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Sample records for stress prevention programme

  1. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  2. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  3. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  4. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  5. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  6. Determining Factors for Cyberbullying Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuoli, Cristina Hennig; Medina, Liliana Cuesta

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the first stages of a larger project to develop an ICT-supported cyberbullying prevention programme that fosters development of children's communication skills for the safe use of social media. To establish baseline data on the incidence and growth of cyberbullying in Bogotá, Colombia, we applied a Revised School Violence…

  7. The effect of a cognitive and a physical stress-reducing programme on psychological complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Blonk, R.W.B.; Klink, J.J. van der; Dijk, F.J. van; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of two, brief, preventive, work stress management programmes. One programme was a cognition-focused programme, the other was a newly developed intervention in which physical exercise and relaxation were combined. It was

  8. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  9. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  10. Developing a Mind-Body Exercise Programme for Stressed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Claudia; Seo, Dong-Chul; Geib, Roy W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the process of developing a Health Qigong programme for stressed children using a formative evaluation approach. Methods: A multi-step formative evaluation method was utilised. These steps included (1) identifying programme content and drafting the curriculum, (2) synthesising effective and age-appropriate pedagogies, (3)…

  11. Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ... which involves, teaching mnemonic strategies: organization, visualization and association for ... and they should be made to participate in training to focus on thinking ability to ...

  12. Youth, terrorism and education: Britain’s Prevent programme

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated ‘Prevent’, a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which Prevent has approached young Muslims and their educational institutions. The article argues that, rather than trust in broader and non-stigmatising processes of...

  13. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  14. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  15. The theoretical model of the school-based prevention programme Unplugged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  17. A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Work stress has become a major issue among European employees. The current practice of its prevention seems disappointing, as work stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and biased to the individual. The lack of organization-level intervention studies is a barrier to progress in

  18. A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Cooper, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Work stress has become a major issue among European employees. The current practice of its prevention seems disappointing, as work stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and biased to the individual. The lack of organization-level intervention studies is a barrier to progress in

  19. Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Hans O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...

  20. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-04-29

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks.

  1. New Horizons in Organizational Stress Prevention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaffey, Thomas N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses and describes some active Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). An EAP is a stress intervention program that, when combined with other stress prevention procedures, can serve as an effective base for developing a comprehensive managerial system for combating organizational stress. (Author/IRT)

  2. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  3. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary A. Franke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  4. Reducing Stress through Preventive Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.; Quick, Jonathan D.

    1979-01-01

    Two levels of prevention can be used to counter the key stressors of personnel at work; the first deals with organizational techniques and the second with individual techniques such as systematic desensitization, biofeedback, or aerobic exercise. (Author)

  5. Evaluating nurses' knowledge, attitude and competency after an education programme on suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sally Wai-chi; Chien, Wai-tong; Tso, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an education programme on suicide prevention for nurses working in general hospitals. A mixed method design that included a single group pretest-posttest analysis and focus group interviews was used. A convenient sample of 54 registered nurses was recruited from the medical and surgical units of two regional general hospitals. An 18-hour education programme on suicide prevention based on reflective learning principles was provided to the participants. The outcome measures used included participants' attitudes towards, knowledge of, competence in and stress levels arising from suicide prevention and management. Eighteen participants joined the focus group interviews. There were statistically significant positive changes in the pre- and post-test measures of participants' attitudes and competence levels. Qualitative data showed that participants had applied the new knowledge they acquired in clinical practice. They perceived themselves as being more aware of the problem of suicide and more competent in managing suicide risk. Participants highlighted certain barriers that exist to providing optimal care, including inadequate manpower, lack of support from senior staff and a lack of guidelines. Ongoing education may be necessary to expedite changes. The education programme provided can be delivered to other health care professional groups and the results further evaluated.

  6. Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhai, F

    2013-11-01

    By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. The effects of preventive mental health programmes in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bror Just

    2013-01-01

    The author wanted to test the effects of preventive mental health programmes in schools and established a longitudinal study with a test group and a control group, using Solomon's method. Data was collected through questionnaires prior to intervention and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. The size of the effect on the various indices were estimated in terms of (a) differences in improvement of total percentage scores and (b) Cohen's d. From to to t1, t2 and t3 the intervention group showed significantly greater progress in six out of seven knowledge indexes, and 12 months later we found significant effects on the level of mental health problems.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking prevention using solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaaili, M.A; Mirani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallic structures exposed to soil and water naturally experience corrosion due to electrolytic action. These structures are also subjected to sustained tensile stresses. The combined effects of corrosion and stress results stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Removal of either of these i.e. stress or corrosion prevents SCC. The cathodic protection (CP) prevents corrosion, and hence prevents stress corrosion. Solar Photo voltaic (PV) generated electricity can be best external power source for CP systems especially in remote areas. This paper presents CP system using solar PV generated electricity as an external power source for prevention of SCC of metallic structures. The paper also compares CP systems using solar electricity with those of CP systems using conventional electricity. The paper concludes that a solar electricity power system provides a reliable solution for powering CP stations especially in remote areas, enables the placing of CP units in any location, and thus ensures optimal current distribution for the exact protection requirements. The paper also concludes that solar electricity CP systems are well suited for SCC protection of metallic structures especially in remote areas of an energy deficit country like Pakistan. (author)

  9. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes : The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm ...

  10. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actions to prevent stress and to strengthen your stress management skills is before your disaster assignment. Responder stress ... the disaster role, developing a personal toolkit of stress management skills, and preparing yourself and your loved ones. ...

  11. Haemoglobinopathies in Greece: prevention programme over the past 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    At present, prevention of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease is the only realistic approach to control the birth of new patients in countries having high numbers of carriers. This is fully justified because avoiding the birth of an ever increasing number of patients may allow a more effective use of the available resources in improving the management of the patients surviving today and alleviate the already overloaded public health system from the inevitable tremendous and ever increasing cost. Moreover, prenatal diagnosis may help couples at risk to have non-thalassaemic children. Greece is one of the countries where the mean frequency of carriers is approximately 7.5 per cent (population 11 million) and has set up a nationwide programme for carrier identification in the early seventies; this is provided through a dozen of specific Units attached to the major Blood Transfusion Services of the country, on a voluntary basis and free of charge. Spread of information through mass media, the schools, and other groups has greatly contributed in creating the necessary sensitization; obstetricians and antenatal Clinics are also instrumental to this effect. Prenatal diagnosis is offered centrally (Athens) and covers satisfactorily the estimated needs (500-600 annually); the total number has already exceeded 35,000. According to information obtained from the major paediatric hospitals all over the country, the number of thalassaemia major or SCD admitted for treatment over the last ten years has been around 15 yearly (instead of an estimate of 120-130).

  12. The Simalelo Peer Education Programme for HIV prevention: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...

  13. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  14. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of a communication and stress management training programme for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Boivin, Jackey

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment.......This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment....

  16. A systematic review of education programmes to prevent concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.

  17. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.

  18. Abstinence And Faithfulness Programmes For Prevention Of Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions have been raised on whether abstinence and faithfulness programs work, particularly for young people. Research is needed for evidence-based documentation of the effectiveness or otherwise of abstinence and faithfulness programmes in young people. This review was conducted in three stages: identification ...

  19. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Dietl, Markus; Steinhauser, Gerlinde

    2011-04-01

    The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. 44 publications meet the inclusion criteria. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the

  20. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the

  1. Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Verbeek, Jos H; Mariné, Albert; Serra, Consol

    2015-04-07

    Healthcare workers can suffer from occupational stress as a result of lack of skills, organisational factors, and low social support at work. This may lead to distress, burnout and psychosomatic problems, and deterioration in quality of life and service provision. To evaluate the effectiveness of work- and person-directed interventions compared to no intervention or alternative interventions in preventing stress at work in healthcare workers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC-2 and Web of Science up to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions aimed at preventing psychological stress in healthcare workers. For organisational interventions, interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies were also eligible. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We used Standardised Mean Differences (SMDs) where authors of trials used different scales to measure stress or burnout. We combined studies that were similar in meta-analyses. We used the GRADE system to rate the quality of the evidence. In this update, we added 39 studies, making a total of 58 studies (54 RCTs and four CBA studies), with 7188 participants. We categorised interventions as cognitive-behavioural training (CBT) (n = 14), mental and physical relaxation (n = 21), combined CBT and relaxation (n = 6) and organisational interventions (n = 20). Follow-up was less than one month in 24 studies, one to six in 22 studies and more than six months in 12 studies. We categorised outcomes as stress, anxiety or general health.There was low-quality evidence that CBT with or without relaxation was no more effective in reducing stress symptoms than no intervention at one month follow-up in six studies (SMD -0.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.66 to 0.13; 332 participants). But at one to six months follow-up in seven studies (SMD -0.38, 95% CI -0.59 to -0

  2. Trialling a shaken baby syndrome prevention programme in the Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Wilson, Kati; Mowjood, Aqeela; Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter

    2016-02-19

    To describe and evaluate a shaken baby prevention programme trialled in the Auckland District Health Board from January 2010, to December 2011. Development and implementation of the programme, telephone survey of a sample of caregivers and written survey of a sample of providers. At least 2,592 caregivers received the trial programme. 150 (6%) were surveyed by telephone a median of 6 weeks later. 128 (85%) remembered at least one key message, unprompted; most commonly "It's OK to walk away" (94/150, 63%). When asked, 92% had made a plan for what to do when frustrated and 63% had shared the information with others. Only 98/150 (65%) watched the programme DVD. Many said they already knew about the risks of shaking a baby, but still found the programme highly relevant. Thirty-one nurses were surveyed. There was a high degree of agreement that the programme was relevant. Barriers to programme delivery included time, workload and the documentation required. A shaken baby prevention programme adapted to New Zealand can be introduced in a District Health Board and is acceptable to caregivers and health professionals. Further research is needed to evaluate the content, mode of delivery and effectiveness of this programme.

  3. Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI): should prevention programmes become more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Joep; Hambraeus, Kristina; Burell, Gunilla; Carlsson, Roland; Johansson, Pelle; Lisspers, Jan

    2015-03-22

    This cross-sectional observational study was designed to evaluate the uptake and outcome of patient education after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A questionnaire containing 41 items was handed out to consecutive patients from randomly selected Swedish hospitals after PCI. Questions concerned the patient's attribution of the cause of the cardiac event, perception of the information provided by physicians and nurses, and a self-assessment of changes in lifestyle post PCI regarding tobacco, physical activity, food habits and stress. Replies were obtained from 1,073 patients (reply rate 67%). Non-modifiable risk factors (age, heredity) were attributed a higher rate as the cause of disease compared to modifiable factors (smoking, physical activity, food habits). Most patients (67%) perceived they were cured, and 38% perceived from the given information that there was no need to change their habits. A mere 27% reported that they still had cardiovascular disease and needed behavioural change. After PCI, 16% continued to use tobacco; half of these were offered smoking cessation support. In spite of an 80% referral rate to cardiac rehabilitation, one out of two patients did not enrol. Fewer than half were regularly physically active. Nutritional counselling was provided to 71%, but only 40% changed food habits. Stress management programmes were rarely provided. Current preventive practice scarcely meets the challenge posed by the progress in modern invasive cardiology. The Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI) motivates an in-depth revision and adaptation of cardiac rehabilitation programmes in order to improve patient understanding of the disease, and to support greater compliance with a cardioprotective lifestyle.

  4. [Preliminary results of a community fall prevention programme: Precan study (falls prevention in La Ribera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ros, Pilar; Martínez-Arnau, Francisco; Tormos Miñana, Immaculada; López Aracil, Aranzazu; Oltra Sanchis, M Carmen; Pechene Mera, Leidy E; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the results of a fall prevention programme designed to be applied to the elderly living in the community. The sample consisted of 249 participants ≥70 years of age, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The monthly intervention group (GIM): instructions on fall prevention and healthy exercises to improve physical function and balance at beginning of the study, and a monthly theoretical and practical refresher session. The quarterly intervention group (GIT), with the same beginning intervention and a refresher session every three months. The control group (GC), the same beginning intervention but no refresher sessions. The mean age of the sample was 74.47 years (SD 5.33), with 64% women. The incidence of falls was reduced from 0.64 per patient year in the previous year to 0.39 in the post-intervention year in GIM, from 0.49 to 0.47 in GIT, and in the GC it remained at 0.47 before and twelve months after, but with no significant differences in the reduction between groups (P=.062). At the end of the study there was a decrease in Rizzo scale of 0.72 points (95% CI: 0.57-0.88, Pfalls. Further studies are required to continue research into the incidence of falls in the elderly living in the community. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Work stress prevention needs of employees and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Hoek, Rianne J A; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2018-05-21

    Work stress prevention can reduce health risks for individuals, as well as organisational and societal costs. The success of work stress interventions depends on proper implementation. Failure to take into account the needs of employees and supervisors can hinder intervention implementation. This study aimed to explore employee and supervisor needs regarding organisational work stress prevention. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with employees (n = 7) and supervisors (n = 8) from different sectors, such as the finance, health care, and services industry. The interviews focused on respondents' needs regarding the prevention of work stress within an organisational setting. Performing thematic analysis, topics and themes were extracted from the verbatim transcribed interviews using Atlas.ti. Both employees and supervisors reported a need for: 1) communication about work stress, 2) attention for determinants of work stress, 3) supportive circumstances (prerequisites) for work stress prevention, 4) involvement of various stakeholders in work stress prevention, and 5) availability of work stress prevention measures. Both employees and supervisors expressed the need for supervisors to communicate about work stress. Employees and supervisors reported similar psychosocial work factors that should be targeted for prevention (e.g., social support and autonomy). There was greater variety in the sub-themes within communication about work stress and supportive circumstances for work stress prevention in supervisor responses, and greater variety in the sub-themes within availability of work stress prevention measures in employee responses. Both employees and supervisors were explicit about who should take part in communication about work stress, what prerequisites for work stress prevention should exist, and which stakeholders should be involved. These results can inform work stress prevention practice, supporting selection and implementation of

  6. [Participant structure and economic benefit of prevention bonus programmes in company health insurance funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, M; Friedel, H; Bödeker, W

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates differences in sex, age, and educational level between participants and non-participants of prevention bonus programmes. The differences in the utilisation of drugs, hospital care, and sickness absence before the start of the programmes between these groups are also shown. Finally the economic benefit of the health insurance funds attributed to these programmes is estimated. Data from some 5.2 million insured subjects of 74 company health insurance funds in Germany were linked to information on enrollment into a prevention bonus programme anonymously. In a descriptive analysis the differences in the sociodemographic patterns between both groups are shown as well as the differences in costs to the health insurances in the three sectors mentioned above. The benefit to the health insurance funds is estimated by means of an analysis of covariance. Prevention bonus programmes yields an annual benefit of at least 129 euro per participant. Men aged 40 and older and women aged 30 and older are more likely to opt into such a programme. The same is true for persons with a higher educational level. There are only few differences in health-care utilisation between the participants and non-participants of the programmes before enrollment. Only 1.4% of all insured persons participated in the programmes. There is at least a short-term gain to both involved parties: the insured and the health insurance funds. The programmes are not dominated by deadweight effects. Long-term effects and effectiveness of prevention bonus programmes still have to be investigated. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani H. Ruotsalainen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers can suffer from occupational stress which may lead to serious mental and physical health problems. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of work and person-directed interventions in preventing stress at work in healthcare workers. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials Specialised Register, MEDLINE, PsychInfo and Cochrane Occupational Health Field database. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT of interventions aimed at preventing psychological stress in healthcare workers. For work-directed interventions interrupted time series and prospective cohort were also eligible. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were performed where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 14 RCTs, three cluster-randomised trials and two crossover trials, including a total of 1,564 participants in intervention groups and 1,248 controls. Two trials were of high quality. Interventions were grouped into 1 person-directed: cognitive-behavioural, relaxation, music-making, therapeutic massage and multicomponent; and 2 work-directed: attitude change and communication, support from colleagues and participatory problem solving and decision-making, and changes in work organisation. There is limited evidence that person-directed interventions can reduce stress (standardised mean difference or SMD -0.85; 95% CI -1.21, -0.49; burnout: Emotional Exhaustion (weighted mean difference or WMD -5.82; 95% CI -11.02, -0.63 and lack of Personal Accomplishment (WMD -3.61; 95% CI -4.65, -2.58; and anxiety: state anxiety (WMD -9.42; 95% CI -16.92, -1.93 and trait anxiety (WMD -6.91; 95% CI -12.80, -1.01. One trial showed that stress remained low a month after intervention (WMD -6.10; 95% CI -8.44, -3.76. Another trial showed a reduction in Emotional Exhaustion (Mean

  8. A pressure ulcer prevention programme specially designed for nursing homes: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid W-Y; Lau, Ada T-Y; Lee, Rainbow L-P; Kwan, Rick Y-C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes to ascertain the feasibility of its implementation, impact on care staff and outcomes for pressure ulcer knowledge and skills and pressure ulcer reduction. No pressure ulcer prevention protocol for long-term care settings has been established to date. The first author of this study thus developed a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes. A quasi-experimental pretest and post-test design was adopted. Forty-one non-licensed care providers and eleven nurses from a government-subsidised nursing home voluntarily participated in the study. Knowledge and skills of the non-licensed care providers were assessed before, immediately after and six weeks after the training course, and pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence were recorded before and during the protocol implementation. At the end of the programme implementation, focus group interviews with the subjects were conducted to explore their views on the programme. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and skills scores amongst non-licensed care providers was noted. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence rates dropped from 9-2·5% and 2·5-0·8%, respectively, after programme implementation. The focus group findings indicated that the programme enhanced the motivation of non-licensed care providers to improve their performance of pressure ulcer prevention care and increased communication and cooperation amongst care staff, but use of the modified Braden scale was considered by nurses to increase their workload. A pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes, which was feasible and acceptable, with positive impact and outcome in a nursing home was empirically developed. The study findings can be employed to modify the programme and its outcomes for an evaluation of effectiveness of the programme through a randomised controlled trial. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Preventive medical programmes to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada F, E.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiation in the medical field as well as in industry and research grants has special importance to the security aspects related to the individual as well as his surroundings, reason for which the implementation of effective Occupational Radiation Protection Programmes constitutes a priority. Presently, in Guatemala, an Occupational Medicine Programme, directed to the Radiosanitary watch over of occupationally exposed personnel does not exist. It is the goal in this project to organize and establish such programme, based on protective and training actions focused toward the employee as the main entity, his specific activities and his work surroundings. Medical watch over together with Radiation Protection will permit the reduction of the occurrence probability of accidents or incidents, as well as the limitation of stochastic effects to the undermost values. The application scope of the present project is, in the first place, directed to the occupationally exposed personnel of the Direcci[n General de Energ[a Nuclear, as regulatory entity of these activities, and afterwards, its application in the different institutions which work with ionizing radiations. All the previously exposed is based on the Nuclear Legislation prevailing in Guatemala as well as the recommendations of international organizations. (author)

  10. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  11. E-mentoring for violence and injury prevention: early lessons from a global programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Meddings, David; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing burden of violence and injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in 2007 the World Health Organization launched MENTOR-VIP, a global violence and injury prevention (VIP)-mentoring programme. The programme aims to develop human resource capacity through 12-month mentoring arrangements between individual VIP experts (mentors) and less-experienced injury practitioners (mentees). In this paper, we review the first five years of the programme (2007-2011) using a systems analysis and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) frameworks, discuss programme findings and make recommendations. A well-defined programme with clear instructions, successful matching of mentorship pairs with similar interests and language, a formal accord agreement, institutional support and effective communication were identified as programme strengths. Overambitious projects, lack of funds and difficulties with communications were identified as programme weaknesses. Mentorship projects that require institutional permissions or resources could be potential threats to the success of mentorship. The study resulted in the four following recommendations to strengthen the programme: (1) institute additional steps in selection and matching mentor-mentee pair; (2) train mentors on e-mentoring; (3) conduct special orientation for mentees to the programme; and (4) maintain effective and open communication throughout the programme.

  12. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  13. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents : a review of interventions and programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, C M; Visscher, T L S; Renders, C M; Seidell, J C

    Overweight and obesity are serious, large-scale, global, public health concerns requiring population-based childhood overweight and obesity prevention. The overall objective of this review is to identify aspects of successful childhood overweight prevention programmes. This objective will be met by

  14. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training

  15. Organisational strategies to implement hospital pressure ulcer prevention programmes: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Kim, Linda; Yuan, Anita H; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2017-09-01

    To describe the presence and operationalisation of organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programmes across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated health-care system. Comprehensive pressure ulcer programmes include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organisational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programmes. Data were collected by an e-mail survey to all chief nursing officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarise survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Organisational strategies that support implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention programme (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalised within individual hospitals. Organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programmes are often not optimally operationalised to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. The results of the present study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  17. Effects of a suicide prevention programme for hospitalised patients with mental illness in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Jeong Soon

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of a suicide prevention programme on the levels of depression, self-esteem, suicidal ideation and spirituality in patients with mental illness. Instances of suicide have significant correlations with depression, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation and a low level of spirituality in the victims. Therefore, addressing depression, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation as suicide risk factors and increasing levels of spirituality can constitute an effective programme to prevent suicide among patients with mental illness. The study was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised design. The study sample consisted of 45 patients with mental illness who had been admitted to the psychiatric unit in a university hospital in South Korea. The patients were assigned to control and experimental groups of 23 and 22 members, respectively. The suicide prevention programme was conducted with the experimental group over four weeks and included eight sessions (two per week). The control group received only routine treatments in the hospital. The experimental group that participated in the programme had significantly decreased mean scores for depression and suicidal ideation compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the mean scores for self-esteem and spirituality between the groups. The suicide prevention programme might be usefully applied as a nursing intervention for patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards or clinics where the goals are to decrease depression and suicidal ideation. Typical treatments for hospitalised patients with mental illness are not enough to prevent suicide. Intervention for suicide prevention needs to apply an integrated approach. The suicide prevention programme using an integrated approach is more effective in reducing depression and suicidal ideation in patients with mental illness than applying routine treatments in the hospital. © 2013 John Wiley

  18. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention.

  19. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  20. Five typologies of alcohol and drug prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Laura Marie, Schierff

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents exhibit a high rate of use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Effect studies rarely describe the actual content of the interventions in detail. Less is known about what was actually done in the prevention than about their effects. Aim: This study is a review study grouping the qualitatively...

  1. Integrating multiple programme and policy approaches to hepatitis C prevention and care for injection drug users: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klein, Susan J; Candelas, Alma R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Rothman, Jeffrey R; Feldman, Ira S; Tsui, Dennis S; Cotroneo, Richard A; Flanigan, Colleen A

    2007-10-01

    New York State is home to an estimated 230,000 individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and roughly 171,500 active injection drug users (IDUs). HCV/HIV co-infection is common and models of service delivery that effectively meet IDUs' needs are required. A HCV strategic plan has stressed integration. HCV prevention and care are integrated within health and human service settings, including HIV/AIDS organisations and drug treatment programmes. Other measures that support comprehensive HCV services for IDUs include reimbursement, clinical guidelines, training and HCV prevention education. Community and provider collaborations inform programme and policy development. IDUs access 5 million syringes annually through harm reduction/syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) and a statewide syringe access programme. Declines in HCV prevalence amongst IDUs in New York City coincided with improved syringe availability. New models of care successfully link IDUs at SEPs and in drug treatment to health care. Over 7000 Medicaid recipients with HCV/HIV co-infection had health care encounters related to their HCV in a 12-month period and 10,547 claims for HCV-related medications were paid. The success rate of transitional case management referrals to drug treatment is over 90%. Training and clinical guidelines promote provider knowledge about HCV and contribute to quality HCV care for IDUs. Chart reviews of 2570 patients with HIV in 2004 documented HCV status 97.4% of the time, overall, in various settings. New HCV surveillance systems are operational. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain. A comprehensive, public health approach, using multiple strategies across systems and mobilizing multiple sectors, can enhance IDUs access to HCV prevention and care. A holisitic approach with integrated services, including for HCV-HIV co-infected IDUs is needed. Leadership, collaboration and resources are essential.

