function for these proteins has not been experimentally demonstrated. Results We investigated the contribution of the Bat proteins in the model organism Leptospira biflexa for their potential contributions to growth rate, morphology and protection against oxidative challenges. A genetically engineered mutant strain in which all bat ORFs were deleted did not exhibit altered growth rate or morphology, relative to the wild-type strain. Nor could we demonstrate a protective role for the Bat proteins in coping with various oxidative stresses. Further, pre-exposing L. biflexa to sublethal levels of reactive oxygen species did not appear to induce a general oxidative stress response, in contrast to what has been shown in other bacterial species. Differential proteomic analysis of the wild-type and mutant strains detected changes in the abundance of a single protein only – HtpG, which is encoded by the gene immediately downstream of the bat loci. Conclusion The data presented here do not support a protective role for the Leptospira Bat proteins in directly coping with oxidative stress as previously proposed. L. biflexa is relatively sensitive to reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and H2O2, suggesting that this spirochete lacks a strong, protective defense against oxidative damage despite being a strict aerobe.

  14. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans

    Zhong-Cheng Luo; Jean-François Bilodeau; Anne Monique Nuyt; Fraser, William D; Pierre Julien; Francois Audibert; Lin Xiao; Carole Garofalo; Emile Levy


    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24–28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), p...

  15. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee


    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest.

  16. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang


    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei


    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues.

  18. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  19. A protein in pig spleen similar to immune suppressive protein of stress

    FUHong-Yan; ZHANGJie; DINGGui-Feng; FANShao-Guang


    AIM:To purify a protein in pig spleens, which was similar to immune suppressive protein of stress (ISPS), and characterize its properties and functions. METHODS: 1)Pig spleen was extracted in dilute hydrochloric acid. 2) The extract was ultra-filtrated for having high molecular weight proteins (Mr>30000). 3) The filtrates were purified with FPLC affinity chromatography. 4)The elute from FPLC was used for T-lymphocyte proliferation and ELISA test. 5) Lastly, SDS-PAGE was used to determine the molecular weight and purity of the final product. RESULTS: A protein purified from pig spleen (the pig ISPS homologue) inhibited concanavalin A(Con A)-induced mouse lymphocyte proliferation. The molecular weight of this protein was about Mr 190000. It has a stronger selectivity against T-lymphocyte line such as Jurkat cell line and mastocyte line (P815) and has a weaker inhibitory activity on macrophage line (U937). CONCLUSION: A protein similar to rat/mouse ISPS was found in pig spleen. This may provide an opportunity to study its roles in tumors and autoimmune diseases.

  20. Endogenous auxin and jasmonic acid levels are differentially modulated by abiotic stresses in rice

    Hao eDu


    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and adverse temperatures are major limiting factors for plant growth and reproduction. Plant responses to these stresses are coordinated by arrays of regulatory networks including the induction of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA, a well documented phytohormone for stress responses. However, whether or how these abiotic stresses affect the endogenous biosynthesis or metabolism of other phytohormones remains largely unknown. Here, we report the changes of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and jasmonic acid (JA levels and expression of genes related to the biosynthesis or signalling of these hormones in rice under various abiotic stress conditions. The IAA content was decreased after drought stress, but it was significantly increased under cold and heat stresses. And the auxin-regulated gravitropism of root tip was inhibited by cold stress. Many genes involved in the IAA biosynthesis and signalling were changed in transcript level under these stresses, and the changes were essentially in agreement with the change of endogenous IAA level. Interestingly, the endogenous JA content was increased markedly under drought and cold stresses, but it was reduced by heat stress. Accordingly, many genes involved in JA biosynthesis and signalling were induced by drought and cold treatment but these genes were significantly suppressed by heat stress. We concluded that endogenous levels of IAA and JA were differentially regulated by abiotic stresses in rice, implying diverse roles of these hormones in stress responses.

  1. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    Kulik, Anna; Anielska-Mazur, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Koen, Emmanuel; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Zmienko, Agnieszka; Krzywinska, Ewa; Wawer, Izabela; McLoughlin, Fionn; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Figlerowicz, Marek; Testerink, Christa; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Wendehenne, David; Dobrowolska, Grazyna


    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related protein kinase2) are transiently activated during cadmium exposure and are involved in the regulation of plant response to this stress. Analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase activity in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, produced mainly via an l-arginine-dependent process, contribute to the kinase activation in response to cadmium. SnRK2.4 is the closest homolog of tobacco Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of seedling growth of snrk2.4 knockout mutants versus wild-type Arabidopsis suggests that SnRK2.4 is involved in the inhibition of root growth triggered by cadmium; the mutants were more tolerant to the stress. Measurements of the level of three major species of phytochelatins (PCs) in roots of plants exposed to Cd(2+) showed a similar (PC2, PC4) or lower (PC3) concentration in snrk2.4 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants. These results indicate that the enhanced tolerance of the mutants does not result from a difference in the PCs level. Additionally, we have analyzed ROS accumulation in roots subjected to Cd(2+) treatment. Our data show significantly lower Cd(2+)-induced ROS accumulation in the mutants' roots. Concluding, the obtained results indicate that SnRK2s play a role in the regulation of plant tolerance to cadmium, most probably by controlling ROS accumulation triggered by cadmium ions.

  2. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Kiilerich, Kristian;


    The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16...... healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed similar to 7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after...... 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism...

  3. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Kiilerich, Kristian


    healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed similar to 7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after...... 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism......The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16...

  4. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem


    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  5. Assessment of nursing students' stress levels and coping strategies in operating room practice.

    Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping.

  6. The absence of protein--sparing effects utilizing crystalline amino acids in stressed patients.

    Ching, N; Mills, C J; Grossi, C; Angers, J W; Jham, G; Zurawinsky, H; Nealon, T F


    The protein-sparing effects of the peripheral infusion of crystalline amino acids (PAA) was studied metabolically in selected surgical patients subjected to various degrees of stress. Twenty-one patients (sixteen cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, three with major abdominal traumatic injuries and four with paralytic ileus) were infused with 2 1/24 hours of a solution of 4.2% Travasol amino acids with only 5% glucose as a source of nonprotein calories. One-half of the cancer patients were also allowed ad libitum oral intake of a regular hospital diet or Vivonex-HN. The nutritional status was evaluated by measuring changes in body weight, serum albumin levels and nitrogen balance. Body weight decreased in only the trauma patients. When these solutions were the sole source of nutrients all patients were in negative nitrogen balance and had significant decreases in their serum albumin levels. Serum albumin levels were preserved only when extra sources of calories were provided. The infusion of the crystalline amino acids without adequate levels of nonprotein energy did not conserve protein in these stressed patients.

  7. Catalytic inactive heme oxygenase-1 protein regulates its own expression in oxidative stress.

    Lin, Qing S; Weis, Sebastian; Yang, Guang; Zhuang, Tiangang; Abate, Aida; Dennery, Phyllis A


    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme and forms antioxidant bile pigments as well as the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. HO-1 is inducible in response to a variety of chemical and physical stress conditions to function as a cytoprotective molecule. Therefore, it is important to maintain the basal level of HO-1 expression even when substrate availability is limited. We hypothesized that the HO-1 protein itself could regulate its own expression in a positive feedback manner, and that this positive feedback was important in the HO-1 gene induction in response to oxidative stress. In cultured NIH 3T3 cells, transfection of HO-1 cDNA or intracellular delivery of pure HO-1 protein resulted in activation of a 15-kb HO-1 promoter upstream of luciferase as visualized by bioluminescent technology and increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. These effects were independent of HO activity because an enzymatically inactive mutant form of HO-1 similarly activated the HO-1 promoter and incubation with HO inhibitor metalloporphyrin SnPP did not affect the promoter activation. In addition, HO-1-specific siRNA significantly reduced hemin and cadmium chloride-mediated HO-1 induction. Furthermore, deletion analyses demonstrated that the E1 and E2 distal enhancers of the HO-1 promoter are required for this HO-1 autoregulation. These experiments document feed-forward autoregulation of HO-1 in oxidative stress and suggest that HO-1 protein has a role in the induction process. We speculate that this mechanism may be useful for maintaining HO-1 expression when substrate is limited and may also serve to up-regulate other genes to promote cytoprotection and to modulate cell proliferation.

  8. Reaction of small heat-shock proteins to different kinds of cellular stress in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Bartelt-Kirbach, Britta; Golenhofen, Nikola


    Upregulation of small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) in response to cellular stress is one mechanism to increase cell viability.We previously described that cultured rat hippocampal neurons express five of the 11 family members but only upregulate two of them (HspB1 and HspB5) at the protein level after heat stress. Since neurons have to cope with many other pathological conditions, we investigated in this study the expression of all five expressed sHsps on mRNA and protein level after sublethal sodium arsenite and oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. Under all three conditions, HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, and HspB8 but not HspB11 were consistently upregulated but showed differences in the time course of upregulation. The increase of sHsps always occurred earlier on mRNA level compared with protein levels. We conclude from our data that these four upregulated sHsps (HspB1, HspB5, HspB6, HspB8) act together in different proportions in the protection of neurons from various stress conditions.

  9. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H


    It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  10. Perceived stress at work is associated with lower levels of DHEA-S.

    Anna-Karin Lennartsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S. The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. METHODS: Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40 and a stressed group (n = 41. DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. RESULTS: The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010. There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.

  11. Analysis of Copper-binding Proteins in Rice Radicles Exposed to Excess Copper and Hydrogen Peroxide Stress

    Hongxiao Zhang


    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants, but excess Cu can inactivate and disturb the protein function due to unavoidable binding to proteins at the cellular level. As a redox-active metal, Cu toxicity is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Cu-binding structural motifs may alleviate Cu-induced damage by decreasing free Cu2+ activity in cytoplasm or scavenging ROS. The identification of Cu-binding proteins involved in the response of plants to Cu or ROS toxicity may increase our understanding the mechanisms of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. This study investigated change of Cu-binding proteins in radicles of germinating rice seeds under excess Cu and oxidative stress using immobilized Cu2+ affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis, and mass spectra analysis. Quantitative image analysis revealed that 26 protein spots showed more than a 1.5-fold difference in abundances under Cu or H2O2 treatment compared to the control. The identified Cu-binding proteins were involved in anti-oxidative defense, stress response and detoxification, protein synthesis, protein modification, and metabolism regulation. The present results revealed that 17 out of 24 identified Cu-binding proteins have a similar response to low concentration Cu and H2O2 stress, and 5 out of 24 were increased under low and high concentration Cu but unaffected under H2O2 stress, which hint Cu ions can regulate Cu-binding proteins accumulation by H2O2 or no H2O2 pathway to cope with excess Cu in cell. The change pattern of these Cu-binding proteins and their function analysis warrant to further study the roles of Cu ions in these Cu-binding proteins of plant cells.

  12. Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate Bonny Light crude oil-induced alterations in testicular apoptosis, stress proteins and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in Wistar rats.

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O


    Studies have shown the reproductive effects of Bonny Light crude oil (BLCO) via the mechanism of oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis. We investigated the protective role of quercetin and vitamin E on BLCO-induced testicular apoptosis. Experimental rats were divided into four groups of four each. Animals were orally administered 2 ml/kg corn oil (control: group 1), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 10 mg/kg quercetin (group 2), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 50 mg/kg vitamin E (group 3) and BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight only (group 4) for 7 d. Protein levels of caspase 3, FasL, NF-kB, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and stress response proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to quantify the expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB. Apoptosis was quantified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins by 50% and above after 7 d following BLCO exposure and a concomitant increase in expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB expression by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells. Co-administration with quercetin or vitamin E reversed BLCO-induced apoptosis and levels of stress protein, relative to control. These findings suggest that quercetin and vitamin E may confer protection against BLCO-induced testicular oxidative stress-related apoptosis.

  13. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Su Yang

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in response to oxidative stress. By constructing all CRP single knockout mutants, we found that the dr0997 mutant showed the lowest tolerance toward H2O2, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, and mitomycin C, while the phenotypes of the dr2362, dr0834, and dr1646 mutants showed slight or no significant differences from those of the wild-type strain. Taking advantage of the conservation of the CRP-binding site in many bacteria, we found that transcription of 18 genes, including genes encoding chromosome-partitioning protein (dr0998, Lon proteases (dr0349 and dr1974, NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (dr1506, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (dr2531, the DNA repair protein UvsE (dr1819, PprA (dra0346, and RecN (dr1447, are directly regulated by DR0997. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses showed that certain genes involved in anti-oxidative responses, DNA repair, and various cellular pathways are transcriptionally attenuated in the dr0997 mutant. Interestingly, DR0997 also regulate the transcriptional levels of all CRP genes in this bacterium. These data suggest that DR0997 contributes to the extreme stress resistance of D. radiodurans via its regulatory role in multiple cellular pathways, such as anti-oxidation and DNA repair pathways.

  14. Multi-level machine learning prediction of protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Zubek, Julian; Tatjewski, Marcin; Boniecki, Adam; Mnich, Maciej; Basu, Subhadip; Plewczynski, Dariusz


    Accurate identification of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is the key step in understanding proteins' biological functions, which are typically context-dependent. Many existing PPI predictors rely on aggregated features from protein sequences, however only a few methods exploit local information about specific residue contacts. In this work we present a two-stage machine learning approach for prediction of protein-protein interactions. We start with the carefully filtered data on protein complexes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database. First, we build linear descriptions of interacting and non-interacting sequence segment pairs based on their inter-residue distances. Secondly, we train machine learning classifiers to predict binary segment interactions for any two short sequence fragments. The final prediction of the protein-protein interaction is done using the 2D matrix representation of all-against-all possible interacting sequence segments of both analysed proteins. The level-I predictor achieves 0.88 AUC for micro-scale, i.e., residue-level prediction. The level-II predictor improves the results further by a more complex learning paradigm. We perform 30-fold macro-scale, i.e., protein-level cross-validation experiment. The level-II predictor using PSIPRED-predicted secondary structure reaches 0.70 precision, 0.68 recall, and 0.70 AUC, whereas other popular methods provide results below 0.6 threshold (recall, precision, AUC). Our results demonstrate that multi-scale sequence features aggregation procedure is able to improve the machine learning results by more than 10% as compared to other sequence representations. Prepared datasets and source code for our experimental pipeline are freely available for download from: (open source Python implementation, OS independent).

  15. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of healthy controls ... Conclusion: Early management through an antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle ...

  16. Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis

    Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst


    .... Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression...

  17. Levels of oxidative stress parameters and the protective effects of melatonin in psychosis model rat testis

    Bekir S.Parlaktas; Birsen Ozyurt; Huseyin Ozyurt; Ayten T.Tunc; Ali Akbas


    Aim: To evaluate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathologic changes in dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced psychosis model rat testis. Methods: A total of 24 adult male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups with 8 in each. Group Ⅰ was used as control. Rats in Group Ⅱ were injected with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p. for 5 days). In addition to MK-801, melatonin (50 mg/kg body weight i.p. once a day for 5 days) was injected into the rats in Group Ⅲ. The testes were harvested bilaterally for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitric oxide (NO) levels in tes-ticular tissues were analyzed using spectrophotometric analysis methods. Histopathological examinations of the testes were also performed. Results: MK-801 induced testicular damage, which resulted in significant oxidative stress (OS) by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and NO levels were increased in testicular tissues of rats. Treatment with melatonin led to significant decrease in oxidative injury.Administration of melatonin also reduced the detrimental histopathologic effects caused by MK-801. Conclusion:The results of the present study showed that MK-801 cause OS in testicular tissues of rats and treatment with melatonin can reduce the harmful effects of MK-801.

  18. Effects of Preslaughter Stress Levels on the Post-mortem Sarcoplasmic Proteomic Profile of Gilthead Seabream Muscle

    Silva, Tomé Santos; Cordeiro, Odete D; Matos, Elisabete D.


    affects these post-mortem processes. For the experiment, two groups of gilthead seabream (n = 5) were subjected to distinct levels of preslaughter stress, with three muscle samples being taken from each fish. Proteins were extracted from the muscle samples, fractionated, and separated by 2DE. Protein......Fish welfare is an important concern in aquaculture, not only due to the ethical implications but also for productivity and quality-related reasons. The purpose of this study was to track soluble proteome expression in post-mortem gilthead seabream muscle and to observe how preslaughter stress...... been hastened by preslaughter stress, confirming that it induces clear post-mortem changes in the muscle proteome of gilthead seabream....

  19. Ethanol stress impairs protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and activates Ire1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Miyagawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishiwata-Kimata, Yuki; Kohno, Kenji; Kimata, Yukio


    Impaired protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) evokes the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is triggered in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by the ER-located transmembrane protein Ire1. Here, we report that ethanol stress damages protein folding in the ER, causing activation of Ire1 in yeast cells. The UPR likely contributes to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells.

  20. Heat-resistant protein expression during germination of maize seeds under water stress.

    Abreu, V M; Silva Neta, I C; Von Pinho, E V R; Naves, G M F; Guimarães, R M; Santos, H O; Von Pinho, R G


    Low water availability is one of the factors that limit agricultural crop development, and hence the development of genotypes with increased water stress tolerance is a challenge in plant breeding programs. Heat-resistant proteins have been widely studied, and are reported to participate in various developmental processes and to accumulate in response to stress. This study aimed to evaluate heat-resistant protein expression under water stress conditions during the germination of maize seed inbreed lines differing in their water stress tolerance. Maize seed lines 91 and 64 were soaked in 0, -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa water potential for 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. Line 91 is considered more water stress-tolerant than line 64. The analysis of heat-resistant protein expression was made by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. In general, higher expression of heat-resistant proteins was observed in seeds from line 64 subjected to shorter soaking periods and lower water potentials. However, in the water stress-tolerant line 91, a higher expression was observed in seeds that were subjected to -0.3 and -0.6 MPa water potentials. In the absence of water stress, heat-resistant protein expression was reduced with increasing soaking period. Thus, there was a difference in heat-resistant protein expression among the seed lines differing in water stress tolerance. Increased heat-resistant protein expression was observed in seeds from line 91 when subjected to water stress conditions for longer soaking periods.

  1. Overproduction of the membrane-bound receptor-like protein kinase 1, RPK1, enhances abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Mizuno, Shinji; Tanaka, Hidenori; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Osakabe, Keishi; Todaka, Daisuke; Fujita, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko


    RPK1 (receptor-like protein kinase 1) localizes to the plasma membrane and functions as a regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in Arabidopsis. In our current study, we investigated the effect of RPK1 disruption and overproduction upon plant responses to drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the RPK1 protein showed increased ABA sensitivity in their root growth and stomatal closure and also displayed less transpirational water loss. In contrast, a mutant lacking RPK1 function, rpk1-1, was found to be resistant to ABA during these processes and showed increased water loss. RPK1 overproduction in these transgenic plants thus increased their tolerance to drought stress. We performed microarray analysis of RPK1 transgenic plants and observed enhanced expression of several stress-responsive genes, such as Cor15a, Cor15b, and rd29A, in addition to H(2)O(2)-responsive genes. Consistently, the expression levels of ABA/stress-responsive genes in rpk1-1 had decreased compared with wild type. The results suggest that the overproduction of RPK1 enhances both the ABA and drought stress signaling pathways. Furthermore, the leaves of the rpk1-1 plants exhibit higher sensitivity to oxidative stress upon ABA-pretreatment, whereas transgenic plants overproducing RPK1 manifest increased tolerance to this stress. Our current data suggest therefore that RPK1 overproduction controls reactive oxygen species homeostasis and enhances both water and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  2. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Klumpers, F.; Everaerd, D.S.; Kooijman, S.C.; van Wingen, G.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both bas

  3. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: Basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Klumpers, F.; Everaerd, D.S.; Kooijman, S.C.; Wingen, G.A. van; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both bas

  4. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: Basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Klumpers, F.; Everaerd, D.S.; Kooijman, S.C.; Wingen, G.A. van; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  5. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Klumpers, F.; Everaerd, D.S.; Kooijman, S.C.; van Wingen, G.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  6. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David


    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Jun Cheul Ahn


    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  8. The effects of nongenetic memory on population level sensitivity to stress

    Adams, Rhys; Nevozhay, Dmitry; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor


    While gene expression is often thought of as a unidirectional determinant of cellular fitness, recent studies have shown how growth retardation due to protein expression can affect gene expression levels in single cells. We developed two yeast strains carrying a drug resistance protein under the control of different synthetic gene constructs, one of which was monostable, while the other was bistable. The gene expression of these cell populations was tuned using a molecular inducer so that their respective means and noises were identical, while their nongenetic memory properties were different. We tested the sensitivity of these two cell population distributions to the antibiotic zeocin. We found that the gene expression distributions of bistable cell populations were sensitive to stressful environments, while the gene expression distribution of monostable cells were nearly unchanged by stress. We conclude that cell populations with high nongenetic memory are more adaptable to their environment. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health through the NIH Director's New Innovator Award Program, 1-DP2- OD006481-01.