  2. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  3. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries.

  4. [Characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanuki, Hideki; Ueki, Shouzoh; Ito, Tunehisa; Honda, Haruhiko; Takato, Jinro; Kasai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Niino, Naoakira; Haga, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme. We surveyed 1,503 individuals (75 elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme and 1,428 non-leader elderly) among the elderly population living in a rural community, Miyagi Prefecture. Subjects were aged 70-84 years. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic factors, as well as physical, psychology and social variables. To analyze the characteristics of the elderly leaders volunteering to participate in this programme, the relationships of socio-demographic, physical, psychology and social factors to whether the elderly were leaders in the programme were analyzed using logistic regression. As a result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in the fall prevention programme were as follows; 1) being male (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.14-0.44); 2) young age (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.25-0.73); 3) having a high intellectual activity (OR = 2.72, 95%CI 1.65-4.48); 4) being well satisfied with their health (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.02-2.07), and 5) having a high IKIGAI (OR = 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.13). Only elderly individuals capable of high-level intellectual activities can fill the roles of elderly volunteer group leaders discussed in this study.

  5. Application of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Moreno-Manso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effectiveness of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context. The proposal for action is based on the use of stories as an instrument of primary prevention. The programme aims to improve a child's capacity to face potentially threatening situations and was applied in 10 primary schools of Extremadura (Spain to 317 pupils aged 9 and 10 years old. There were 12 sessions whose aim was for the children to gain an awareness of abuse, identify situations of abuse and learn strategies to face them. This was done through the use of tutorials and by linking the programme to the aims of the pupils' educational stage. The evaluation of the programme shows that the pupils in the experimental group resolved the situations with increasing skill, confidence and determination; and that they could see more clearly where to look for help in terms of protection measures. The tutors evaluated the programme positively, considering the contents useful for prevention.

  6. Mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in RBMK reactors. Final report of the programme's steering committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In 2000 the IAEA initiated an Extrabudgetary Programme on Mitigation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in RBMK Reactors to assist countries operating RBMK reactors in addressing the issue in austenitic stainless steel 300 mm diameter piping. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel piping in BWRs has been a major safety concern since the early seventies. Similar degradation was found in RBMK reactor piping in 1997. Early in 1998 the IAEA responded to requests for assistance from RBMK operating countries on this issue through activities organized in the framework of Technical Co-operation Department regional projects and the Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER and RBMK Nuclear Power Plants. Results of these activities were a basis for the formulation of the objective and scope of the Extrabudgetary Programme on Mitigation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in RBMK reactors ('the Programme'). The scope of the Programme included in-service inspection, assessment, repair and mitigation, and water chemistry and decontamination. The Programme was pursued by means of exchange of experience, formulation of guidance, transfer of technology, and training, which will assist the RBMK operators to address related safety concerns. The Programme implementation relied on voluntary extrabudgetary financial contributions from Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, and on in kind contributions from Finland, Germany and Sweden. The Programme was implemented in close co-ordination with ongoing national and bilateral activities and major inputs to the Programme were provided through the activities of the Swedish International Project Nuclear Safety and of the US DOE International Nuclear Safety Program. The RBMK nuclear power plants in Lithuania, Russian Federation and Ukraine hosted most of the Programme activities. Support of these Member States involved in the Programme was instrumental for its successful completion in

  7. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  8. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  9. The Prevent programme: an ethical dilemma for teachers as well as psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    The UK government's Prevent programme affects professionals and the people who rely on their services across the public sector, particularly now that workers are legally bound to report their concerns about individuals they believe to be at risk of radicalisation. This article discusses the risks that the strategy presents to the work of teachers and the bonds of trusts between staff and students.

  10. HIV prevention policy and programme planning: What can mathematical modelling contribute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the potential contribution of mathematical modelling to informed decision-making on policy and programme planning for novel HIV prevention tools. Its hypothesis is that, under certain conditions, modelling results can be a useful addition to the evidence and other factors that

  11. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  12. Universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.

  13. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between

  14. Headaches: Reduce Stress to Prevent the Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 275773138. Accessed May 18, 2015. Stress tip sheet. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2007/10/stress-tips.aspx . Accessed June 18, 2015. Your guide to healthy sleep. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/ ...

  15. Teacher Experiences of Delivering an Obesity Prevention Programme (The WAVES Study Intervention) in a Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:…

  16. Preventing Stress in Organizations How to Develop Positive Managers

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma; Yarker, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Preventing Stress in Organizations:How to Develop Positive Managersoffers an innovative, evidence-based approach to help managers prevent and reduce workplace stress in their staff.Provides information on the critical skills managers must develop in order to prevent stress in their staff, and the key ongoing behaviours that promote a healthy work environmentShows practitioners in occupational psychology, HR, Health and Safety and related professions how positive management can be integrated into an organization???s existing practices and processesServes as an essential guide for managers thems

  17. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L; Meinck, F; Shenderovich, Y; Ward, CL; Herrero Romero, R; Lombard, C; Doubt, JS; Steinert, J; Catanho, R; Wittesaele, C; DeStone, S; Salah, N; Mpimilashe, P; Lachman, J; Loening, H

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aim...

  18. Issues and Challenges of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Programme in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key issues and challenges of government HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programme in Nepal. Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nepal is associated with a number of issues and challenges which are shaped mostly on cultural and managerial issues from grass root to policy level.\\ud Numerous efforts have been done and going on by Nepal government and non-government organization but still HIV\\ud prevention and treatment service is not able to ...

  19. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.

  20. Employee Assistance Programmes: The Emperor's New Clothes of Stress Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Andrew R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the employee assistance program (EAP), a benefit increasingly provided by United Kingdom employers that claims to reduce the effects of stress on individuals and organizations, provide a management tool to improve workplace performance and productivity, and respond to critical incidents. Describes EAPs, their history, development and…

  1. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  2. Development and formative evaluation of a family-centred adolescent HIV prevention programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle

    2018-03-06

    Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  4. Evaluation of a comprehensive slip, trip and fall prevention programme for hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Wolf, Laurie; Gronqvist, Raoul; Chiou, Sharon; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Sorock, Gary S; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the incidence rate of lost workday injuries from slips, trips and falls (STFs) on the same level in hospitals was 35.2 per 10,000 full-time equivalents (FTE), which was 75% greater than the average rate for all other private industries combined (20.2 per 10,000 FTEs). The objectives of this 10-year (1996-2005) longitudinal study were to: 1) describe occupational STF injury events in hospitals; 2) evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive programme for reducing STF incidents among hospital employees. The comprehensive prevention programme included analysis of injury records to identify common causes of STFs, on-site hazard assessments, changes to housekeeping procedures and products, introduction of STF preventive products and procedures, general awareness campaigns, programmes for external ice and snow removal, flooring changes and slip-resistant footwear for certain employee subgroups. The hospitals' total STF workers' compensation claims rate declined by 58% from the pre-intervention (1996-1999) rate of 1.66 claims per 100 FTE to the post-intervention (2003-2005) time period rate of 0.76 claims per 100 FTE (adjusted rate ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.33-0.54). STFs due to liquid contamination (water, fluid, slippery, greasy and slick spots) were the most common cause (24%) of STF claims for the entire study period 1996-2005. Food services, transport/emergency medical service and housekeeping staff were at highest risk of a STF claim in the hospital environment. Nursing and office administrative staff generated the largest numbers of STF claims. STF injury events in hospitals have a myriad of causes and the work conditions in hospitals are diverse. This research provides evidence that implementation of a broad-scale prevention programme can significantly reduce STF injury claims.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of a Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis prevention programme in The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcangco, M R; Armour, C L; Salole, E G; Taylor, S J

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae in children under 5 years of age. Vaccines which can prevent this infection are available. To evaluate the costs and benefits of a 3-dose immunisation schedule in Manila, Philippines. Government and societal perspectives. A cost-benefit analysis based on a birth cohort of 100,000 children. The state of health of the cohort with and without a Hib immunisation programme was modelled over a 5-year period. A survey of medical records of patients with Hib in Manila provided data on the extent and cost of sequelae following infection. A 3-dose Hib vaccination programme given at ages 2, 3 and 4 months. The model predicted that vaccinating children against Hib meningitis would prevent 553 cases per year in a birth cohort of 100,000, at a cost of 56,200 Philippine pesos (PHP) [$US1,605; 1998 exchange rate] per case (base case assumptions of 90% vaccine efficacy rate, 95 per 100,000 Hib incidence rate, 85% vaccination coverage). Results from the cost-benefit analyses indicated that the saving to the government would be around PHP39 million ($US1.11 million), and the saving to society would be PHP255 million ($US7.28 million). There would be a positive economic benefit for the Philippine government and for the Filipino society if a Hib vaccination programme was introduced in Manila.

  6. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  7. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  8. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  9. Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees' anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment-a randomised explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jasmin; Handlin, Linda; Harlén, Mikael; Lindmark, Ulrika; Ekström, Anette

    2015-09-02

    Working people's reduced ability to recover has been proposed as a key factor behind the increase in stress-related health problems. One not yet evidence-based preventive method designed to help employees keep healthy and be less stressed is an armchair with built-in mechanical massage and mental training programmes, This study aimed to evaluate possible effects on employees' experience of levels of "Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability" when using mechanical massage and mental training programmes, both separately and in combination, during working hours. Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n=19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to the mental training programmes only, n=19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n=17). In order to discover how the employees felt about their own health they were asked to respond to statements from the "Swedish Scale of Personality" (SSP), immediately before the randomisation, after four weeks and after eight weeks (end-of-study). There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied ("Somatic Trait Anxiety", "Psychic Trait Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability") at any of the occasions. However, the massage group showed a significant decrease in the subscale "Somatic Trait Anxiety" (p=0.032), during the entire study period. Significant decreases in the same subscale were also observed in the pause group between start and week eight (p=0.040) as well as between week four and week

  10. Development of a national injury prevention/safe community programme in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luau, H C; Svanström, L; Ekman, R; Duong, H L; Nguyen, O C; Dahlgren, G; Hoang, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the initiation of a national programme on injury prevention/safe community (IP/SC). Market economy, Doi Moi, was introduced in Vietnam in 1986, and since then the injury pattern has been reported to have changed. The number of traffic injury deaths has increased three-fold from 1980 to 1996 and traffic injuries more than four-fold. Injuries are now the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. There are difficulties in obtaining a comprehensive picture of the injury pattern from official statistics and, in conjunction with the work initiated by the Ministry of Health, a number of local reporting systems have already been developed. Remarkable results have been achieved within the IP/SC in a very short time, based on 20 years of experience. An organizational construction system has been built from province to local community areas. Management is based on administrative and legislative documents. IP/SC implementation is considered the duty of the whole community, local authorities and people committees, and should be incorporated into local action plans. The programme is a significant contribution towards creating a safe environment in which everybody may live and work, allowing the stability for society to develop. Implementation of the programme in schools is a special characteristic. The programme will be developed in 800 schools with a large number of pupils (25% of the population). This model for safer schools is considerably concerned and is a good experience to disseminate. The recommendations are that more pilot models of IP/SC should be conducted in other localities and that the programme should be expanded to a national scale. Furthermore, co-operation between sectors and mass organizations should be encouraged and professional skills of key SC members at all levels should be raised.

  11. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF OTAGO EXERCISE PROGRAMME FOR FALL PREVENTION IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy N. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘Otago exercise programme’ (OEP is a strength and balance retraining programme designed to prevent falls in older people living in the community. The aim of this study was to find the effects of Otago exercise programme for fall prevention in community dwelling elderly people. Method: The sample comprised 30 community dwelling elderly around sinhgad road, pune (out of 30, 4 were dropouts aged over 60 years both male and female falling under moderate fall risk measured by Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. The intervention consisted mainly strength and balance training. Intervention was done for 1 hr every day, 5 days per week for 6weeks. Outcome measure assessment was done pre, 3rd week and post intervention. Pre and post comparison of following three outcome measures was done. Outcome measures: Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10RM and Chair stand test. Result: Paired t-test was done. Results of p value for 10RM (p value = 0.00, Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (p value = 0.00 and chair stand test (p value = 0.01 was found to be highly significant. Out of 26 subjects with moderate risk of fall pre intervention, 24 subjects showed low risk of fall during post intervention assessment of Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. Conclusion: The Otago exercise programme is significantly effective increasing strength of lower limb and improving in balance, gait and therefore ultimately preventing fall in community dwelling Indian elder people. Hence, Otago exercise protocol can be used in day to day clinical practice and also as a home exercise program.

  13. Child, Teacher and Parent Perceptions of the FRIENDS Classroom-Based Universal Anxiety Prevention Programme: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena; Morris, Joanna; Byrne, Danielle; Harkin, Nicola; Rook, Sarah; Stallard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health prevention programmes can be effective but their adoption within schools will depend on their social acceptability. We report a qualitative evaluation summarising the views of children (115), parents (20) and school staff (47) about a universal school-based anxiety prevention programme FRIENDS. This study was conducted as part of a large scale randomised controlled trial ( n  = 1362) involving 40 schools in the UK providing primary education to children aged 7-11. Reported overall experience of the programme was very positive, with all three major components of the cognitive behaviour therapy programme (emotional, cognitive, and behavioural) being accepted well and understood by children. The programme was considered to be enjoyable and valuable in teaching children important skills, particularly emotional regulation and coping. Children provided examples of using the skills learned during FRIENDS to manage their emotions and solve problems. However, teachers were concerned that the programme overlapped with the current school curriculum, required additional time and almost half were unable to identify any tangible changes in the children's behaviour. Whilst this paper provides evidence to support the social validity of the FRIENDS anxiety prevention programme, the concerns raised by teachers question the longer-term sustainability of the programme.

  14. Biomarkers of general stress in mussels as common indicators for marine biomonitoring programmes in Europe: The ICON experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, C.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgeot, T.; Gubbins, M.J.; Halldórsson, H.P.; Albentosa, M.; Bignell, J.P.; Hylland, K.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether general stress biomarkers in mussels can be applied as common first-tier biomarkers in regional biomonitoring programmes in the North Sea (including Iceland) and western Mediterranean Sea. Stress on Stress (SoS) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) biomarkers were

  15. Isokinetic strength effects of FIFA'a "The 11+" injury prevention training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Luís

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) injury prevention programme, "The 11+", improves isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in sub-elite soccer players. Twenty players aged 22.3 ± 4.2 yr performed "The 11+" 3...... significantly improved the conventional H/Q ratio at 60°/s by 14.8{\\%} and the DCR by 13.8% in the non-dominant limb (pknee joint....

  16. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  17. Effects of a leisure programme on quality of life and stress of individuals with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D A; Dattilo, J

    2010-07-01

    Even though there is research demonstrating a positive relationship between leisure participation and the two constructs of quality of life and stress reduction, current conceptualisation of leisure as a contributor to quality of life is limited. In addition, in spite of improvements in accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at increasingly earlier ages and proliferation of interventions, research associated with leisure and quality of life for people with ASD is lacking. Therefore, a study using a repeated measures design was used to measure effects of a 1-year group leisure programme intended to facilitate interaction with media, engagement in exercise, playing games and doing crafts, attending events, and participating in other recreation activities on quality of life and stress of 37 participants (22 male, 15 female), ages 17-39 (M = 31.49) years at the beginning of the programme) diagnosed with an ASD and a group of 34 adults with ASD as control group (waiting list) (19 male, 15 female), ages 24-38 (M = 30 at programme initiation) years. There was a significant decrease in overall scores of stress levels for participants over the course of the study and there was a significant increase in the four factors of quality of life that were measured (satisfaction, independence, competence and social interaction) as well as the total score for quality of life from baseline to the end of the intervention 12 months later. In contrast, the control group demonstrated no significant improvements related to stress or quality of life. Implications of these findings to leisure services and the quality of life of individuals with ASD are discussed. Findings support the contention that participation in recreation activities positively influenced the stress and quality of life of adults with ASD.

  18. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of an Ai Chi fall prevention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de la Cruz, S; García Luengo, A V; Lambeck, J

    2016-04-01

    One of the main symptoms of Parkinson's disease is the high incidence of falls occurring due to the decline of both static and dynamic balance. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an Ai Chi programme designed to prevent falls in patients with Parkinson's disease by improving both functional independence and perception of physical pain. Fifteen patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3) participated in a 10-week Ai Chi programme consisting of 30 to 45-minute aquatic exercise sessions twice a week. The assessment measures used in this study were the pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the Tinetti gait and balance assessment tool, and the Timed Get up and Go test. The results were calculated by applying the Friedman test to 3 related measurements: patients at baseline, at post-treatment (at the end of the 10 week programme) and after one month of follow-up. The data obtained showed a significant improvement (p Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  1. [Geriatric health promotion and prevention for independently living senior citizens: programmes and target groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were

  2. Can we reduce preventable heart failure readmissions in patients enrolled in a Disease Management Programme?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, D

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) are successful in reducing hospital readmissions in heart failure (HF). However, there remain a number of patients enrolled in a DMP who are readmitted with HF. The primary aim of the study was to determine the proportion of preventable readmissions (PR). The secondary aim was to recognise patient characteristics which would identify certain patients at risk of having a PR. METHODS: A retrospective chart search was performed on patients readmitted over a 1-year period. RESULTS: 38.5% of readmissions were classified as PR. None of these patients made prior contact with the DMP. Admission levels of BNP, potassium, urea and creatinine were significantly lower in the PR group. CONCLUSION: DMP have proven benefits in reducing hospital readmission nonetheless a significant proportion of these readmissions are preventable. Further work is required to prospectively analyse why these patients fail to contact the DMP.

  3. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  4. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pmental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275

  5. Do exercises used in injury prevention programmes modify cutting task biomechanics? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Simic, Milena; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    Some injury prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of ACL rupture. Although the most common athletic task leading to ACL rupture is cutting, there is currently no consensus on how injury prevention programmes influence cutting task biomechanics. To systematically review and synthesise the scientific literature regarding the influence of injury prevention programme exercises on cutting task biomechanics. The three largest databases (Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched for studies that investigated the effect of injury prevention programmes on cutting task biomechanics. When possible meta-analyses were performed. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, a total of 100 participants received exercises that are part of ACL injury prevention programmes and 76 participants served in control groups. Most studies evaluated variables associated with the quadriceps dominance theory. The meta-analysis revealed decreased lateral hamstrings electromyography activity (p ≤ 0.05) while single studies revealed decreased quadriceps and increased medial hamstrings activity and decreased peak knee flexion moment. Findings from single studies reported that ACL injury prevention exercises reduce neuromuscular deficits (knee valgus moment, lateral trunk leaning) associated with the ligament and trunk dominance theories, respectively. The programmes we analysed appear most effective when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal women. The exercises used in injury prevention programmes have the potential to improve cutting task biomechanics by ameliorating neuromuscular deficits linked to ACL rupture, especially when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Economic evaluation of type 2 diabetes prevention programmes: Markov model of low- and high-intensity lifestyle programmes and metformin in participants with different categories of intermediate hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samantha; Craig, Dawn; Adler, Amanda; McPherson, Klim; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2018-01-30

    National guidance on preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK recommends low-intensity lifestyle interventions for individuals with intermediate categories of hyperglycaemia defined in terms of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or 'at-risk' levels of HbA1c. In a recent systematic review of economic evaluations of such interventions, most studies had evaluated intensive trial-based lifestyle programmes in participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study examines the costs and effects of different intensity lifestyle programmes and metformin in participants with different categories of intermediate hyperglycaemia. We developed a decision tree and Markov model (50-year horizon) to compare four approaches, namely (1) a low-intensity lifestyle programme based on current NICE guidance, (2) a high-intensity lifestyle programme based on the US Diabetes Prevention Program, (3) metformin, and (4) no intervention, modelled for three different types of intermediate hyperglycaemia (IFG, IGT and HbA1c). A health system perspective was adopted and incremental analysis undertaken at an individual and population-wide level, taking England as a case study. Low-intensity lifestyle programmes were the most cost-effective (£44/QALY, £195/QALY and £186/QALY compared to no intervention in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively). Intensive lifestyle interventions were also cost-effective compared to no intervention (£2775/QALY, £6820/QALY and £7376/QALY, respectively, in IGT, IFG and HbA1c). Metformin was cost-effective relative to no intervention (£5224/QALY, £6842/QALY and £372/QALY in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively), but was only cost-effective relative to other treatments in participants identified with HbA1c. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY, low- and high-intensity lifestyle programmes were cost-effective 98%, 99% and 98% and 81%, 81% and 71% of the time in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively. An England-wide programme for 50-59 year olds

  7. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  8. Implementing a screening programme for post-traumatic stress disorder following violent crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Bisson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of validated means to determine which individuals will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD following a traumatic event has raised the possibility of designing and implementing effective screening programmes following traumatic events. Objective: This study aimed to study the usefulness and implementation of a PTSD screening programme for victims of violent crime presenting to an emergency unit. Design: 3,349 individuals who presented to an emergency unit following a violent crime were asked to complete the Trauma Screening Questionnaire 2 weeks later. Those who scored above a standard cut-off were invited to attend a mental health assessment and subsequently offered treatment according to their needs. Results: Of the 3,349 individuals contacted, 572 (17.1% responded, 338 (10.1% screened positive, 26 (0.78% attended for assessment, and 9 (0.27% received treatment for PTSD. Conclusions: This simple screening programme was not as useful as was hoped raising questions regarding how best to develop screening programmes for PTSD following violent crime and other traumatic events.

  9. Stress Prevention@Work : A study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2018-01-01

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative

  10. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and

  11. Cognitive and physical resources are important in order to complete a geriatric fall prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Marianne; Damgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that falls may be prevented, but effectiveness in reducing the risk of falling depends on the uptake of and the adherence to preventive actions. 65+-year-old fallers identified by screening for fall risk were offered referral to a geriatric fall clinic together with fallers referred from general practitioners (GPs). They were assessed to identify individual risk factors for falling, and appropriate interventions were planned, including exercise classes. A total of 811 persons were identified by screening, 342 of whom accepted referral. Furthermore, 176 were referred from GPs. Only 402 of 518 fallers attended the clinic. A total of 65 dropped out by their own request, 29 stopped because they became seriously ill or died. Another 62 patients were discharged before fulfilling the programme as they were unable to participate due to physical or cognitive problems. Indicators of cessation were cognitive or physical weakness. Geriatric fall prevention is resource-consuming both in terms of staff needed and with respect to demands made on the patients, and the frailest part of the fall population cannot comply. It is necessary to differentiate fall prevention services for the population of elderly fallers as interventions in primary healthcare have been shown to be more effective among the most frail elderly fallers. The project received funding from the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health and from The Fund for Scientific Work in the Geriatric Field within the former Copenhagen Hospital Corporation. not relevant.

  12. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; Weston, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D. T.; Zhang, A.; Segal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2–18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet–physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school

  13. Determinants of participation in a fall assessment and prevention programme among elderly fallers in Hong Kong: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Woo, Jean; Cheung, Annie W L; Yeung, Pui-Yi

    2011-04-01

    The study was undertaken to estimate the uptake rate of a fall prevention programme among older fallers and explore related factors. Fall injuries are a major cause nationally of the loss of independence in old age, but they are preventable. Acceptance of fall prevention programmes is therefore important to reduce the risk of falling. Patients aged ≥60 attending the Department of Accident & Emergency of a regional hospital in Hong Kong between 2006 and 2007 were recruited. The study included a baseline interview, focus group interview and a cross-sectional 1-year follow-up telephone survey to assess uptake and its related factors. A total 68% of 1194 older people attended the fall programme. Factors associated with programme participation included the perception of fall as being preventable [OR=3.47, 95% CI (1.59-7.56)] or recoverable [OR=1.73, 95% CI (1.06-2.82)], a safe outside environment; absence of chronic illness, and ability to walk without aids. Old-age people, those living in old-age homes and of lower education level were less likely to join the programme. Older people with the selected characteristics were less likely to attend the fall prevention programme, thus were less likely to benefit from them. Support from family/carers may be an important element in participation. In a nursing context, in primary care practice, all of these factors should be taken into account in any future development of a fall prevention programme in Hong Kong of this nature. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is a guide to the Health Information and Quality Authority?s (the Authority) programme of monitoring service providers? compliance with the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections (referred to in this guide as the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards). This guide explains the approach that the Authority takes when monitoring the compliance of service providers ? including hospitals ? with the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards...

  15. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  16. A childhood obesity prevention programme in Barcelona (POIBA Project): Study protocol of the intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Juárez, Olga; Serral, Gemma; Valmayor, Sara; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pasarín, María Isabel; Díez, Élia; Ariza, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity preventive interventions should promote a healthy diet and physical activity at home and school. This study aims to describe a school-based childhood obesity preventive programme (POIBA Project) targeting 8-to-12- year-olds. Design and methods Evaluation study of a school-based intervention with a pre-post quasi-experimental design and a comparison group. Schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods are oversampled. The intervention consists of 9 sessions, including 58 activities of a total duration between 9 and 13 hours, and the booster intervention of 2 sessions with 8 activities lasting 3 or 4 hours. They are multilevel (individual, family and school) and multicomponent (classroom, physical activity and family). Data are collected through anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and lifestyle surveys before and after the intervention and the booster intervention. In the intervention group, families complete two questionnaires about their children’s eating habits and physical activity. The outcome variable is the cumulative incidence rate of obesity, obtained from body mass index values and body fat assessed by triceps skinfold thickness. The independent variables are socio-demographic, contextual, eating habits, food frequency, intensity of physical activity and use of new technologies. Expected impact for public health It is essential to implement preventive interventions at early ages and to follow its effects over time. Interventions involving diet and physical activity are the most common, being the most effective setting the school. The POIBA Project intervenes in both the school and family setting and focuses on the most disadvantaged groups, in which obesity is most pronounced and difficult to prevent. Significance for public health Overweight and obesity are a major public health concern that predispose affected individuals to the development of chronic diseases. Of importance, obesity is more common among

  17. CRITICAL INCIDENTS AND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM – AN EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (EAP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terblanche, Lourie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Employees are increasingly becoming victims of critical incidents. From a systems theory point of view, it is necessary to acknowledge the impact of critical incidents not only on the personal life of the employee, but on the workplace itself. Employees respond differently to critical incidents, which makes it even more complicated when this reaches the point of requiring therapeutic intervention. The most common response to critical incidents may be the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and/or depression. This reality requires management – through the Employee Assistance Programme (EAP – to be able to effectively deal with such critical incidents.

  18. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

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    Julie Storr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  19. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, David J; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Nunomura, Akihiko; Tabaton, Massimo; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is at the forefront of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. While its implications in the characteristic neurodegeneration of AD are vast, the most important aspect is that it seems increasingly apparent that oxidative stress is in fact a primary progenitor of the disease, and not merely an epiphenomenon. Moreover, evidence indicates that a long "dormant period" of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and actually leads to the seemingly sudden appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. These findings provide important insights into the development of potential treatment regimens and even allude to the possibility of a preventative cure. In this review, we elaborate on the dynamic role of oxidative stress in AD and present corresponding treatment strategies that are currently under investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  1. Prevention of stress corrosion cracking in nuclear waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste is prevented by stress relief and specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Actual cases of cracking have occurred in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 and were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also, as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh wastes, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specific ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. The concentration and temperature range limits to prevent cracking were determined by a series of statistically designed experiments

  2. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  3. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both

  4. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  5. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  7. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke B. Wolfenstetter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance.

  8. A prevention programme for somatoform disorders is effective for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campayo, Javier; Arevalo, Elisa; Claraco, Luis Manuel; Alda, Marta; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda

    2010-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psycho-educational programme for the primary prevention of somatoform disorders in healthy primary care patients. Randomized, controlled trial. Participants (N=104) were randomly assigned to: (1) a psycho-educational intervention, or (2) no intervention at all. The primary outcome measure was somatoform disorder psychiatric diagnosis at 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were hypochondriasis, locus of control and attribution of symptoms and psychological distress. At 3 and 6 months, and 5 years, the intervention group significantly decreased hypochondriasis and somatic attributions; and increased psychological and normalizing attributions and internal locus of control. Five years after baseline, the prevalence of somatoform disorders showed no differences between both groups. Nevertheless, overall psychiatric morbidity was less prevalent in the intervention group (odds ratio: 2.72; 95%CI:1.10-6.72). In addition, a decrease in depression and anxiety subscales and in overall General Health Questionnaire scoring (psomatization seems to be useful, not to decrease somatoform disorders, but to prevent anxiety and depressive disorders. The effects of overlapping psychobiological mechanisms are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Findings from a comprehensive diarrhoea prevention and treatment programme in Lusaka, Zambia

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    Samuel Bosomprah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Programme for the Awareness and Elimination of Diarrhoea (PAED was a pilot comprehensive diarrhoea prevention and control programme aimed to reduce post-neonatal, all-cause under-five mortality by 15 % in Lusaka Province. Interventions included introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, improved clinical case management of diarrhoea, and a comprehensive community prevention and advocacy campaign on hand washing with soap, exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age, and the use of ORS and Zinc. This study aimed to assess the impact of PAED on under-5 mortality. Methods The study was a pre-post evaluation design. The Demographic and Health Survey style population-based two-stage approach was used to collect data at the beginning of the intervention and 3 years following the start of intervention implementation in Lusaka province. The primary outcome of interest was an all-cause, post-neonatal under-five mortality rate defined as the probability of dying after the 28th day and before the fifth birthday among children aged 1–59 months. The Kaplan-Meier time to event analysis was used to estimate the probability of death; multiplying this probability by 1000 to yield the post-neonatal mortality rate. Survival-time inverse probability weighting model was used to estimate Average Treatment Effect (ATE. Results The percentage of children under age 5 who had diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks preceding the survey declined from 15.8 % (95 % CI: 15.2 %, 16.4 % in 2012 to 12.7 % (95 % CI: 12.3 %, 13.2 % in 2015. Over the same period, mortality in post-neonatal children under 5 years of age declined by 34 %, from an estimated rate of 29 deaths per 1000 live births (95 % CI: (26, 32 death per 1000 live births to 19 deaths per 1000 live births (95 % CI: (16, 21 death per 1000 live births. When every child in the population of children aged 1–59 months is exposed to the intervention, the average time-to-death was estimated to

  10. The “FIFA 11+” warm-up programme for preventing injuries in soccer players: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Andrade Fernandes

    Full Text Available Introduction Soccer is among the sports with the highest injury rate. A group of international experts from the Fédération Internationale de Football Association — FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre — have developed the “FIFA 11+”, a warm-up programme whose main goal is to reduce the risk of common injuries in both male and female soccer players. Objective To conduct a literature review in order to check the efficiency of the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme in preventing injuries in soccer players. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and SPORTDiscus, using the following keywords in combination with one another: “injury”, “prevention” and “warm-up”. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. In four studies, the authors conclude that the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme is effective for preventing injuries in soccer players. In one study, this protective effect was not observed. Conclusion The analyzed studies indicate that the FIFA 11+ warm-up programme for the prevention of sports injuries show positive signs that the use of the programme may help reduce the incidence of injuries in girls aged 13–17 years. In a male children population the results are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  11. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne J. A. Hoek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1 the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2 the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. Methods The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees’ perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Secondary outcome measures

  12. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Rianne J A; Havermans, Bo M; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2017-07-17

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1) the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2) the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees' perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Secondary outcome measures are job demands, job resources and the number

  13. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects compliance. A prospective, quasiexperimental, pre- and post-study of the nursing team in a 16-bed medical/surgical ICU. Pre-intervention phase: a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures, direct observation and review of clinical records to assess compliance. Intervention phase: eight training sessions for nurses. The post-intervention phase mirrored the pre-intervention phase. Nurses answered more questions correctly on the post-intervention questionnaire than on the pre-intervention (17·87 ± 2·69 versus 15·91 ± 2·68, p = 0·002). Compliance with the following measures was better during the post-intervention period (p = 0·001): use of the smallest possible nasogastric tube, controlled aspiration of subglottic secretions and endotracheal tube cuff pressure, use of oral chlorhexidine and recording the endotracheal tube fixation number. VAP incidence remained unchanged throughout the study. However, a trend towards lower incidence of late (>4 days after intubation) VAP was observed (4·6 versus 3·1 episodes/1000 ventilation days, p = 0·37). The programme improved both knowledge of and compliance with VAP preventive measures, although improved knowledge did not always result in improved compliance. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. Aim To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects compliance. Method A prospective, quasiexperimental, pre- and post-study of the nursing team in a 16-bed medical/surgical ICU. Pre-intervention phase: a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures, direct observation and review of clinical records to assess compliance. Intervention phase: eight training sessions for nurses. The post-intervention phase mirrored the pre-intervention phase. Findings Nurses answered more questions correctly on the post-intervention questionnaire than on the pre-intervention (17·87 ± 2·69 versus 15·91 ± 2·68, p = 0·002). Compliance with the following measures was better during the post-intervention period (p = 0·001): use of the smallest possible nasogastric tube, controlled aspiration of subglottic secretions and endotracheal tube cuff pressure, use of oral chlorhexidine and recording the endotracheal tube fixation number. VAP incidence remained unchanged throughout the study. However, a trend towards lower incidence of late (>4 days after intubation) VAP was observed (4·6 versus 3·1 episodes/1000 ventilation days, p = 0·37). Conclusion The programme improved both knowledge of and compliance with VAP preventive measures, although improved knowledge did not always result in improved compliance. PMID:23061618

  15. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Duy Pham

    Full Text Available Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness.We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY.Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300-68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100-54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200-496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447-2,747], US$2,344 [1,843-2,765], and US$248 [201-319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively.Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden.

  16. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Shattock, Andrew J.; Do, Hoa Mai; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY). Results Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300–68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100–54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200–496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447–2,747], US$2,344 [1,843–2,765], and US$248 [201–319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively. Conclusions Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden. PMID:26196290

  17. Diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia: results of a preventative programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Sepehri, Armina; Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Cortés, Ernesto; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Others have analysed the relationship between inadequate behaviour by healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia (diagnostic inertia) and the history of cardiovascular risk factors. However, since no study has assessed cardiovascular risk scores as associated factors, we carried out a study to quantify diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia and to determine if cardiovascular risk scores are associated with this inertia. In the Valencian Community (Spain), a preventive programme (cardiovascular, gynaecologic and vaccination) was started in 2003 inviting persons aged ≥40 years to undergo a health check-up at their health centre. This cross-sectional study examined persons with no known dyslipidaemia seen during the first six months of the programme (n = 16, 905) but whose total cholesterol (TC) was ≥5.17 mmol/L. Diagnostic inertia was defined as lack of follow-up to confirm/discard the dyslipidaemia diagnosis. Other variables included in the analysis were gender, history of cardiovascular risk factors/cardiovascular disease, counselling (diet/exercise), body mass index (BMI), age, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids. TC was grouped as ≥/Inertia was quantified and the adjusted odds ratios calculated from multivariate models. In the overall sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 52% (95% CI [51.2-52.7]); associated factors were TC ≥ 6.20 mmol/L, high or "not measured" BMI, hypertension, smoking and higher values of fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure and TC. In the REGICOR sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.9% (95% CI [51.1-52.7]); associated factors were REGICOR high and high or "not measured" BMI. In the SCORE sample the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.7% (95% CI [50.9-52.5]); associated factors were SCORE high and high or "not measured" BMI. Diagnostic inertia existed in over half the patients and was associated with a greater cardiovascular risk.

  18. Vaccine-preventable diseases: evaluation of vaccination programmes and optimisation of surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Nicoline van der

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands has a National Immunisation Programme (NIP) and a seasonal influenza vaccination programme. Surveillance enables countries to monitor and assess the impact of these programmes. Dutch surveillance is coordinated by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control and consists of 5 pillars,

  19. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  20. Domestic Violence and Abuse Prevention Programmes in the Early Years Classroom: A Pastoral, Academic and Financial Priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…

  1. Evaluating a Pregnancy and STI Prevention Programme in Rural, At-Risk, Middle School Girls in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julie C.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Johnson, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people in urban areas are often the focus of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programmes because of their high risk of unwanted pregnancy and contracting an STI. Young people in rural areas are far less studied but also have a high risk of similar outcomes. This study evaluates Giving Our Girls…

  2. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Tulder, M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  3. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  4. The effectiveness of a preconditioning programme on preventing running-related injuries in novice runners : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives There is no consensus on the aetiology and prevention of running-related injuries in runners. Preconditioning studies among different athlete populations show positive effects on the incidence of sports injuries. Hypothesis A 4-week preconditioning programme in novice runners will reduce

  5. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  7. Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.

  8. Writing about stress: the impact of a stress-management programme on staff accounts of dealing with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M W J; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T; Jahoda, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Helping staff serving clients with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour to cope with stress has implications for their own well-being and for the lives of those they support. This study examined staff members' views of stress and the effectiveness of a stress-management intervention. Effectiveness was assessed using written assignments regarding stress management, and changes in views presented were tested in a pre- and post-test control group design. In the first phase, a content analysis was conducted across groups, which revealed that participants expressed a broad variety of views about stress and coping mechanisms, with considerable individual differences. In the second phase, a more fine-grained quantitative analysis was conducted to assess training effectiveness. Results showed an increase in the proportion of coping strategies referred to by the experimental group post-training. This positive change remained at follow-up. The results of the content analysis and the outcome data have implications for staff training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; Yu, Liping; Le, Hoa; Netticadan, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.

  10. Radiation oxidative stress in cancer induction and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meher, Prabodha Kumar; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation causes generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are implicated in the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Molecular steps involved in the transformation of normal cells to cancer cells have been enigmatic but generally believed to arise from aberration in cellular redox homeostasis. In normal cell function, a delicate balance is maintained between ROS generated in the metabolic process and level of endogenous antioxidant defense. ROS are known to regulate various cellular functions, such as cell division, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Cells experience oxidative stress when excess production of ROS occurs inside a cell upon exposure to external stress or agents. This redox imbalance affects the cellular functions due to DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, alteration in signal transduction, and inhibition of apoptosis leading to induction of cancer and other diseases. Radiation-induced ROS are involved in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Therefore, detoxification of ROS by exogenous antioxidants including dietary polyphenols offers an important strategy for cancer prevention. Recent research results have shown that resistance of cancer stem cells to therapies is linked to low level of ROS. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments have reported that radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced ROS in cytosol sensitize the tumor cells to death, resulting in tumor growth retardation. This review is an attempt to delineate mechanisms of ROS in carcinogenesis and prevention by dietary compounds. Natural polyphenols and dietary antioxidants hold potential to prevent cancer. Interventions in ROS-mediated signal alteration, apoptosis activation, and modulation of epigenetic processes may offer effective cancer prevention strategy. (author)

  11. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than

  12. Perspectives of rural health and human service practitioners following suicide prevention training programme in Australia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. GIS in Public Health: applications in the Legionnaires' disease prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experience has been developed by the Public Health Institute of the Community of Madrid in order to use the GIS tools in the Legionnaires’ disease prevention programme and specifically in three work areas: epidemiologic surveillance, cooling towers environmental control and plans of intervention in case of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease.After having considered different strategies with their advantages the selected model have been the use of map viewers in the intranet with a different configuration format depending on its goals: images map viewers for systematic non-outbreak cases and cooling towers surveillance, viewers that allow an easier and usual consultation and, in the other hand, layers map viewers, better adapted to more complex users’ necessities and so designed to work in emergency situations. Both models are implemented to decentralise the use of these indispensable tools and make them closer of the public health professionals.Some methodological proposals to study spatial association of Legionaires’disease outbreaks are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Controlled ecological evaluation of an implemented exercise training programme to prevent lower limb injuries in sport: differences in implementation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David G; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-04-24

    The public health benefits of injury prevention programmes are maximised when programmes are widely adopted and adhered to. Therefore, these programmes require appropriate implementation support. This study evaluated implementation activity outcomes associated with the implementation of FootyFirst, an exercise training injury prevention programme for community Australian football, both with (FootyFirst+S) and without (FootyFirst+NS) implementation support. An evaluation plan based on the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) Sports Setting Matrix was applied in a controlled ecological evaluation of the implementation of FootyFirst. RE-AIM dimension-specific (range: 0-2) and total RE-AIM scores (range: 0-10) were derived by triangulating data from a number of sources (including surveys, interviews, direct observations and notes) describing FootyFirst implementation activities. The mean dimension-specific and total scores were compared for clubs in regions receiving FootyFirst+S and FootyFirst+NS, through analysis of variance. The mean total RE-AIM score forclubs in the FootyFirst+S regions was 2.4 times higher than for clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region (4.73 vs 1.94; 95% CI for the difference: 1.64 to 3.74). Similarly, all dimension-specific scores were significantly higher for clubs in the FootyFirst+S regions compared with clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region. In all regions, the dimension-specific scores were highest for reach and adoption, and lowest for implementation. Implementing exercise training injury prevention programmes in community sport is challenging. Delivering programme content supported by a context-specific and evidence-informed implementation plan leads to greater implementation activity, which is an important precursor to injury reductions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  15. Diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia: results of a preventative programme in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazón-Bru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Others have analysed the relationship between inadequate behaviour by healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia (diagnostic inertia and the history of cardiovascular risk factors. However, since no study has assessed cardiovascular risk scores as associated factors, we carried out a study to quantify diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia and to determine if cardiovascular risk scores are associated with this inertia. In the Valencian Community (Spain, a preventive programme (cardiovascular, gynaecologic and vaccination was started in 2003 inviting persons aged ≥40 years to undergo a health check-up at their health centre. This cross-sectional study examined persons with no known dyslipidaemia seen during the first six months of the programme (n = 16, 905 but whose total cholesterol (TC was ≥5.17 mmol/L. Diagnostic inertia was defined as lack of follow-up to confirm/discard the dyslipidaemia diagnosis. Other variables included in the analysis were gender, history of cardiovascular risk factors/cardiovascular disease, counselling (diet/exercise, body mass index (BMI, age, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids. TC was grouped as ≥/<6.20 mmol/L. In patients without cardiovascular disease and <75/≤65 years (n = 15, 778/13, 597, the REGICOR (REgistre GIroní del COr/SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation cardiovascular risk functions were used to classify risk (high/low. Inertia was quantified and the adjusted odds ratios calculated from multivariate models. In the overall sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 52% (95% CI [51.2–52.7]; associated factors were TC ≥ 6.20 mmol/L, high or “not measured” BMI, hypertension, smoking and higher values of fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure and TC. In the REGICOR sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.9% (95% CI [51.1–52.7]; associated factors were REGICOR high and high or “not measured” BMI. In the SCORE sample the rate of diagnostic

  16. The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappah, Jlateh V

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes.

  17. Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2015-02-27

    groups of studies were considered separately.Most studies had a judgement of 'unclear' for at least one risk of bias criteria, so the quality of evidence was downgraded to moderate. Although there was heterogeneity between studies there was little evidence of statistical heterogeneity in the results. We were unable to extract data from all studies in a format that allowed inclusion in a meta-analysis.There was moderate quality evidence family-based interventions had a positive impact on preventing smoking when compared to a no intervention control. Nine studies (4810 participants) reporting smoking uptake amongst baseline non-smokers could be pooled, but eight studies with about 5000 participants could not be pooled because of insufficient data. The pooled estimate detected a significant reduction in smoking behaviour in the intervention arms (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 0.84). Most of these studies used intensive interventions. Estimates for the medium and low intensity subgroups were similar but confidence intervals were wide. Two studies in which some of the 4487 participants already had smoking experience at baseline did not detect evidence of effect (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17).Eight RCTs compared a combined family plus school intervention to a school intervention only. Of the three studies with data, two RCTS with outcomes for 2301 baseline never smokers detected evidence of an effect (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.96) and one study with data for 1096 participants not restricted to never users at baseline also detected a benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.94). The other five studies with about 18,500 participants did not report data in a format allowing meta-analysis. One RCT also compared a family intervention to a school 'good behaviour' intervention and did not detect a difference between the two types of programme (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.38, n = 388).No studies identified any adverse effects of intervention. There is moderate

  18. Older people's perception of and coping with falling, and their motivation for fall-prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Dorte; Hendriksen, Carsten; Borup, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes.......This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes....

  19. Evaluation of programmes for the prevention of behavioural problems and for development of social competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsmoen, Hege; Holth, Per; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    Rapport om forskningsbaseret vurdering af programmer med henblik på reduktion af problemadfærd og udvikling af social kompetence i Norge......Rapport om forskningsbaseret vurdering af programmer med henblik på reduktion af problemadfærd og udvikling af social kompetence i Norge...

  20. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  1. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  2. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of a preconditioning programme on preventing running-related injuries in novice runners: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Steef W; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2012-09-01

    There is no consensus on the aetiology and prevention of running-related injuries in runners. Preconditioning studies among different athlete populations show positive effects on the incidence of sports injuries. A 4-week preconditioning programme in novice runners will reduce the incidence of running-related injuries. Randomised controlled clinical trial; level of evidence, 1. Novice runners (N=432) prepared for a four-mile recreational running event. Participants were allocated to the 4-week preconditioning (PRECON) group (N=211) or the control group (N=221). The PRECON group started a 4-week training programme, prior to the running programme, with walking and hopping exercises. After the 4-week period both groups started a 9-week running programme. In both groups information was registered on running exposure and running-related injuries (RRIs) using an internet-based running log. Primary outcome measure was RRIs per 100 runners. An RRI was defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or lower back causing restriction of running for at least a week. The incidence of RRIs was 15.2% in the PRECON group and 16.8% in the control group. The difference in RRIs between the groups was not significant (χ(2)=0.161, df=1, p=0.69). This prospective study demonstrated that a 4-week PRECON programme with walking and hopping exercises had no influence on the incidence of RRIs in novice runners.

  4. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  5. A programme of research to set priorities and reduce uncertainties for the prevention and treatment of skin disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K. S.; Batchelor, J. M.; Bath-Hextall, F.; Chalmers, J. R.; Clarke, T.; Crowe, S.; Delamere, F. M.; Eleftheriadou, V.; Evans, N.; Firkins, L.; Greenlaw, N.; Lansbury, L.; Lawton, S.; Layfield, C.; Leonardi-Bee, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are very common and can have a large impact on the quality of life of patients and caregivers. This programme addressed four diseases: (1) eczema, (2) vitiligo, (3) squamous cell skin cancer (SCC) and (4) pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). OBJECTIVE: To set priorities and reduce uncertainties for the treatment and prevention of skin disease in our four chosen diseases. DESIGN: Mixed methods including eight systematic reviews, three prioritisation exercises, tw...