  9. Overexpression of a cytosolic abiotic stress responsive universal stress protein (SbUSP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants

    Pushpika eUdawat


    Full Text Available The Universal Stress Protein (USP is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologues of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive universal stress protein. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control (wild type and vector control plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1 exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content under stress treatments than control (WT and VC plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2- radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis (PCA exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant.

  10. The Research of the Relationship between Perceived Stress Level and Times of Vibration of Vocal Folds

    Yin Zhigang


    Full Text Available Whether a syllable is perceived as stressed or not and whether the stress is strong or weak are hot issues in speech prosody research and speech recognition. A focus of the stress study is on the investigation of the acoustic factors which contribute to the perception of stress level. This study examined all possible acoustic/physiological cues to stress based on data from Annotated Chinese Speech Corpus and proposed that times of vibration of vocal folds (TVVF reflects stress level best. It is traditionally held that pitch and duration are the most important acoustic parameters to stress. But for Chinese which is a tone language and features special strong-weak pattern in prosody, these two parameters might not be the best ones to represent stress degree. This paper proposed that TVVF, reflected as the number of wave pulses of the vocalic part of a syllable, is the ideal parameter to stress level. Since number of pulses is the integral of pitch and duration (Pulse=?f(pitchdt, TVVF can embody the effect of stress on both pitch and duration. The analyses revealed that TVVF is most correlated with the grades of stress. Therefore, it can be a more effective parameter indicating stress level.

  11. 职业慢性心理应激与血清热休克蛋白70及肿瘤坏死因子-α表达水平的关联研究%Association of occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 in serum and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression levels

    邱方园; 田如龙; 强艳; 贺鹍鹏; 刘贺荣; 张伟; 宋辉


    -α的表达水平分别为(133.61±129.51)、(171.23±133.69)、(169.31±196.09) pg/ml(F=6.93,P=0.001).结论 血清HSP70、TNF-α的表达水平受职业慢性心理应激的影响,职业慢性心理应激水平增高时,血清HSP70表达水平降低,TNF-α表达水平升高.%Objective To investigate the relationship between occupational chronic psychological stress with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).Methods Using case-control study design,we selected 622 cases in 20 to 60 years old and unrelated patients with metabolic syndrome as the case group between October 2011 and October 2012 at two hospitals of Ningxia hui autonomous region.At the same time,we selected 600 healthy people from health check-up crowd in the above two hospitals as control group.The the research objects were sex,age,nation,height,weight,smoking,drinking,exercise,and so on.After informed consent,all the research objects were collected fasting venous blood samples 10 ml in order to proceed laboratory testing of biochemical indicators.The expression of HSP70 and TNF-α in serum was determined by ELISA.Using the revised occupational stress inventory (OSI) to survey the occupational chronic psychological stress factors and stress level of research object.The correlation of occupational chronic psychological stress scores with HSP70 and TNF-α was investigated by partial correlation analysis.We built a multivariate linear regression equation With HSP70 and TNF alpha as the independent variable and occupational chronic psychological stress scores as the dependent variable,using equation of the determination coefficient R2 to judge the degree of fitting equation.Results The total points of chronic stress factors in all respondents was (136.65± 16.19).Among them,the mild stress level group was 313,moderate was 588,severe was 321,chronic heart stress factors scores were (119.96± 13.30),(135.33±3.23),(155.33± 13.55) points,respectively.In the case group

  12. Identiifcation of the Regulator of G-Protein Signaling Protein Responsive to Plant Hormones and Abiotic Stresses in Brassica napus

    CHEN Yun; ZHU Xia; ZHU Xiao-bin; YU Yi-fan; GE Hui-min; GAO Yong; LIANG Jian-sheng


    Regulator of G protein signaling proteins (RGS) accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gαproteins, thus acting as negative regulators of G-protein signaling. Studies on Arabidopsis and soybean have proven that RGS proteins are physiologically important in plants and contribute to the signaling pathways regulated by different stimuli. Brassica napus is an important agriculturally relevant plant, the wildly planted oilseed rape in the world, which possesses an identiifed Gα, Gβand Gγsubunits. In the present study, we identiifed and characterized a Brassica napus RGS gene, BnRGS1, which contained an open reading frame of 1 380 bp encoding a putative 52.6 kDa polypeptide of 459 amino acids, within seven putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminal and RGS box in the C-terminal. BnRGS1 is located on the membrane in onion epidermal cells and tobacco leaves, and interacts with BnGA1 in the mating-based split-ubiquitin system. The expression levels of BnRGS1 were quite different in different tissues and developmental stages, and induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The effects of gibberellin (GA3) and brassinolide (BR) on the expression of BnRGS1 were irregular under the concentrations tested. Moreover, the transcript level of BnRGS1 was also induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas remained little changed by 200 mmol L-1 NaCl. These results suggested that the BnRGS1 may be involved in B. napus response to plant hormone signaling and abiotic stresses.

  13. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J


    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  14. Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Origin on the Redox Status in the Digestive Tract of Mice

    Guowei Le


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of high protein (soybean protein or casein on the balance between production of free radicals and antioxidant level in digestive organs of mice. For this purpose, male (C57BL/6J mice were adapted to experimental diets containing soybean protein or casein with 20% (normal protein diets, NPDs or 60% (high protein diets, HPDs, and HPDs supplemented with 0.06g/kg cysteamine. After two weeks of feeding, oxidative and antioxidative parameters in duodenum, liver and pancreas were measured. The results show that ingestion of high protein markedly increased contents of superoxide anion and malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and Na+ K+-ATPase, and content of reduced glutathione (GSH in digestive organs of mice (P<0.05. Levels of oxidative parameters were lower and antioxidant capacity of both enzyme and non-enzyme was higher in mice fed with soybean protein than those fed with casein. In groups fed HPDs supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated. However, oxidative parameter levels were still higher than those of NPD-fed groups. The present study indicates that ingestion of high protein diets could result in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant, and thus induce oxidative stress in digestive organs of mice. The oxidative damage was smaller in mice fed with high level of soy protein in comparison with casein.

  15. Cold induced changes in lipid, protein and carbohydrate levels in the tropical insect Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Chowanski, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Spochacz, Marta; Ewelina, Paluch; Grzegorz, Smykalla; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Slocinska, Malgorzata


    Insects cope with thermal stressors using mechanisms such as rapid cold hardening and acclimation. These mechanisms have been studied in temperate insects, but little is known about their use by tropical insects in response to cold stress. Here, we investigated whether cold stress (1×8 h and 3×8 h at 4°C) triggers a metabolic response in the Madagascar cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana. We examined the effects of cold on the levels of selected metabolites in the fat body tissue of G. coquereliana. After cold exposure, we found that the quantity of total protein increased significantly in the insect fat body, whereas glycogen decreased slightly. Using antibodies, we observed upregulation of AQP-like proteins and changes in the HSP70 levels in the fat body of G. coquereliana when exposed to cold. We also examined the content and nature of the free sugars in the G. coquereliana hemolymph and discovered an increase in the levels of polyols and glucose in response to cold stress. These results suggest an important role of the fat body tissue of tropical insects upon cold exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The yeast peroxiredoxin Tsa1 protects against protein-aggregate-induced oxidative stress


    ABSTRACT Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-specific proteins that have multiple functions in stress protection, including protection against oxidative stress. Tsa1 is the major yeast peroxiredoxin and we show that it functions as a specific antioxidant to protect the cell against the oxidative stress caused by nascent-protein misfolding and aggregation. Yeast mutants lacking TSA1 are sensitive to misfolding caused by exposure to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC). AZC pr...

  17. Association Between High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Levels and Myocardial Ischemia During Mental Stress and Conventional Stress.

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Wilmot, Kobina; Ramadan, Ronnie; Alkhoder, Ayman; Obideen, Malik; Abdelhadi, Naser; Fang, Shuyang; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Pimple, Pratik; Mohamed Kelli, Heval; Shah, Amit J; Pearce, Brad; Sun, Yan; Garcia, Ernest V; Kutner, Michael; Long, Qi; Ward, Laura; Bremner, J Douglas; Esteves, Fabio; Raggi, Paolo; Sheps, David; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A


    This study sought to investigate whether patients with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia will have high resting and post-mental stress high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI). Hs-cTnI is a marker of myocardial necrosis, and its elevated levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Hs-cTnI levels may increase with exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is also linked to adverse outcomes. In this study, 587 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent technetium Tc 99m sestamibi-single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging during mental stress testing using a public speaking task and during conventional (pharmacologic/exercise) stress testing as a control condition. Ischemia was defined as new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion using a 17-segment model. The median hs-cTnI resting level was 4.3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.9 to 7.3) pg/ml. Overall, 16% and 34.8% of patients developed myocardial ischemia during mental and conventional stress, respectively. Compared with those without ischemia, median resting hs-cTnI levels were higher in patients who developed ischemia either during mental stress (5.9 [IQR: 3.9 to 8.3] vs. 4.1 [IQR: 2.7 to 7.0] pg/ml; p stress (5.4 [IQR: 3.9 to 9.3] vs. 3.9 [IQR: 2.5 to 6.5] pg/ml; p stress-induced ischemia. Although there was a significant increase in 45-min post-treadmill exercise hs-cTnI levels in those who developed ischemia, there was no significant increase after mental or pharmacological stress test. In patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia during either mental stress or conventional stress is associated with higher resting levels of hs-cTnI. This suggests that hs-cTnI elevation is an indicator of chronic ischemic burden experienced during everyday life. Whether elevated hs-cTnI levels are an indicator of adverse prognosis beyond inducible ischemia or whether it is amenable to intervention requires

  18. Plant protein kinase genes induced by drought, high salt and cold stresses


    Drought, high salt and cold are three different kinds of environment stresses that severely influence the growth, development and productivity of crops. They all decrease the water state of plant cells, and consequently result in the harm of plant from water deficit. Several genes encoding protein kinases and induced by drought, high salt and low temperature have been isolated from Arabidopsis. These protein kinases include receptor protein kinase (RPK), MAP kinases, ribosomal-protein kinases and transcription-regulation protein kinase. The expression features of these genes and the regulatory roles of these protein kinases in stress response and signal transduction are discussed.

  19. Protein phosphatase Z modulates oxidative stress response in fungi.

    Leiter, Éva; González, Asier; Erdei, Éva; Casado, Carlos; Kovács, László; Ádám, Csaba; Oláh, Judit; Miskei, Márton; Molnar, Monika; Farkas, Ilona; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Ariño, Joaquín; Pócsi, István; Dombrádi, Viktor


    The genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans harbors the gene ppzA that codes for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase Z (PPZ), and the closely related opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus encompasses a highly similar PPZ gene (phzA). When PpzA and PhzA were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Schizosaccharomyces pombe they partially complemented the deleted phosphatases in the ppz1 or the pzh1 mutants, and they also mimicked the effect of Ppz1 overexpression in slt2 MAP kinase deficient S. cerevisiae cells. Although ppzA acted as the functional equivalent of the known PPZ enzymes its disruption in A. nidulans did not result in the expected phenotypes since it failed to affect salt tolerance or cell wall integrity. However, the inactivation of ppzA resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidizing agents like tert-butylhydroperoxide, menadione, and diamide. To demonstrate the general validity of our observations we showed that the deletion of the orthologous PPZ genes in other model organisms, such as S. cerevisiae (PPZ1) or Candida albicans (CaPPZ1) also caused oxidative stress sensitivity. Thus, our work reveals a novel function of the PPZ enzyme in A. nidulans that is conserved in very distantly related fungi.

  20. G-protein signalling components GCR1 and GPA1 mediate responses to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis

    Navjyoti eChakraborty


    Full Text Available G-protein signalling components have been implicated in some individual stress responses in Arabidopsis, but have not been comprehensively evaluated at the genetic and biochemical level. Stress emerged as the largest functional category in our whole transcriptome analyses of knock-out mutants of GCR1 and/or GPA1 in Arabidopsis (Chakraborty et al., 2015a, PloS one 10, e0117819 and Chakraborty et al., 2015b, Plant Mol. Biol., doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0374-2. This led us to ask whether G-protein signalling components offer converging points in the plant’s response to multiple abiotic stresses. In order to test this hypothesis, we carried out detailed analysis of the stress category in the present study, which revealed 144 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, spanning a wide range of abiotic stresses, including heat, cold, salt, light stress etc. Only 10 of these DEGs are shared by all the three mutants, while the single mutants (GCR1/GPA1 shared more DEGs between themselves than with the double mutant (GCR1-GPA1. RT-qPCR validation of 28 of these genes spanning different stresses revealed identical regulation of the DEGs shared between the mutants. We also validated the effects of cold, heat and salt stresses in all the 3 mutants and WT on % germination, root and shoot length, relative water content, proline content, lipid peroxidation and activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the 3 mutants showed evidence of stress tolerance, especially to cold, followed by heat and salt, in terms of all the above parameters. This clearly shows the role of GCR1 and GPA1 in mediating the plant’s response to multiple abiotic stresses for the first time, especially cold, heat and salt stresses. This also implies a role for classical G-protein signalling pathways in stress sensitivity in the normal plants of Arabidopsis. This is also the first genetic and biochemical evidence of abiotic stress tolerance rendered by knock

  1. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 is critically involved in abiotic stress tolerance

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; van der Graaff, Eric; Albacete, Alfonso


    and belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicots. However, the function of PLAT-plant-stress proteins is still poorly understood. Therefore, we have assessed the function of the uncharacterised Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress family members through a combination....... Abiotic stress treatments induced PLAT1 expression and caused expansion of its expression domain. The ABF/ABRE transcription factors, which are positive mediators of abscisic acid signalling, activate PLAT1 promoter activity in transactivation assays and directly bind to the ABRE elements located...... of functional genetic and physiological approaches. PLAT1 overexpression conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance, including cold, drought and salt stress, while loss-of-function resulted in opposite effects on abiotic stress tolerance. Strikingly, PLAT1 promoted growth under non-stressed conditions...

  2. Evaluation of the levels of stress in the elderly living at home

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the stress level of the elderly assisted by the Primary Health Care of Piumhi, in the Midwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2010. This was a cross-sectional research with of 64 elderly residents in households. There was a predominance of older women. Regarding chronic diseases 81.3% were bearers of chronic diseases, 75% were cardiac and 29.7% had depression. In the Inventory of Symptoms of Stress for Adults, seniors kept the average 7 (low stress, being more frequent cognitive stress. Female gender was associated with stress level (p<0.05. The elderly showed a good physical and mental status, and we identified low levels of stress, predominantly the cognitive stress type.

  3. Stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Leiter, Éva; Bálint, Mihály; Miskei, Márton; Orosz, Erzsébet; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Pócsi, István


    A group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of Aspergillus nidulans (Locus IDs ANID_03987.1, ANID_06058.1, ANID_10219.1, and ANID_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. Importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested A. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a TANGO2 domain with NRDE protein motif in the translated ANID_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequences. The gene deletion strains were subjected to oxidative, osmotic, and metal ion stress and, surprisingly, only the ΔANID_10219.1 mutant showed an increased sensitivity to 0.12 mmol l(-1) menadione sodium bisulfite. The gene deletions affected the stress sensitivities (tolerances) irregularly, for example, some strains grew more slowly when exposed to various oxidants and/or osmotic stress generating agents, meanwhile the ΔANID_10260.1 mutant possessed a wild-type tolerance to all stressors tested. Our results are in line with earlier studies demonstrating that the deletions of stress-responsive genes do not confer necessarily any stress-sensitivity phenotypes, which can be attributed to compensatory mechanisms based on other elements of the stress response system with overlapping functions.

  4. A study of oxidative stress, thiol proteins and role of vitamin E supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Anita M. Raut


    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxide plays an important role in inflammatory lung disease. Increased epithelial permeability produced by cigarette smoke is likely to be mediated through depletion of thiol proteins. Imbalance between oxidants and thiol proteins is also an established fact in these patients. Materials & methods: In the present study 30 healthy non-smokers were served as controls and 20 patients with stable COPD were included. Their base line clinical examination, Malondialdehyde (MDA as an oxidant, alpha tocopherol and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD as an antioxidants and thiol proteins levels were measured. All above parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Results: We observed that the mean malondialdehyde levels in these patients at base line were high (p<0.001 than Control Plasma alpha-tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins levels were low (p<0.001 in the patients compared to controls. Exogenous vitamin E (400 IU twice daily Supplementation did not bring about any significant change in plasma Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and vitamin E. But slight increase in the plasma thiol proteins levels was seen. The present study shows that initially the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA levels were high antioxidant (alpha- tocopherol, SOD and thiol proteins were low in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin E increases slightly thiol proteins levels and brings down the levels of MDA showing attenuation of further damage. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the existence of oxidative stress and and the augmentation of antioxidant defenses as shown by slight increase in thiol proteins level. The antioxidant therapy is adjunct in lung disease patients and opens a promising field in prevention of oxidative stress related complications in these patients.

  5. Natural osmolytes alleviate GRP78 and ATF-4 levels: Corroboration for potential modulators of unfolded protein response.

    Hazari, Younis Mohammad; Habib, Mudasir; Bashir, Samirul; Bashir, Arif; Hilal, Nazia; Irfan, Sheikh; Ul Haq, Ehtisham; Fazili, Khalid Majid


    Osmolytes are small organic molecules which play a significant role in maintaining functional homeostasis of proteins under extreme hostile stresses. Any imbalance to cell homeostasis leads to Endoplasmic Reticulum stress (ER-stress) to which a set of cellular responses both at transcriptional and translational level are initialed for restoration of cellular homeostasis called Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In the present study we evaluated the role of Sarcosine, Betaine, Hydroxyectoine and Ectoine as potential modulators of UPR. ER-stress was induced by Tunicamycin, a prototypic experimental ER-stress inducer. The endogenous cellular levels of UPR markers Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78) and Activating Transcription Factor-4 (ATF-4) were evaluated in presence and absence of these osmolytes after inducing UPR with tunicamycin. As a prelude to this, IC50 values of these osmolytes were determined by using cell viability assays like MTT and Trypan Blue exclusion assay. We found that these osmolytes in a dose-dependent manner increased the rate of restoration of homeostasis as was evident by the decreased endogenous levels of GRP78 and ATF-4. These natural osmolytes can thus be useful in therapeutic intervention to mitigate the pathophysiological state resulting from ER-stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.




    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  7. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi


    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  8. Effects of Different Genres of Music on Stress Levels.

    Marshall, O. W.; Tomcala, Maryjane

    The response of patients with stress problems to one of five music genres during biofeedback training is measured. Fifty male and female patients between the ages of 15 and 25 who were receiving psychotherapy, self-help counseling, and physical fitness training as well as biofeedback training comprised the sample. Using a Biofeedback Systems…

  9. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A


    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  10. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong


    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  11. Decarbonylated cyclophilin A Cpr1 protein protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y when exposed to stress induced by menadione.