  6. Detecting effects of the indicated prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) on child symptoms, parenting, and parental quality of life in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Freund-Braier, Inez; Hautmann, Christopher; Jänen, Nicola; Plück, Julia; Brix, Gabriele; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural parent training is effective in improving child disruptive behavioural problems in preschool children by increasing parenting competence. The indicated Prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) is a group training programme for parents and kindergarten teachers of children aged 3-6 years with externalizing behavioural problems. To evaluate the effects of PEP on child problem behaviour, parenting practices, parent-child interactions, and parental quality of life. Parents and kindergarten teachers of 155 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 91) and a nontreated control group (n = 64). They rated children's problem behaviour before and after PEP training; parents also reported on their parenting practices and quality of life. Standardized play situations were video-taped and rated for parent-child interactions, e.g. parental warmth. In the intention to treat analysis, mothers of the intervention group described less disruptive child behaviour and better parenting strategies, and showed more parental warmth during a standardized parent-child interaction. Dosage analyses confirmed these results for parents who attended at least five training sessions. Children were also rated to show less behaviour problems by their kindergarten teachers. Training effects were especially positive for parents who attended at least half of the training sessions. CBCL: Child Behaviour Checklist; CII: Coder Impressions Inventory; DASS: Depression anxiety Stress Scale; HSQ: Home-situation Questionnaire; LSS: Life Satisfaction Scale; OBDT: observed behaviour during the test; PCL: Problem Checklist; PEP: prevention programme for externalizing problem behaviour; PPC: Parent Problem Checklist; PPS: Parent Practices Scale; PS: Parenting Scale; PSBC: Problem Setting and Behaviour checklist; QJPS: Questionnaire on Judging Parental Strains; SEFS: Self-Efficacy Scale; SSC: Social Support Scale; TRF: Caregiver-Teacher Report Form.

  7. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Shenderovich, Yulia; Ward, Catherine L; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Redfern, Alice; Lombard, Carl; Doubt, Jenny; Steinert, Janina; Catanho, Ricardo; Wittesaele, Camille; De Stone, Sachin; Salah, Nasteha; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Lachman, Jamie; Loening, Heidi; Gardner, Frances; Blanc, Daphnee; Nocuza, Mzuvekile; Lechowicz, Meryn

    2016-07-19

    An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Sinovuyo Teen compared to an attention-control group of a water hygiene programme. This is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, with stratified randomisation of 37 settlements (rural and peri-urban) with 40 study clusters in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Settlements receive either a 14-session parenting support programme or a 1-day water hygiene programme. The primary outcomes are child abuse and parenting practices, and secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioural problems, mental health and social support. Concurrent process evaluation and qualitative research are conducted. Outcomes are reported by both primary caregivers and adolescents. Brief follow-up measures are collected immediately after the intervention, and full follow-up measures collected at 3-8 months post-intervention. A 15-24-month follow-up is planned, but this will depend on the financial and practical feasibility given delays related to high levels of ongoing civil and political violence in the research sites. This is the first known trial of a parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in a low- or middle-income country. The study will also examine potential mediating pathways and moderating factors. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201507001119966. Registered on 27 April 2015. It can be found by searching for the key word 'Sinovuyo' on their website or via the following link: http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm

  8. [Primary Prevention of Mental Disorders in Children of Mentally Ill Parents. The Kanu Programme "Canoe--Moving Jointly Forward"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M

    2015-09-01

    Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories cask drop test programme: a demonstration of fracture mechanics principles for the prevention of brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a cask drop test programme. The aims of the programme were (1) to demonstrate the applicability of a fracture mechanics-based methodology for ensuring cask integrity, and (2) to assess the viability of using a ferritic materials for cask containment. The programme consisted of four phases: (i) materials characterisation; (ii) non-destructive examination of the cask; (iii) finite element analyses of the drop events; and (iv) a series of drop tests of a ductile iron cask. The first three phases of the programme provided information for fracture mechanics analyses and predictions for the drop test phase. The drop tests were nominally based upon the IAEA 9 m drop height hypothetical accident scenario although one drop test was from 18 m. All tests were performed in the side drop orientation at a temperature of -29 o C. A circumferential, mid-axis flaw was introduced into the cask body for each drop test. Flaw depth ranged from 19 to 76 mm. Steel saddles were welded to the side wall of the cask to enhance the stresses imposed upon the cask in the region of the introduced flaw. The programme demonstrated the applicability of a fracture mechanics methodology for predicting the conditions under which brittle fracture may occur and thereby the utility of fracture mechanics design for ensuring cask structural integrity by ensuring an appropriate margin of safety. Positive assessments of ductile iron for cask containment and the quality of the casting process for producing ductile iron casks were made. The results of this programme have provided data to support IAEA efforts to develop brittle fracture acceptance criteria for cask containment. (author)

  10. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecham Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1 a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2 the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices. Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity.

  11. Lost in translation? Theory, policy and practice in systems-based environmental approaches to obesity prevention in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautkina, Elena; Goodwin, Denise; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Cummins, Steven

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores how system-wide approaches to obesity prevention were 'theorised' and translated into practice in the 'Healthy Towns' programme implemented in nine areas in England. Semi-structured interviews with 20 informants, purposively selected to represent national and local programme development, management and delivery were undertaken. Results suggest that informants articulated a theoretical understanding of a system-wide approach to obesity prevention, but simplifying this complex task in the context of uncertainty over programme aims and objectives, and absence of a clear direction from the central government, resulted in local programmes relying on traditional multi-component approaches to programme delivery. The development of clear, practical guidance on implementation should form a central part of future system-wide approaches to obesity prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: the design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Hoef, S; Huisstede, B M A; Brink, M S; de Vries, N; Goedhart, E A; Backx, F J G

    2017-08-22

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance. In this study, a bounding exercise programme consisting of functional plyometric exercises is being evaluated. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Male amateur soccer teams (players aged 18-45 years) have been randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Both groups are continuing regular soccer training and the intervention group is additionally performing a 12-week bounding exercise programme (BEP), consisting of a gradual build up and maintenance programme for the entire soccer season. The primary outcome is hamstring injury incidence. Secondary outcome is compliance with the BEP during the soccer season and 3 months thereafter. Despite effective hamstring injury prevention programmes, the incidence of these injuries remains high in soccer. As poor compliance with these programmes may be an issue, a new plyometric exercise programme may encourage long-term compliance and is expected to enhance sprinting and jumping performance besides preventing hamstring injuries. NTR6129 . Retrospectively registered on 1 November 2016.

  13. Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C

    2014-07-08

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants

  14. Impact and economic evaluations of a combination prevention programme for men who have sex with men in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Cortés-Ortiz, María A; Romero-Martinez, Martín; Salas, Jessica; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Uribe, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high-profile support for combination prevention programmes (CPPs) since 2008, there is little rigorous evidence on their impact and cost-effectiveness. In 2010, Mexico received funds from the Global Fund to implement a series of behavioural, biomedical, and structural interventions over 3 years targeted to men who have sex with men. The aims of the study were to estimate the impact of the programme across a range of outcomes and cost-effectiveness. A quasi-experiment was designed before the implementation of the CPP, in which 24 cities were randomly selected for impact evaluation and 12 pairs of cities were matched. In practice, though, implementation of the programme was staggered over 1 year. Therefore, we used two different approaches to estimate impact: a difference-in-difference estimation comparing both groups and a dose-response approach using time exposure to the programme at the city level. Results from the difference-in-difference estimation showed modest impact on condom use. However, the dose-response findings revealed a 7.5% increase in HIV testing per additional year exposed to the programme, relative to baseline coverage; an increase in awareness of HIV status among HIV-positive individuals of 6.6%; a 6.4% increase in HIV-positive individuals on treatment; and an 8% reduction in the perception of stigma/discrimination from healthcare personnel. The cost per person not exposed to an untreated HIV-positive individual was gauged to be US$400. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness and cost of a CPP along the HIV treatment cascade: access to HIV tests, awareness of HIV status, and antiretroviral therapy initiation.

  15. Process Evaluation of the Teacher Training for an AIDS Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…

  16. The economic evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme to prevent low back and neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.; Bosmans, J.; Proper, K.; Anema, J.; Bongers, P.; Beek, A. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study was an economic evaluation conducted alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of 12 months. The aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the Stay@Work Participatory Ergonomics programme (PE) compared to a control group (no PE). In total, 37

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Based on Academic Procrastination Prevention: Training Programme of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsmez, Ihsan; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The research is an experimental study which has experimental and control groups, and based on pre-test, post-test, monitoring test model. Research group consists of second and third grade students of Primary School Education and Psychological Counseling undergraduate programmes in Giresun University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The research…

  18. Effect of a universal anxiety prevention programme (FRIENDS) on children's academic performance: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena; Taylor, Gordon; Stallard, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Evaluations of school-based anxiety prevention programmes have reported improvements in psychological functioning although little is known about their effect upon educational outcomes. One thousand three hundred and sixty-two children from 40 primary schools in England took part in the randomised controlled trial, Preventing Anxiety in Children through Education in Schools. The trial investigated the effectiveness of a universal school-based cognitive behaviour therapy prevention programme, FRIENDS, delivered by health care staff or school staff compared with usual personal, social, health and education (PSHE) lessons. Self-report psychological outcomes and educational attainment on national standardised attainment tests in reading, writing and maths were collected 12 months postintervention. Analysis was performed at individual level using multivariable mixed effect models controlling for gender, type of intervention and school effect. Registered trial: ISRCTN: 23563048. At 12 months, anxiety reduced in the health-led FRIENDS group compared to school-led FRIENDS and PSHE. There were no between-group differences in academic performance regardless of gender, deprivation, ethnicity and additional educational needs. School-based mental health interventions should assess psychological and educational outcomes. Further research should directly compare the effects of interventions led by health and school staff. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs)--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots"). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes.

  20. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for

  1. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Ikpeazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. METHODOLOGY: It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots". In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. RESULTS: Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%, hotels/lodges (29.6%, streets (16.6%, and brothels (14.6%. Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. CONCLUSION: FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning

  2. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  3. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...

  4. A quasi-experimental study on a community-based stroke prevention programme for clients with minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Janet W H; Yip, Vera Y B; Ko, Stanley K K; Gun, Amy P C; Lee, Judy S H

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a community-based stroke prevention programme in (1) improving knowledge about stroke; (2) improving self-health-monitoring practice; (3) maintaining behavioural changes when adopting a healthy lifestyle for stroke prevention. People with minor stroke (or transient ischaemic attack) tend to under-estimate the long-term impact of this on their health. The challenge for nurses is to prevent subsequent strokes by finding ways to promote and sustain appropriate behaviours. Educational intervention is of paramount importance in equipping those at risk with relevant knowledge and self-care strategies for secondary stroke prevention. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. One hundred and ninety subjects were recruited, of whom 147 (77 in the intervention group and 70 in the control group) completed the study. Data were obtained at three time points: baseline (T0); one week after (T1) and three months after (T2) the intervention. The intervention programme consisted of eight weekly two-hour sessions, with the aims of improving the participants' awareness of their own health signals and of actively involving them in self-care management of their own health for secondary stroke prevention. Significant positive changes were found among participants of the intervention group in the knowledge on stroke warning signs (P lifestyle modification of dietary habits (reduction in salted food intake, P = 0.004). No significant improvement was found in walking exercise participation in the intervention group, yet a significant decrease was detected among the control group. This study found a three-month-sustained effect of positive changes in knowledge and skill from participants who undertook a nurse-led community-based stroke prevention programme. Effective educational intervention by professional nurses helped clients integrate their learned knowledge into their real-life practice. This empowering, that is, the

  5. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Challenges faced by health workers in implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, H; Mayon-White, R T; Okong, P; Carpenter, L M

    2007-09-01

    To report the experience of health workers who had played key roles in the early stages of implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services (PMTCT) in Uganda. Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including counsellors, obstetricians and PMTCT coordinators at the five PMTCT test sites in Uganda to investigate the benefits, challenges and sustainability of the PMTCT programme. Audio-taped interviews were held with each informant between January and June 2003. These were transcribed verbatim and manually analysed using the framework approach. The perceived benefits reported by informants were improvement of general obstetric care, provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-positive mothers, staff training and community awareness. The main challenges lay in the reluctance of women to be tested for HIV, incomplete follow-up of participants, non-disclosure of HIV status and difficulties with infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers. Key informants thought that the programme's sustainability depended on maintaining staff morale and numbers, on improving services and providing more resources, particularly antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive women and their families. Uganda's experience in piloting the PMTCT programme reflected the many challenges faced by health workers. Potentially resource-sparing strategies such as the 'opt-out' approach to HIV testing required further evaluation.

  8. Biomarkers of general stress in mussels as common indicators for marine biomonitoring programmes in Europe: The ICON experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Robinson, Craig David; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matt; Halldorsson, Halldor P; Albentosa, Marina; Bignell, John P; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether general stress biomarkers in mussels can be applied as common first-tier biomarkers in regional biomonitoring programmes in the North Sea (including Iceland) and western Mediterranean Sea. Stress on Stress (SoS) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) biomarkers were analysed in resident mussels (Mytilus sp.) from 8 coastal sites and in transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from two Spanish Mediterranean coastal sites. The assessment of results, as input to pollution monitoring strategies, was performed jointly for LMS and SoS data from the two regions. Contaminant body burden of the mussels was compared with biomarker results. The results demonstrated that these two general and non-expensive stress biomarkers in mussel can be applied throughout European waters, providing a cost-effective and harmonised approach to screen contaminant-related biological effects within the framework of wide-scale pollution biomonitoring programmes, such as that proposed by the European Union, i.e. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Men's perspectives on fall risk and fall prevention following participation in a group-based programme conducted at Men's Sheds, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  11. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  12. Comparative evaluation of preventive measures against primary side stress corrosion cracking of mill annealed Inconel 600 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.; Hernalsteen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Significant amounts of primary side cracking have been reported in the mechanically expanded area of the tubes of PWR steam generators in Europe, in Japan and to a lesser extent in the USA. The Belgian utilities are faced with the same problem. At Doel 2, where the tubes are rolled for only a part of the tubesheet, primary side cracking appeared in the roll transition. The Doel 3 and Tihange 2 steam generators, whose tubes are expanded for the full depth of the tube sheet, have experienced cracking after about 10 000 h of operation not only in the roll transition but also at roll overlaps. While some leaks and eddy current indications are associated with tubesheet or rolling anomalies, many of them are found on normal tubes. A programme was launched by the Belgian utilities and was further co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop preventive actions applicable not only to hot steam generators but also to cold steam generators already installed on site. These preventive measures include stress relaxation and metallurgical improvement of the material by an in situ heat treatment of the whole tube sheet (a steam generator model was used to evaluate the feasibility of this treatment), and the introduction of residual compressive stresses on ID by rotopeening or shotpeening without inducing unacceptable tensile stresses on OD. A comparative evaluation of these measures was established on the basis of tests performed on representative mock-ups and specimens. (author)

  13. Implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme through private hospitals of Delhi--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Garg, C R; Joshi, B C; Rawat, N; Dabla, V; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    In India, programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is primarily implemented through public health system. State AIDS Control Societies (SACSs) encourage private hospitals to set up integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTCs). However, private hospitals of Delhi did not set up ICTCs. Consequently, there is no information on PMTCT interventions in private hospitals of Delhi. This study was undertaken by Delhi SACS during March 2013 through September 2013 to assess status of implementation of PMTCT programme in various private hospitals of Delhi to assist programme managers in framing national policy to facilitate uniform implementation of National PMTCT guidelines. Out of total 575 private hospitals registered with Government of Delhi, 336 (58.4%) catering to pregnant women were identified. About 100 private hospitals with facility of antenatal care, vaginal/caesarean delivery and postnatal care and minimum 10 indoor beds were selected for study. Study sample comprised of large corporate hospitals (≥100 beds; n = 29), medium-sized hospitals (25 to women tested, 52 (0.14%) were detected HIV-positive. However, against National Policy, HIV testing was done without pre/post-test counselling/or consent of women, no PMTCT protocol existed, delivery of HIV-positive women was not undertaken and no efforts were made to link HIV-positive women to antiretroviral treatment. Major intervention observed was medical termination of pregnancy, which indicates lack of awareness in private hospitals about available interventions under national programme. The role of private hospitals in management of HIV in pregnant women must be recognized and mainstreamed in HIV control efforts. There is an urgent need for capacity building of private health care providers to improve standards of practice. National AIDS Control Organization may consider establishing linkages or adopting model developed by some countries with generalized epidemic for delivering

  14. Preventive and therapeutic effect of treadmill running on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Previous results indicated that stress impairs learning and memory. In this research, the effects of preventive, therapeutic and regular continually running activity on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats were investigated. 70 male rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: Control, Sham, Stress-Rest, Rest-Stress, Stress-Exercise, Exercise-Stress and Exercise-Stress & Exercise groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21days and treadmill running 1 h/day. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The results revealed that running activities had therapeutic effect on mid and long-term memory deficit and preventive effects on short and mid-term memory deficit in stressed rats. Regular continually running activity improved mid and long-term memory compared to Exercise-Stress group. The beneficial effects of exercise were time-dependent in stress conditions. Finally, data corresponded to the possibility that treadmill running had a more important role on treatment rather than on prevention on memory impairment induced by stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  16. A concept mapping approach to identifying the barriers to implementing an evidence-based sports injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Callaghan, Aisling; Bizzini, Mario; Jowett, Andrew; Keyzer, Patrick; Nicholson, Matthew

    2018-01-20

    Understanding the barriers to programme use is important to facilitate implementation of injury prevention programmes in real-word settings. This study investigated the barriers to coaches of adolescent female soccer teams, in Victoria, Australia, implementing the evidence-based FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme. Concept mapping with data collected from 19 soccer coaches and administrators. Brainstorming generated 65 statements as barriers to 11+ implementation. After the statements were synthesised and edited, participants sorted 59 statements into groups (mean, 6.2 groups; range, 3-10 groups). Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis identified a six-cluster solution: Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches (15 statements), Lack of player enjoyment and engagement (14), Lack of link to football-related goals (11), Lack of facilities and resources (8), Lack of leadership (6) and Lack of time at training (5). Statements in the 'Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches' cluster received the highest mean importance (3.67 out of 5) and feasibility for the Football Federation to address (3.20) rating. Statements in the 'Lack of facilities and resources' cluster received the lowest mean importance rating (2.23), while statements in the 'Lack of time at training' cluster received the lowest mean feasibility rating (2.19). A multistrategy, ecological approach to implementing the 11+-with specific attention paid to improving coach knowledge about the 11+ and how to implement it, linking the 11+ to the primary goal of soccer training, and organisational leadership-is required to improve the uptake of the 11+ among the targeted coaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Glutamine prevents oxidative stress in a model of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Gilmara Pandolfo; Carvalhal, Gustavo Franco; Marroni, Norma Possa; Licks, Francielli; Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; da Silva, Vinícius Duval; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate the protective effects of glutamine in a model of portal hypertension (PH) induced by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Male Wistar rats were housed in a controlled environment and were allowed access to food and water ad libitum . Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) control group (SO) - rats underwent exploratory laparotomy; (2) control + glutamine group (SO + G) - rats were subjected to laparotomy and were treated intraperitoneally with glutamine; (3) portal hypertension group (PPVL) - rats were subjected to PPVL; and (4) PPVL + glutamine group (PPVL + G) - rats were treated intraperitoneally with glutamine for seven days. Local injuries were determined by evaluating intestinal segments for oxidative stress using lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) after PPVL. Lipid peroxidation of the membrane was increased in the animals subjected to PH ( P 0.05). The activity of the antioxidant enzyme GTx was decreased in the gut of animals subjected to PH compared with that in the control group of animals not subjected to PH ( P 0.05). At least 10 random, non-overlapping images of each histological slide with 200 × magnification (44 pixel = 1 μm) were captured. The sum means of all areas, of each group were calculated. The mean areas of eNOS staining for both of the control groups were similar. The PPVL group showed the largest area of staining for eNOS. The PPVL + G group had the second highest amount of staining, but the mean value was much lower than that of the PPVL group ( P < 0.01). For iNOS, the control (SO) and control + G (SO + G) groups showed similar areas of staining. The PPVL group contained the largest area of iNOS staining, followed by the PPVL + G group; however, this area was significantly smaller than that of the group that underwent PH without glutamine ( P < 0.01). Treatment with

  18. Perspectives of older people engaging in nurse-led cardiovascular prevention programmes: a qualitative study in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Suzanne A.; van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D. M.; Pols, Jeanette; van Bussel, Emma F.; Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. To gain insight into what motivates older people living in the community

  19. Perspectives of older people engaging in nurse-led cardiovascular prevention programmes: a qualitative study in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, S.A.; Eerenbeemt, K.D. van den; Pols, J.; Bussel, E.F. van; Richard, E.; Moll van Charante, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. AIM: To gain insight into what motivates older people living

  20. Special Teacher Stress: Its Product and Prevention. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Robert H.; Fones, Donald M.

    1985-01-01

    Findings from a study involving 60 special education teachers examine characteristics of 20 Ss who scored highest and 20 who scored lowest on both job stress and life stress measures. Teachers are urged to begin relaxation training, exercise, emphasize positive attitudes, and maintain adequate diets. (CL)

  1. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... indicated by depression test score.On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months.A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline...

  2. Compressive residual stresses as a preventive measure against stress corrosion cracking on turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Ewald, J.; Fischer, K.; Gruendler, O.; Potthast, E.; Stuecker, E.; Winzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    Disk type low pressure turbine rotors have been designed for a large variety of power plant applications. Developing disk type rotors required a concerted effort to design a shaft/disk shrink fit with a minimum of tensile stress concentrations in order to aim for the lowest possible susceptibility to corrosive attack, i.e. stress corrosion cracking. As a result of stresses, the regions of greatest concern are the shrink fit boundaries and the keyways of turbine disks. These stresses are caused by service loading, i.e. centrifugal and shrinkage stresses and by manufacturing procedure, i.e. residual stresses. The compressive residual stresses partly compensate the tensile service stresses so that an increase of compressive residual stresses decreases the whole stress state of the component. Special manufacturing procedures, e.g. accelerated cooling after tempering can induce compressive residual stresses up to about 400 MPa in the hub bore region of turbine disk

  3. HIV epidemic appraisals for assisting in the design of effective prevention programmes: shifting the paradigm back to basics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mishra

    Full Text Available To design HIV prevention programmes, it is critical to understand the temporal and geographic aspects of the local epidemic and to address the key behaviours that drive HIV transmission. Two methods have been developed to appraise HIV epidemics and guide prevention strategies. The numerical proxy method classifies epidemics based on current HIV prevalence thresholds. The Modes of Transmission (MOT model estimates the distribution of incidence over one year among risk-groups. Both methods focus on the current state of an epidemic and provide short-term metrics which may not capture the epidemiologic drivers. Through a detailed analysis of country and sub-national data, we explore the limitations of the two traditional methods and propose an alternative approach.We compared outputs of the traditional methods in five countries for which results were published, and applied the numeric and MOT model to India and six districts within India. We discovered three limitations of the current methods for epidemic appraisal: (1 their results failed to identify the key behaviours that drive the epidemic; (2 they were difficult to apply to local epidemics with heterogeneity across district-level administrative units; and (3 the MOT model was highly sensitive to input parameters, many of which required extraction from non-regional sources. We developed an alternative decision-tree framework for HIV epidemic appraisals, based on a qualitative understanding of epidemiologic drivers, and demonstrated its applicability in India. The alternative framework offered a logical algorithm to characterize epidemics; it required minimal but key data.Traditional appraisals that utilize the distribution of prevalent and incident HIV infections in the short-term could misguide prevention priorities and potentially impede efforts to halt the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. An approach that characterizes local transmission dynamics provides a potentially more effective tool with

  4. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  5. The surgical stress response: should it be prevented?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in various aspects of postoperative morbidity by such a nociceptive blockade. Although a causal relationship has still to be demonstrated, these findings strongly argue the concept of "stress-free anesthesia and surgery" as an important instrument in improving......Postoperative complications such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary infection, thromboembolism and fatigue are probably related to increased demands, hypermetabolism, catabolism and other physiologic changes included in the global "surgical stress response." Strategies have been developed...... to suppress the detrimental components of the stress response so as to improve postoperative outcome. Of the various techniques to reduce the surgical stress response, afferent neural blockade with regional anesthesia to relieve pain is the most effective, although not optimal. Data from numerous controlled...

  6. Efficacy of cimetidin in the prevention of ulcer formation in the stomach during immobilization stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeyev, G. I.; Litovskiy, I. A.; Gavrovskaya, L. K.; Ivashkin, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of stress on the formation of ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach, the increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in the gastric tissues, and parietal cell structure alteration. Use of cimetidin prevents these effects

  7. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  8. Gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples to prevent postnatal common mental disorders among primiparous women: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Proimos, Jenny; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Cann, Warren

    2016-03-07

    Interventions to prevent postpartum common mental disorders (PCMD) among unselected populations of women have had limited success. The aim was to determine whether What Were We Thinking (WWWT) a gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples and babies can prevent PCMD among primiparous women 6 months postpartum. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) from 6 Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were allocated randomly to usual care (24) or usual care plus WWWT (24). English-speaking primiparous women receiving primary care at trial MCHCs were recruited to the intervention (204) and control (196) conditions. Of these, 187 (91.7%) and 177 (90.3%) provided complete data. WWWT is a manualised programme comprising primary care from a trained nurse, print materials and a face-to-face seminar. Data sources were standardised and study-specific measures collected in blinded computer-assisted telephone interviews at 6 and 26 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was PCMD assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interviews and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder modules. In intention-to-treat analyses the adjusted OR (AOR) of PCMD in the intervention compared to the usual care group was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.63, ns), but mild to moderate anxiety symptoms (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and poor self-rated health (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.97) were significantly lower. In a per protocol analysis, comparing the full (three component) intervention and usual care groups, the AOR of PCMD was 0.36, (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95). The WWWT seminar was appraised as salient, comprehensible and useful by >85% participants. No harms were detected. WWWT is readily integrated into primary care, enables inclusion of fathers and addresses modifiable risks for PCMD directly. The full intervention appears a promising programme for preventing PCMD, optimising family functioning, and as the

  9. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  10. Burden of NCDs, Policies and Programme for Prevention and Control of NCDs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases and injuries account for 52% of deaths in India. Burden of noncommunicable diseases and resultant mortality is expected to increase unless massive efforts are made to prevent and control NCDs and their risk factors. Based on available evidence, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, mental disorders and trauma are the leading causes of morbidity, disability and mortality in India. Government of India had supported the States in prevention and control of NCDs through several vertical programs since 1980s. However, during the 11 th plan, there was considerable upsurge to prevent and control NCDs. New programs were started on a low scale in limited number of districts. However, there has not been any considerable change in the burden of NCDs. Based on experiences in the past, there is need to emphasize on health promotion and preventive measures to reduce exposure to risk factors. Facilities and capacity for screening, early diagnosis and effective management are required within the public health care system. Public awareness program, integrated management and strong monitoring system would be required for successful implementation of the program and making services universally accessible in the country.

  11. The effective of preventive training programme on the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Çağlayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to prevent non-contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL injuries that occur more frequently because of anatomic, hormonal and muscular differences in female athletes, with a training programme including neuromuscular, proprioceptive and flexilibity training drills and seeing the changes on physical and physiological parameters on female athletes. Material and Methods: Our study consists of 76 female soccer players (Experimental Group (EG: 20, age:17.2±3.38years and Control Group (CG: 56, age:17.5±3.14years whom participated in Turkish Female Soccer 1. League. EG were given a training programme for six weeks, three days a week, nearly 30 minutes. Retrospective questionnaire that enclosed six months was applied to both EG and CG. For the assesment of physical and physological affects of training programme; leg strength, speed, vertical jump, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, balance, flexibility, height, weight and skinfold thickness were measured. Results: As a result of statistical analysises there wasn’t seen any significant difference on the incidence of ACL injury between EG and CG (p>0.05. A significant difference was detected on vertical jump, aerobic-anaerobic power, balance, leg strength and body fat percentage at the level of (p<0.01, speed and flexibility at the level of p<0.05. Conclusion: After six-week recovery training program there was’t not seen any ACL injury until the end of the season. Furthermore, we observed significant differences after evaulation of biomotor properties of female athletes. We suggest that this kind of researchs must be made perennial with the participation of more athletes with multidisipliner workship.

  12. Programme potential for the prevention of and response to sexual violence among female refugees: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.

  13. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D

    2009-10-01

    All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.

  14. Integration of comprehensive women's health programmes into health systems: cervical cancer prevention, care and control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2013-09-01

    Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Rwanda - a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million - is well positioned to tackle a number of "high-burden" noncommunicable diseases. The country's integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. In 2011-2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227,246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women's health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years.

  15. Effects of a community-oriented obesity prevention programme on indicators of body fatness in preschool and primary school children. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in

  16. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Aim To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs) involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs) and their contributions to expected outcomes. Methods Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively. Results Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes. Conclusions The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future. PMID:29216263

  18. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hill

    Full Text Available To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs and their contributions to expected outcomes.Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively.Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes.The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future.

  19. Effectiveness of health education programme: Level of knowledge about prevention of cervical cancer among Saudi female healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khaled; Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Fayed, Amel Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Reem Ali; Al-Mussaed, Eman Mohammed; Khan, Farida Habib; Elmorshedy, Hala Nasser

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of health education programme on the knowledge of human papilloma virus among female medical students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Princess Nourah bint Abulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and comprised female medical students. An intervention programme was implemented in the form of lectures, videos, posters, etc. on human papillomavirus. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. There were 535 participants in the study. There mean age was 20.3±1.3 years. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the level of knowledge. Of all, 495(92%) students recognised avoidance of sexually transmitted disease, vaccination and screening as effective preventive measures. In comparison to pre-intervention results, significantly higher percentage of students defined risk factors: sexually transmitted disease 392(73.3%) versus 329(61.8%), and human papillomavirus 293(54.8%) versus 151(28.4%). Knowledge regarding sensitivity, 280(52.3%) after the campaign versus 160(30.1%)before, and time to perform Pap smear,229(42.8%) versus 113(21.1%),increased significantly (plevel of knowledge on human papillomavirus.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of a Stress Prevention and Mindfulness Group for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jenson E.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated a short-term (6-8 weeks) psychoeducation and support group for teachers focused on stress prevention and mindfulness (labeled SPAM group). A total of 4 groups were implemented in different schools, and evaluation was conducted with quantitative (pre- and post-measures of teacher vulnerability to stress, job…

  1. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load : risk factors, consequences, and preventive action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Poel, E.G.T. van der

    1998-01-01

    Objectives - Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks,

  2. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  3. Prevention of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review Christopher A. Orsello, MD Resident, Aerospace Medicine...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prevention of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Military Health Care Workers: A Systematic Review...analysis of risk factors for post - traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–66

  4. Transcranial Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Prevents Stress-Induced Working Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Mario; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-01-27

    Stress is known to impair working memory performance. This disruptive effect of stress on working memory has been linked to a decrease in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In the present experiment, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dlPFC can prevent stress-induced working memory impairments. We tested 120 healthy participants in a 2 d, sham-controlled, double-blind between-subjects design. Participants completed a test of their individual baseline working memory capacity on day 1. On day 2, participants were exposed to either a stressor or a control manipulation before they performed a visuospatial and a verbal working memory task. While participants completed the tasks, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied over the right dlPFC. Stress impaired working memory performance in both tasks, albeit to a lesser extent in the verbal compared with the visuospatial working memory task. This stress-induced working memory impairment was prevented by anodal, but not sham or cathodal, stimulation of the dlPFC. Compared with sham or cathodal stimulation, anodal tDCS led to significantly better working memory performance in both tasks after stress. Our findings indicate a causal role of the dlPFC in working memory impairments after acute stress and point to anodal tDCS as a promising tool to reduce cognitive deficits related to working memory in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Working memory deficits are prominent in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Similar working memory impairments have been observed in healthy individuals exposed to acute stress. So far, attempts to prevent such stress-induced working memory deficits focused mainly on pharmacological interventions. Here, we tested the idea that transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal

  5. Geranylgeranylacetone prevents stress-induced decline of leptin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Miki; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Kensei, Nishida

    2018-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is a chaperon inducer that protects various types of cell and tissue against stress. We examined whether GGA modulated energy intake and expenditure under stressful conditions. After mice were untreated or treated orally with GGA (0.16 g per kg body weight per day) for 10 days, they were subjected to 2-h restraint stress once or once a day for 5 consecutive days. GGA administration did not affect corticosterone response to the stress. Restraint stress rapidly decreased plasma leptin levels in control mice. GGA significantly increased circulating leptin levels without changing food intake and prevented the stress-induced decline of circulating leptin. However GGA-treated mice significantly reduced food intake during the repeated stress, compared with control mice. GGA prevented the stress-induced decline of leptin mRNA and its protein levels in epidydimal adipose tissues. We also found that GGA decreased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa before the stress, whereas GGA-treated mice recovered the ghrelin mRNA expression to the baseline level after the repeated stress. Leptin and ghrelin are now recognized as regulators of anxiety and depressive mood. Our results suggest that GGA may regulate food intake and relief stress-induced mood disturbance through regulating leptin and ghrelin secretions. J. Med. Invest. 65:103-109, February, 2018.

  6. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X’s contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  7. Population Based Cancer Screening Programmes as a Teachable Moment for Primary Prevention Interventions. A Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo, E-mail: carlo.senore@cpo.it [Epidemiologia dei Tumori II, AOU S Giovanni Battista – CPO Piemonte, Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-08

    Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies

  8. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X's contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  9. Population Based Cancer Screening Programmes as a Teachable Moment for Primary Prevention Interventions. A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies

  10. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. Aim To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects complia...

  11. [Smoking and young people; effectiveness of smoking prevention and cessation programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, K; Onrust, S; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E; Lammers, J

    2017-01-01

    - In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions.- Preventive interventions mostly occur in a school setting and are making a modest contribution to the reduction of the number of young people that start smoking.- There are preliminary indications of the effectiveness of interventions in a medical setting. However, research into this is rare and there is no insight in long-term effects.- The database of the RIVM Centre for Healthy Living includes mainly preventive interventions in a school setting and only one smoking cessation intervention.

  12. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  13. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity.

  14. Stress Prevention Training; Sex Differences inTypes of Stressors, Coping, and Training Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in

  15. STRESS CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF HDPE GEOMEMBRANES AND ITS PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geomembranes made from high density polyethylene (HOPE) have a high percent crystallinity and are therefore of concern with regard to stress cracking. A review of the literature plus our field exhuming of various sites-of-opportunity gave rise to twenty-five (25) situations wh...

  16. Chewing reduces sympathetic nervous response to stress and prevents poststress arrhythmias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Minamisawa, Susumu; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Sato, Sadao; Ono, Yumie

    2011-10-01

    Reducing stress is important in preventing sudden death in patients with cardiovascular disease, as stressful events may cause autonomic imbalance and trigger fatal arrhythmias. Since chewing has been shown to inhibit stress-induced neuronal responses in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that chewing could ameliorate stress-induced autonomic imbalance and prevent arrhythmias. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed changes in radiotelemetered electrocardiograms in rats that were allowed to chew a wooden stick during a 1-h period of immobilization stress. Chewing significantly reduced the occurrence of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and complex ventricular ectopy after immobilization and prevented stress-induced prolongation of the QT interval of VPBs throughout the 10-h experimental period. It also prevented prolongation of the QRS complex and fluctuations in the QT interval in normal sinus rhythm beats preceding VPBs during both immobilization and in the poststress period. Fast Fourier transform-based spectral analysis of heart-rate variability further showed that chewing significantly inhibited the stress-induced increase in the power ratio of low-to-high frequency activity (LF/HF: a marker of sympathetic activity) during immobilization and in addition was associated with blunting of the stress-induced increase in plasma noradrenaline observed at the termination of immobilization. Similar suppressive effects on the occurrence of VPBs and the LF/HF were observed in rats that were administered the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol before immobilization. These results indicate that chewing can ameliorate sympathetic hyperactivity during stress and prevent poststress arrhythmias and suggest that chewing may provide a nonpharmacological and cost-effective treatment option for patients with a high risk of stress-induced fatal arrhythmia.

  17. Managing workplace stress in community pharmacy organisations: lessons from a review of the wider stress management and prevention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists' expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings. To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from the wider organisational literature which may be adaptable to community pharmacies. A secondary synthesis of existing reviews. Publications were identified through keyword searches of electronic databases and the internet; inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied; data about setting, intervention, method of evaluation, effectiveness and conclusions (including factors for success) were extracted and synthesised. Eighteen reviews of the stress management and prevention literature were identified. A comprehensive list of organisational interventions to prevent or manage workplace stress, ordered by prevalence of evidence of effectiveness, was produced, together with an ordered list of the benefits both to the individual and employing organisation. An evidence-based model of best practice was derived specifying eight factors for success: top management support, context-specific interventions, combined organisational and individual interventions, a participative approach, clearly delineated tasks and responsibilities, buy-in from middle management, change agents as facilitators and change in organisational culture. This literature review provides community pharmacy organisations with evidence from which to develop effective and successful stress management strategies to support pharmacists and pharmacy staff. Well-designed trials of stress management interventions in community pharmacy organisations are still required. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study

  19. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremers Henricus-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow

  20. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Maurice T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled trials (RCTs is scarce. This study evaluates the process of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme, including the perceived implementation of the prioritised ergonomic measures. Methods This cluster-RCT was conducted at the departments of four Dutch companies (a railway transportation company, an airline company, a steel company, and a university including its university medical hospital. Directly after the randomisation outcome, intervention departments formed a working group that followed the steps of PE during a six-hour working group meeting. Guided by an ergonomist, working groups identified and prioritised risk factors for LBP and NP, and composed and prioritised ergonomic measures. Within three months after the meeting, working groups had to implement the prioritised ergonomic measures at their department. Data on various process components (recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, and implementation components, i.e., dose delivered and dose received were collected and analysed on two levels: department (i.e., working group members from intervention departments and participant (i.e., workers from intervention departments. Results A total of 19 intervention departments (n = 10 with mental workloads, n = 1 with a light physical workload, n = 4 departments with physical and mental workloads, and n = 4 with heavy physical workloads were recruited for participation, and the reach among working group members who participated was high (87%. Fidelity and satisfaction towards the PE programme rated by the working group members was good (7.3 or higher. The same was found for the Stay@Work ergocoach training (7.5 or higher. In total, 66

  1. A tailored relocation stress intervention programme for family caregivers of patients transferred from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul; Oh, HyunSoo; Suh, YeonOk; Seo, WhaSook

    2017-03-01

    To develop and examine a relocation stress intervention programme tailored for the family caregivers of patients scheduled for transfer from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward. Family relocation stress syndrome has been reported to be similar to that exhibited by patients, and investigators have emphasised that nurses should make special efforts to relieve family relocation stress to maximise positive contributions to the well-being of patients by family caregivers. A nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised pretest-post-test design was adopted. The study subjects were 60 family caregivers of patients with neurosurgical or general surgical conditions in the surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Relocation stress and family burden were evaluated at three times, that is before intervention, immediately after transfer and four to five days after transfer. This relocation stress intervention programme was developed for the family caregivers based on disease characteristics and relocation-related needs. In the experimental group, relocation stress levels significantly and continuously decreased after intervention, whereas in the control group, a slight nonsignificant trend was observed. Family burden levels in the control group increased significantly after transfer, whereas burden levels in the experimental group increased only marginally and nonsignificantly. No significant between-group differences in relocation stress or family burden levels were observed after intervention. Relocation stress levels of family caregivers were significantly decreased after intervention in the experimental group, which indicates that the devised family relocation stress intervention programme effectively alleviated family relocation stress. The devised intervention programme, which was tailored to disease characteristics and relocation-related needs, may enhance the practicality and efficacy of relocation stress

  2. Cluster randomised controlled trial of 'whole school' child maltreatment prevention programme in primary schools in Northern Ireland: study protocol for Keeping Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, Aisling; Brennan-Wilson, Aoibheann; Murphy, Christina; Stephenson, Phyllis; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-05-03

    Child maltreatment has a pervasive, detrimental impact on children's wellbeing. Despite a growing focus on prevention through school based education, few programmes adopt a whole- school approach, are multi-component, seek to address all forms of maltreatment, or indeed have been robustly evaluated. This paper describes a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate a school based child maltreatment prevention programme: 'Keeping Safe' in primary schools in Northern Ireland. The intervention has been designed by a non-profit agency. Programme resources include 63 lessons taught incrementally to children between four and 11 years old, and is premised on three core themes: healthy relationships, my body, and being safe. There are programme resources to engage parents and to build the capacity and skills of school staff. A cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) will be conducted with children in 80 schools over a two-year period. The unit of randomisation is the school. Schools will be allocated to intervention or wait-list control groups using a computer-generated list. Data will be collected at three time points: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two of programme implementation. Primary outcomes will include: children's understanding of key programme concepts, self-efficacy to keep safe in situations of maltreatment, anxiety arising from programme participation, and disclosure of maltreatment. Secondary outcomes include teachers' comfort and confidence in teaching the programme and parents' confidence in talking to their children about programme concepts. This RCT will address gaps in current practice and evidence regarding school based child maltreatment prevention programmes. This includes the use of a whole- school approach and multi-component programme that addresses all maltreatment concepts, a two-year period of programme implementation, and the tracking of outcomes for children, parents, and teachers. Methodologically, it will extend

  3. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  4. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  5. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech Per

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. Methods During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational Medicine completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following: 1 Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when indicated by depression test score. On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months. A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions. Return To Work (RTW, defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. Results The level of sick leave in the stress treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years

  6. Systematic Review of Interventions Supported by ICT for the Prevention Treatment of Occupational Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.

  7. Stress corrosion crack preventive method for long housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Maki.

    1992-01-01

    If a neutron flux monitoring housing or a control rod driving mechanism (CRD) housing, as a long housing, is welded to reactor container, a portion of the long housing put under the effect of heat upon welding is converted to a sensitized austenite stainless steel, to cause stress corrosion cracks (SCC). Then, the inner surface of the a region of the long housing put under the effect of heat by welding is melted by a relatively low amount of heat input so that δ-ferrite tissues are caused to deposit in this region. With such procedures, crack sensitivity can be lowered, thereby enabling to improve SCC resistance. (T.M.)

  8. Air bubbles induce a critical continuous stress to prevent marine biofouling accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Menesses, Mark; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Significant shear stresses are needed to remove established hard fouling organisms from a ship hull. Given that there is a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. One approach to mitigate marine biofouling is to continuously introduce a curtain of air bubbles under a submerged surface; it is believed that this aeration exploits the small stresses induced by rising bubbles to continuously prevent accumulation. Although curtains of rising bubbles have successfully prevented biofouling accumulation, it is unclear if a single stream of bubbles could maintain a clean surface. In this talk, we show that single bubble stream aeration can prevent biofouling accumulation in regions for which the average wall stress exceeds approximately 0.01 Pa. This value is arrived at by comparing observations of biofouling growth and prevention from field studies with laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. We also relate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow to the size and frequency of the rising bubbles, which informs the basic operating conditions required for aeration to continuously prevent biofouling accumulation.

  9. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  10. An Analysis of 19 International Case Studies of Stress Prevention Through Work Reorganization Using the Demand/Control Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case…

  11. Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth and traumatic birth experiences: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Lisanne F; Honig, Adriaan; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Stramrood, Claire A I

    2018-06-01

    Between 9 and 44% of women experience giving birth as traumatic, and 3% of women develop a post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Knowledge on risk factors is abundant, but studies on treatment are limited. This study aimed to present an overview of means to prevent traumatic birth experiences and childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Major databases [Cochrane; Embase; PsycINFO; PubMed (Medline)] were searched using combinations of the key words and their synonyms. After screening titles and abstracts and reading 135 full-text articles, 13 studies were included. All evaluated secondary prevention, and none primary prevention. Interventions included debriefing, structured psychological interventions, expressive writing interventions, encouraging skin-to-skin contact with healthy newborns immediately postpartum and holding or seeing the newborn after stillbirth. The large heterogeneity of study characteristics precluded pooling of data. The writing interventions to express feelings appeared to be effective in prevention. A psychological intervention including elements of exposure and psycho-education seemed to lead to fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in women who delivered via emergency cesarean section. No research has been done on primary prevention of traumatic childbirth. Research on secondary prevention of traumatic childbirth and post-traumatic stress disorder following delivery provides insufficient evidence that the described interventions are effective in unselected groups of women. In certain subgroups, results are inhomogeneous. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. The BokSmart intervention programme is associated with improvements in injury prevention behaviours of rugby union players: an ecological cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Gardner-Lubbe, S.; Lambert, M.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Participants of rugby union (‘rugby’) have an above-average risk of injury compared with other popular sports. Thus, BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention programme for rugby, was introduced in South Africa in 2009. Improvements in injurypreventing behaviour of players are critical

  13. "Now That I'm Pregnant, I'm No Longer an Example": Peer Educator Experiences of an HIV Prevention Programme in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kimberly; Africa, Adelene

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of peer education as an HIV prevention strategy across a range of contexts, understanding of the experiences of those intimately placed within these programmes is limited. Instead, the majority of research in this field relies on hegemonic notions of rational human behaviour that operate under the assumption that knowledge…

  14. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parents programme for the prevention of unintentional injuries in preschool children: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth Ml; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Powell, Jane; Mulvaney, Caroline; Thomas, James; Deave, Toity; Potter, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death in children in the UK, and 0-4-year-olds frequently attend emergency departments following injuries in the home. Parenting programmes designed to support parents, promote behaviour change and enhance parent-child relationships have been shown to improve health outcomes in children. It is not known whether group-based parenting programmes have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries in preschool children. A study to develop a group-based parenting programme to prevent unintentional home injuries in preschool children, and assess the feasibility of evaluation through a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The intervention, designed for parents of children who have sustained a medically attended injury, will be developed with two voluntary sector organisations. The feasibility study will assess ability to recruit parents, deliver the programme and follow-up participants. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months, and report injuries in their preschool children using a tool designed and validated for this study. Qualitative methods will assess user and deliverer perceptions of the programme. This study will develop the first group-based parenting programme to prevent injuries in preschool children, and design tools for parent-reported injury outcomes. A key challenge will be to recruit parents to participate in a manner that is non-stigmatising, and does not result in feelings of guilt or belief that they are perceived to be a bad parent. The findings will be used to prepare a trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  15. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadari-Bratfisch Regina C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1 could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2 modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3 also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C and stressed (CS rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F and stressed (FS rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration

  16. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  17. Effects of a Leisure Programme on Quality of Life and Stress of Individuals with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villamisar, D. A.; Dattilo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Even though there is research demonstrating a positive relationship between leisure participation and the two constructs of quality of life and stress reduction, current conceptualisation of leisure as a contributor to quality of life is limited. In addition, in spite of improvements in accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder…

  18. Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lucy; Minozzi, Silvia; Reed, Jennifer; Vickerman, Peter; Hagan, Holly; French, Clare; Jordan, Ashly; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hope, Vivian; Hutchinson, Sharon; Maher, Lisa; Palmateer, Norah; Taylor, Avril; Bruneau, Julie; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs Needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak. Objectives To assess the effects of needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of HCV in people who inject drugs. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Register, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, and the Web of Science up to 16 November 2015. We updated this search in March 2017, but we have not incorporated these results into the review yet. Where observational studies did not report any outcome measure, we asked authors to provide unpublished data. We searched publications of key international agencies and conference abstracts. We reviewed reference lists of all included articles and topic-related systematic reviews for eligible papers. Selection criteria We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials that measured exposure to NSP and/or OST against no intervention or a reduced exposure and reported HCV incidence as an outcome in people who inject drugs. We defined interventions as current OST (within previous 6 months), lifetime use of OST and high NSP coverage (regular attendance at

  19. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  20. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load: risk factors, consequences, and preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, I L; Goudswaard, A; Dhondt, S; van der Grinten, M P; Hildebrandt, V H; van der Poel, E G

    1998-02-01

    Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks, and (c) organisational and environmental variables that facilitate preventive actions. Information was gathered from employers, employees, and employees' representatives. The monitor was used with a nationally representative sample of companies in industry, wholesale trade, and banking and finance, 782 companies in total. The information from the employees, aggregated at the company level, was not found to be correlated with that from the employer from the same companies. Although many employers do recognise risk factors for both physical load and stress as a problem they often seem to underestimate the problem when compared with employees or their representatives. This is particularly the case for psychosocial risk factors. Also, the perception of outcome measures, especially employers who consider emotional exhaustion to be work related, were fewer than the employees' representatives of the same organisation. Preventive measures on physical load are much more popular than measures against stress. It is the responsibility of the employer to take more preventive action of all kinds. They need to recognise risk factors as problems and health outcomes to be related to work. Employees of larger companies should participate with employers to consider effective measures, and more use should be made of support at branch level. For specific preventive measures, specific predictors emerged. Except for measures to prevent work stress, information from employees did not sufficiently contribute to the initiation of preventive measures in the workplace.