    Kim, Il-Sup; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung


    Cyclophilins are conserved cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that are implicated in protein folding and function as molecular chaperones. The accumulation of Cpr1 protein to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y suggests a possibility that this protein may participate in the mechanism of stress tolerance. Stress response of S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y cpr1Δ mutant strain was investigated in the presence of menadione (MD). The growth ability of the strain was confirmed in an oxidant-supplemented medium, and a relationship was established between diminishing levels of cell rescue enzymes and MD sensitivity. The results demonstrate the significant effect of CPR1 disruption in the cellular growth rate, cell viability and morphology, and redox state in the presence of MD and suggest the possible role of Cpr1p in acquiring sensitivity to MD and its physiological role in cellular stress tolerance. The in vivo importance of Cpr1p for antioxidant-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) neutralization and chaperone-mediated protein folding was confirmed by analyzing the expression changes of a variety of cell rescue proteins in a CPR1-disrupted strain. The cpr1Δ to the exogenous MD showed reduced expression level of antioxidant enzymes, molecular chaperones, and metabolic enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)- or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating systems. More importantly, it was shown that cpr1Δ mutant caused imbalance in the cellular redox homeostasis and increased ROS levels in the cytosol as well as mitochondria and elevated iron concentrations. As a result of excess ROS production, the cpr1Δ mutant provoked an increase in oxidative damage and a reduction in antioxidant activity and free radical scavenger ability. However, there was no difference in the stress responses between the wild-type and the cpr1Δ mutant strains derived from S. cerevisiae BY4741 as a control strain under the same stress. Unlike BY4741, KNU5377Y Cpr1

  12. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie


    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  13. Shear stress-mediated refolding of proteins from aggregates and inclusion bodies

    Yuan, TZ; Ormonde, CFG; Kudlacek, ST; Kunche, S; Smith, JN; Brown, WA; Pugliese, KM; Olsen, TJ; Iftikhar, M; Raston, CL; Weiss, GA


    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Recombinant protein overexpression of large proteins in bacteria often results in insoluble and misfolded proteins directed to inclusion bodies. We report the application of shear stress in micrometer-wide, thin fluid films to refold boiled hen egg white lysozyme, recombinant hen egg white lysozyme, and recombinant caveolin-1. Furthermore, the approach allowed refolding of a much larger protein, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The reported metho...

  14. UCP2, a mitochondrial protein regulated at multiple levels.

    Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Fiorini, Claudia; Palmieri, Marta


    An ever-increasing number of studies highlight the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of UCP2 regulation is becoming fundamental in both the comprehension of UCP2-related physiological events and the identification of novel therapeutic strategies based on UCP2 modulation. The study of UCP2 regulation is a fast-moving field. Recently, several research groups have made a great effort to thoroughly understand the various molecular mechanisms at the basis of UCP2 regulation. In this review, we describe novel findings concerning events that can occur in a concerted manner at various levels: Ucp2 gene mutation (single nucleotide polymorphisms), UCP2 mRNA and protein expression (transcriptional, translational, and protein turn-over regulation), UCP2 proton conductance (ligands and post-transcriptional modifications), and nutritional and pharmacological regulation of UCP2.

  15. A comprehensive analysis of the soybean genes and proteins expressed under flooding stress using transcriptome and proteome techniques.

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Ryo; Nanjo, Yohei; Mikami, Yoji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Sakata, Katsumi


    The inducible genes and proteins were analyzed using transcriptome and proteome techniques to explore the mechanisms underlying soybean response to flooding stress. Soybean seedlings were germinated for 2 days and subjected to flooding for 12 h, and the total RNAs and proteins were extracted from the root and hypocotyl. High-coverage gene expression profiling analysis as transcriptome technique was performed. Ninety-seven out of the 29,388 peaks observed demonstrated a greater than 25-fold change following 12 h of flood-induced stress. Furthermore, 34 proteins out of 799 proteins were changed by 12 h stress. Genes associated with alcohol fermentation, ethylene biosynthesis, pathogen defense, and cell wall loosening were significantly up-regulated. Hemoglobin, acid phosphatase, and Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor were altered at both transcriptional and translational levels. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and chaperons were changed only at the translational level. It is suggested that the early response of soybean under flooding might be important stress adaptation to ensure survival against not only hypoxia but also the direct damage of cell by water.

  16. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz


    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 192 - Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe.... C Appendix C to Part 192—Qualification of Welders for Low Stress Level Pipe I. Basic test. The test... position welding. The beveling, root opening, and other details must conform to the specifications of...

  18. The heat shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance

    Jacob, Pierre


    Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multi-stress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once. Consequently, the use of single stress resistance traits is often inadequate. Although it has been historically linked with the heat stress response, the heat shock protein (HSP)/chaperone network is a major component of multiple stress responses. Among the HSP/chaperone

  19. Experimental Priapism is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Activation of Protein Degradation Pathways in Corporal Tissue

    Kanika, Nirmala D.; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P.


    Priapism is a debilitating disease for which there is at present no clinically accepted pharmacologic intervention. It has been estimated that priapism lasting more than 24 hours in patients is associated with a 44–90% rate of erectile dysfunction (ED). In this investigation we determined in two animal models of priapism (opiorpin-induced priapism in the rat and priapism in a mouse model of sickle cell disease) if there is evidence for an increase in markers of oxidative stress in corporal tissue. In both animal models we demonstrate that priapism results in increased levels of lipid peroxidation, glutathione S-transferase activity, and oxidatively damaged proteins in corporal tissue. Using Western blot analysis we demonstrated there is up regulation of the ubiquitination ligase proteins, Nedd-4 and Mdm-2, and the lysososomal autophage protein, LC3. The anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was also up regulated. Overall, we demonstrate that priapism is associated with increased oxidative stress in corporal tissue and the activation of protein degradation pathways. Since oxidative stress is known to mediate the development of ED resulting from several etiologies (for example ED resulting from diabetes and aging) we suggest that damage to erectile tissue resulting from priapism might be prevented by treatments targeting oxidative stress. PMID:21085184

  20. Fourier transform-infrared studies on the effects of salt and drought stress on the chemical composition and pro-tein conformation changes in Arabidopsis leaves


    We examined the changes of chemical composition and protein conformation in Arabidopsis leaves by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry Arabidopsis under 50 mmol/L NaCl salt and -0.5 mPa polyethylene glycols 8000 (PEG 8000) drought stress during the early stages of growth.We primarily analyzed the absorption band areas in the 1,745 cm-1 (ester),1,600-1,700 cm-1 (amide I),and 1,100 cm-1 (carbohydrate) changes under salt stress and drought stress within 24 hours.The results showed that ester content declined at the beginning and then increased steadily during 24 hours of drought stress.But under salt stress,it de-clined steadily,and it was about 40 percent of the control after 24 hours.The protein synthesis increased by 25 percent after one hour of salt stress and then reached about 85 percent of the control after 24 hours.Under drought stress,the protein synthesis de-creased and reached aminimal level at the 4-hr time point;it then recovered to the control level at the 24-hr point.The patterns of the accumulation of carbohydrates in the 1,100 cm-1 band areas resembled that of amide I band changes under drought stress and salt stress.Analyzing the ratio A1,627cm-1/A1,658cm-1 under drought stress revealed that the leaves’ entire protein structure maintained a higher-level ordered form than did those under salt stress.Thus our results indicate the existence of different strategies of the Arabidopsis adaptation to salt stress and drought stress.

  1. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S


    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of C...

  2. Osmotic stress changes the expression and subcellular localization of the Batten disease protein CLN3.

    Amanda Getty

    Full Text Available Juvenile CLN3 disease (formerly known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. CLN3 encodes a putative lysosomal transmembrane protein with unknown function. Previous cell culture studies using CLN3-overexpressing vectors and/or anti-CLN3 antibodies with questionable specificity have also localized CLN3 in cellular structures other than lysosomes. Osmoregulation of the mouse Cln3 mRNA level in kidney cells was recently reported. To clarify the subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein and to investigate if human CLN3 expression and localization is affected by osmotic changes we generated a stably transfected BHK (baby hamster kidney cell line that expresses a moderate level of myc-tagged human CLN3 under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter. Hyperosmolarity (800 mOsm, achieved by either NaCl/urea or sucrose, dramatically increased the mRNA and protein levels of CLN3 as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Under isotonic conditions (300 mOsm, human CLN3 was found in a punctate vesicular pattern surrounding the nucleus with prominent Golgi and lysosomal localizations. CLN3-positive early endosomes, late endosomes and cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae were also observed. Increasing the osmolarity of the culture medium to 800 mOsm extended CLN3 distribution away from the perinuclear region and enhanced the lysosomal localization of CLN3. Our results reveal that CLN3 has multiple subcellular localizations within the cell, which, together with its expression, prominently change following osmotic stress. These data suggest that CLN3 is involved in the response and adaptation to cellular stress.

  3. Level of heat shock proteins decreases in individuals carrying B-chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    Teruel, M; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker


    We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Two natural Spanish populations, Salobreña (Granada) and Torrox (Málaga) were assayed, the former......-chromosome effects in Torrox showed a dose-dependent pattern. The results point to an interesting interaction between B-chromosome and stress protein expression in reproductive tissue....

  4. Profile of oxidative stress markers is dependent on vitamin D levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    de Almeida, Jorge P Sales; Liberatti, Lucas Silva; Barros, Fernanda Esteves Nascimento; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Lozovoy, Marcell A Batisti; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Panis, Carolina; Reiche, Edna Maria V; Dichi, Isaias; Simão, Andréa Name Colado


    Although vitamin D deficiency can change liver injury progression in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), the main molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis D in patients with HCV. The second aim was to verify whether oxidative stress is involved in the molecular mechanisms related to liver injury. The study included 147 participants: 89 controls and 58 patients with HCV (vitamin D 30, n = 26). Patients with HCV and hypovitaminosis D presented significantly higher aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI; P = 0.0464) and viral load (P = 0.0426) levels than patients with HCV without hypovitaminosis D. Regarding oxidative stress, HCV patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher advanced oxidation protein products (P = 0.0409), nitric oxide metabolites (P = 0.0206) levels, and oxidative stress index (P = 0.0196), whereas total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (P = 0.0446) levels were significantly lower than HCV patients without hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D in patients with HCV showed inverse correlations with levels of iron (r = -0.407, P = 0.0285), ferritin (r = -0.383, P = 0.0444), APRI (r = -0.453, P = 0.0154) and plasma lipid hydroperoxides levels (r = -0.426, P = 0.0189). Vitamin D insufficiency contributes to the inflammatory process and oxidative stress imbalance in patients with HCV. The profile of oxidative stress markers in these patients depends on vitamin D levels, which probably change intracellular signalling pathways and increase inflammation and liver injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of cardiac oxidative stress levels in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Okada, Ayako; Kashima, Yuichiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Aizawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with oxidative stress and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. However, the exact cardiac origin of oxidative stress and its association with BNP levels in AF patients remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the chamber-specific plasma oxidative stress levels in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and persistent AF (PSAF). Diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM) levels were measured in patients with PAF (n = 50) and PSAF (n = 35) at different cardiac sites before ablation and in peripheral vein 3 months after ablation. For all sites, dROM levels were higher in PSAF patients than in PAF patients; the levels were the highest in the coronary sinus at 429.0 (interquartile range: 392.0-449.0) vs. 374.0 (357.0-397.8) Carratelli units (P levels in the coronary sinus were related to the BNP levels (r = 0.436, P levels was related to that in the peripheral BNP levels in patients with symptomatic improvement (r = 0.473, P stress may either be a cause or consequence of prolonged AF, and cardiac oxidative stress levels correlated with BNP levels, though a possible source of oxidative stress in AF patients may be systemic circulation.

  6. Comparative stress levels among residents in three Chinese provincial capitals, 2001 and 2008.

    Tingzhong Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. METHODS: Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS. Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. RESULTS: Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68-24.12 in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38-24.01 in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. CONCLUSION: The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups.

  7. The constant threat of terrorism: stress levels and coping strategies amongst university students of Karachi.

    Ahmed, Ayesha Ejaz; Masood, Komal; Dean, Sohni Vicky; Shakir, Tanzila; Kardar, Ahmed Abdul Hafeez; Barlass, Usman; Imam, Syed Haider; Mohmand, Mohammad Ghawar Khan; Ibrahim, Hussain; Khan, Imad Saeed; Akram, Usman; Hasnain, Farid


    To assess the levels of stress in the face of terrorism and the adopted coping strategies, amongst the student population of universities in Karachi. A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on undergraduate students from four universities of Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 291 students. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to assess associations between stress levels and different variables at a level of significance of 0.05%. A total of 65.8% of the students had mild stress levels, 91.5% of university students were exposed to terrorism through television, while only 26.5% students reported personal exposure to terrorism. 67.4% students were forbidden by their parents to go out (p = 0.002). Most of those who had self exposure to an attack were the ones whose parents forbade them from going out (p = 0.00). Most commonly used coping strategy was increased faith in religion. Irritability was the most common stress symptom. A majority of students studying in universities of Karachi had mild stress levels due to the constant threat of terrorism whereas a minority had severe stress levels. Possible reasons for resilience and only mild stress levels could be the history of Karachi's internal conflicts and its prolonged duration of being exposed to terrorism. These students who are positive for stress need to be targeted for counseling either through the media or through their universities. More extensive research is needed in this area.

  8. Involvement of Protein Phosphorylation in Water Stress-induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize Leaves

    Shu-cheng Xu; Hai-dong Ding; Feng-xia Su; A-ying Zhang; Ming-yi Jiang


    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of protein phosphorylation and the interrelationship between water stress-enhanced kinase activity, antioxidant enzyme activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and endogenous abscisic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were investigated. Water-stress upregulated the activities of total protein phosphorylation and Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase, and the upregulation was blocked in abscisic acid-deficient vp5 mutant. Furthermore, pretreatments with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor and a scavenger of H2O2 significantly reduced the increased activities of total protein kinase and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase in maize leaves exposed to water stress. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 production and the water stress-enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The data suggest that protein phosphorylation and H2O2 generation are required for water stress-induced antioxidant defense in maize leaves and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and H2O2 generation may occur.

  9. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  10. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  11. Selective release from cultured mammalian cells of heat-shock (stress) proteins that resemble glia-axon transfer proteins.

    Hightower, L E; Guidon, P T


    Cultured rat embryo cells were stimulated to rapidly release a small group of proteins that included several heat-shock proteins (hsp110, hsp71, hscp73) and nonmuscle actin. The extracellular proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heat-shocked cells released the same set of proteins as control cells with the addition of the stress-inducible hsp110 and hsp71. Release of these proteins was not blocked by either monensin or colchicine, inhibitors of the common secretory pathway. A small amount of the glucose-regulated protein grp78 was externalized by this pathway. The extracellular accumulation of these proteins was inhibited after they were synthesized in the presence of the lysine analogue aminoethyl cysteine. It is likely that the analogue-substituted proteins were misfolded and could not be released from cells, supporting our conclusion that a selective release mechanism is involved. Remarkably, actin and the squid heat-shock proteins homologous to rat hsp71 and hsp110 are also among a select group of proteins transferred from glial cells to the squid giant axon, where they have been implicated in neuronal stress responses (Tytell et al.: Brain Res., 363:161-164, 1986). Based in part on the similarities between these two sets of proteins, we hypothesized that these proteins were released from labile cortical regions of animal cells in response to perturbations of homeostasis in cells as evolutionarily distinct as cultured rat embryo cells and squid glial cells.

  12. A cross-cultural comparison of the stress experienced by high-level career women

    Henriette S. van den Berg


    Full Text Available This study examines differences in the experience of work-related stress and of exposure to work-related stressors among South African career women of different ethnic groups. A sample of 732 women working in administrative, semi-professional, professional and managerial positions was involved. Analyses of covariance found signifcant differences in the level of stress reported by the different groups, with black women reporting the highest level of stress. Stressors pertaining to a lack of infrastructure and resources in the environment signifcantly contributed to the stress experienced by black women. All four groups reported discontent with their remuneration and fringe benefts.

  13. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Nozomi Kawazoe


    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  14. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo


    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  15. Relationship of Serum Apolipoprotein A-V Levels, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers with Hypertriglyceridemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Sharma, Devesh; Garg, Seema; Mehndiratta, Mohit; V Madhu, S; Puri, Dinesh


    Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs) are often found to be raised in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TG levels ≥ 2.2 mM, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are known to increase the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) substantially. In recent years, apolipoprotein A-V (Apo A-V protein) has attracted considerably as a modulator of circulating TG levels. The study was conducted in order to evaluate the levels of Apo A - V proteins and markers of inflammation and OS in patients of T2DM with and without hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and also to assess correlation between them. T2DM patients were categorized into two groups of 40 participants, according to criteria for risk of CVD: group 1/ controls (TG ≤ 1.65 mM, n = 40) and group 2/ cases (TG ≥ 2.2 mM, n = 40). Despite the routine investigations, serum levels of Apo A-V, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Insulin were estimated using ELISA, free fatty acids (FFA) with fluorometric assay and malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured using a spectrophotometer. Comparison of levels and correlation between variables was carried out with appropriate statistical tools. Serum Apo A-V protein levels were found significantly lower (P = 0.04) and MDA was significantly higher (P = 0.049) in cases. MDA correlated with TG levels positively (P = 0.000) and negatively with high density lipoproteins (HDL) (P = 0.000). However Apo A-V protein levels did not correlate with TG levels (P = 0.819, r = -0.027), IL-6 (r = 0.135, P = 0.269), FFA (r = 0.128, P = 0.277) and MDA (r = -0.217, P = 0.073). IL-6 levels significantly and positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.327, P = 0.004) in the all patients. In patients of T2DM, low levels of Apo A-V are associated with HTG, indicating that Apo A-V is linked with TG metabolism. Burden of oxidative stress is greater in HTG of T2DM as is evident from MDA levels and its correlation with TG levels. Since oxidative stress is an important patho-physiological basis which increases the risk

  16. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 is critically involved in abiotic stress tolerance.

    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available Despite the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence, for only a relatively low percentage of the encoded proteins experimental evidence concerning their function is available. Plant proteins that harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase domain and belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicots. However, the function of PLAT-plant-stress proteins is still poorly understood. Therefore, we have assessed the function of the uncharacterised Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress family members through a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches. PLAT1 overexpression conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance, including cold, drought and salt stress, while loss-of-function resulted in opposite effects on abiotic stress tolerance. Strikingly, PLAT1 promoted growth under non-stressed conditions. Abiotic stress treatments induced PLAT1 expression and caused expansion of its expression domain. The ABF/ABRE transcription factors, which are positive mediators of abscisic acid signalling, activate PLAT1 promoter activity in transactivation assays and directly bind to the ABRE elements located in this promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This suggests that PLAT1 represents a novel downstream target of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Thus, we showed that PLAT1 critically functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance, but also is involved in regulating plant growth, and thereby assigned a function to this previously uncharacterised PLAT domain protein. The functional data obtained for PLAT1 support that PLAT-plant-stress proteins in general could be promising targets for improving abiotic stress tolerance without yield penalty.

  17. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 is critically involved in abiotic stress tolerance.

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; van der Graaff, Eric; Albacete, Alfonso; Eom, Seung Hee; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Böhm, Hannah; Janschek, Ursula; Rim, Yeonggil; Ali, Walid Wahid; Kim, Soo Young; Roitsch, Thomas


    Despite the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence, for only a relatively low percentage of the encoded proteins experimental evidence concerning their function is available. Plant proteins that harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase) domain and belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicots. However, the function of PLAT-plant-stress proteins is still poorly understood. Therefore, we have assessed the function of the uncharacterised Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress family members through a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches. PLAT1 overexpression conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance, including cold, drought and salt stress, while loss-of-function resulted in opposite effects on abiotic stress tolerance. Strikingly, PLAT1 promoted growth under non-stressed conditions. Abiotic stress treatments induced PLAT1 expression and caused expansion of its expression domain. The ABF/ABRE transcription factors, which are positive mediators of abscisic acid signalling, activate PLAT1 promoter activity in transactivation assays and directly bind to the ABRE elements located in this promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This suggests that PLAT1 represents a novel downstream target of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Thus, we showed that PLAT1 critically functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance, but also is involved in regulating plant growth, and thereby assigned a function to this previously uncharacterised PLAT domain protein. The functional data obtained for PLAT1 support that PLAT-plant-stress proteins in general could be promising targets for improving abiotic stress tolerance without yield penalty.

  18. Glucocorticoid levels after exposure to predator odor and chronic psychosocial stress with dexamethasone application in rats.