  1. Patterns of disclosure and antiretroviral treatment adherence in a South African mining workplace programme and implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Akintola, Olagoke; Petersen, Inge; George, Gavin; Johnstone, Leigh; Naidoo, Kerisha

    2011-01-01

    Social and psychological barriers to the disclosure of one's seropositive HIV status to significant others and poor adherence to taking medications pose significant challenges to the scaling-up of access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the workplace. Such barriers are predictive of sub-optimal treatment outcomes and bedevil HIV-prevention interventions at a societal level. Against this background, this article explores the lived experiences of 19 HIV-positive male participants, between the ages of 33 and 57 years, who were enrolled in an ART programme managed at an occupational health clinic at a mining company in South Africa. The majority of these mineworkers had been aware of their HIV status for between 5 and 7 years. The study explored psychological and relational factors, as aspects of these participants lived experiences, which had a bearing on their adherence to their ART regimen and the disclosure choices that they made regarding their HIV status. In our sample, those participants who were adherent demonstrated higher levels of control and acceptance of their HIV infection and were more confident in their ability to manage their treatment, while the group who were non-adherent presented with lower levels of adherence motivation and self-efficacy, difficulties in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and significant challenges in maintaining control over their lives. While most of the men favoured disclosing their HIV status to their partners for the sake of treatment support, they were less sure about disclosing to family members and non-family members, respectively, because of their need to protect these persons and due to their fear of being stigmatised. It was evident that treatment adherence choices and behaviours were impacted by psychological and relational factors, including disclosure decisions. We conclude with a bivariate model for understanding the adherence behaviours that influenced different patterns of ART adherence among the sample, and

  2. Depression and anxiety, an Indicated Prevention (DIP protocol in homes for the elderly: feasibility and (cost effectiveness of a stepped care programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders are a very common, serious and underdetected problem in homes for the elderly. Elderly persons in residential homes are at high risk for developing major depressive and anxiety disorders, and, therefore, deserve attention with regard to prevention. Methods/Design This protocol describes a randomised trial on the feasibility and (cost effectiveness of a stepped-care programme for prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders in homes for the elderly. The main outcome measure is the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorder in one year with a two years follow up. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, direct health care costs and satisfaction with treatment. Discussion The number of studies examining the effects of preventive interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in the elderly population is very small. However, indicated prevention by means of a stepped-care programme seems to be an important option for decreasing the burden of illness for residents and their caregivers. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in this field. Positive effects may contribute to further use and development of tailored, (cost- effective and easy to use interventions in a preventive stepped-care programme. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Centre, ISRCTN27540731

  3. Programmes for the prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV in Papua New Guinea: Health system challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Anna; Vallely, Lisa; Kupul, Martha; Neo, Ruthy; Fiya, Voletta; Worth, Heather; Kariwiga, Grace; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John; Kelly-Hanku, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) of HIV is a highly complex package of interventions, which spans services in both maternal and child health programmes. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), a commitment to ensure that all pregnant women and their partners have access to the full range of PPTCT interventions exists; however, efforts to increase access and utilisation of PPTCT remain far from optimal. The aim of this paper is to examine health care worker (HCW) perception of health system factors impacting on the performance of PPTCT programmes. Sixteen interviews were undertaken with HCWs involved in the PPTCT programme. Application of the WHO 6 building blocks of a health system was applied, and further thematic analysis was conducted on the data with assistance from the analysis software NVivo. Broken equipment, problems with access to medication and supplies, and poorly supported workforce were reported as barriers for implementing a successful PPTCT programme. The absence of central coordination of this complex, multistaged programme was also recognised as a key issue. The study findings highlight an important need for investment in appropriately trained and supported HCWs and integration of services at each stage of the PPTCT programme. Lessons from the PPTCT experience in PNG may inform policy discussions and considerations in other similar contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to:1. describe the impact of such strategies on childcare service staff knowledge, skills or attitudes;2. describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies;3. describe any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children;4. examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. We searched the following electronic databases on 3 August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS. We also searched reference lists of included trials, handsearched two international implementation science journals and searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). We included any study (randomised or non-randomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. The review authors independently screened abstracts and titles, extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias in pairs; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. Heterogeneity across studies precluded pooling of data and undertaking quantitative

  5. Partners or donors: The perceived roles of Global Fund Principal Recipient NGOs in HIV prevention programmes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana McGill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has one of Europe's fastest growing HIV rates and in 2003–2012 was one of the largest recipients of funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GF. Doctoral research recently completed by the author investigates the conduct and practice of international and national nongovernmental organisations (NGOs as Principal Recipients (PRs of GF grants in Ukraine from 2003 to 2012. An ethnographic enquiry including 50 participant interviews was conducted in three oblasts in Ukraine, and in its capital, Kyiv. The paper presents some of the findings that emerged from the analysis. Discussing the PR NGOs roles and practices in delivering HIV prevention programmes funded by GF, the author argues that the anticipated benefits of NGO partnerships between PR NGOs and their Sub-Recipients (SRs have not been achieved. Rather, PRs acted as donors and ran highly discretionary policies in channelling GF funding to SRs that installed competition and vertical relations between NGO-grantors and NGO-grantees. The outcome was a servile civil society that is dependent on external funding and is unable to genuinely represent their communities. With an anticipated GF phasing out from Ukraine, there is a critical lack of advocacy potential of the civil society to articulate and defend the needs of PLHIV when transferring HIV services into state funding.

  6. Families overcoming under stress: implementing family-centered prevention for military families facing wartime deployments and combat operational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William; Leskin, Gregory; Bursch, Brenda; Green, Sara; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William

    2011-01-01

    The toll of multiple and prolonged deployments on families has become clearer in recent years as military families have seen an increase in childhood anxiety, parental psychological distress, and marital discord. Families overcoming under stress (FOCUS), a family-centered evidence-informed resiliency training program developed at University of California, Los Angeles and Harvard Medical School, is being implemented at military installations through an initiative from Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The research foundation for FOCUS includes evidence-based preventive interventions that were adapted to meet the specific needs of military families facing combat operational stress associated with wartime deployments. Using a family narrative approach, FOCUS includes a customized approach utilizing core intervention components, including psychoeducation, emotional regulation skills, goal setting and problem solving skills, traumatic stress reminder management techniques, and family communication skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and implementation of FOCUS for military families. A case example is also presented.

  7. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  8. Plasticity in the olfactory bulb of the maternal mouse is prevented by gestational stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnoue, Laure; Malvaut, Sarah; Ladevèze, Elodie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Koehl, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the impact of motherhood under normal conditions or after gestational stress on olfactory functions in C57BL/6 J mice. We report that gestational stress alters maternal behavior and prevents both mothers’ ability to discriminate pup odors and motherhood-induced enhancement in odor memory. We investigated adult bulbar neurogenesis as a potential mechanism of the enhanced olfactory function in mothers and found that motherhood was associated with an increased complexity of the dendritic tree of newborn neurons. This motherhood-evoked remodeling was totally prevented by gestational stress. Altogether, our results may thus provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to altered maternal behavior in stressed mothers. PMID:27886228

  9. Development of a training programme for home health care workers to promote preventive activities focused on a healthy lifestyle: an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-09

    Lifestyle is an important aspect in maintaining good health in older adults, and home health care (HHC) workers can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. However, there is limited evidence in the literature regarding how to develop an effective training programme to improve the physical activity level and fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults within a HHC setting. The aim of this paper is to describe how Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop a training programme to promote preventive activities of HHC workers relating to the physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake of older adults living at home. IM, a systematic theory and evidence-based approach was used to develop, implement and evaluate the training programme. This entailed a literature search, a survey, semi-structured interviews and consultation with HHC workers and various field experts, and a pilot training session. The determinants associated with the provision of preventive activities were identified, and an overview was created of those objectives, matching methods and practical applications that could influence these determinants. The performance objectives for the HHC workers were early detection and monitoring, promoting a healthy lifestyle, informing colleagues, continuing allocated preventive activities and referring to other experts and facilities. Findings were translated into a comprehensive training programme for HHC workers focused on motivating older adults to adopt and maintain a healthier lifestyle. IM was a useful tool in the development of a theory-based training programme to promote preventive activities by HHC workers relating to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity of older adults.

  10. Physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation for prevention and treatment of stress related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kukolja, Davor; Horvat, Marko; Dropuljić, Branimir

    2010-02-01

    The significant proportion of severe psychological problems related to intensive stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation presented in this work, based on estimation of the person's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Following an overview of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation, its major functional subsystems are described in more detail. A specific algorithm of stimuli delivery applicable to SIT is outlined.

  11. Stress-related factors in cannabis use and misuse: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Scott M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-06-01

    We examined the role of stress as a risk factor and motivation for cannabis use/misuse. A systematic review of studies gathered from PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases was conducted. Findings suggest that cannabis is commonly used as a stress-coping strategy. Negative life events, trauma, and maladaptive coping were all related to consumption. Cannabis use for stress-coping purposes was most evident when examining chronic as compared with experimental use. Although many individuals may be able to use cannabis without consequences, there appears to be a subset of individuals who experience greater life stress and who may be more likely to use for stress-coping purposes. These individuals may be at greatest risk for addiction. Chronic use may potentiate stress-related motivation to use/abuse cannabis and is associated with decision-making deficits and alterations in brain-stress pathways that may exacerbate compulsive drug seeking and sensitize individuals to stress-related drug use. Overall, stress-coping interventions and harm reduction focused on reducing the amount ingested may facilitate prevention and recovery efforts.

  12. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  13. Study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a comprehensive pressure ulcer prevention programme for private for-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wai-yung; Lee, Paul Hong; Yeung, Kwan-mo

    2016-01-18

    Because the demand for government-subsidized nursing homes in Hong Kong outstrips the supply, the number of for-profit private nursing homes has been increasing rapidly. However, the standard of care in such homes is always criticized. Pressure ulcers are a major long-term care issue that is closely associated with the quality of care delivered in nursing home settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention programme for residents in private for-profit nursing homes. This is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated sample size of 1088 residents and 74 care staff from eight for-profit private nursing homes. Eligible nursing homes will be those classified as category A2 homes in the Enhanced Bought Place Scheme (EBPS), having a capacity of around 130-150 beds, and no structured PU prevention protocol and/or programmes in place. Care staff will be health workers, personal care workers, and nurses who are front-line staff providing direct care to residents. Eight nursing homes will be randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will be provided with an intensive training programme and will be involved in the implementation of a 16-week pressure ulcer prevention protocol, while the control group will deliver the usual pressure ulcer prevention care. The study outcomes are the pressure ulcer prevention knowledge and skills of the care staff and the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. Data on the knowledge and skills of care staff, and prevalence of pressure ulcer will be collected at the base line, and then at the 8(th) week and at completion of the implementation of the protocol. The assessment of the incidence of pressures will start from before the commencement of the intensive training course to the end of the implementation of the protocol. In view of the negative impact of pressure ulcers, it is important to have an effective and evidence

  14. Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-06-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.

  15. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 850 0 C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 850 0 C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control

  16. Stress-Prevention in Secondary Schools: Online- versus Face-to-Face-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the evaluation of an internet-delivered stress-prevention program for adolescents as a possible alternative for school-based implementation of mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 904 adolescents in grades eight and nine were assigned to four treatment conditions…

  17. Internet-Based Early Intervention to Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Injury Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  18. Internet-based early intervention to prevent poststraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: Randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  19. Preventing Stress Disorders for Law Enforcement Officers Exposed to Disturbing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    weaponry began to manifest similar symptoms. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association ( APA ) produced the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PREVENTING STRESS...Halladay John Rollins THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden

  20. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  1. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Friendship in War: Camaraderie and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, Michael D; Yee, Hannah M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Aspects of social support during combat deployment, such as unit cohesion, have been shown to affect later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans. We utilized a longitudinal database to assess how relationship quality with fellow soldiers in World War II (WWII) might be linked with postwar PTSD symptoms. Data were available on 101 men who experienced combat exposure in WWII, documented through postwar assessment. Upon study entry (1939 to 1942), data were collected on the quality of participants' early childhood relationships and their emotional adjustment during college. Data on WWII experiences were collected in 1946. Relationship quality with fellow soldiers in WWII was examined as a moderator of the link between combat exposure and postwar PTSD symptoms. Prewar emotional adjustment was examined as a mediator between quality of childhood relationships and subsequent quality of relationships quality with fellow soldiers during war. Better quality relationships with fellow soldiers attenuated (i.e., moderated) the link between combat exposure severity and PTSD symptom count, explaining a significant percent of the variance, R 2 = .19, p war. These findings have implications for PTSD risk factor screening prior to deployment, and underscore the importance of interpersonal support among soldiers during deployment. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Relapse Prevention in Substance Dependent Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Karimian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent. Method: In a experimental study, 30 individuals who settled in Esfahan therapeutic community center were accidently divided in to an experimental (15 subjects and a control (15 subjects group. The experimental group underwent ten 90 minutes sessions of cognitive-behavioral stress management and the control group didn't receive any particular treatment. All participants underwent urine tests at the beginning of the study, completion of treatment and three months following the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 test. Findings: results showed significant difference in relapse rates of two groups in the following stage. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective in relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent.

  4. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  5. SIRT7 Represses Myc Activity to Suppress ER Stress and Prevent Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyung Shin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here, we show that SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent H3K18Ac deacetylase, functions at chromatin to suppress ER stress and prevent the development of fatty liver disease. SIRT7 is induced upon ER stress and is stabilized at the promoters of ribosomal proteins through its interaction with the transcription factor Myc to silence gene expression and to relieve ER stress. SIRT7-deficient mice develop chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver disease. Myc inactivation or pharmacological suppression of ER stress alleviates fatty liver caused by SIRT7 deficiency. Importantly, SIRT7 suppresses ER stress and reverts the fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice. Our study identifies SIRT7 as a cofactor of Myc for transcriptional repression and delineates a druggable regulatory branch of the ER stress response that prevents and reverts fatty liver disease.

  6. Healthcare Work and Organizational Interventions to Prevent Work-related Stress in Brindisi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Mariarita

    2015-03-01

    Organizational changes that involve healthcare hospital departments and care services of health districts, and ongoing technological innovations and developments in society increasingly expose healthcare workers (HCWs) to work-related stress (WRS). Minimizing occupational exposure to stress requires effective risk stress assessment and management programs. The authors conducted an integrated analysis of stress sentinel indicators, an integrated analysis of objective stress factors of occupational context and content areas, and an integrated analysis between nurses and physicians of hospital departments and care services of health districts in accordance with a multidimensional validated tool developed in Italy by the National Network for the Prevention of Work-Related Psychosocial Disorders. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to detect and analyze in different work settings the level of WRS resulting from organizational changes implemented by hospital healthcare departments and care services of health districts in a sample of their employees. The findings of the study showed that hospital HCWs seemed to incur a medium level risk of WRS that was principally the result of work context factors. The implementation of improvement interventions focused on team development, safety training programs, and adopting an ethics code for HCWs, and it effectively and significantly reduced the level of WRS risk in the workplace. In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.

  7. The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes: urban and gender disparity in age-specific suicide rates in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, F-W; Liao, S-C; Wu, C-Y; Lee, M-B

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes is an important issue worldwide today. The impact of urbanization and gender is controversial in suicide rates. Hence, this study adjusted on potential risk factors and secular changes for suicide rates in gender and rural/urban areas. Observational study. A Suicide Prevention Center was established by the Executive Yuan in Taiwan in 2005 and tried to carry out suicidal intervention in the community in every city and town. There were two phases, including the first phase of the programme from 2005 to 2008, and the second phase of the programme from 2009 to 2013. The crude suicide rates data from the period of 1991-2013, which recruited nine urban and 14 rural areas in Taiwan, were extracted from the Taiwanese national mortality data file. The suicide rates in two areas of Taiwan (Taipei city and Yilan County) were further used to compare the differences between urban and rural areas. The results show that unemployment increased the suicide rate in men aged 45-64 years and in women older than 65 years of age in Taiwan. High divorce and unemployment rates resulted in increased suicide rates in men in the city, whereas emotional distress was the main cause of suicides in men in rural areas. The main method of suicide was jumping from a high building for both sexes in the city, whereas drowning was the most common method of suicide for men in rural areas. Following the intervention programme, suicide behaviour began to decrease in all urban and rural areas of Taiwan. This study showed the cumulative effect of the intervention programme in decreasing the suicide rate in Taiwan. Moreover, the gender-specific suicidal rate and disparity in suicidal methods in urban and rural areas should be considered in further preventive strategies in Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  9. Mediator phosphorylation prevents stress response transcription during non-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian; Matic, Ivan; Maier, Kerstin C; Schwalb, Björn; Roether, Susanne; Strässer, Katja; Tresch, Achim; Mann, Matthias; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-12-28

    The multiprotein complex Mediator is a coactivator of RNA polymerase (Pol) II transcription that is required for the regulated expression of protein-coding genes. Mediator serves as an end point of signaling pathways and regulates Pol II transcription, but the mechanisms it uses are not well understood. Here, we used mass spectrometry and dynamic transcriptome analysis to investigate a functional role of Mediator phosphorylation in gene expression. Affinity purification and mass spectrometry revealed that Mediator from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is phosphorylated at multiple sites of 17 of its 25 subunits. Mediator phosphorylation levels change upon an external stimulus set by exposure of cells to high salt concentrations. Phosphorylated sites in the Mediator tail subunit Med15 are required for suppression of stress-induced changes in gene expression under non-stress conditions. Thus dynamic and differential Mediator phosphorylation contributes to gene regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  10. Two cross-sectional studies in south India assessing the effect of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers on reducing syphilis among their clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Banandur, Pradeep; Thammattoor, Usha K; Thomas, Tinku; Mainkar, Mandar K; Paranjape, Ramesh; Adhikary, Rajatashurva; Duchesne, Thierry; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2014-11-01

    To assess the impact of the Avahan HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSWs) in south India on reducing syphilis prevalence among their clients, by comparing rates of syphilis over time as reported in two large-scale surveys of FSWs' clients. A random-effect multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using syphilis as the dependent variable, with individual independent variables (from the two survey rounds) at level 1 and the district-level programme (from the Avahan computerised monitoring and information system) and contextual variables (from Indian government datasets) at level 2. Programme variables included their 2006 value and their difference in value between 2008 and 2006, as well as the interaction between the latter and the study round. The analysis also controlled for baseline syphilis prevalence and its interaction with the study round. Syphilis decreased significantly among FSWs' clients, from 4.8% (round 1) to 2.6% (round 2), p<0.001. The OR of the interaction term between the difference in programme coverage of FSWs and the round was 0.98 (p=0.023), suggesting that increased coverage was associated with a reduced incidence of syphilis. This study suggests that the Avahan intervention programme among FSWs reduced syphilis rates among their clients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  13. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of day hospital-based falls prevention programme for a screened population of community-dwelling older people at high risk of falls

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Simon; Kendrick, Denise; Harwood, Rowan; Gladman, John; Coupland, Carol; Sach, Tracey; Drummond, Avril; Youde, Jane; Edmans, Judi; Masud, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to determine the clinical effectiveness of a day hospital-delivered multifactorial falls prevention programme, for community-dwelling older people at high risk of future falls identified through a screening process. Design: multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting: eight general practices and three day hospitals based in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: three hundred and sixty-four participants, mean age 79 years, with a median of three falls risk factors per person at ...

  14. Influence of a preschool preventive dental programme on caries prevalence, oral care and secretory immunity to Streptococcus mutans in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, K L; de Paula Ramos, S; Seixas, G F; Bozza, A; Couto de Almeida, R S; Dezan Garbelini, C C

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate oral hygiene habits, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS), dental care, dietetic habits and anti-Streptococcus mutans salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in young adults who attended a preventive programme during preschool age. The study group (Baby Clinic) comprised 72 patients, aged 18-25 years, who had participated in the Baby Clinic preventive programme. The control group was age- and gender-matched. The patients were examined and unstimulated whole saliva was sampled for detection of anti-S. mutansSIgA antibodies. Control patients presented increased DMFS scores (P  .05). Baby Clinic patients presented better periodontal status (P < .005), less calculus (P < .005) and bleeding on probing (P < .005), and reported visiting dental services more regularly (P < .05). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that DMFT was associated with study group (P < .05), gender (P < .05), parents' education (P < .05), carbohydrate intake (P < .001) and levels of anti-S. mutansSIgA (P < .007). DMFS was associated with time elapsed since the last visit to the dentist (P < .005) and weekly carbohydrate intake (P < .005). Preventive programmes for preschool children positively impact on DMFS and periodontal status in young adults, but have no long-term effects on dietary or hygiene habits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Allopurinol, Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Myocardial Damage in Isoproterenol Induced Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effect of allopurinol on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in aged rats. Twelve- to fourteen-month-old male Long Evans rats were divided into three groups: control, ISO, and ISO + allopurinol. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed for blood and organ sample collection to evaluate biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers analyses. Histopathological examinations were also conducted to assess inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Our investigation revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly increased while the level of cellular antioxidants, catalase activity, and glutathione concentration in ISO induced rats decreased. Treatment with allopurinol to ISO induced rats prevented the elevated activities of AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increased reduced glutathione concentration. ISO induced rats also showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Furthermore, allopurinol treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in ISO induced rats. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that allopurinol treatment is capable of protecting heart of ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats probably by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  16. Effect of an allergy prevention programme on incidence of atopic symptoms in infancy. A prospective study of 159 "high-risk" infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1992-01-01

    unrestricted diet. Avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoke, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom were advised. This prevention group was compared with a control group consisting of 54 identically defined "high-risk" infants born in 1985 in the same area. All infants had either severe...... comparable. The parents were highly motivated and compliance was good. The rate of participation was 97%, and 85% followed the dietary measures strictly. The cumulative prevalence of atopic symptoms was significantly lower at 18 months in the prevention group (32%), as compared with the control group (74...... single atopic predisposition combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 KU/l or biparental atopic predisposition. The control group had unrestricted diet and was not advised about environmental factors. Apart from the prevention programme and year of birth the prevention group and the control group were...