    Starcevic, Ana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radojicic, Zoran; Djulejic, Vuk; Ilankovic, Andrej; Starcevic, Branislav; Filipovic, Branislav


    This study was conducted to explore the effects of specific psychosocial paradigm on predator animal posttraumatic stress model and to test the hypothesis that psychosocially stressed rats would exibit abnormal levels of cortisol and a larger suppression of cortisol levels after the application of dexamethasone. Animals were divided in two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was exposed to two types of stressors: acute immobilization stress, and combined predator stress and daily social stress with application of dexamethasone. Blood sampling was performed at three different times. We found statistically significant results after analyzing the differences between cortisol levels in different times of blood sampling in the group of animals exposed to stress with dexamethasone application. Statistical significance was found when we compared the experimental group with the control group in terms of elevated cortisol levels during blood sampling after stress paradigm exposition. Many significant disruptions in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis were observed, such as decrease in basal cortisol levels and enhanced dexamethasone-induced inhibition of cortisol levels. These findings are important because their impact can translate to human individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, which is the most important role of every animal model in research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin, and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells.

    Reuven Rasooly

    Full Text Available Gene expression in transduced mammalian cells correlates with virus titer, but high doses of vector for gene therapy leads to toxicity in humans and in animals. Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stressors, such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin, or 1% reconstituted milk, enhances transcription and increases production of proteins in transduced mammalian cells as demonstrated by production of the following three recombinant proteins: firefly luciferase, β-galactosidase, and green fluorescent protein (GFP. Higher concentrations of the stress-producing substances damage the cells beyond recovery, resulting in inhibited gene expression and cell death. We also evaluated the effect of the stressor substances on the enhanced infectivity of virus. The presented findings extend methods for large-scale transient recombinant protein production in mammalian cells and suggest that it may be possible to reduce the cytotoxicity of the adenovirus by reducing the virus titer without adversely affecting gene expression levels.

  20. European adolescents' level of perceived stress and its relationship with body adiposity--the HELENA Study.

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germàn; Moreno, Luis A; Nagy, Eniko; Molnár, Dénes; Ortega, Francisco B; Dietrich, Sabine; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan


    Since stress is hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of obesity, the present study examined the current perception of stress in European adolescents and the association between adolescent perceived stress and their adiposity. Observational data from 1121 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years from six European cities involved in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study, was investigated. The adolescents completed the adolescent stress questionnaire, comprising 10 different stress dimensions. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and circumferences) and bioelectrical impedance analysis were performed, and personal characteristics (age, pubertal stage and parental education) were collected. The measures of perceived stress were described for boys and girls separately and gender differences were investigated. Associations between the adolescents' perceived stress and indicators of general (body mass index z-score, sum of skinfold thicknesses and body fat%) and abdominal (waist and hip circumference, and waist/height ratio) adiposity were examined using hierarchical linear models. While girls reported systematically higher levels of stress compared with boys, their stress profiles were similar, with highest levels for school-related stress followed by future uncertainty. Only in girls, perceived stress was significantly associated with increased measures of general and abdominal adiposity. In boys, no relationship between perceived stress and adiposity measures was observed. School is reported to be an important source of adolescent stress and should be the focus of stress management campaigns. Only in girls, the hypothesis that stress might be involved in the aetiology of obesity during adolescence was supported.

  1. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk


    Background Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. Methods...

  2. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing


    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  3. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul


    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Associated With High Levels of Perceived Prenatal Stress Among Inner-City Women.

    Rieger, Kendra L; Heaman, Maureen I


    To explore the factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress among inner-city women. Observational cross-sectional study. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 603 inner-city women. In our study, 330 participants (54.7%) self-identified as First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis. Prenatal stress was measured with Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. A social ecological model provided the theoretical framework for the study, and variables representing all levels of the model were selected for study. Data analyses included t tests to compare women with high stress and low/moderate stress, univariable logistic regression analysis to determine the association of selected factors with maternal stress, and multivariable logistic regression analysis to provide adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the factors. Of the 603 participants, 17.2% (104) reported high levels of perceived stress, and 82.8% (499) reported low/moderate levels. The high-stress group included a significantly greater proportion of First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis women (76.0%) than the low/moderate-stress group (50.3%). Low rates of self-esteem and social support, residential mobility, abuse before/during pregnancy, and experiencing discrimination were significantly associated with high levels of perceived prenatal stress. Our findings demonstrated that factors that influence prenatal stress occur at all levels of the social ecological model. The identified factors are amenable to change, and implications for practice include the need for psychosocial risk assessment, alternative forms of prenatal care, relational care, and advocacy initiatives. A greater understanding of the complex factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress can inform the development of effective interventions for inner-city women. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights


    Grabovskyi S.


    feed increases the Prealbumin concentration in rabbits blood plasma of two experimental groups twice (P ≤ 0.05 and 2.8 times (P ≤ 0.01 compared to the control. Cortisol level in rabbits (which further added to the feed of spleen extract (I research group blood plasma was reliable lower by 40 % (Р<0.05 compared to control, that may to indicate decreasing of stress before slaughter. On the rabbits feeding final stage is necessary to consider a pre-slaughter stress and to apply of natural origin biologically active substances. The results which obtained can to use in researches of stress hormones, such as cortisol, on farm animals for organism resistance increasing, correction and avoid their pre-slaughter stress and improve product quality.

  6. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Walther Faedi


    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, enzymes that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating rRNA and many other polynucleotidic substrates. Although RIPs show antiviral, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, their biological and physiological roles are not completely understood. Additionally, it has been described that RIP expression is augmented under stressful conditions. In this study, we evaluated protein synthesis inhibition activity in partially purified basic proteins (hereafter referred to as RIP activity from tissue extracts of Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry cultivars with low (Dora and high (Record tolerance to root pathogens and fructification stress. Association between the presence of RIP activity and the crop management (organic or integrated soil, growth stage (quiescence, flowering, and fructification, and exogenous stress (drought were investigated. RIP activity was found in every tissue tested (roots, rhizomes, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits and under each tested condition. However, significant differences in RIP distribution were observed depending on the soil and growth stage, and an increase in RIP activity was found in the leaves of drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that RIP expression and activity could represent a response mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses and could be a useful tool in selecting stress-resistant strawberry genotypes.

  7. Combination of two oxidant stressors suppresses the oxidative stress and enhances the heat shock protein 27 response in healthy humans.

    Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Delliaux, Stephane; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Boussuges, Alain; Gole, Yoann; Jammes, Yves


    We tested the hypothesis that the combination of 2 oxidant stressors (hyperoxia and fatiguing exercise) might reduce or suppress the oxidative stress. We concomitantly measured the plasma concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp) that protect the cells against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. Healthy humans breathed pure oxygen under normobaric condition for 50-minute periods during which they stayed at rest or executed maximal static handgrip sustained until exhaustion. They also repeated handgrip bouts in normoxic condition. We performed venous blood measurements of 2 markers of the oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced ascorbic acid) and Hsp27. Under normoxic condition, the handgrip elicited an oxidative stress and a modest increase in plasma Hsp27 level (+7.1 +/- 5.4 ng/mL). Under hyperoxic condition, (1) at rest, compared with the same time schedule in normoxic condition, we measured an oxidative stress (increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased reduced ascorbic acid levels) and the plasma Hsp27 level increased (maximal variation, +12.5 +/- 6.0 ng/mL); and (2) after the handgrip, the oxidative stress rapidly disappeared. The combination of both hyperoxia and handgrip bout doubled the Hsp27 response (maximal variation, +24.8 +/- 9.2 ng/mL). Thus, the combination of 2 hits eliciting an oxidative stress seems to induce an adaptive Hsp27 response that might counterbalance an excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein.

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D; Semler, Bert L


    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection.

  9. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level.

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-in


    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces.

  10. Cross-talk between lipid and protein carbonylation in a dynamic cardiomyocyte model of mild nitroxidative stress

    Eva Griesser


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS play an important role in the regulation of cardiac function. Increase in ROS/RNS concentration results in lipid and protein oxidation and is often associated with onset and/or progression of many cardiovascular disorders. However, interplay between lipid and protein modifications has not been simultaneously studied in detail so far. Biomolecule carbonylation is one of the most common biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using a dynamic model of nitroxidative stress we demonstrated rapid changes in biomolecule carbonylation in rat cardiomyocytes. Levels of carbonylated species increased as early as 15 min upon treatment with the peroxynitrite donor, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, and decreased to values close to control after 16 h. Total (lipids+proteins vs. protein-specific carbonylation showed different dynamics, with a significant increase in protein-bound carbonyls at later time points. Treatment with SIN-1 in combination with inhibitors of proteasomal and autophagy/lysosomal degradation pathways allowed confirmation of a significant role of the proteasome in the degradation of carbonylated proteins, whereas lipid carbonylation increased in the presence of autophagy/lysosomal inhibitors. Electrophilic aldehydes and ketones formed by lipid peroxidation were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. Molecular identity of reactive species was used for data-driven analysis of their protein targets. Combination of different enrichment strategies with LC-MS/MS analysis allowed identification of more than 167 unique proteins with 332 sites modified by electrophilic lipid peroxidation products. Gene ontology analysis of modified proteins demonstrated enrichment of several functional categories including proteins involved in cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, ion channels and their regulation. Using calcium mobilization assays, the effect of nitroxidative stress on the activity of several ion

  11. Temperature tolerance and stress proteins as mechanisms of invasive species success.

    Robyn A Zerebecki

    Full Text Available Invasive species are predicted to be more successful than natives as temperatures increase with climate change. However, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms that theoretically underlie this differential success. Because correlative evidence suggests that invasiveness is related to the width of a species' latitudinal range, it has been assumed--but largely untested--that range width predicts breadth of habitat temperatures and physiological thermotolerances. In this study, we use empirical data from a marine community as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1 geographic temperature range attributes are related to temperature tolerance, leading to greater eurythermality in invasive species, and (2 stress protein expression is a subcellular mechanism that could contribute to differences in thermotolerance. We examined three native and six invasive species common in the subtidal epibenthic communities of California, USA. We assessed thermotolerance by exposing individuals to temperatures between 14°C and 31°C and determining the temperature lethal to 50% of individuals (LT(50 after a 24 hour exposure. We found a strong positive relationship between the LT(50 and both maximum habitat temperatures and the breadth of temperatures experience across the species' ranges. In addition, of the species in our study, invasives tended to inhabit broader habitat temperature ranges and higher maximum temperatures. Stress protein expression may contribute to these differences: the more thermotolerant, invasive species Diplosoma listerianum expressed higher levels of a 70-kDa heat-shock protein than the less thermotolerant, native Distaplia occidentalis for which levels declined sharply above the LT(50. Our data highlight differences between native and invasive species with respect to organismal and cellular temperature tolerances. Future studies should address, across a broader phylogenetic and ecosystem scope, whether this

  12. Genetic and environmental influences of surfactant protein D serum levels

    Sorensen, G.L.; Hjelmborg, J.V.; Kyvik, K.O.


    defining the constitutional serum level of SP-D and determine the magnitude of the genetic contribution to serum SP-D in the adult population. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum SP-D concentrations in children are genetically determined and that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located...... in the NH(2)-terminal region (Met11Thr) of the mature protein is significantly associated with the serum SP-D levels. A classic twin study was performed on a twin population including 1,476 self-reported healthy adults. The serum SP-D levels increased with male sex, age, and smoking status. The intraclass...... correlation was significantly higher for monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs than for dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Serum SP-D variance was influenced by nonshared environmental effects and additive genetic effects. Multivariate analysis of MZ and DZ covariance matrixes showed significant genetic correlation among serum...

  13. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan


    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.


    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  15. Prevalence of stress level among Bank employees in urban Puducherry, India

    S Ganesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Stress is an important health area of concern among bank employees. The study aims to assess the stress level and its associated factors among bank employees. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 192 bank employees in urban Puducherry, India. Stress level was assessed by Cohen′s Perceived Stress scale and classified into low (0-11, average (12-15, high (16-20, and very high (21 and above based on the stress scores. Collected data were analyzed by using univariate analysis. Results: Majority of them had high and very high level of stress (75.5%, confidence interval: 69.4-81.6%. The variables that include age group, sex, category of work, smoking and alcohol use were not found to be significantly associated with the stress level (P > 0.05. With respect to question items, handling personal problems and things were going their way were answered as fairly often and very often by the majority of the subjects. Conclusion: Stress level among bank employees is high, which necessitates intervention measures for this vulnerable group.

  16. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth


    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  17. Regulatory effect of heat shock protein 70 in stress-induced rat intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Stevie Struiksma


    Full Text Available Background: Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with many human diseases; the mechanisms need to be further understood. Methods: Rats were subjected to chronic water avoid stress. Intestinal epithelial heat shock protein (HSP 70 was evaluated. The intestinal epithelial permeability was examined with Ussing chamber technique. Results: HSP70 was detected in normal intestinal epithelial cells. Psychological stress decreased HSP70 in the intestinal epithelial cells that correlated with the stress-induced intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability. Pretreatment with HSP70 abrogated stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Conclusions: Chronic stress inhibits HSP70 activity in rat intestinal epithelial layer that is associated with intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, which can be prevented by pretreatment with HSP70 protein.

  18. Delayed degradation of chlorophylls and photosynthetic proteins in Arabidopsis autophagy mutants during stress-induced leaf yellowing.

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Ye-Sol; Park, Ohkmae K; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon


    Plant autophagy, one of the essential proteolysis systems, balances proteome and nutrient levels in cells of the whole plant. Autophagy has been studied by analysing Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy-defective atg mutants, but the relationship between autophagy and chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown during stress-induced leaf yellowing remains unclear. During natural senescence or under abiotic-stress conditions, extensive cell death and early yellowing occurs in the leaves of atg mutants. A new finding is revealed that atg5 and atg7 mutants exhibit a functional stay-green phenotype under mild abiotic-stress conditions, but leaf yellowing proceeds normally in wild-type leaves under these conditions. Under mild salt stress, atg5 leaves retained high levels of Chls and all photosystem proteins and maintained a normal chloroplast structure. Furthermore, a double mutant of atg5 and non-functional stay-green nonyellowing1-1 (atg5 nye1-1) showed a much stronger stay-green phenotype than either single mutant. Taking these results together, it is proposed that autophagy functions in the non-selective catabolism of Chls and photosynthetic proteins during stress-induced leaf yellowing, in addition to the selective degradation of Chl-apoprotein complexes in the chloroplasts through the senescence-induced STAY-GREEN1/NYE1 and Chl catabolic enzymes.

  19. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette


    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  20. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Dinh Van Dung


    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  1. Relationship between osmotic stress and polyamines conjugated to the deoxyribonucleic acid-protein in wheat seedling roots


    The contents of covalently conjugated polyamines (CC-PAs) and noncovalently conjugated polyamines (NCC-PAs) to deoxyribonucleic acid-protein (DNP) isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling roots under osmotic stress were detected. Results showed that after osmotic stress treatment for 7 d, the levels in NCC-spermine (NCC-Spm) and NCC-spermidine (NCC-Spd) of drought-tolerant Yumai No. 18 cv. increased more markedly than that of drought-sensitive Yangmai No. 9 cv., while the NCC-putrescine (NCC-Put) could not be statistically detected in two cultivars. Exogenous Spm treatment alleviated osmotic stress injury to Yangmai No. 9 cv. seedlings, coupled with marked increases of NCC-Spm and NCC-Spd levels of this cultivar. Under PEG osmotic stress, the concomitant treatment of drought-tolerant Yumai No. 18 cv.seedlings with methylglyoxyl-bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), aggravated osmotic stress injury to this cultivar, coupled with market decreases of the NCC-Spm and NCC- Spd levels. The levels in CC-Put and CC-Spd of drought-tolerant Yumai No. 18 cv. increased more markedly than that of drought-sensitive Yangmai No. 9 cv. Under osmotic stress. The treatment of drought-tolerant Yumai No. 18 cv. seedlings with phenanthrolin (o-Phen), an inhibitor of transglutaminase (TGase), aggravated osmotic stress injury to this cultivar, coupled with a reduction of sum contents of CC-Put+CC-Spd. These results suggested that NCC-Spm and NCC-Spd, together with CC-Put and CC-Spd, in DNP of roots could enhance tolerance of the wheat seedlings to osmotic stress.

  2. C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Brugada Syndrome

    Aimé Bonny


    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L. Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91% male. Twenty (37% were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003. In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3. Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

  3. Induction of cell stress in neurons from transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein: implications for neurodegeneration research.

    Laura H Comley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice expressing fluorescent proteins in neurons are one of the most powerful tools in modern neuroscience research and are increasingly being used for in vivo studies of neurodegeneration. However, these mice are often used under the assumption that the fluorescent proteins present are biologically inert. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that thy1-driven expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in neurons triggers multiple cell stress responses at both the mRNA and protein levels in vivo. The presence of YFP in neurons also subtly altered neuronal morphology and modified the time-course of dying-back neurodegeneration in experimental axonopathy, but not in Wallerian degeneration triggered by nerve injury. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that fluorescent protein expressed in thy1-YFP mice is not biologically inert, modifies molecular and cellular characteristics of neurons in vivo, and has diverse and unpredictable effects on neurodegeneration pathways.

  4. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.


    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  5. Influência da dieta com diferentes níveis de lipídeo e proteína na resposta fisiológica e hematológica de reprodutores caprinos sob estresse térmico Influence of diet with different levels of lipid and protein in the physiologic and hematological responses of buck goat under thermal stress

    Gustavo de Assis Silva


    condições desse experimento.This work was developed in the Center of Health and Rural Technology at Federal University of Campina Grande - Campus of Patos-PB. The objective was to test the diets with different lipid and protein levels in the highest temperature of the year (November to December on the physiological and hematological parameters of the buck goats kept under thermal stress. A total of 27 buck goats crossbred of the Anglo-Nubiano with buck goat without defined bred were used. The buck were allocated into a completely randomized design in a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme, three lipids levels (2, 4 and 6%, three protein levels (12, 15 and 18% and two periods (morning and afternoon with three repetitions. The buck goats were fed with balanced diets based on: corn crumbs, wheat and soybean meal , hay of Tifton (Cynodon spp., it mixes mineral and and sunflower oil as a lipid source. The meteorological data were done twice a day at the 9:00 am and 15:00 pm. The physiological parameters rectal temperature (TR, respiratory frequency (FR and surface temperature (TS were checked two days a week in the two periods at 9:00am and 15:00 pm. A sample of blood was collected, for the erythrogram analysis. The temperatures ranged from 37,21 ºC to 25,25 ºC . The values of the black globe and humidity index temperature (BGHI for the shifts of the morning and afternoon were of 80,16 and 87,17, respectively. There was no effect (P>0,05 of the diets on the parameters TR and FR. In relation to the periods also shown no significant effect (P 0,05 of the diets on the blood parameters, hematócrit (HT, erythrocyte (ER, hemoglobin (HB, hemoglobin medium corpuscular (CHCM and medium globular volume (VGM. The different protein levels and lipid in the diet did not show any effect on the physiologic and hematological parameters on the buck goats reared under thermal stress tested.

  6. Effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on anxiety-like extinction behavior in an animal model of post-traumatic stress.

    Sandusky, Leslie A; Flint, Robert W; McNay, Ewan C


    The effect of cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, on memory reconsolidation and extinction was explored in rats using a model of post-traumatic stress. Forty-two animals were exposed to predator stress followed by 1, 2, or 4 extinction trials. Saline or CXM (1 mg/kg) was administered following the last extinction trial and anxiety was measured in the elevated-plus maze (EPM) seventy-two hours later. Saline control animals exhibited elevated anxiety levels in comparison to a no stress control group. Cycloheximide appeared to maintain stress-induced anxiety responses, which otherwise declined with repeated extinction trials in the saline control groups. These findings suggest that cycloheximide may have induced amnesia for extinction, leaving the target memory of the predatory stress intact resulting in elevated levels of anxiety. The relationships between de novo protein synthesis and reconsolidation of anxiety-related memories following extinction trials may be more complex than originally thought.

  7. Stress Levels of Kuwaiti Mothers of Children with SLD: Does Work and Educational Status Matter?

    Alazemi, Saad S.; Hadadian, Azar; Merbler, John B.; Wang, Cen


    Existing research literature indicates that parents of children with disabilities have higher stress. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in stress levels between mothers in relation to their children with specific learning disabilities (SLD). A sub sample of 91 mothers participated in the study. The outcome of the research…

  8. The tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO is involved in stress-related and light-dependent processes in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon

    Andrea eBusch


    Full Text Available The tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO is a membrane protein, which is a member of the 18 kilodalton translocator protein/peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (MBR family of proteins that is present in most organisms and is also referred to as Translocator protein 18 kDa. Although TSPO is associated with stress- and disease-related processes in organisms from bacteria to mammals, full elucidation of the functional role of the TSPO protein is lacking for most organisms in which it is found. In this study, we describe the regulation and function of a TSPO homolog in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, designated FdTSPO. Accumulation of the FdTSPO transcript is upregulated by green light and in response to nutrient deficiency and stress. A F. diplosiphon TSPO deletion mutant (i.e., ΔFdTSPO showed altered responses compared to the wild type strain under stress conditions, including salt treatment, osmotic stress and induced oxidative stress. Under salt stress, the FdTSPO transcript is upregulated and a ΔFdTSPO mutant accumulates lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and displays increased growth compared to WT. In response to osmotic stress, FdTSPO transcript levels are upregulated and ΔFdTSPO mutant cells exhibit impaired growth compared to the wild type. By comparison, methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress results in higher ROS levels in the ΔFdTSPO mutant compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, our results provide support for the involvement of membrane-localized FdTSPO in mediating cellular responses to stress in F. diplosiphon and represent detailed functional analysis of a cyanobacterial TSPO. This study advances our understanding of the functional roles of TSPO homologs in vivo.

  9. AAV exploits subcellular stress associated with inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum expansion, and misfolded proteins in models of cystic fibrosis.

    Jarrod S Johnson


    Full Text Available Barriers to infection act at multiple levels to prevent viruses, bacteria, and parasites from commandeering host cells for their own purposes. An intriguing hypothesis is that if a cell experiences stress, such as that elicited by inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER expansion, or misfolded proteins, then subcellular barriers will be less effective at preventing viral infection. Here we have used models of cystic fibrosis (CF to test whether subcellular stress increases susceptibility to adeno-associated virus (AAV infection. In human airway epithelium cultured at an air/liquid interface, physiological conditions of subcellular stress and ER expansion were mimicked using supernatant from mucopurulent material derived from CF lungs. Using this inflammatory stimulus to recapitulate stress found in diseased airways, we demonstrated that AAV infection was significantly enhanced. Since over 90% of CF cases are associated with a misfolded variant of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ΔF508-CFTR, we then explored whether the presence of misfolded proteins could independently increase susceptibility to AAV infection. In these models, AAV was an order of magnitude more efficient at transducing cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR than in cells expressing wild-type CFTR. Rescue of misfolded ΔF508-CFTR under low temperature conditions restored viral transduction efficiency to that demonstrated in controls, suggesting effects related to protein misfolding were responsible for increasing susceptibility to infection. By testing other CFTR mutants, G551D, D572N, and 1410X, we have shown this phenomenon is common to other misfolded proteins and not related to loss of CFTR activity. The presence of misfolded proteins did not affect cell surface attachment of virus or influence expression levels from promoter transgene cassettes in plasmid transfection studies, indicating exploitation occurs at the level of virion trafficking or processing. Thus

  10. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Soybean Grains under Salinity Stress



    Full Text Available Two factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications were conducted in 2007 and 2008, to evaluate grain development (four harvests and rate and duration of oil and protein accumulation in three soybean cultivars (�Williams�, �Zan� and �L17� under a non-saline (control and three saline (3, 6 and 9 ds/m NaCl conditions. Six seeds were sown in each pot filled with 900 g perlite, using 144 pots for each experiment. After emergence, seedlings were thinned and 4 plants were kept in each pot. Rate of oil accumulation up to maturity was not significantly affected by salinity. With increasing salinity, rate and percentage of protein accumulation, duration of oil and protein accumulation and oil and protein content per grain decreased, but oil percentage increased. Oil and protein yields per plant decreased as salinity increased. These reductions were mainly attributed to the short duration of protein and oil accumulation and grain yield per plant under saline conditions. �Williams� had the highest rate and duration of protein accumulation and rate of oil accumulation, but �L17� had the highest grain yield per plant. Consequently, differences in protein and oil yields per plant between these two cultivars were not statistically significant. However, �Zan� had the lowest protein and oil yields, due to the lowest grain yield per plant.

  11. Sympathetic nervous system contributes to enhanced corticosterone levels following chronic stress.

    Lowrance, Steven A; Ionadi, Amy; McKay, Erin; Douglas, Xavier; Johnson, John D


    Exposure to chronic stress often elevates basal circulating glucocorticoids during the circadian nadir and leads to exaggerated glucocorticoid production following exposure to subsequent stressors. While glucocorticoid production is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, there is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system can affect diurnal glucocorticoid production by direct actions at the adrenal gland. Experiments here were designed to examine the role of the HPA and sympathetic nervous system in enhancing corticosterone production following chronic stress. Rats were exposed to a four-day stress paradigm or control conditions then exposed to acute restraint stress on the fifth day to examine corticosterone and ACTH responses. Repeated stressor exposure resulted in a small increase in corticosterone, but not ACTH, during the circadian nadir, and also resulted in exaggerated corticosterone production 5, 10, and 20min following restraint stress. While circulating ACTH levels increased after 5min of restraint, levels were not greater in chronic stress animals compared to controls until following 20min. Administration of astressin (a CRH antagonist) prior to restraint stress significantly reduced ACTH responses but did not prevent the sensitized corticosterone response in chronic stress animals. In contrast, administration of chlorisondamine (a ganglionic blocker) returned basal corticosterone levels in chronic stress animals to normal levels and reduced early corticosterone production following restraint (up to 10min) but did not block the exaggerated corticosterone response in chronic stress animals at 20min. These data indicate that increased sympathetic nervous system tone contributes to elevated basal and rapid glucocorticoid production following chronic stress, but HPA responses likely mediate peak corticosterone responses to stressors of longer duration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of year of study on stress levels in male undergraduate dental students

    Alzahem AM


    Full Text Available Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental students can be a significant threat, resulting in physical and/or mental illness, and have a negative effect on students' performance and the professional practice of dentistry. Stress can occur from different sources. The purpose of this study is to test whether the year of study has an effect on the stress levels of dental students.Method: Our study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out by male undergraduate dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh City during the 2010–2011 academic year (n = 214.Results: The results show the most common sources of stress: examinations and completing clinical requirements. Moreover, in the five-year lecture-based traditional curriculum, the third year students reported the highest level of stress, whereas the first year reported the lowest level of stress.Conclusion: Third year undergraduate dental students reported the highest level of stress. This stress could be reduced by reviewing and modifying the dental curriculum by allowing students to have contact with patients more gradually, starting from the first year, in addition to adding stress prevention and intervention programs in dental curricula.Keywords: dental, education, students, stress, study year

  13. Asymmetric Damage Segregation Constitutes an Emergent Population-Level Stress Response

    Vedel, Søren; Nunns, Harry; Košmrlj, Andrej


    , we introduce a cell-lineage-based framework that quantifies the population-wide effects of ADS and then verify our results experimentally in E. coli under heat and antibiotic stress. Using an experimentally validated mathematical model, we find that the beneficial effect of ADS increases with stress....... In effect, low-damage subpopulations divide faster and amplify within the population acting like a positive feedback loop whose strength scales with stress. Analysis of protein aggregates shows that the degree of asymmetric inheritance is damage dependent in single cells. Together our results indicate that...

  14. MAP17 and SGLT1 protein expression levels as prognostic markers for cervical tumor patient survival.

    Marco Perez

    Full Text Available MAP17 is a membrane-associated protein that is overexpressed in human tumors. Because the expression of MAP17 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS generation through SGLT1 in cancer cells, in the present work, we investigated whether MAP17 and/or SGLT1 might be markers for the activity of treatments involving oxidative stress, such as cisplatin or radiotherapy. First, we confirmed transcriptional alterations in genes involved in the oxidative stress induced by MAP17 expression in HeLa cervical tumor cells and found that Hela cells expressing MAP17 were more sensitive to therapies that induce ROS than were parental cells. Furthermore, MAP17 increased glucose uptake through SGLT receptors. We then analyzed MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels in cervical tumors treated with cisplatin plus radiotherapy and correlated the expression levels with patient survival. MAP17 and SGLT1 were expressed in approximately 70% and 50% of cervical tumors of different types, respectively, but they were not expressed in adenoma tumors. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels. High levels of either MAP17 or SGLT1 correlated with improved patient survival after treatment. However, the patients with high levels of both MAP17 and SGLT1 survived through the end of this study. Therefore, the combination of high MAP17 and SGLT1 levels is a marker for good prognosis in patients with cervical tumors after cisplatin plus radiotherapy treatment. These results also suggest that the use of MAP17 and SGLT1 markers may identify patients who are likely to exhibit a better response to treatments that boost oxidative stress in other cancer types.

  15. CCM proteins control endothelial β1 integrin dependent response to shear stress

    Zuzana Macek Jilkova


    Full Text Available Hemodynamic shear stress from blood flow on the endothelium critically regulates vascular function in many physiological and pathological situations. Endothelial cells adapt to shear stress by remodeling their cytoskeletal components and subsequently by changing their shape and orientation. We demonstrate that β1 integrin activation is critically controlled during the mechanoresponse of endothelial cells to shear stress. Indeed, we show that overexpression of the CCM complex, an inhibitor of β1 integrin activation, blocks endothelial actin rearrangement and cell reorientation in response to shear stress similarly to β1 integrin silencing. Conversely, depletion of CCM2 protein leads to an elongated “shear-stress-like” phenotype even in the absence of flow. Taken together, our findings reveal the existence of a balance between positive extracellular and negative intracellular signals, i.e. shear stress and CCM complex, for the control of β1 integrin activation and subsequent adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to mechanostimulation by fluid shear stress.

  16. Acute Physical Stress Increases Serum Levels of Specific microRNAs.

    Hosoya, Tadashi; Hashiyada, Masaki; Funayama, Masato


    MicroRNA (miR) is non-coding small RNA that regulate mRNA at the post-transcriptional level by degradation or inhibition. To find physical stress markers, we developed a rat model involving a simple and complicated stress and measured serum miR levels. To demonstrate changes in serum miR levels when physical stress is applied, we constructed three stress modalities using rats: alcohol intake, treadmill running and restraint. After alcohol administration, the rats were made to run on a treadmill and some of the rats were further stressed by restraining with a 2 kg water bag immediately after the treadmill run. The rats were grouped as follows: control, run for 20 min, run for 90 min, run and restrained for 20 min, run and restrained for 90 min. Using total RNA extracted from sera, expression levels of eight miRs were measured by real-time PCR. The level of miR-199a was increased by 20 min stress procedures and the levels of miR-1, miR-24a and miR-133a/b were increased by 90 min stress procedures. No change in the levels of miR-208, miR-212 or miR-296-5p was seen under any stress conditions. There was no significant difference between a treadmill run only and a combination of treadmill run and being restrained by a 2 kg water bag. We demonstrated that a combination of these serum miRs might indicate the intensity of stress experienced.

  17. Heat Stress Regulates the Expression of Genes at Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Levels, Revealed by RNA-seq in Brachypodium distachyon

    Chen, Shoukun; Li, Haifeng


    Heat stress greatly affects plant growth/development and influences the output of crops. With the increased occurrence of extreme high temperature, the negative influence on cereal products from heat stress becomes severer and severer. It is urgent to reveal the molecular mechanism in response to heat stress in plants. In this research, we used RNA-seq technology to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves of seedlings, leaves and inflorescences at heading stage of Brachypodium distachyon, one model plant of grasses. Results showed many genes in responding to heat stress. Of them, the expression level of 656 DEGs were altered in three groups of samples treated with high temperature. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the highly enriched DEGs were responsible for heat stress and protein folding. According to KEGG pathway analysis, the DEGs were related mainly to photosynthesis-antenna proteins, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the spliceosome. Additionally, the expression level of 454 transcription factors belonging to 49 gene families was altered, as well as 1,973 splicing events occurred after treatment with high temperature. This research lays a foundation for characterizing the molecular mechanism of heat stress response and identifying key genes for those responses in plants. These findings also clearly show that heat stress regulates the expression of genes not only at transcriptional level, but also at post-transcriptional level. PMID:28119730

  18. Effect of Low Temperature Stress on Protein Content of Toona Sinensis Seedlings and Expression of Specific Protein

    YANG Yu-zhen; CHEN Gang; PENG Fang-ren


    [Objective] The paper was to study the changes of protein content and component in leaves of Toona Sinensis under low-temperature stress. [Method] Potted experiment was adopted, and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was also used to analyze the dynamic changes of protein in T. Sinensis leaves. [Result] Low temperature stress could change the content and component in leaves of T. Sinensis, but different provenances had different performance under different temperatures, so did the same provenance under different stress periods. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis results indicated that the change law of provenances of Xixia of Henan and Nanjing of Jiangsu with stronger cold resistance was similar, showing the change trend of "increase-decrease-increase". Protein was greatly expressed after stress for 1 d, the color of band became darker; the content gradually decreased in the following second and third day, and the color of bands was lighter; the content began to increase at the forth day. Two provenances induced the specific proteins with molecular weights of 27.6 and 22.5 kD, respectively. The soluble protein content of provenance of Xiapu of Fujian with relatively weak cold resistance was gradually increased, but no new protein bands were induced. The changes of protein band color of various provenances in SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was basically consistent with the changes of protein content, the provenance with stronger cold resistance could induce the production of specific proteins. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis for under the molecular mechanism of plant cold resistance, which had great significance in theory and practice.

  19. mTORC1 Coordinates Protein Synthesis and Immunoproteasome Formation via PRAS40 to Prevent Accumulation of Protein Stress.

    Yun, Young Sung; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Tschida, Barbara; Sachs, Zohar; Noble-Orcutt, Klara E; Moriarity, Branden S; Ai, Teng; Ding, Rui; Williams, Jessica; Chen, Liqiang; Largaespada, David; Kim, Do-Hyung


    Reduction of translational fidelity often occurs in cells with high rates of protein synthesis, generating defective ribosomal products. If not removed, such aberrant proteins can be a major source of cellular stress causing human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes the formation of immunoproteasomes for efficient turnover of defective proteins and cell survival. mTORC1 sequesters precursors of immunoproteasome β subunits via PRAS40. When activated, mTORC1 phosphorylates PRAS40 to enhance protein synthesis and simultaneously to facilitate the assembly of the β subunits for forming immunoproteasomes. Consequently, the PRAS40 phosphorylations play crucial roles in clearing aberrant proteins that accumulate due to mTORC1 activation. Mutations of RAS, PTEN, and TSC1, which cause mTORC1 hyperactivation, enhance immunoproteasome formation in cells and tissues. Those mutations increase cellular dependence on immunoproteasomes for stress response and survival. These results define a mechanism by which mTORC1 couples elevated protein synthesis with immunoproteasome biogenesis to protect cells against protein stress.

  20. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  1. Estimation of the Level of Residual Stress in Wires with a Magnetic Method

    Suliga M.


    Full Text Available Residual stress present in wires after drawing process affects their magnetic properties. The paper presents a concept to estimate the level of residual stress on the basis of measurements of hysteresis loops. In order to describe the effect qualitatively the Jiles-Atherton-Sablik description is adapted. On the basis of variations in hysteresis loop shapes the average values of residual stress in wires for different single draft values are determined. It was found that the estimated average values by magnetic stresses are comparable with the results of numerical modeling and experimental studies.

  2. The involvement of homocysteine in stress-induced Aβ precursor protein misprocessing and related cognitive decline in rats.

    Xie, Fang; Zhao, Yun; Ma, Jing; Gong, Jing-Bo; Wang, Shi-Da; Zhang, Liang; Gao, Xiu-Jie; Qian, Ling-Jia


    Chronic stress is a risk factor in the development of cognitive decline and even Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous data demonstrated that the level of homocysteine (Hcy) was significantly elevated in the plasma of stressed animals, which suggests the possibility that Hcy is a link between stress and cognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cognitive function, plasma concentrations of Hcy, and the brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) level between rats with or without chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS). A lower performance by rats in behavioral tests indicated that a significant cognitive decline was induced by CUMS. Stress also disturbed the normal processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and resulted in the accumulation of Aβ in the brains of rats, which showed a positive correlation with the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) that appeared in stressed rats. Hcy-targeting intervention experiments were used to verify further the involvement of Hcy in stress-induced APP misprocessing and related cognitive decline. The results showed that diet-induced HHcy could mimic the cognitive impairment and APP misprocessing in the same manner as CUMS, while Hcy reduction by means of vitamin B complex supplements and betaine could alleviate the cognitive deficits and dysregulation of Aβ metabolism in CUMS rats. Taken together, the novel evidence from our present study suggests that Hcy is likely to be involved in chronic stress-evoked APP misprocessing and related cognitive deficits. Our results also suggested the possibility of Hcy as a target for therapy and the potential value of vitamin B and betaine intake in the prevention of stress-induced cognitive decline.

  3. Mitochondrial efficiency and exercise economy following heat stress: a potential role of uncoupling protein 3.

    Salgado, Roy M; Sheard, Ailish C; Vaughan, Roger A; Parker, Daryl L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kenefick, Robert W; McCormick, James J; Gannon, Nicholas P; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M


    Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude. In vitro, myocytes were heat stressed for 24 h (40°C), followed by measurements of UCP3, mitochondrial uncoupling, and efficiency. In vivo, eight trained males completed: (i) pre-HA testing; (ii) 10 days of HA (40°C, 20% RH); and (iii) post-HA testing. Pre- and posttesting consisted of maximal exercise test and submaximal exercise at two intensities to assess exercise economy at 1600 m (Albuquerque, NM) and 4350 m. Heat-stressed myocytes displayed significantly reduced UCP3 mRNA expression and, mitochondrial uncoupling (77.1 ± 1.2%, P economy did not change at low and moderate exercise intensities. Our findings indicate that while heat-induced reduction in UCP3 improves mitochondrial efficiency in vitro, this is not translated to in vivo improvement of exercise economy at 1600 m or 4350 m.

  4. The heat-shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance.

    Jacob, Pierre; Hirt, Heribert; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid


    Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multistress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once. Consequently, the use of single stress resistance traits is often inadequate. Although it has been historically linked with the heat stress response, the heat-shock protein (HSP)/chaperone network is a major component of multiple stress responses. Among the HSP/chaperone 'client proteins', many are primary metabolism enzymes and signal transduction components with essential roles for the proper functioning of a cell. HSPs/chaperones are controlled by the action of diverse heat-shock factors, which are recruited under stress conditions. In this review, we give an overview of the regulation of the HSP/chaperone network with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana. We illustrate the role of HSPs/chaperones in regulating diverse signalling pathways and discuss several basic principles that should be considered for engineering multiple stress resistance in crops through the HSP/chaperone network. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A new stress model, a scream sound, alters learning and monoamine levels in rat brain.

    Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen


    Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time.

  6. The effect of calnexin deletion on the expression level of PDI in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under heat stress conditions.

    Zhang, Huili; He, Jianwei; Ji, Yanyan; Kato, Akio; Song, Youtao


    We cultured calnexin-disrupted and wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under conditions of heat stress. The growth rate of the calnexin-disrupted yeast was almost the same as that of the wild-type yeast under those conditions. However, the induced mRNA level of the molecular chaperone PDI in the ER was clearly higher in calnexin-disrupted S. cerevisiae relative to the wild type at 37 degrees C, despite being almost the same in the two strains under normal conditions. The western blotting analysis for PDI protein expression in the ER yielded results that show a parallel in their mRNA levels in the two strains. We suggest that PDI may interact with calnexin under heat stress conditions, and that the induction of PDI in the ER can recover part of the function of calnexin in calnexin-disrupted yeast, and result in the same growth rate as in wild-type yeast.

  7. Effects of Interior Plantscapes on Indoor Environments and Stress Level of High School Students

    So-Young Park; Jin-Su Song; Hyoung-Deug Kim; Kenji Yamane; Ki-Cheol Son


      Case studies were performed in two high schools (designated K and J) in Seoul, Korea in order to examine how in-class plantscapes consisting of ornamental plants affected the indoor environment and the stress level of students...