  17. Estrogen receptor-a in the medial amygdala prevents stress-induced elevations in blood pressure in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress contributes to the development of hypertension in humans. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, has been shown to prevent stress-induced pressor responses in females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that the antihypertensive effects of estrogen during stress were blunted in femal...

  18. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the co...

  19. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men’s community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men’s collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men’s community rugby union players. Methods 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected ‘normal practice’ exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises. Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Results Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). Conclusions The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. PMID:29055883

  20. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kianpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001 and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001 were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth.

  2. Preventive osteopathic manipulative treatment and stress fracture incidence among collegiate cross-country athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Lynn F; Janiski, Carrie; Balawender, Jenifer L; Feinstein, Adam

    2013-12-01

    Stress fractures are common among athletes, particularly distance runners, with many theories regarding the etiologic process of stress fractures and various studies identifying risk factors or suggesting preventive techniques. To our knowledge, no previous studies have discussed the possible causative effects of somatic dysfunction or the preventive capabilities of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). To apply a preventive OMT protocol for cross-country athletes to reduce the incidence of stress fractures. Cohort study. Examinations of cross-country athletes at an NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I university were performed by supervising physician-examiners and first- and second-year osteopathic medical students during several consecutive academic years. Athletes re-enrolled in the study each year they continued to be eligible. The intervention included osteopathic structural examination and OMT that focused on somatic dysfunction identified in the pelvis, sacrum, and lower extremities. More than 1800 participant examinations were performed on 124 male and female participants by 3 supervising physician-examiners and 141 osteopathic medical students over the course of 5 consecutive academic years (2004-2005 to 2008-2009). Data from these academic years were compared with data from the previous 8 academic years (1996-1997 to 2003-2004). An average of 20 new participants enrolled yearly. The number of annual stress fractures per team ranged from 0 to 6 for male participants and 1 to 6 for female participants. The cumulative annual incidence of stress fractures for male participants demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from 13.9% (20 of 144) before intervention to 1.0% (1 of 105) after intervention, resulting in a 98.7% relative reduction in stress-fracture diagnosis (P=.019). The cumulative annual incidence for female participants showed a minimal decrease from 12.9% (23 of 178) before intervention to 12.0% (17 of 142) after

  3. A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerk, Maria; Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-08-14

    Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service

  4. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2 in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14 and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity; while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013

  5. Influence of adrenal hormones in the occurrence and prevention of stress ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Murat; Albayrak, Yavuz; Polat, Beyzagul; Suleyman, Bahadır; Salman, Ahmet Bedii; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether endogenous cortisol and adrenalin have a role in the formation of stress ulcers in intact and adrenalectomized rats. The study was composed of 4 experiments: ulcerated areas in stomachs of adrenalectomized and intact rats were measured, adrenaline (100 μg/kg) and prednisolone (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally in adrenalectomized rats, metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered to intact rats, and metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered orally with yohimbine (10 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg) alone were administered to intact rats. After 24-hour restraint stress, ulcerated areas were measured. In the stomach of intact rats, the degree of stress ulcer was 7.25 times more severe than that noted in adrenalectomized rats. Furthermore, stress ulcers in adrenalectomized rats that received adrenaline or prednisolone only were fewer and less severe than rats receiving both adrenaline and prednisolone. Simultaneous administration of adrenaline and prednisolone did not prevent the formation of stress ulcers. However, either of these hormones alone (adrenaline or prednisolone), in the absence of the other, repressed the formation of stress ulcers. This antiulcer activity may be related to α2-adrenergic receptor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Di Stefano, Paola; Clerico, Luigi; Di Iorio, Giancarlo; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1±13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67%) were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33%) patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p=0.01) and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p=0.02) were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (pWeb-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of a Descending Prefrontal Circuit Prevents Ketamine-Induced Stress Resilience in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolzani, S. D.; Baratta, M. V.; Moss, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    . The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has recently emerged as a prophylactic capable of preventing neurochemical and behavioral outcomes of a future stressor. Despite promising results of preclinical studies performed in male rats, the effects of proactive ketamine in female rats remains unknown....... This is alarming given that stress-related disorders affect females at nearly twice the rate of males. Here we explore the prophylactic effects of ketamine on stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and the neural circuit-level processes that mediate these effects in female rats. Ketamine given one week prior...... to an uncontrollable stressor (inescapable tailshock; IS) reduced typical stress-induced activation of the serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and eliminated DRN-dependent juvenile social exploration (JSE) deficits 24 h after the stressor. Proactive ketamine altered prelimbic cortex (PL) neural ensembles so...

  8. Development of fiber-delivered laser peening system to prevent stress corrosion cracking of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Y.; Kimura, M.; Yoda, M.; Mukai, N.; Sato, K.; Uehara, T.; Ito, T.; Shimamura, M.; Sudo, A.; Suezono, N.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed a system to deliver water-penetrable intense laser pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser through optical fiber. The system is capable of improving a residual stress on water immersed metal material remotely, which is effective to prevent the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of reactor components. Experimental results showed that a compressive residual stress with enough amplitude and depth was built in the surface layer of type 304 stainless steel (SUS304) by irradiating laser pulses through optical fiber with diameter of 1 mm. A prototype peening head with miniaturized dimensions of 88 mm x 46 mm x 25 mm was assembled to con-firm the accessibility to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines of a reactor core shroud. The accessibility was significantly improved owing to the flexible optical fiber and the miniaturized peening head. The fiber delivered system opens up the possibility of new applications of laser peening. (author)

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Prevents the Development of Preeclampsia Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaling; Xu, Jianjuan; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Rong; Liu, Nin; Wu, Yanqun; Yuan, Hua; Che, Haisha

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and its complications have become the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. And the development of PE is still barely predictable and thus challenging to prevent and manage clinically. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) played a cytoprotective role in vascular endothelial cell by suppressing oxidative stress. In this study, we aim to investigate whether AAT contributes to the development of PE, and to identify the mechanism behind these effects. We found that AAT levels were significantly decreased in placenta tissues from women with PE compared that of healthy women. Notably, we demonstrate that AAT injection is able to relieve the high blood pressure and reduce urine protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in PE mice. In addition, our results showed that AAT injection exhibited an anti-oxidative stress role by significantly reducing PE mediated-upregulation of ROS, MMP9 and MDA, and increasing the levels of SOD, eNOS, and GPx with increased dosage of AAT. Furthermore, we found that AAT injection inactivated PE mediated activation of PAK/STAT1/p38 signaling. These findings were confirmed in human samples. In conclusion, our study suggests that exogenous AAT injection increases the antioxidants and suppresses oxidative stress, and subsequent prevention of PE development through inactivation of STAT1/p38 signaling. Thus, AAT would become a potential strategy for PE therapy.

  10. Alpha-1 antitrypsin prevents the development of preeclampsia through suppression of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE and its complications have become the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. And the development of PE is still barely predictable and thus challenging to prevent and manage clinically. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT played a cytoprotective role in vascular endothelial cell by suppressing oxidative stress. In this study, we aim to investigate whether AAT contributes to the development of PE, and to identify the mechanism behind these effects. We found that AAT levels were significantly decreased in placenta tissues from women with PE compared that of healthy women. Notably, we demonstrate that AAT injection is able to relieve the high blood pressure and reduce urine protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in PE mice. In addition, our results showed that AAT injection exhibited an anti-oxidative stress role by significantly reducing PE mediated-upregulation of ROS, MMP9 and MDA, and increasing the levels of SOD, eNOS and GPx with increased dosage of AAT. Furthermore, we found that AAT injection inactivated PE mediated activation of PAK/STAT1/p38 signaling. These findings were confirmed in human samples. In conclusion, our study suggests that exogenous AAT injection increases the antioxidants and suppresses oxidative stress, and subsequent prevention of PE development through inactivation of STAT1/p38 signaling. Thus, AAT would become a potential strategy for PE therapy.

  11. The current and potential health benefits of the National Health Service Health Check cardiovascular disease prevention programme in England: A microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Jackson, Christopher; Steinacher, Arno; Goodman, Anna; Langenberg, Claudia; Griffin, Simon; Wareham, Nick; Woodcock, James

    2018-03-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme was introduced in 2009 in England to systematically assess all adults in midlife for cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, its current benefit and impact on health inequalities are unknown. It is also unclear whether feasible changes in how it is delivered could result in increased benefits. It is one of the first such programmes in the world. We sought to estimate the health benefits and effect on inequalities of the current NHS Health Check programme and the impact of making feasible changes to its implementation. We developed a microsimulation model to estimate the health benefits (incident ischaemic heart disease, stroke, dementia, and lung cancer) of the NHS Health Check programme in England. We simulated a population of adults in England aged 40-45 years and followed until age 100 years, using data from the Health Survey of England (2009-2012) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (1998-2012), to simulate changes in risk factors for simulated individuals over time. We used recent programme data to describe uptake of NHS Health Checks and of 4 associated interventions (statin medication, antihypertensive medication, smoking cessation, and weight management). Estimates of treatment efficacy and adherence were based on trial data. We estimated the benefits of the current NHS Health Check programme compared to a healthcare system without systematic health checks. This counterfactual scenario models the detection and treatment of risk factors that occur within 'routine' primary care. We also explored the impact of making feasible changes to implementation of the programme concerning eligibility, uptake of NHS Health Checks, and uptake of treatments offered through the programme. We estimate that the NHS Health Check programme prevents 390 (95% credible interval 290 to 500) premature deaths before 80 years of age and results in an additional 1,370 (95% credible interval 1,100 to 1,690) people

  12. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

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    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  13. Pine needle extract prevents hippocampal memory impairment in acute restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-07-31

    The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Favourable outcomes of a preventive screening and counselling programme for older people in underprivileged areas in the Netherlands: The PRIMUS project

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    D.J. Annemarie van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aging population is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Important aspects of programmes targeted at older people are: to reach those at risk, effective screening, optimising advice, and referral to local interventions. We examined the effect of a preventive health consultation (PRIMUS, a multi-behavioural screening programme for persons aged 55–74 years in primary care. In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, the effects of participating in the PRIMUS intervention were compared to a comparison group receiving personalised summaries and advice by postal mail, both preceded by a health risk assessment via a questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a baseline health risk assessment, followed by a preventive health consultation (after 4 weeks, and a follow-up visit (2 weeks later in the primary care centre. A newly developed web-based computer-tailored programme supported the nurse practitioner during the consultation. Main outcomes measures were awareness of, and compliance with referral advice for changing unhealthy lifestyles. The PRIMUS preventive health consultation was successful in older people at risk for cardio metabolic diseases compared to the comparison group (compliance: RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.12–1.79; p < 0.05. The intervention was less successful in older people at risk for mental health problems. This preventive health consultation for older people resulted in positive changes in unhealthy behaviours by optimising reach, raising awareness, motivating and assisting individuals to change, and referring to local interventions.

  15. Stress spillover, African Americans' couple and health outcomes, and the stress-buffering effect of family-centered prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lavner, Justin A; Brody, Gene H

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated (a) the stress spillover pathways linking contextual stressors, changes in couple relationship functioning and depressive symptoms, and changes in individuals' physical health, and (b) the stress-buffering effect of participation in an efficacious, family centered prevention program designed to protect couples from the deleterious effects of stressors. The sample consisted of 346 rural African American couples (63% married) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Participants were assessed at three time points across 17 months. Results examining stress spillover within the control group indicated that elevated current, but not prior, financial hardship was associated with decreased effective communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence as well as increased depressive symptoms; current levels of racial discrimination also predicted greater depressive symptoms. Relationship confidence and relationship satisfaction, but not communication or depressive symptoms, in turn predicted declines in self-reported physical health. Results examining stress-buffering effects suggested that participation in ProSAAF protected individuals' relationship confidence from declines associated with elevated financial hardship. In addition, the indirect effect linking financial hardship to declines in physical health through relationship confidence that emerged among participants in the control group was no longer evident for ProSAAF couples. Results highlight the effect of contextual stressors on African Americans' couple and individual well-being and the potential for the ProSAAF program to provide a constructed resilience resource, protecting couple's confidence in their relationship from the negative effects of financial hardship and, consequently, promoting physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  17. Trial baseline characteristics of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-located obesity prevention programme; the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a healthy lifestyles programme (HeLP for primary school aged children (9–10 years, currently being evaluated in a definitive cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper descriptively presents the baseline characteristics of trial children (BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, diet and physical activity by gender, cluster level socio-economic status, school size and time of recruitment into the trial. Methods Schools were recruited from across the South West of England and allocated 1:1 to either intervention (HeLP or control (usual practice stratified by the proportion of children eligible for free school meals (FSM, 1 Year 5 class. The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI sds at 24 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are BMI sds at 18 months, waist circumference and percentage body fat sds at 18 and 24 months, proportion of children classified as underweight, overweight and obese at 18 and 24 months, physical activity (for a sub-sample and food intake at 18 months. Results At baseline 11.4% and 13.6% of children were categorised as overweight or obese respectively. A higher percentage of girls than boys (25.3% vs 24.8% and children from schools in FSM category 2 (28.2% vs 23.2% were overweight or obese. Children were consuming a mean (range of 4.15 (0–13 energy dense snacks (EDS and 3.23 (0–9 healthy snacks (HS per day with children from schools in FSM category 2 consuming more EDS and negative food markers and less HS and positive food markers. Children spent an average 53.6 min per day (11.9 to 124.8 in MVPA and thirteen hours (779.3 min per day (11 h to 15 h doing less than ‘light’ intensity activity. Less than 5% of children achieved the Departments of Health’s recommendation of 60 min of MVPA every day. Conclusion We have excellent completeness of baseline data for all measures and have achieved compliance to accelerometry not

  18. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  19. Oral administration of γ-aminobutyric acid and γ-oryzanol prevents stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Kiyotani, Yuka; Uchida, Asako; Nagasaka, Reiko; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kanemoto, Shigeharu; Hori, Masatoshi; Ushio, Hideki

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and is found to associate partly with chronic stress at work in human. Adiponectin circulates in mammal blood mainly as a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. Low circulating levels of adiponectin are related to metabolic syndrome. We have then investigated the influence of immobilization stress on plasma adiponectin concentrations in mice. Relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels were markedly reduced by immobilization stress (0.66±0.07 and 0.59±0.06 after 102 h, respectively), significantly different from the control values (p-oryzanol abundantly contained in germinated brown rice have some physiological functions. We further investigated the effect of GABA, γ-oryzanol, GABA plus γ-oryzanol on adiponectin levels in mice subjected to immobilization stress. GABA and γ-oryzanol significantly increased the relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels under immobilization stress (1.10±0.11 and 0.99±0.19 after 102 h, respectively, for GABA; 1.08±0.17 and 1.15±0.17 after 102 h, respectively, for γ-oryzanol). Additionally, the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol also increased both relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels (1.02±0.07 and 0.99±0.10 after 102 h, respectively) and was effective in an earlier phase from 30 to 54 h. The results indicate that the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol might be effective in preventing stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia in mice and be also a promising tool for improving metabolic syndrome aggravated by chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors’ stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees’ affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors (n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees (n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors’ job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees’ affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors’ affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees’ affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained. PMID:29495360

  1. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, Stefano; Balducci, Cristian

    2018-02-26

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors' stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees' affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors ( n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees ( n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors' job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees' affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors' affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees' affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained.

  2. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  3. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  4. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  5. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  6. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  7. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  8. FAMILY–TEACHER PARTNERSHIP IN FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN`S SOCIAL SKILLS USING THE BULLYING PREVENTION PROGRAMME “FREE FROM BULLYING” IN ESTONIAN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leida Talts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the most important topics areas in parents` communication with the teachers and their assessments of the values prevailing in the classroom of second grade children using the programme “Free of Bullying”. The Free of Bullying methodology is fostering the development of children`s social skills, where family-teacher partnership plays essential role. The bullying prevention programme, initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in kindergartens in Estonia since 2010 and in schools since 2013. The main goal of the Free of Bullying methodology is to develop a behavioural culture that fosters respect toward oneself, fellow-pupils and adults, and works through mutual consideration. Creating a trusting relationship with parents and attaching importance to their role in creating a safe classroom atmosphere is essential for preventing the situation where parents are integrated in this process only when painful and negative problem situations occur. The current research sample consists of the parents of second grade children attending the “Free from bullying” pilot schools. The research revealed that from the bullying prevention point of view parents highly appreciate care, tolerance and respect. The most frequent topics of parent-teacher discussion are joint activities of the class and bullying between children. Thus it appears that parents who have been more actively involved through the measures of “Bullying-free school” project more frequently discuss aspects of the social structure of classroom climate with the teacher.

  9. Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Régnier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, is a good candidate for the prevention of intracellular oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of astaxanthin present in two natural extracts from Haematococcus pluvialis, a microalgae strain, with that of synthetic astaxanthin. Natural extracts were obtained either by solvent or supercritical extraction methods. UV, HPLC-DAD and (HPLC-(atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI+/ion trap-MS characterizations of both natural extracts showed similar compositions of carotenoids, but different percentages in free astaxanthin and its ester derivatives. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay showed that natural extracts containing esters displayed stronger antioxidant activities than free astaxanthin. Their antioxidant capacities to inhibit intracellular oxidative stress were then evaluated on HUVEC cells. The intracellular antioxidant activity in natural extracts was approximately 90-times higher than synthetic astaxanthin (5 µM. No modification, neither in the morphology nor in the viability, of vascular human cells was observed by in vitro biocompatibility study up to 10 µM astaxanthin concentrations. Therefore, these results revealed the therapeutic potential of the natural extracts in vascular human cell protection against oxidative stress without toxicity, which could be exploited in prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljegren, Annelie; Barker, Gail; Elliott, Faye

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in a large cohort of individuals with a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, the major genetic determinant of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These prevalences have been estimated previously...... in smaller studies, and the results have been found to be variable. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC. The 695 patients with a proven germline MMR mutation and documented screening history before...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a cardiovascular disease primary prevention programme in a primary health care setting. Results of the Polish part of the EUROACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sović, Nevena; Pająk, Andrzej; Jankowski, Piotr; Duenas, Alejandra; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wolfshaut-Wolak, Renata; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kawalec, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Well designed cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes appear to be generally applicable and effective in reducing exposure to risk factors and the incidence of disease. However, introducing them broadly into clinical practice would have a significant impact on the healthcare budget, and requires careful consideration. The purpose of this health economic analysis was to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of the model nurse-led, comprehensive CVD primary prevention programme which was prepared and introduced in the EUROACTION project, in high-risk patients in Poland. A Markov model was developed to assess the long-term costs of preventive intervention. The health states modelled were: event-free (all patients at the beginning of observation), stable angina first year, acute myocardial infarction, stable angina subsequent year, myocardial infarction subsequent year, CVD death, and other causes of death. Health benefits from the reduction in risk factors were estimated based on Framingham risk function assuming the probability of defined health states according to British registers. The time horizon of the analysis was ten years, and one Markov cycle length was one year. The analysis was prepared from the healthcare payer's perspective. A willingness to pay threshold of three gross domestic product (GDP) per capita / quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was used. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as an incremental cost per QALY. In Poland, EUROACTION intervention resulted mainly in reductions in the prevalence of smoking (by 14%) and high blood pressure (by 7%). Intervention on other risk factors, including blood lipids, was found to be less effective. Estimated ICERs were 19,524 PLN for men and 82,262 PLN for women. The programme was even more cost-effective in smokers i.e. estimated ICERs were 12,377 PLN in men and 53,471 PLN in women. The results were most

  12. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention for high-risk groups at scale: an economic evaluation of the Avahan programme in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Pickles, Michael; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Boily, Marie-Claude; Shetty, Govindraj; Guinness, Lorna; Lowndes, Catherine M; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Avahan is a large-scale, HIV preventive intervention, targeting high-risk populations in south India. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of Avahan to inform global and national funding institutions who are considering investing in worldwide HIV prevention in concentrated epidemics. We estimated cost effectiveness from a programme perspective in 22 districts in four high-prevalence states. We used the UNAIDS Costing Guidelines for HIV Prevention Strategies as the basis for our costing method, and calculated effect estimates using a dynamic transmission model of HIV and sexually transmitted disease transmission that was parameterised and fitted to locally observed behavioural and prevalence trends. We calculated incremental cost-effective ratios (ICERs), comparing the incremental cost of Avahan per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted versus a no-Avahan counterfactual scenario. We also estimated incremental cost per HIV infection averted and incremental cost per person reached. Avahan reached roughly 150 000 high-risk individuals between 2004 and 2008 in the 22 districts studied, at a mean cost per person reached of US$327 during the 4 years. This reach resulted in an estimated 61 000 HIV infections averted, with roughly 11 000 HIV infections averted in the general population, at a mean incremental cost per HIV infection averted of $785 (SD 166). We estimate that roughly 1 million DALYs were averted across the 22 districts, at a mean incremental cost per DALY averted of $46 (SD 10). Future antiretroviral treatment (ART) cost savings during the lifetime of the cohort exposed to HIV prevention were estimated to be more than $77 million (compared with the slightly more than $50 million spent on Avahan in the 22 districts during the 4 years of the study). This study provides evidence that the investment in targeted HIV prevention programmes in south India has been cost effective, and is likely to be cost saving if a commitment is made to provide ART to all

  13. Analgesia for early-life pain prevents deficits in adult anxiety and stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Karom, Mary C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in rats have established that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth (P0) decreases sensitivity to acute noxious, anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli. However, to date, the impact of early-life pain on adult responses to chronic stress is not known. Further, the ability of morphine, administered at the time of injury, to mitigate changes in adult behavioral and hormonal responses to acute or chronic stressors has not been examined. P0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were given an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan or handled in an identical manner in the presence or absence of morphine. As adults, rats that experienced early-life pain displayed decreased sensitivity to acute stressors, as indicated by increased time in the inner area of the Open Field, and increased latency to immobility and decreased time immobile in the Forced Swim Test (FST). An accelerated return of corticosterone to baseline was also observed. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed this 'hyporesponsive' phenotype. By contrast, following 7 days of chronic variable stress, injured animals displayed a 'hyperresponsive' phenotype in that they initiated immobility and spent significantly more time immobile in the FST than controls. Responses to chronic stress were also rescued in animals that received morphine at the time of injury. These data suggest that analgesia for early-life pain prevents adult hyposensitivity to acute anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli and increased vulnerability to chronic stress, and have important clinical implications for the management of pain in infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Drosophila carbonyl reductase sniffer prevents oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Jose A; Ulschmid, Julia K; Gruenewald, Christoph; Moehle, Christoph; Kretzschmar, Doris; Becker, Katja; Schneuwly, Stephan

    2004-05-04

    A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a common underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Creutzfeld-Jakob and Parkinson's diseases. Despite the increasing number of reports finding a causal relation between oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, little is known about the genetic elements that confer protection against the deleterious effects of oxidation in neurons. We have isolated and characterized the Drosophila melanogaster gene sniffer, whose function is essential for preventing age-related neurodegeneration. In addition, we demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct cause of neurodegeneration in the Drosophila central nervous system and that reduction of sniffer activity leads to neuronal cell death. The overexpression of the gene confers neuronal protection against oxygen-induced apoptosis, increases resistance of flies to experimental normobaric hyperoxia, and improves general locomotor fitness. Sniffer belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes and exhibits carbonyl reductase activity. This is the first in vivo evidence of the direct and important implication of this enzyme as a neuroprotective agent in the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress.

  15. Getting into trouble: perspectives on stress and suicide prevention among Pacific Northwest Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.

  16. Organizational options for preventing work-related stress in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed....... They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies. The study shows that knowledge work comprises a paradox, since the same work-related or organizational issues could be experienced as both...