  8. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    Yoshitaka Kondo


    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1 higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2 severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3 higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4 decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion.

  9. Functional genomics to study protein secretion stress in Aspergillus niger

    Silva Pinheiro Carvalho, Neuza Daniela


    In this thesis we have focused our studies towards a better understanding of different processes involved in the protein secretion pathway that might act as bottlenecks for homologous and heterologous protein production. We have given particular attention to the molecular mechanisms of folding and q

  10. Stress Responsive Zinc-finger Protein Gene of Populus euphratica in Tobacco Enhances Salt Tolerance


    The Populus euphratica stress responsive zinc-finger protein gene PSTZ, which encodes a protein including typical Cys2/His2 zinc finger structure, was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from P. euphratica.Northern hybridization revealed that its expression was induced under drought and salt stress conditions. To examine its function, cDNA of the PSTZ gene, driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector pBin438 and introduced into tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco showed an enhanced salt tolerance, suggesting that PSTZ may play a role in plant responsiveness to salt stress.

  11. Effects of Heavy Metal Stress on the Protein Content of Microorganisms


    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of heavy metal stress on the protein content of microorganisms.[Method] By using traditional microbiological culture method,four typical microorganisms(including Escherichia coli,Bacillus subtilis,Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen and Streptomycetaceae) were cultured under the stress of heavy metal ions(like Hg2+,Cd2+,Cr6+ and Pb2+) with different concentrations,and the effects of heavy metal stress on the synthesis of protein in four typical microorganisms were di...

  12. Expression profiling of two stress-inducible genes encoding for miraculin-like proteins in citrus plants under insect infestation or salinity stress.

    Podda, A; Simili, M; Del Carratore, R; Mouhaya, W; Morillon, R; Maserti, B E


    The expression of two genes, namely Mir1 and Mir3 and the abundance of their encoded proteins, the putative miraculin-like proteins, MLP1 and MLP3, showing similarity to the Kunitz family of protease inhibitors, were monitored in the leaves of the citrus variety, 'Clementine' after Tetranychus urticae infestation and elicitor treatments, or in the leaves of three other diploid citrus: 'Willow leaf', 'Cleopatra' mandarins and 'Trifoliate' orange, as well as their respective doubled diploids and the allotetraploid somatic hybrid 'FLHORAG1' under salt stress. RT-PCR and 2-DE indicated that Mir1 and Mir3 and their products were present at low-basal expression in all citrus genotypes. Both genes and products were induced in the 'Clementine' leaves infested by T. urticae, but a contrasting profile was observed under elicitor treatments. Under salt stress, the two genes showed an expression pattern contrasting each other and depending on the genotypes. 'Cleopatra' mandarin, 'Trifoliate' orange and 'FLHORAG1' presented overexpression of Mir3 and MLP3 and decreased levels of Mir1 and MPL1. The opposite behaviour was found in 'Willow leaf' mandarin. The positive correlation of the expression profile of the two genes with that of a gene encoding a putative apoplastic cysteine protease (CysP) might suggest a possible interaction of the respective encoded proteins during the response to biotic stress. Under salt stress, CysP and Mir 1 showed a similar expression pattern but only at transcript level. The possible occurrence of post-translational CysP regulation is discussed.

  13. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley


    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  14. The examination of sport managers and coaches’ stress levels and depressed mood at work in Turkey

    Bilge Donuk


    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60 and coaches (n=52 in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire” and “Depressed Mood at Work Questionnaire”. Our findings indicated that: The aim of first questionnaire was to assess perceived stressful situations and results show that general stress levels of managers and coaches are under the average. When we examine the second questionnaire consisting of health, physical condition, tension caused by stress; it is seen that negative effects of these factors increase. At last; according to the depressed mood at work questionnaire which evaluates the physiological conditions related to stress; it’s found out that both managers and coaches aren’t satisfied with their working atmosphere and managers’ unhappiness levels are higher than coaches are.

  15. Popeye domain containing proteins are essential for stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking in mice.

    Froese, Alexander; Breher, Stephanie S; Waldeyer, Christoph; Schindler, Roland F R; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Rinné, Susanne; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Schlueter, Jan; Becher, Jan; Simrick, Subreena; Vauti, Franz; Kuhtz, Juliane; Meister, Patrick; Kreissl, Sonja; Torlopp, Angela; Liebig, Sonja K; Laakmann, Sandra; Müller, Thomas D; Neumann, Joachim; Stieber, Juliane; Ludwig, Andreas; Maier, Sebastian K; Decher, Niels; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Kirchhof, Paulus; Fabritz, Larissa; Brand, Thomas


    Cardiac pacemaker cells create rhythmic pulses that control heart rate; pacemaker dysfunction is a prevalent disorder in the elderly, but little is known about the underlying molecular causes. Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode membrane proteins with high expression levels in cardiac myocytes and specifically in the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in Popdc1 or Popdc2. ECG analysis revealed severe sinus node dysfunction when freely roaming mutant animals were subjected to physical or mental stress. In both mutants, bradyarrhythmia developed in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that the conserved Popeye domain functioned as a high-affinity cAMP-binding site. Popdc proteins interacted with the potassium channel TREK-1, which led to increased cell surface expression and enhanced current density, both of which were negatively modulated by cAMP. These data indicate that Popdc proteins have an important regulatory function in heart rate dynamics that is mediated, at least in part, through cAMP binding. Mice with mutant Popdc1 and Popdc2 alleles are therefore useful models for the dissection of the mechanisms causing pacemaker dysfunction and could aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han


    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity.

  17. Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels.

    Wu, Wanqiang; Wang, Xin; Xiang, Qisen; Meng, Xu; Peng, Ye; Du, Na; Liu, Zhigang; Sun, Quancai; Wang, Chan; Liu, Xuebo


    Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid pigment which possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether administration of AST had protective effects on D-galactose-induced brain aging in rats, and further examined its protective mechanisms. The results showed that AST treatment significantly restored the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased glutathione (GSH) contents and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), but decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonylation and 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the brains of aging rats. Furthermore, AST increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brains of aging rats. Additionally, AST ameliorated histopathological changes in the hippocampus and restored brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in both the brains and hippocampus of aging rats. These results suggested that AST could alleviate brain aging, which may be due to attenuating oxidative stress, ameliorating hippocampus damage, and upregulating BDNF expression.

  18. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

    Yan-Long Jia


    Full Text Available Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl and low (0.75 M NaCl salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress.

  19. C-reactive protein levels in hereditary angioedema.

    Hofman, Z L M; Relan, A; Hack, C E


    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent episodes of angioedema attacks that can be painful, disfiguring and even life-threatening. The disorder results from a mutation in the gene that controls the synthesis of C1-inhibitor (C1INH). C1INH is a major regulator of activation of the contact system. It is often assumed that attacks results from uncontrolled local activation of the contact system with subsequent formation of bradykinin. To evaluate the involvement of inflammatory reactions in HAE, we analysed C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. For the current study we analysed CRP levels when patients were asymptomatic, during a clinical attack and in a follow-up period, and correlated these with the clinical manifestations of the attack. Data from 68 HAE patients were analysed and included CRP levels on 273 occasions. While asymptomatic, 20% of the patients analysed had increased CRP. At the onset of the attack (P = 0·049) and during the next 24 h CRP rose significantly (P = 0·002) in patients with an abdominal location, and post-attack levels were significantly higher in these patients than in patients with attacks at other locations (P = 0·034). In conclusion, CRP levels are elevated in a substantial proportion of asymptomatic HAE patients. Levels of CRP increase significantly during an abdominal attack. These data suggest low-grade systemic inflammatory reactions in HAE patients as well as a triggering event for attacks that starts prior to symptom onset.

  20. Coping with predator stress: interclonal differences in induction of heat-shock proteins in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Pauwels, K; Stoks, R; de Meester, L


    Although predation is a strong selection pressure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms to cope with predator stress. This is crucial to understanding of the mechanisms and constraints involved in the evolution of antipredator traits. We quantified the expression of heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a potential marker for predator stress, in four clones of the water flea Daphnia magna, when exposed to fish kairomones. Expression of Hsp60 induction increased after 6 h and returned to base levels after 24 h of predator stress. This suggests that it is a costly transient mechanism to temporarily cope with novel predator stress, before other defences are induced. We found genetic variation in the fixed levels and in the fish-induced levels of Hsp60, which seemed to be linked to each clone's history of fish predation. Our data suggest that Hsp60 can be considered part of a multiple-trait antipredator defence strategy of Daphnia clones to cope with predator stress.

  1. Telomeric DNA quantity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein gene expression as physiological stress markers in chickens.

    Sohn, S H; Subramani, V K; Moon, Y S; Jang, I S


    In this longitudinal study with Single Comb White Leghorn chickens, we investigated the effects of stress conditions in birds that were subjected to a high stocking density with feed restrictions on the quantity of telomeric DNA, the rate of DNA damage, and the expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) and hydroxyl-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) genes. The telomere length and telomere-shortening rates were analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization on the nuclei of lymphocytes. The DNA damage rate of lymphocytes was quantified by the comet assay. The expression levels of HSP70, HSP90, and HMGCR genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in lymphocytes. The telomere-shortening rate of the lymphocytes was significantly higher in the stress group than in the control. The DNA damage also increased in birds raised under stress conditions, as compared with the control group. The stress conditions had a significant effect on the expressions of HMGCR and HSP90α in lymphocytes but had no significance on HSP70 and HSP90β in blood. We conclude that the telomere length, especially the telomere-shortening rates, the quantification of total DNA damage, and the expression levels of the HMGCR and HSP90α genes can be used as sensitive physiological stress markers in chickens.

  2. Proline induces the expression of salt-stress-responsive proteins and may improve the adaptation of Pancratium maritimum L. to salt-stress.

    Khedr, Abdel Hamid A; Abbas, Mohammad A; Wahid, Amal A Abdel; Quick, W Paul; Abogadallah, Gaber M


    Proline is an important component of salt-stress responses of plants. In this study the role of proline as part of salt-stress signalling in the desert plant Pancratium maritimum L. was examined. The data showed that salt-stress brought about a reduction of the growth and protein content, particularly at 300 mM NaCl, that was significantly increased by exogenous proline. In the leaves, salt-stress up-regulated ubiquitin, a small protein targeting damaged proteins for degradation via the proteasome, up to 5-fold as detected by western blotting. This change was also affected by proline even in non-stressed leaves. However, salt-stress resulted in a decrease in the amount of ubiquitin-conjugates, particularly in the roots, and this effect was reversed by exogenous proline. Severe salt-stress resulted in an inhibition of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and peroxidase as revealed by spectrophotometric assays and activity gels, but the activity of these enzymes was also maintained significantly higher in the presence of proline. Salt-stress also up-regulated several dehydrin proteins, analysed by western blotting, even in non-stressed plants. It is concluded that proline improves the salt-tolerance of Pancratium maritimum L. by protecting the protein turnover machinery against stress-damage and up-regulating stress protective proteins.

  3. Level of supplemental protein does not influence the ruminally undegradable protein value.

    Legleiter, L R; Mueller, A M; Kerley, M S


    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether elevating the percentage of ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) in the diet would influence the RUP value of the protein feedstuff. A single-effluent, continuous-culture study was designed to test the effect of RUP inclusion rate in the diet on ruminal degradability of the protein. Treatments consisted (DM basis) of a control diet with no supplemental protein, control + 2.5% bloodmeal (BM-L), control + 5% bloodmeal (BM-H), control + 4.45% soybean meal (SBM-L), and control + 8.89% soybean meal (SBM-H). Proteolytic activity and total VFA concentration were not affected (P = 0.73 and P = 0.13) by treatment. Within protein source, dietary RUP value was not affected (P = 0.94) by level of inclusion. When corrected for control diet RUP flow, the RUP value of the blood meal (BM) protein was higher (P = 0.01) than soybean meal (SBM); however, level of supplementation did not affect (P = 0.07) the RUP value of BM or SBM. In Exp. 2, 32 British x Continental crossbred steers (276 +/- 26.3 kg) were fed for 72 d to examine the effects of balancing the AA:energy ratio, using BM as a RUP source, on ADG, G:F, and lean tissue deposition. Diets were formulated to provide increasing levels of arginine, while ruminally degradable protein and energy were held constant. Four dietary treatments provided 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2x the required amount of arginine, whereas the control diet had no BM included. Daily DMI averaged 7.6 kg/steer and did not differ (P = 0.71) among treatments. Steers gained an average of 1.9 kg/d and average G:F was 0.260, with no differences (P = 0.60 and P = 0.97, respectively) among treatments. There was no difference (P = 0.48) in the change in 12th-rib fat depth during the study; however, change in LM area was affected quadratically as the level of BM increased in the diet, with the greatest increase in LM area occurring in steers fed the 1x and 1.5x required arginine treatments. Balancing the AA:energy ratio did

  4. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Popović Nataša


    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  5. Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Sánchez, Julio C; Echeverri, Luis F; Londoño, Manuel J; Ochoa, Sergio A; Quiroz, Andrés F; Romero, César R; Ruiz, Joaquín O


    Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Hardiness Mediates Stress and Impact Level in ED Nurses Who Experienced a Violent Event.

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Eun Nam; Kong, Kyung Ran; Jang, Moon Jung


    This secondary analysis examined the mediating effect of hardiness between stress and impact level in ED nurses who experienced a violent event. This correlational study was conducted from June to August 2014. We used the visual analog scale to measure stress level, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised to measure impact level after the violent event, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale to measure hardiness. We then analyzed mediating effects with the Sobel test. Data were collected in 31 emergency medical centers located in B city in Korea. Data from 321 ED nurses who experienced a violent event were analyzed. Most nurses (91.9%) were women, with a mean age of 28.73 years. The main outcome measure was the mediating effect of hardiness between stress and impact level after ED nurses experienced violence. We found that both violence-related stress (B = 0.22, P event. Based on results of a Sobel test, hardiness partially mediated the relationship between violence-related stress and impact level from a violent event (Z = 2.03, P = .044). Hardiness had an effect on reducing the impact level of ED nurses who had experienced a violent event and had a mediating role in mitigating their stress. Therefore, we recommend the development of an intervention program that emphasizes the improvement of hardiness in ED nurses. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Proteins in Stress Responses

    Yusuke Kanamaru


    Full Text Available To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells are equipped with precise systems that trigger the appropriate stress responses. Mitochondria not only provide cellular energy but also integrate stress response signaling pathways, including those regulating cell death. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mitochondrial proteins that function in this process, such as Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis and phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5 in necroptosis, are regulated by several kinases. It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial fission machinery, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, facilitates appropriate cellular stress responses. However, mitochondria themselves are also damaged by various stresses. To avoid the deleterious effects exerted by damaged mitochondria, cells remove these mitochondria in a selective autophagic degradation process called mitophagy. Interestingly, several kinases, such as PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 in mammals and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in yeast, have recently been shown to be involved in mitophagy. In this paper, we focus on the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins and discuss the roles of this regulation in the mitochondrial and cellular stress responses.

  8. Phenotypic Diversity Using Bimodal and Unimodal Expression of Stress Response Proteins.

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J


    Populations of cells need to express proteins to survive the sudden appearance of stressors. However, these mechanisms may be taxing. Populations can introduce diversity, allowing individual cells to stochastically switch between fast-growing and stress-tolerant states. One way to achieve this is to use genetic networks coupled with noise to generate bimodal distributions with two distinct subpopulations, each adapted to a stress condition. Another survival strategy is to rely on random fluctuations in gene expression to produce continuous, unimodal distributions of the stress response protein. To quantify the environmental conditions where bimodal versus unimodal expression is beneficial, we used a differential evolution algorithm to evolve optimal distributions of stress response proteins given environments with sudden fluctuations between low and high stress. We found that bimodality evolved for a large range of environmental conditions. However, we asked whether these findings were an artifact of considering two well-defined stress environments (low and high stress). As noise in the environment increases, or when there is an intermediate environment (medium stress), the benefits of bimodality decrease. Our results indicate that under realistic conditions, a continuum of resistance phenotypes generated through a unimodal distribution is sufficient to ensure survival without a high cost to the population.

  9. Developmentally and stress-induced small heat shock proteins in cork oak somatic embryos.

    Puigderrajols, Pere; Jofré, Anna; Mir, Gisela; Pla, Maria; Verdaguer, Dolors; Huguet, Gemma; Molinas, Marisa


    The timing and tissue localization of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) during cork oak somatic embryo development was investigated under normal growing culture conditions and in response to stress. Western blot analyses using polyclonal antibodies raised against cork oak recombinant HSP17 showed a transient accumulation of class I sHSPs during somatic embryo maturation and germination. Moreover, the amount of protein increased at all stages of embryo development in response to exogenous stress. The developmentally accumulated proteins localized to early differentiating, but not the highly dividing, regions of the root and shoot apical meristems. By contrast, these highly dividing regions were strongly immunostained after heat stress. Findings support the hypothesis of a distinct control for developmentally and stress-induced accumulation of class I sHSPs. The possible role of sHSPs is discussed in relation to their tissue specific localization.

  10. Truncated HSPB1 causes axonal neuropathy and impairs tolerance to unfolded protein stress

    Emil Ylikallio


    General significance: sHSPs have important roles in prevention of protein aggregates that induce toxicity. We showed that C-terminal part of HSPB1 is critical for tolerance of unfolded protein stress, and when lacking causes axonal neuropathy in patients.

  11. Comparison of intra-organellar chaperone capacity for dealing with stress-induced protein unfolding

    Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; van Waarde, Maria A. W. H.; Kampinga, Harm H.


    Molecular chaperones are essential for cells to prevent that partially unfolded proteins form non-functional, toxic aggregates. This requirement is increased when cells experience protein unfolding stresses and such could affect all compartments in the eukaryotic cell. Whether all organelles are equ

  12. Mechanisms of autoprotection and the role of stress-proteins in natural defenses, autoprotection, and salutogenesis

    Schaefer, J; Nierhaus, KH; Lohff, B; Peters, T; Schaefer, T; Vos, R


    We hypothesize that in all physiotherapeutically oriented procedures of naturotherapy - such as helio-, climate-, thalasso- or hydrotherapy or certain forms of physical exercise - the transient expression of stress-proteins (heat-shock proteins, HSPs) is an important element of salutogenesis. These

  13. Use of a stress-minimisation paradigm in high cell density fed-batch Escherichia coli fermentations to optimise recombinant protein production.

    Wyre, Chris; Overton, Tim W


    Production of recombinant proteins is an industrially important technique in the biopharmaceutical sector. Many recombinant proteins are problematic to generate in a soluble form in bacteria as they readily form insoluble inclusion bodies. Recombinant protein solubility can be enhanced by minimising stress imposed on bacteria through decreasing growth temperature and the rate of recombinant protein production. In this study, we determined whether these stress-minimisation techniques can be successfully applied to industrially relevant high cell density Escherichia coli fermentations generating a recombinant protein prone to forming inclusion bodies, CheY-GFP. Flow cytometry was used as a routine technique to rapidly determine bacterial productivity and physiology at the single cell level, enabling determination of culture heterogeneity. We show that stress minimisation can be applied to high cell density fermentations (up to a dry cell weight of >70 g L(-1)) using semi-defined media and glucose or glycerol as carbon sources, and using early or late induction of recombinant protein production, to produce high yields (up to 6 g L(-1)) of aggregation-prone recombinant protein in a soluble form. These results clearly demonstrate that stress minimisation is a viable option for the optimisation of high cell density industrial fermentations for the production of high yields of difficult-to-produce recombinant proteins, and present a workflow for the application of stress-minimisation techniques in a variety of fermentation protocols.

  14. A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-sheng; Charng, Yee-yung


    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios.

  15. The effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on serum oxidative stress levels.

    Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Aslan, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Selek, Sahbettin; Sabuncu, Tevfik


    Some authors have investigated the effects of oxidative stress in some process such as undergoing laparoscopic. However, the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress is unclear. We evaluated the short-term effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress. Thirty patients who underwent endoscopy process and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the prospective study. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurements were measured before and after endoscopy process. The ratio percentage of total oxidant status to total antioxidant capacity was regarded as oxidative stress index. Before endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity levels were higher, while serum total oxidant status levels and oxidative stress index values were lower in patients than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (all, p > 0.05). After endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were significantly higher in patients than before endoscopy process (both, p oxidative stress index values were slight higher in patients but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We observed that serum TAC and TOS levels were increased in patients who underwent endoscopy process after endoscopy process. However, short-time upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process did not cause an important change in the oxidative stress index. Further studies enrolling a larger number of patients are required to clarify the results obtained here.

  16. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen


    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  17. A role for aberrant protein palmitoylation in FFA-induced ER stress and β-cell death.

    Baldwin, Aaron C; Green, Christopher D; Olson, L Karl; Moxley, Michael A; Corbett, John A


    Exposure of insulin-producing cells to elevated levels of the free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate results in the loss of β-cell function and induction of apoptosis. The induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one mechanism proposed to be responsible for the loss of β-cell viability in response to palmitate treatment; however, the pathways responsible for the induction of ER stress by palmitate have yet to be determined. Protein palmitoylation is a major posttranslational modification that regulates protein localization, stability, and activity. Defects in, or dysregulation of, protein palmitoylation could be one mechanism by which palmitate may induce ER stress in β-cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that palmitate-induced ER stress and β-cell toxicity are mediated by excess or aberrant protein palmitoylation. In a concentration-dependent fashion, palmitate treatment of RINm5F cells results in a loss of viability. Similar to palmitate, stearate also induces a concentration-related loss of RINm5F cell viability, while the monounsaturated fatty acids, such as palmoleate and oleate, are not toxic to RINm5F cells. 2-Bromopalmitate (2BrP), a classical inhibitor of protein palmitoylation that has been extensively used as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor signaling, attenuates palmitate-induced RINm5F cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The protective effects of 2BrP are associated with the inhibition of [(3)H]palmitate incorporation into RINm5F cell protein. Furthermore, 2BrP does not inhibit, but appears to enhance, the oxidation of palmitate. The induction of ER stress in response to palmitate treatment and the activation of caspase activity are attenuated by 2BrP. Consistent with protective effects on insulinoma cells, 2BrP also attenuates the inhibitory actions of prolonged palmitate treatment on insulin secretion by isolated rat islets. These studies support a role for aberrant protein palmitoylation as a

  18. Influence of level and type of dietary protein, and of level of feeding on feed utilization by rainbow trout.

    Cho, C Y; Slinger, S J; Bayley, H S


    In the first experiment, diets with 40%, 50% and 60% protein containing herring and soybean meals, and diets with 50% and 60% protein containing herring and soybean protein concentrates were fed at 100%, 85% and 70% of the ad libitum intake. Both increasing the protein level and using the concentrated protein sources resulted in lower gains, and in increases in the amounts of digestible protein and energy consumed for the deposition of protein and energy in the fish carcasses. This difference between the herring and soybean meals, and protein concentrates was not due to differences between their digestibilities. Restriction of feed intake reduced gain, but within these lower levels of gain, the 50% and 60% protein diets have higher final body weights than the 40% protein diet. Restriction of feed intake resulted in carcasses with higher protein and lower fat contents. In the second experiment, two series of diets containing either 40%, 35%, 30% or 25% protein from both herring and soybean meals, or 35%, 30% and 25% protein from herring meal were fed. Reducing the protein level below 40% resulted in lower final body weights, higher feed: gain ratios and carcasses with more protein and less fat. Comparisons of the isonitrogenous pairs of diets showed no differences in final body weights, feed: gain ratios and carcass composition. Reducing the protein level in the diet reduced the amount of protein consumed per unit protein level in the diet reduced the amount of protein consumed per unit protein deposition, but increased the amount of gross energy per unit energy deposited in the carcass.

  19. Protein oxidation in plant mitochondria as a stress indicator

    Møller, I.M.; Kristensen, B.K.


    Plant mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an unavoidable side product of aerobic metabolism, but they have mechanisms for regulating this production such as the alternative oxidase. Once produced, ROS can be removed by several different enzyme systems. Finally, should the first ...... oxidation of cysteine and methionine side chains is an important mechanism for regulating enzyme activity. Mitochondria from both mammalian and plant tissues contain a number of oxidised proteins, but the relative abundance of these post-translationally modified forms is as yet unknown...... shock proteins. Plant mitochondria contain a number of different proteases, but their role in removing oxidatively damaged proteins is, as yet, unclear....

  20. Heterologous expression of a plant small heat-shock protein enhances Escherichia coli viability under heat and cold stress.

    Soto, A; Allona, I; Collada, C; Guevara, M A; Casado, R; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E; Aragoncillo, C; Gomez, L


    A small heat-shock protein (sHSP) that shows molecular chaperone activity in vitro was recently purified from mature chestnut (Castanea sativa) cotyledons. This protein, renamed here as CsHSP17. 5, belongs to cytosolic class I, as revealed by cDNA sequencing and immunoelectron microscopy. Recombinant CsHSP17.5 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli to study its possible function under stress conditions. Upon transfer from 37 degrees C to 50 degrees C, a temperature known to cause cell autolysis, those cells that accumulated CsHSP17.5 showed improved viability compared with control cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cell lysates suggested that such a protective effect in vivo is due to the ability of recombinant sHSP to maintain soluble cytosolic proteins in their native conformation, with little substrate specificity. To test the recent hypothesis that sHSPs may be involved in protection against cold stress, we also studied the viability of recombinant cells at 4 degrees C. Unlike the major heat-induced chaperone, GroEL/ES, the chestnut sHSP significantly enhanced cell survivability at this temperature. CsHSP17.5 thus represents an example of a HSP capable of protecting cells against both thermal extremes. Consistent with these findings, high-level induction of homologous transcripts was observed in vegetative tissues of chestnut plantlets exposed to either type of thermal stress but not salt stress.

  1. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F


    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer's disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels.

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the need

  3. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

    Kourmousi N


    Full Text Available Ntina Kourmousi, Christina Darviri, Liza Varvogli, Evangelos C Alexopoulos School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Background: The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods: The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Results: Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70 were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively, confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. Conclusion: The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted. Keywords: TSI, reliability, validity, Greek educators, occupational stress, psychosocial factors

  4. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario.

    Almeida, Luciana O; Goto, Renata N; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M


    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer.

  5. Exercise Training and Work Task Induced Metabolic and Stress-Related mRNA and Protein Responses in Myalgic Muscles

    Gisela Sjøgaard


    Full Text Available The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed ~7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism. In contrast, prolonged general fitness as well as specific strength training decreased mRNA content of heat shock protein while the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was increased only after specific strength training.

  6. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles.

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette K; Kiilerich, Kristian; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette


    The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed ~7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism. In contrast, prolonged general fitness as well as specific strength training decreased mRNA content of heat shock protein while the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was increased only after specific strength training.

  7. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J


    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  8. Eleveted Stress Regime within Birimian Metallurgenic Province of Ghana-Implications to Deep Level Mining

    M. Affam


    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the likely effect of high stress regime within the rocks of the Birimian Supergroup of Ghana, dated middle Precambrian and offer remediation strategies. The stress levels were therefore assessed between 26-level to 50-levels (i.e., 755 to 1500 m deep within the deepest mine in the formation. Results indicated that pre-and-post mining stresses levels were 75 and 200 MPa, respectively. These levels are quite high and could induce stress related instabilities. Fundamental studies of failure behaviour of the rockmass show that elevated stress regime of this kind poses great potential for eminent rock bursting within the Birimian. Such situations demand concerted efforts of strategic mine design measures, including modified excavation geometry and destressing or preconditioning. These methods could be exploited to extend the normal zone of stress induced fractured rock to a greater depth ahead of the excavation face. Support could be improved further by adopting higher rockbolting density or tougher mesh together with shortcrete. If the excavation becomes prone to moderate rockbursting, provision of appropriate support structure can also be made either to limit the bulking process or reduce excessive rock deformation.

  9. Academic Stress Influences Periodontal Health Condition and Interleukin-1 beta Level

    Sandra O. Kuswandani


    Full Text Available Stress is a risk factor for periodontal disease, causing increase levels of interleukin-1 beta that involve in periodontal destruction. Objective: To analyze the relationship between academic stress in residency program students conditions and levels of interleukin-1 beta in gingival crevicular fluid. Methods: Thirty eight subjects filled the questionnaire of Graduate Dental Environtmental Stress (GDES, periodontal examination and samples of gingival crevicular fluid were tested for interleukin-1 beta with the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: There were significant differences between academic stress to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.038, bleeding on probing index (p=0.02, but no significant differences in pocket depth and loss of attachment (p=0.972. There were significant differences between academic stress to levels of interleukin-1 beta (p=0.03, but no significant differences between levels of interleukin-1 beta to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.465, bleeding on probing index (p=0.826, pocket depth (p=0.968, and loss of attachment (p=0.968. Conclusion: Academic stress influences the periodontal risk factor and level of interleukin-1 beta.

  10. Identification and validation of selected universal stress protein domain containing drought-responsive genes in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.

    Pallavi eSinha


    Full Text Available Pigeonpea is a resilient crop, which is relatively more drought tolerant than many other legume crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this unique feature of pigeonpea, 51 genes were selected using the Hidden Markov Models those codes for proteins having close similarity to universal stress protein domain. Validation of these genes was conducted on three pigeonpea genotypes (ICPL 151, ICPL 8755 and ICPL 227 having different levels of drought tolerance. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR revealed 6, 8 and 18 genes to be ≥2 fold differentially expressed in ICPL 151, ICPL 8755 and ICPL 227, respectively. A total of 10 differentially expressed genes showed ≥2 fold up-regulation in the more drought tolerant genotype. Of these, four genes each encoded proteins for plant U-box and universal stress protein A- (uspA like, while one gene encoded for cation/H(+ antiporter protein and one uncharacterized protein. Genes C.cajan_29830 and C.cajan_33874 belonging to uspA, were found significantly expressed in all the three genotypes with ≥2 fold expression variations. Expression profiling of these two genes on the four other legume crops revealed their specific role in pigeonpea. Therefore, these genes seem to be promising candidates for conferring drought tolerance specifically to pigeonpea.

  11. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland


    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  12. Levels of Stress among General Practitioners, Students and Specialists In Pediatric Dentistry during Dental Treatment.

    Davidovich, E; Pessov, Y; Baniel, A; Ram, D


    To assess self-reported stress during the performance of different procedures in pediatric dentistry, according to the professional experience of the dentists. During the years 2010 to 2011, an anonymous survey was administered by means of an internet link, and by distribution at professional meetings of dentists . No statistically significant differences in stress were reported for maxilla and mandibular procedures. Placement of a rubber dam was rated as the most stressful procedure among dental students. For general practitioners and specialists, injection of local anesthesia to an anxious child was the most stressful procedure, regardless of age, sex, or years of professional experience. A negative correlation was found between years of experience and level of stress for all the procedures surveyed, but not for the use of nitrous oxide. No differences were found between male and female dentists in stress scores for any of the procedures. Higher rates of stress during operative procedures were reported among dental students than among experienced dentists. Anxiety of the pediatric patients, but not the location of the procedure: maxillary or mandibular, affected the dentists' reported level of stress.

  13. Apoptosis in response to heat stress is positively associated with heat-shock protein 90 expression in chicken myocardial cells in vitro

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Hong; Tang, Shu; Li, Qiao-Ning; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Miao; Su, Ya-Nan; Yin, Bin; Zhao, Qi-Ling; Kemper, Nicole; Hartung, Joerg


    To determine heat-shock protein (Hsp)90 expression is connected with cellular apoptotic response to heat stress and its mechanism, chicken (Gallus gallus) primary myocardial cells were treated with the Hsp90 promoter, aspirin, and its inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), before heat stress. Cellular viability, heat-stressed apoptosis and reactive oxygen species level under different treatments were measured, and the expression of key proteins of the signaling pathway related to Hsp90 and their colocalization with Hsp90 were detected. The results showed that aspirin treatment increased the expression of protein kinase B (Akt), the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and p-IKKα/β and the colocalization of Akt and STAT-3 with Hsp90 during heat stress, which was accompanied by improved viability and low apoptosis. GA significantly inhibited Akt expression and p-IKKα/β level, but not STAT-3 quantity, while the colocalization of Akt and STAT-3 with Hsp90 was weakened, followed by lower cell viability and higher apoptosis. Aspirin after GA treatment partially improved the stress response and apoptosis rate of tested cells caused by the recovery of Akt expression and colocalization, rather than the level of STAT-3 (including its co-localization with Hsp90) and p-IKKα/β. Therefore, Hsp90 expression has a positive effect on cellular capacity to resist heat-stressed injury and apoptosis. Moreover, inhibition of Hsp90 before stress partially attenuated its positive effects. PMID:27297424

  14. Correlation between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder symptoms.

    Lai, Henry; Gardner, Vivien; Vetter, Joel; Andriole, Gerald L


    The relationship between psychological stress and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has been well described. Even though there is some overlapping of symptoms between overactive bladder (OAB) and IC/BPS, there have been very few studies that specifically investigated the relationship between psychological stress and urinary symptoms in OAB patients who do not have pelvic pain. Here we examined the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Patients diagnosed with OAB (n=51), IC/BPS (n=27), and age-matched healthy controls (n=30) participated in a case control study that inquired about their psychological stress levels using the perceived stress scale (PSS). PSS reported by the three patient groups were compared. Among OAB patients, their responses on the PSS was correlated to OAB symptoms using the following questionnaires: 1) international consultation on incontinence - urinary incontinence (ICIQ-UI), 2) international consultation on incontinence - overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB), 3) OAB-q short form, 4) urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6), 5) incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ-7), 6) urgency severity scale (USS), 7) numeric rating scales of urgency symptom, and 8) frequency symptom. Spearman's correlation tests were performed to examine the relationship between psychological stress levels and the severity of OAB symptoms. OAB patients reported psychological stress levels that were as high as IC/BPS patients (median 17.0 versus 18.0, p=0.818, Wilcoxon sum rank test), and significantly higher than healthy controls (17.0, versus 7.5, p=0.001). Among OAB patients, there was a positive correlation between perceived stress levels and urinary incontinence symptoms (ICIQ-UI, Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.39, p=0.007), and impacts on quality of life (UDI-6, IIQ-7, OAB-q quality of life subscale; Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.32, 0.31, 0.39, and p=0.028, 0.005, 0

  15. Stress-responsiveness influences baseline glucocorticoid levels: Revisiting the under 3min sampling rule.

    Small, Thomas W; Bebus, Sara E; Bridge, Eli S; Elderbrock, Emily K; Ferguson, Stephen M; Jones, Blake C; Schoech, Stephan J


    Plasma glucocorticoid (CORT) levels collected within 3min of capture are commonly believed to reflect pre-stressor, baseline CORT levels. Differences in these "baseline" values are often interpreted as reflecting differences in health, or the amount of social and environmental stress recently experienced by an individual. When interpreting "baseline" values it is generally assumed that any effect of capture-and-handling during the initial sampling period is small enough and consistent enough among individuals to not obscure pre-capture differences in CORT levels. However, plasma CORT increases in less than 3min post-capture in many free-living, endothermic species in which timing has been assessed. In addition, the rate of CORT secretion and the maximum level attained (i.e., the degree of stress-responsiveness) during a severe stressor often differs among individuals of the same species. In Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), an individual's stress-responsiveness during a 30min post-capture stressor is correlated with CORT levels in samples collected within 1.5min of capture, suggesting there is an intrinsic connection between stress-responsiveness and pre-capture CORT levels. Although differences in stress-responsiveness accounted for just 11% of the variance in these samples, on average, higher stress-responsive jays (top third of individuals) had baseline values twice that of lower stress-responsive jays (bottom third). Further, plasma CORT levels begin to increase around 2min post-capture in this species, but the rate of increase between 2 and 3min differs markedly with CORT increasing more rapidly in jays with higher stress-responsiveness. Together, these data indicate that baseline CORT values can be influenced by an individual's stress response phenotype and the differences due to stress-responsiveness can be exaggerated during sample collection. In some cases, the effects of differences in stress-responsiveness and the increase in CORT during

  16. Patients with nephrolithiasis had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

    Wu, Yong Xian; Li, Cheng Yang; Deng, Yao Liang


    Fetuin-A acts as an inhibitor of systemic and local ectopic calcification and inflammatory response, but the role of fetuin-A in the etiology of urolithiasis is still unclear. We aim to investigate the expression of fetuin-A in the serum, urine and renal tissue of patients with or without nephrolithiasis. 48 patients with nephrolithiasis (group A) and 32 individuals without urolithiasis (group B, control group) were enrolled into our study. Level of fetuin-A in serum and urine was measured by ELISA, and expression of fetuin-A in renal tissue was localized and assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively. Indexes of oxidative stress in kidney were evaluated. Other routine serum and urine chemistries for inpatients were measured biochemically. The results showed that fetuin-A expressed widely in the proximal and distal renal tubule, the thin segment of Henle's loop and the collecting duct epithelium. There were no differences in serum fetuin-A level between the two groups. Compared with control group, cellular expression of P47phox and fetuin-A mRNAs in the renal tissue of patients with nephrolithiasis increased, the level of MDA in renal tissue and the level of urinary calcium also increased, but urinary and renal fetuin-A protein and the activities of SOD in renal tissue decreased. Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the level of renal fetuin-A protein and the expression of P47phox mRNA and MDA. These results revealed that nephrolithiasis patients had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

  17. Honey bee protein atlas at organ-level resolution.

    Chan, Queenie W T; Chan, Man Yi; Logan, Michelle; Fang, Yuan; Higo, Heather; Foster, Leonard J


    Genome sequencing has provided us with gene lists but cannot tell us where and how their encoded products work together to support life. Complex organisms rely on differential expression of subsets of genes/proteins in organs and tissues, and, in concert, evolved to their present state as they function together to improve an organism's overall reproductive fitness. Proteomics studies of individual organs help us understand their basic functions, but this reductionist approach misses the larger context of the whole organism. This problem could be circumvented if all the organs in an organism were comprehensively studied by the same methodology and analyzed together. Using honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) as a model system, we report here an initial whole proteome of a complex organism, measuring 29 different organ/tissue types among the three honey bee castes: queen, drone, and worker. The data reveal that, e.g., workers have a heightened capacity to deal with environmental toxins and queens have a far more robust pheromone detection system than their nestmates. The data also suggest that workers altruistically sacrifice not only their own reproductive capacity but also their immune potential in favor of their queen. Finally, organ-level resolution of protein expression offers a systematic insight into how organs may have developed.

  18. Carboxypeptidase E protects hippocampal neurons during stress in male mice by up-regulating prosurvival BCL2 protein expression.

    Murthy, S R K; Thouennon, E; Li, W-S; Cheng, Y; Bhupatkar, J; Cawley, N X; Lane, M; Merchenthaler, I; Loh, Y P


    Prolonged chronic stress causing elevated plasma glucocorticoids leads to neurodegeneration. Adaptation to stress (allostasis) through neuroprotective mechanisms can delay this process. Studies on hippocampal neurons have identified carboxypeptidase E (CPE) as a novel neuroprotective protein that acts extracellularly, independent of its enzymatic activity, although the mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we aim to determine if CPE plays a neuroprotective role in allostasis in mouse hippocampus during chronic restraint stress (CRS), and the molecular mechanisms involved. Quantitative RT-PCR/in situ hybridization and Western blots were used to assay for mRNA and protein. After mild CRS (1 h/d for 7 d), CPE protein and mRNA were significantly elevated in the hippocampal CA3 region, compared to naïve littermates. In addition, luciferase reporter assays identified a functional glucocorticoid regulatory element within the cpe promoter that mediated the up-regulation of CPE expression in primary hippocampal neurons following dexamethasone treatment, suggesting that circulating plasma glucocorticoids could evoke a similar effect on CPE in the hippocampus in vivo. Overexpression of CPE in hippocampal neurons, or CRS in mice, resulted in elevated prosurvival BCL2 protein/mRNA and p-AKT levels in the hippocampus; however, CPE(-/-) mice showed a decrease. Thus, during mild CRS, CPE expression is up-regulated, possibly contributed by glucocorticoids, to mediate neuroprotection of the hippocampus by enhancing BCL2 expression through AKT signaling, and thereby maintaining allostasis.

  19. Environmental stress level evaluation approach based on physical model and interval grey association degree

    Deng Guanqian; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Lv Kehong


    Associating environmental stresses (ESs) with built-in test (BIT) output is an important means to help diagnose intermittent faults (IFs).Aiming at low efficiency in association of traditional time stress measurement device (TSMD),an association model is built.Thereafter,a novel approach is given to evaluate the integrated environmental stress (IES) level.Firstly,the selection principle and approach of main environmental stresses (MESs) and key characteristic parameters (KCPs) are presented based on fault mode,mechanism,and ESs analysis (FMMEA).Secondly,reference stress events (RSEs) are constructed by dividing IES into three stress levels according to its impact on faults; and then the association model between integrated environmental stress event (IESE) and BIT output is built.Thirdly,an interval grey association approach to evaluate IES level is proposed due to the interval number of IES value.Consequently,the association output can be obtained as well.Finally,a case study is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.Results show the proposed model and approach are effective and feasible.This approach can be used to guide ESs measure,record,and association.It is well suited for on-line assistant diagnosis of faults,especially IFs.

  20. Effects of elevated temperature and cadmium exposure on stress protein response in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    Ivanina, A.V. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Taylor, C. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Rd., Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States); Sokolova, I.M. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail:


    Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) play a key role in cellular protection against environmental stress. Marine ectotherms such as eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are commonly exposed to multiple stressors including temperature and pollution by metals such as cadmium (Cd) in estuaries and coastal zones; however, the combined effects of these stressors on their cellular protection mechanisms are poorly understood. We acclimated C. virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (Washington, North Carolina and Texas) at a common temperature of 12 deg. C, and analyzed their expression of MTs and HSPs (cytosolic HSP69, HSC72-77, HSP90 and mitochondrial HSP60) in response to the combined acute temperature stress and long-term Cd exposure. Overall, HSP and MT induction patterns were similar in oysters from the three studied geographically distant populations. HSP69 and MTs were significantly up-regulated by Cd and temperature stress implying their important role in cellular stress protection. In contrast, HSC72-77, HSP60 and HSP90 were not consistently induced by either acute heat or Cd exposure. The induction temperature for MTs was higher than for HSP69 (>28 deg. C vs. 20 deg. C, respectively), and MTs were more strongly induced by Cd than by temperature stress (to up to 38-94-fold compared by 3.5-7.5-fold, respectively) consistent with their predominant role in metal detoxification. Notably, heat stress did not result in an additional increase in metallothionein expression in Cd-exposed oysters suggesting a capacity limitation during the combined exposure to Cd and temperature stress. Levels of HSP69 and in some cases, HSC72-77 and HSP90 were lower in Cd-exposed oysters as compared to their control counterparts during heat stress indicating that simultaneous exposure to these two stressors may have partially suppressed the cytoprotective upregulation of molecular chaperones. These limitations of stress

  1. Identification of early salt-stress responsive proteins in seedling roots of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. employing iTRAQ-based proteomic technique

    Wu eLi


    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is highly tolerant to salinity; however, large-scale proteomic data of cotton in response to salt-stress are still scanty. Here, an iTRAQ-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the early differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from salt-treated cotton roots. 77 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated proteins were identified. The majority of the proteins have functions related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription related, protein metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, membrane and transport, signal transduction, as well as stress and defense. It is worth emphasizing that some novel salt-responsive proteins were identified, which involved in cell cytoskeleton metabolism(ARP2 and FLAs), membrane transport(TIPs and PIPs), signal transduction(LRR-RLKs)and stress responses(TLP, USP, DIR,desiccation-related protein PCC13-62. High positive correlation was evaluated between the abundance of some altered proteins (SOD, POD, GST, MDAR and MDH and their enzyme activity. The results demonstrate the iTRAQ-based proteomic technique is reliable for identifying and quantifying a large number of cotton root proteins. qRT-PCR was used to study the gene expression levels of five above-mentioned proteins, four patterns are consistent with those of induced protein. These results showed that cotton’s proteome to NaCl stress is complex, and that the comparative protein profiles of roots under salinity vs control improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the tolerance of plants to salt stress. It provides a good starting point for further functional elucidation of these DEPs using genetic and/or other approaches, and thereby candidate genes for genetic engineering to improve crop salt tolerance.

  2. Heat-shock protein 70 expression in shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during thermal and immune-challenged stress

    GUO Zhenyu; JIAO Chuanzhen; XIANG Jianhai


    Using western immunoblotting, we obtained heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction data and distribution in different tissues from shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during thermal and immune-challenged stresses. This is probably the first report of the effects of various stressors on the expression of HSP70 in shrimp. HSP70 was prominently induced in hepatopancreas and gills, but not in muscle, eyestalk and hemolymph, when the shrimp were exposed to heat shock and Vibrio anguillavium-challenged stresses. Cold shock and WSSV treatment had no significant effects on the levels of HSP70 expression in all tissues examined. HSP70 induction was greatest after 2 h exposure to heat shock stress, which was elevated after acute heat shock exposure of 10℃ above ambient temperature.

  3. The salicylic acid effect on the Salvia officianlis L. sugar, protein and proline contents under salinity (NaCl stress

    Khosravi Sahar


    Full Text Available Plant growth is impressed by biotic and abiotic stress inversely. There are many reports about proteins change level in salinity stress. Leaves fill up more soluble sugar of glucose, fructose and proline with treatment of salicylic acid. In this research, Salivia officialis seeds planted in pots containing perlite were put in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27 ±2 0C and 23 ±2 0C temperature, 14h lightness and 10h darkness; NaCl concentration of 0,4,8,12 ds/m and salicylic acid concentration of 0,1,2,4 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. The results demonstrated that increasing of proline and sugars due to osmotic slope in plants lead to increasing of tolerance against dehydrations of leave content and acceleration of plant developments in stress conditions.

  4. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini


    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  5. The Bcl-2 proteins Noxa and Bcl-xL co-ordinately regulate oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    Eno, Colins O; Zhao, Guoping; Olberding, Kristen E; Li, Chi


    Because the detailed molecular mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces apoptosis are not completely known, we investigated how the complex Bcl-2 protein network might regulate oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Using MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), we found that the endogenous anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-xL prevented apoptosis initiated by H(2)O(2). The BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 protein Noxa was required for H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and was the single BH3-only Bcl-2 protein whose pro-apoptotic activity was completely antagonized by endogenous Bcl-xL. Upon H(2)O(2) treatment, Noxa mRNA displayed the greatest increase among BH3-only Bcl-2 proteins. Expression levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukaemia sequence 1), the primary binding target of Noxa, were reduced in H(2)O(2)-treated cells in a Noxa-dependent manner, and Mcl-1 overexpression was able to prevent H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in Bcl-xL-deficient MEF cells. Importantly, reduction of the expression of both Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL caused spontaneous cell death. These studies reveal a signalling pathway in which H(2)O(2) activates Noxa, leading to a decrease in Mcl-1 and subsequent cell death in the absence of Bcl-xL expression. The results of the present study indicate that both anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins co-operate to regulate oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.


    Ni Ketut Alit Armini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  7. 4-Phenylbutyric acid reduces mutant-TGFBIp levels and ER stress through activation of ERAD pathway in corneal fibroblasts of granular corneal dystrophy type 2.

    Choi, Seung-Il; Lee, Eunhee; Jeong, Jang Bin; Akuzum, Begum; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon


    Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is caused by a point mutation (R124H) in the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene. In GCD2 corneal fibroblasts, secretion of the accumulated mutant TGFBI-encoded protein (TGFBIp) is delayed via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway. However, ER stress as the pathogenic mechanism underlying GCD2 has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to confirm whether ER stress is linked to GCD2 pathogenesis and whether the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), could be exploited as a therapy for GCD2. We found that the ER chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were elevated in GCD2. Western bolt analysis also showed a significant increase in both the protein levels and the phosphorylation of the key ER stress kinases, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and double stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase, as well as in levels of their downstream targets, X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 4, respectively, in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. GCD2 cells were found to be more susceptible to ER stress-induced cell death than were wild-type corneal fibroblasts. Treatment with 4-PBA considerably reduced the levels of BiP, IRE1α, and XBP1 in GCD2 cells; notably, 4-PBA treatment significantly reduced the levels of TGFBIp without change in TGFBI mRNA levels. In addition, TGFBIp levels were significantly reduced under ER stress and this reduction was considerably suppressed by the ubiquitin proteasome inhibitor MG132, indicating TGFBIp degradation via the ER-associated degradation pathway. Treatment with 4-PBA not only protected against the GCD2 cell death induced by ER stress but also significantly suppressed the MG132-mediated increase in TGFBIp levels under ER stress. Together, these results suggest that ER stress might comprise an important factor in GCD2 pathophysiology and

  8. Application of a Nonlinear Model to Transcript Levels of Upregulated Stress Response Gene ibpA in Stationary-Phase Salmonella enterica Subjected to Sublethal Heat Stress.

    Carroll, Laura M; Bergholz, Teresa M; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P


    Sublethal heating, which can occur during slow cooking of meat products, is known to induce increased thermal resistance in Salmonella. However, very few studies have addressed the kinetics of this response. Although several recent studies have reported improved thermal inactivation models that include the effect of prior sublethal history on subsequent thermal resistance, none of these models were based on cellular-level responses to sublethal thermal stress. The goal of this study was to determine whether a nonlinear model could accurately portray the response of Salmonella to heat stress induced by prolonged exposure to sublethal temperatures. To accomplish this, stationary-phase Salmonella Montevideo cultures were subjected to various heating profiles (held at either 40 or 45°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 180, or 240 min) using a PCR thermal cycler. Differential plating on selective and nonselective media was used to confirm the presence of cellular injury. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to screen the transcript levels of six heat stress-related genes to find candidate genes for nonlinear modeling. Injury was detected in populations of Salmonella held at 45°C for 30, 60, and 90 min and at 40°C for 0, 5, and 90 min (P 0.05). The transcript levels of ibpA, which codes for a small heat shock protein associated with the ClpB and DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone systems, showed the greatest increase relative to the transcript levels at 0 min, which was significant at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180 min at 45°C and at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min at 40°C (P < 0.05). Using ibpA transcript levels as an indicator of adaptation to thermal stress, a nonlinear model for sublethal injury is proposed. The use of variables indicating the physiological state of the pathogen during stress has the potential to increase the accuracy of thermal inactivation models that must account for prolonged exposure to sublethal temperatures.

  9. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Fatemeh Hosseini


    Full Text Available The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG. Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23. This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  10. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Adha, Nikmatul; Zainol, Rosilawati; Isahak, Marzuki; Nemati, Nahid


    The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  11. Acid stress response and protein induction in Campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance

    Birk, Tina; Wik, Monica Takamiya; Lametsch, René


    BACKGROUND: During the transmission route from poultry to the human host, the major foodborne pathogen C. jejuni may experience many types of stresses, including low pH caused by different acids. However, not all strains are equally sensitive to the stresses. The aim of this study was to investig......BACKGROUND: During the transmission route from poultry to the human host, the major foodborne pathogen C. jejuni may experience many types of stresses, including low pH caused by different acids. However, not all strains are equally sensitive to the stresses. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the response to acid stress of three sequenced C. jejuni strains with different acid tolerances using HCl and acetic acid. RESULTS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for proteomic analysis and proteins were radioactively labelled with methionine to identify proteins only related to acid...... with MALDI-TOF-TOF. The most acid-sensitive isolate was C. jejuni 327, followed by NCTC 11168 and isolate 305 as the most tolerant. Overall, induction of five proteins was observed within the pI range investigated: 19 kDa periplasmic protein (p19), thioredoxin-disulfide (TrxB), a hypothetical protein Cj0706...

  12. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein.

    Malínská, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Škop, Vojtěch; Šilhavý, Jan; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Kazdová, Ludmila; Pravenec, Michal


    Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its "pleiotropic" effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP). We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day) mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS) and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal) in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action-studied by gene expression profiling in the liver-revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling, AMP

  13. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 modulates photic entrainment of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock.

    Cao, Ruifeng; Butcher, Greg Q; Karelina, Kate; Arthur, J Simon; Obrietan, Karl


    The master circadian clock in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is under the entraining influence of the external light cycle. At a mechanistic level, intracellular signaling via the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway appears to play a central role in light-evoked clock entrainment; however, the precise downstream mechanisms by which this pathway influences clock timing are not known. Within this context, we have previously reported that light stimulates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase effector mitogen-stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) in the SCN. In this study, we utilised MSK1(-/-) mice to further investigate the potential role of MSK1 in circadian clock timing and entrainment. Locomotor activity analysis revealed that MSK1 null mice entrained to a 12 h light/dark cycle and exhibited circadian free-running rhythms in constant darkness. Interestingly, the free-running period in MSK1 null mice was significantly longer than in wild-type control animals, and MSK1 null mice exhibited a significantly greater variance in activity onset. Further, MSK1 null mice exhibited a significant reduction in the phase-delaying response to an early night light pulse (100 lux, 15 min), and, using an 8 h phase-advancing 'jet-lag' experimental paradigm, MSK1 knockout animals exhibited a significantly delayed rate of re-entrainment. At the molecular level, early night light-evoked cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, histone phosphorylation and Period1 gene expression were markedly attenuated in MSK1(-/-) animals relative to wild-type mice. Together, these data provide key new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which MSK1 affects the SCN clock.

  14. Probing Protein Channel Dynamics At The Single Molecule Level.

    Lee, M. Ann; Dunn, Robert C.


    It would be difficult to overstate the importance played by protein ion channels in cellular function. These macromolecular pores allow the passage of ions across the cellular membrane and play indispensable roles in all aspects of neurophysiology. While the patch-clamp technique continues to provide elegant descriptions of the kinetic processes involved in ion channel gating, the associated conformational changes remain a mystery. We are using the spectroscopic capabilities and single molecule fluorescence sensitivity of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to probe these dynamics at the single channel level. Using a newly developed cantilevered NSOM probe capable of probing soft biological samples with single molecule fluorescence sensitivity, we have begun mapping the location of single NMDA receptors in intact rat cortical neurons with <100 nm spatial resolution. We will also present recent results exploring the conformational changes accompanying activation of nuclear pore channels located in the nuclear membrane of Xenopus oocytes. Our recent NSOM and AFM measurements on single nuclear pore complexes reveal large conformational changes taking place upon activation, providing rich, new molecular level details of channel function.

  15. The effects of protein, amino acid, and dietary electrolyte balance on broiler chicken performance and blood parameters under heat stress

    Ali Asghar Saki


    Full Text Available The effect of crude protein (CP, amino acid (AA, and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB were evaluated on blood parameters, carcass traits, and broiler performance under heat stress (29-34°C. A total of 540 male chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to 12 diets with factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 3, using a completely randomized design with three replicates of 15 chickens in grower (13 to 26 days and finisher (27 to 42 days periods. and 120, 220, and 320 mEq kg-1 DEB. The level of 21% CP increased body weight gain (BWG and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR at grower period (p < 0.05. In contrast, 20% CP level decreased BWG and increased FCR at finisher period (p < 0.05. Further, 20% CP level reduced blood sodium and blood electrolyte balance (p < 0.05. The highest blood electrolyte balance was achieved by DEB 320 mEq kg-1 diet (p < 0.05. Broiler response to DEB in heat stress depended on the age of bird, length of exposure to high temperature and CP level of the diet. Under heat stress (29-34°C, the 21% CP level at grower period and 17% CP level at finisher period improved broiler BWG and FCR.

  16. Differential protein expression profile in the liver of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae fed with increasing levels of phospholipids.

    Hamza, Neïla; Silvestre, Frédéric; Mhetli, Mohamed; Khemis, Ines Ben; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Cahu, Chantal; Kestemont, Patrick


    A comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in the liver of 34days old pikeperch larvae fed from day 10 post hatching, with three isoproteic and isolipidic formulated diets varying by their phospholipid (PL) contents (% dry diet weight): 1.4% (PL1), 4.7% (PL5) and 9.5% (PL9). Using 2D-DIGE minimal labelling of liver extracts, we were able to show 56 protein spots with a differential intensity (pproteins were unambiguously identified using nanoLC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the PL9 larvae, our results indicate that the glycolytic pathway could be down-regulated due to the under-expression of the fructose biphosphate aldolase B and the phosphoglucomutase 1. Meanwhile, propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) was under-expressed. In addition, another gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, was identified in 3 different spots as being under-expressed in fish fed with the intermediate PL level (PL5). A high PL content increased the expression of sarcosine dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in methionine metabolism, along with vinculin, a structural protein. Moreover, several stress proteins (glutathione S-transferase M, glucose regulated protein 75 and peroxiredoxin-1) were modulated in response to the dietary PL level and fatty acid composition. In the larvae fed with the lowest dietary PL content (PL1), over-expression of both GSTM and GRP75 might indicate a cellular stress in this experimental treatment, while the under-expression of Prx1 might indicate a lower defence against oxidative stress. In conclusion, this nutriproteomic approach showed significant modifications of protein expression in the liver of pikeperch larvae fed different PL contents, highlighting the importance of these nutrients and their influence on metabolism processes and on stress response.

  17. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

    Hovsepyan Meri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Mutations of the TATA-binding protein confer enhanced tolerance to hyperosmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kim, Na-Rae; Yang, Jungwoo; Kwon, Hyeji; An, Jieun; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee


    Previously, it was shown that overexpression of either of two SPT15 mutant alleles, SPT15-M2 and SPT15-M3, which encode mutant TATA-binding proteins, confer enhanced ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we demonstrated that strains overexpressing SPT15-M2 or SPT15-M3 were tolerant to hyperosmotic stress caused by high concentrations of glucose, salt, and sorbitol. The enhanced tolerance to high glucose concentrations in particular improved ethanol production from very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentations. The strains displayed constitutive and sustained activation of Hog1, a central kinase in the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signal transduction pathway of S. cerevisiae. However, the cell growth defect known to be caused by constitutive and sustained activation of Hog1 was not observed. We also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated to a less extent upon exposure to high glucose concentration in our osmotolerant strains. We identified six new genes (GPH1, HSP12, AIM17, SSA4, USV1, and IGD1), the individual deletion of which renders cells sensitive to 50 % glucose. In spite of the presence of multiple copies of stress response element in their promoters, it was apparent that those genes were not controlled at the transcriptional level by the HOG pathway under the high glucose conditions. Combined with previously published results, overexpression of SPT15-M2 or SPT15-M3 clearly provides a basis for improved tolerance to ethanol and osmotic stress, which enables construction of strains of any genetic background that need enhanced tolerance to high concentrations of ethanol and glucose, promoting the feasibility for VHG ethanol fermentation.

  19. Effect of Varying Protein Levels on the Growth of Indian Major Carp Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton

    M.S. Chari


    Full Text Available A forty-nine day feeding experiment conduced to determine protein requirement of fingerlings of Labeo rohita (average weight 1.830.02 g feeding on four formulated diets with varying protein levels (25, 30, 35 and 40% using slaughter house waste as the major protein source. In terms of growth, food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, survival and ratios of protein and lipid deposition in muscle, diet containing 30% protein level revealed a significantly (pLabeo rohita.

  20. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo


    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Secondary Teachers

    Christian, Sonya Colman


    This study investigated the relationship between high-stakes testing and the stress levels of secondary teachers in Jackson's Jackson Public School District. The independent variables of age, gender, subject taught, teaching experience, degree and school level were used to determine the differences of the various groups. A survey was piloted and…

  2. Transfer-messenger RNA controls the translation of cell-cycle and stress proteins in Streptomyces

    Barends, Sharief; Zehl, Martin; Bialek, Sylwia


    , elongation factor Tu3, and the cell-cycle control proteins DasR, SsgA, SsgF and SsgR. Although tmRNA-tagged proteins are degraded swiftly, the translation of dnaK and dasR messenger RNAs (mRNAs) depends fully on tmRNA, whereas transcription is unaffected. The data unveil a surprisingly dedicated......The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces...... coelicolor, trans-translation has a specialized role in stress management. Analysis of proteins that were carboxy-terminally His(8)-tagged by a recombinant tmRNA identified only 10 targets, including the stress proteins: DnaK heat-shock protein 70, thiostrepton-induced protein A, universal stress protein A...

  3. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada


    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among