  17. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  18. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Liposomal Bupivacaine did not develop mechanical allodynia following exposure to stress, but did develop social avoidance behavior. Neither drug affected stress-induced activation of monocytes in the bone marrow, blood, or brain. Neuroinflammatory responses developed in all treatment groups, as evidenced by elevated IL-1β mRNA levels in the brain and spinal cord after RSD. In this study, psychosocial stress was associated with increased pain sensitivity in mice. Development of mechanical allodynia with RSD was blocked by regional analgesia with local anesthetics, Ropivacaine or Liposomal Bupivacaine. Despite blocking mechanical allodynia, these anesthetic interventions did not prevent neuroimmune activation or social avoidance associated with RSD. These data suggest that stress-induced neuroinflammatory changes are not associated with increased sensitivity to pain following RSD. Thus, blocking peripheral nociception was effective in inhibiting enhanced pain signaling without altering stress-induced immune or behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-based versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Anootnara Talkul; Dalsbø, Therese K; Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Agarwal, Arnav; Durand-Moreau, Quentin V; Kirkehei, Ingvild

    2017-08-30

    Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other. It is conceivable that computer-based interventions are more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective. To compare the effects of computer-based interventions versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, NIOSHTIC, NIOSHTIC-2, HSELINE, CISDOC, and two trials registers up to February 2017. We included randomised controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management intervention (using any technique) with a face-to-face intervention that had the same content. We included studies that measured stress or burnout as an outcome, and used workers from any occupation as participants. Three authors independently screened and selected 75 unique studies for full-text review from 3431 unique reports identified from the search. We excluded 73 studies based on full-text assessment. We included two studies. Two review authors independently extracted stress outcome data from the two included studies. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to report study results. We did not perform meta-analyses due to variability in the primary outcome and considerable statistical heterogeneity. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Two studies met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 159 participants in the included arms of the studies

  20. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  1. Ensuring implementation success: how should coach injury prevention education be improved if we want coaches to deliver safety programmes during training sessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Otago, Leonie; Saunders, Natalie; Romiti, Maria; Donaldson, Alex; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-03-01

    Coaches play a major role in encouraging and ensuring that participants of their teams adopt appropriate safety practices. However, the extent to which the coaches undertake this role will depend upon their attitudes about injury prevention, their perceptions of what the other coaches usually do and their own beliefs about how much control they have in delivering such programmes. Fifty-one junior netball coaches were surveyed about incorporating the teaching of correct (safe) landing technique during their delivery of training sessions to junior players. Overall, >94% of coaches had strongly positive attitudes towards teaching correct landing technique and >80% had strongly positive perceptions of their own control over delivering such programmes. Coaches' ratings of social norms relating to what others think about teaching safe landing were more positive (>94%) than those relating to what others actually do (63-74%). In conclusion, the junior coaches were generally receptive towards delivering safe landing training programmes in the training sessions they led. Future coach education could include role modelling by prominent coaches so that more community-level coaches are aware that this is a behaviour that many coaches can, and do, engage in.

  2. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  3. Improving malaria treatment and prevention in India by aiding district managers to manage their programmes with local information: a trial assessing the impact of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling on programme outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Devkota, Baburam; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Meherda, Pramod; Sonal, G S; Dhariwal, Akshay; Davis, Rosemary

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the first trial of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) assessing associations between access to LQAS data and subsequent improvements in district programming. This trial concerns India's approach to addressing an increase in malaria-attributable deaths by training community health workers to diagnose, treat and prevent malaria, while using LQAS to monitor sub-district performance and make programme improvements. The Ministry of Health introduced LQAS into four matched high malaria burden districts (Annual Parasite Incidence >5) (N > 5 million). In each sub-district, we sampled four populations in three 6-monthly surveys: households, children LQAS results appeared to support district managers to increase coverage in underperforming areas, especially for vertical strategies in the presence of diligent managers. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  5. Economic evaluation of URMEL-ICE, a school-based overweight prevention programme comprising metabolism, exercise and lifestyle intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Wirt, Tamara; Wiedom, Martina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Brandstetter, Susanne; Koch, Benjamin; Wartha, Olivia; Muche, Rainer; Wabitsch, Martin; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the impact of the URMEL-ICE school-based overweight prevention programme on anthropometric measures in primary-school children, computing incremental cost-effectiveness relation (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB). This is an intervention study with historical control. Propensity score method is applied to account for group differences. One-year teacher-driven classroom implementation is used, which is based on especially developed teaching material including health education, physical activity breaks and parent involvement. 354 children in the control and 365 children in the intervention group at baseline and follow-up were analysed. Effectiveness is measured as cm waist circumference (WC) and unit (0.01) waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) increase prevented in intervention vs. control group using an adjusted two-level model. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, net benefit regression and a societal perspective for a 1-year time horizon are applied. WC gain was 1.61 cm and WHtR gain was 0.014 significantly less in intervention vs. control group. Intervention costs were euro24.09 per child. ICER was euro11.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.78; 15.02]) per cm WC and euro18.55 (95% CI [14.04; 26.86]) per unit WHtR gain prevented. At a maximum willingness to pay (MWTP) of euro35, both values of the CIs for NMB regarding WC and WHtR are located in the positive range. The study gives new information about the cost-effectiveness of structured health promotion embedded in daily routine at primary schools. Assuming a MWTP of euro35 the intervention is cost-effective with a positive NMB. This result may help decision makers in implementing programmes to prevent childhood overweight in school settings.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Polilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. Methods: This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Results: Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1 ± 13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67% were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33% patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p = 0.01 and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p = 0.02 were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Web-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Late presentation, Voluntary and free testing, HIV diagnosis, Sexually transmitted infections

  7. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  8. N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevents stress-induced desmin aggregation in cellular models of desminopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand-David Segard

    Full Text Available Mutations within the human desmin gene are responsible for a subcategory of myofibrillar myopathies called desminopathies. However, a single inherited mutation can produce different phenotypes within a family, suggesting that environmental factors influence disease states. Although several mouse models have been used to investigate organ-specific desminopathies, a more general mechanistic perspective is required to advance our knowledge toward patient treatment. To improve our understanding of disease pathology, we have developed cellular models to observe desmin behaviour in early stages of disease pathology, e.g., upon formation of cytoplasmic desmin aggregates, within an isogenic background. We cloned the wildtype and three mutant desmin cDNAs using a Tet-On Advanced® expression system in C2C12 cells. Mutations were selected based on positioning within desmin and capacity to form aggregates in transient experiments, as follows: DesS46Y (head domain; low aggregation, DesD399Y (central rod domain; high aggregation, and DesS460I (tail domain; moderate aggregation. Introduction of these proteins into a C2C12 background permitted us to compare between desmin variants as well as to determine the role of external stress on aggregation. Three different types of stress, likely encountered during muscle activity, were introduced to the cell models-thermal (heat shock, redox-associated (H2O2 and cadmium chloride, and mechanical (stretching stresses-after which aggregation was measured. Cells containing variant DesD399Y were more sensitive to stress, leading to marked cytoplasmic perinuclear aggregations. We then evaluated the capacity of biochemical compounds to prevent this aggregation, applying dexamethasone (an inducer of heat shock proteins, fisetin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (antioxidants before stress induction. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine pre-treatment prevented DesD399Y aggregation during most stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine has recently been

  9. The legislatio policy and practice concerning the prevention of stress atwork in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    1994-01-01

    Last year, at the request of the Directorate-General of Labour of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out an investigative, qualitative survey of the legislation, policy and practices concerning prevention of stress at work in

  10. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  11. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  12. THE TEAM BUILDING IN COLLECTIVES AS PREVENTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Mihaylova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The stress contributes to almost all medical illnesses while the acute and chronic stress - related to work - is a primary cause of such life-threatening conditions as myocardial infarction, brain stroke, etc. The aim of the current study is an investigation of the methods for team building related to prevention and therapy in connection with acute or chronic stress. The accomplishment of the aim set is achieved by means of assessment of the applicability of laughter therapy, as a method for team building suitable in practice. It was found that the laughter therapy may help reduction of stress and tension, improvement of the quality of work, strengthening of the social relations and interrelations, etc. Increasingly more studies maintain the theory that the laughter may have therapeutic value and brings about physical benefits to the particular individual, as a member of the personnel. The laughter is a part of human behavior, and it helps people to clarify their intentions in the social interaction. The laughter is used as a signal for accepting the positive interactions with other people and is a precondition for friendly attitude in the working environment as well. Conclusions may be drawn that the laughter therapy is a suitable method for team building; the laughter therapy is appropriate for everyone as a means for the alleviation of stress, and it has a positive impact on the working process. In terms of business, a positive assessment of the methods for pulling together of members of the collective (team building may be given by a way which has subsequent positive consequences on their work.

  13. Industrial Pollution Prevention Programme (IPPP) Progress report Visit to Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) 20.09.-01.10.98

    OpenAIRE

    Aanes, K.

    1998-01-01

    A visit to ECZ was paid by Mr. Karl Jan Aanes, NIVA, with the intention to assess to capacity of the chosen laboratories in Zambia to analyse water samples in the Water Quality Survey Programme. Along with the visting of laboratories a field trip was carried out to collect water samples from the upper part of Kafue and the main tributaries from mine sites. Parallel samples were taken and analysed both at laboratories in Zambia and at NIVA to conduct a preliminary intercalibration between the ...

  14. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the population-level effectiveness of the Avahan HIV-prevention programme in South India: a preplanned, causal-pathway-based modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Michael; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Lowndes, Catherine M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Deering, Kathleen N; Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Avahan, the India AIDS initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, was a large-scale, targeted HIV prevention intervention. We aimed to assess its overall effectiveness by estimating the number and proportion of HIV infections averted across Avahan districts, following the causal pathway of the intervention. We created a mathematical model of HIV transmission in high-risk groups and the general population using data from serial cross-sectional surveys (integrated behavioural and biological assessments, IBBAs) within a Bayesian framework, which we used to reproduce HIV prevalence trends in female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and the general population in 24 South Indian districts over the first 4 years (2004-07 or 2005-08 dependent on the district) and the full 10 years (2004-13) of the Avahan programme. We tested whether these prevalence trends were more consistent with self-reported increases in consistent condom use after the implementation of Avahan or with a counterfactual (assuming consistent condom use increased at slower, pre-Avahan rates) using a Bayes factor, which gave a measure of the strength of evidence for the effectiveness estimates. Using regression analysis, we extrapolated the prevention effect in the districts covered by IBBAs to all 69 Avahan districts. In 13 of 24 IBBA districts, modelling suggested medium to strong evidence for the large self-reported increase in consistent condom use since Avahan implementation. In the remaining 11 IBBA districts, the evidence was weaker, with consistent condom use generally already high before Avahan began. Roughly 32700 HIV infections (95% credibility interval 17900-61600) were averted over the first 4 years of the programme in the IBBA districts with moderate to strong evidence. Addition of the districts with weaker evidence increased this total to 62800 (32000-118000) averted infections, and extrapolation suggested that 202000 (98300-407000) infections were averted

  16. The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Qian-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Ni, Hao; Liu, Ming-Yie; Mo, Fan-E

    2013-10-01

    Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H₂O₂. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H₂O₂ and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The influence of trauma and patient characteristics on provider burnout in VA post-traumatic stress disorder specialty programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector A; McGeary, Cindy A; Finley, Erin P; McGeary, Donald D; Ketchum, Norma S; Peterson, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) - post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments now available at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) - expose the provider to graphic traumatic material. Little is known about the impact of traumatic material on VHA providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trauma content, patient characteristics, and burnout among VHA PTSD Clinical Team (PCT) providers. It was hypothesized that trauma content and patient characteristics would significantly predict burnout in this population. This cross-sectional study consisted of 137 participants. The sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.3). Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, patient characteristics (i.e., anger, personality disorder, malingering), trauma content characteristics (e.g., killing of women and children) as well as burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS; Maslach et al., 1996, Burnout inventory manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press). Over half of the study population reported being bothered by trauma content; however, trauma content did not predict burnout. Treating patients with personality disorders and suspected malingering predicted burnout in PCT providers. High numbers (77%) reported perceiving that emotional exhaustion impacted the quality of care they provided. These findings suggest an important role of burnout assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies at the VHA. This paper addresses the impact of provider burnout on perceived quality of care. This paper also addresses potential predictors of burnout in PCT settings. This paper outlines potential remedies to provider burnout in the VHA. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Ergonomic principles and tools for best interdisciplinary psycho-physical stress prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cason, Dott Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The psycho-physical stress is a risk to all intents and purposes,finally acknowledged, it requires increasing attention. Measures forits protection are reflected in the appropriate application of organizational policies on a human scale, or in respect of the"macro-ergonomics". This work consists on several inter-disciplinary tools available to the proper prevention, outbreaks of work-related stress.During work, adequate rests are important to prevent work related physical and mental fatigue. The strategies for maintaining a healthy balance between work rate and work breaks, may differ depending on the individual, subjective habits and peculiarities related to the work environment. Resting does not necessarily mean "going to break". The break-time is important as the work-time. While the latter is regulated, the first is not always clearly defined, though necessary. Knowing the employment contract is the first step towards the implementation of their rights relating to periods of suspension from the activity of work is also essential for high performance working. Breathing exercises, massage therapy, biofeedback, role-playing are some of the tools used during work breaks to prevent mental and physical fatigue. At the end music has a rhythm by alternating strong and weak accents. If the musical notes represent the "vertical" trend of music (melody), figures and pauses, inserted into the rhythmic structure of the measure, regulate the duration of sounds over time and determine the "horizontal" trend of a song. Transferring this concept on work, is meant to understand, using a metaphor, the importance of respect of changes in both vertical and horizontal trends inside a cycle.

  19. Investigation programme and procedure for creep and long-term rupture strength in materials with accounting for stress deviator and loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozharovskaya, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    A programme and procedure are given to study 08Kh18N9 steel at 600 deg C and 15Kh2MFA steel at 550 deg C for creep and long-term strength at different parameters of proportional loading as well as at different parameters under loading in two-link irregular trajectories. This makes it possible to estimate the effect of the kind of a stress deviator, history and prehistory of loading on plastic deformation in creep and on failure under long-term loading

  20. Investigation programme and procedure for creep and long-term rupture strength in materials with accounting for stress deviator and loading history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozharovskaya, T N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti

    1984-11-01

    A programme and procedure are given to study 08Kh18N9 steel at 600 deg C and 15Kh2MFA steel at 550 deg C for creep and long-term strength at different parameters of proportional loading as well as at different parameters under loading in two-link irregular trajectories. This makes it possible to estimate the effect of the kind of a stress deviator, history and prehistory of loading on plastic deformation in creep and on failure under long-term loading.

  1. Implementing an exercise-training programme to prevent lower-limb injuries: considerations for the development of a randomised controlled trial intervention delivery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; White, Peta; Twomey, Dara; Ullah, Shahid

    2011-08-01

    To identify important considerations for the delivery of an exercise training intervention in a randomised controlled trial to maximise subsequent participation in that randomised controlled trial and intervention uptake. A cross-sectional survey, with a theoretical basis derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. 374 male senior Australian Football players, aged 17-38 years. Beliefs about lower-limb injury causation/prevention, and the relative value of exercise training for performance and injury prevention. The data are interpreted within HBM constructs and implications for subsequent intervention implementation considered within the RE-AIM framework. Ordinal logistic regression compared belief scores across player characteristics. 74.4% of players agreed that doing specific exercises during training would reduce their risk of lower-limb injury and would be willing to undertake them. However, 64.1% agreed that training should focus more on improving game performance than injury prevention. Younger players (both in terms of age and playing experience) generally had more positive views. Players were most supportive of kicking (98.9%) and ball-handling (97.0%) skills for performance and warm-up runs and cool-downs (both 91.5%) for injury prevention. Fewer than three-quarters of all players believed that balance (69.2%), landing (71.3%) or cutting/stepping (72.8) training had injury-prevention benefits. Delivery of future exercise training programmes for injury prevention aimed at these players should be implemented as part of routine football activities and integrated with those as standard practice, as a means of associating them with training benefits for this sport.

  2. The effectiveness of the cardiovascular disease prevention programme 'KardioPro' initiated by a German sickness fund: a time-to-event analysis of routine data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Witt

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. To reduce this burden of disease, a German sickness fund ('Siemens-Betriebskrankenkasse', SBK initiated the prevention programme 'KardioPro' including primary (risk factor reduction and secondary (screening prevention and guideline-based treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 'KardioPro' as it is implemented in the real world.The study is based on sickness fund routine data. The control group was selected from non-participants via propensity score matching. Study analysis was based on time-to-event analysis via Cox proportional hazards regression with the endpoint 'all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke (1', 'all-cause mortality (2' and 'non-fatal acute MI and ischemic stroke (3'.A total of 26,202 insurants were included, 13,101 participants and 13,101 control subjects. 'KardioPro' enrollment was associated with risk reductions of 23.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 13.0-32.7% (1, 41.7% (95% CI 30.2-51.2% (2 and 3.5% (hazard ratio 0.965, 95% CI 0.811-1.148 (3. This corresponds to an absolute risk reduction of 0.29% (1, 0.31% (2 and 0.03% (3 per year.The prevention programme initiated by a German statutory sickness fund appears to be effective with regard to all-cause mortality. The non-significant reduction in non-fatal events might result from a shift from fatal to non-fatal events.

  3. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the changes in muscle strength, power, and somatic parameters in elite volleyball players after a specific pre-season training programme aimed at improving jumping and strength performance and injury prevention. Twelve junior female volleyball players participated in an 8-week training programme. Anthropometric characteristics, isokinetic peak torque (PT single-joint knee flexion (H and extension (Q at 60º/s and 180º/s, counter movement jump (CMJ, squat jump (SJ, and reactive strength index (RSI were measured before and after intervention. Significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180 º/s in the dominant leg (DL (18.3±15.1%, likely; 17.8±11.2%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (7.4%±7.8%, very likely in the DL. In the non-dominant leg (NL significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180º/s (13.7±11.3%, likely; 13.4±8.0%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (10.7±11.5%, very likely. Small to moderate changes were observed for H/QCONV in the DL at 60º/s and 180º/s (15.9±14.1%; 9.6±10.4%, both likely and in the NL at 60º/s (moderate change, 9.6±11.8%, likely, and small to moderate decreases were detected for H/QFUNC at 180º/s, in both the DL and NL (-7.0±8.3%, likely; -9.5±10.0%, likely. Training-induced changes in jumping performance were trivial (for RSI to small (for CMJ and SJ. The applied pre-season training programme induced a number of positive changes in physical performance and risk of injury, despite a lack of changes in body mass and composition. CITATION: Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(2:205-213.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a senior centre group programme for increasing social support and preventing depression in elderly people living at home in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøen Hege

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In

  5. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Does stress in a dental hygiene and dental therapy undergraduate programme contribute to a sense of well-being in the students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Wilson, J C; Hughes, S; Radford, D R

    2017-07-07

    Aims To use a qualitative approach to further explore the stress and well-being of dental hygiene and dental therapy students (DHDTS) during their undergraduate training.Subjects and methods Semi-structured individual interviews to explore motivation, goals, and perceived stress, were conducted with eight DHDTS from across all three years of study at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy (UPDA). Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using Braun and Clarke's (2006) six phases of thematic analysis.Results Three main themes of 'fulfilment', 'the learning environment', and 'perception of stress' were identified. Within these themes, a further 12 sub-themes were identified. Analysis suggested that a strong sense of passion to become a clinician mitigated most, but not all, of the stressful experiences of the DHDTS undergraduate learning environment.Conclusions DHDTS' perceived sources of stress during their undergraduate programme were strongly linked to a sense of meaningfulness.Listen to the author talk about the key findings in this paper in the associated video abstract. Available in the supplementary information online and on the BDJ Youtube channel via http://go.nature.com/bdjyoutube.

  7. A Fundamental study of remedial technology development to prevent stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Gyu; Lee, Chang Soon [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Most of the PWR Steam generators with tubes in Alloy 600 alloy are affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking, such as PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) and ODSCC(Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). This study was undertaken to establish the background for remedial technology development to prevent SCC. in the report are included the following topics: (1) General: (i) water chemistry related factors, (ii) Pourbaix(Potential-pH) Diagram, (iii) polarization plot, (iv) corrosion mode of Alloy 600, 690, and 800, (v) IGA/SCC growth rate, (vi) material suspetibility of IGA/SCC, (vii) carbon solubility of Alloy 600 (2) Microstructures of Alloy 600 MA, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 600 SEN Alloy 690 TT(Optical, SEM, and TEM) (3) Influencing factors for PWSCC initiation rate of Alloy 600: (i) microstructure, (ii) water chemistry(B, Li), (iii) temperature, (iv) plastic deformation, (v) stress relief annealing (4) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) water chemistry(B, Li), (ii) Scott Model, (iii) intergranular carbide, (iv) temperature, (v) hold time (5) Laboratory conditions for ODSCC initiation rate: 1% NaOH, 316 deg C; 1% NaOH, 343 deg C; 50% NaOH, 288 deg C; 10% NaOH, 302 deg C; 10% NaOH, 316 deg C; 50% NaOH, 343 deg C (6) Sludge effects for ODSCC initiation rate: CuO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (7) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) Caustic concentration effect, (ii) carbonate addition effect (8) Sulfate corrosion: (i) sulfate ratio and pH effect, (ii) wastage rate of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (9) Crevice corrosion: (i) experimental setup for crevice corrosion, (ii) organic effect, (iii) (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NaOH) effect (10) Remedial measures for SCC: (i) Inhibitors, (ii) ZnO effect. (author). 30 refs., 174 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  9. The role of social risk in an early preventative care programme for infants born very preterm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2018-01-01

    To examine the differential effects of an early intervention programme for infants born preterm on neurodevelopment and parental mental health according to family social risk. One hundred and twenty infants born earlier than 30 weeks' gestation were randomized to early intervention (n=61) or control groups (n=59). Cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were assessed by blinded assessors at 2 years, 4 years, and 8 years, and primary caregivers completed questionnaires on their anxiety and depression. Outcomes at each time point were compared between groups using linear regression with an interaction term for social risk (higher/lower). There was evidence of interactions between intervention group and social risk for cognition at 2 years and 4 years, motor function at 4 years, and language at 8 years, with a greater intervention effect in children from higher social risk environments. In contrast, the impact of early intervention on parental depressive symptoms was greater for parents of lower social risk than for those of higher social risk. Effects of early intervention on outcomes for children born preterm and their caregivers varied according to family social risk. Family social risk should be considered when implementing early intervention programmes for children born preterm and their families. Intervention is associated with better early cognitive functioning for children in higher social risk families. Positive effects of intervention for the high risk group were not sustained at school-age. Intervention has a greater effect on primary caregiver mental health in the lower social risk group compared with higher social risk. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  10. The outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection programme in Nnewi, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Ugboaja, J O; Kalu, S O; Ugochukwu, E F

    2011-01-01

    A lot of challenges face the current efforts at reducing Mother to Child transmission of HIV infection (MTCT) in Sub Saharan Africa due to limited access to Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and breast feeding practices. A regular review of progress is necessary in order to identify areas of need. This is a one year prospective descriptive study of seven hundred and twenty six mother-infant pairs managed in the PMTCT programme in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Southeast Nigeria. The babies HIV status was tested with PCR for HIV DNA while the mothers provided information on infant feeding pattern and the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs including prophylaxis for the baby. Information was augmented from the antenatal records. The transmission rate was 2.8% for mothers, who were on HAART, did not breastfeed and whose babies received ARV prophylactic therapy. But for mothers who did not receive HAART, did breastfeed and whose babies did not received ARV prophylactic therapy, the transmission rate was 37.5%. When both the mother and child received ARV drugs, the transmission rate was significantly lower in those who did not breastfeed (2.8%) than in those who breastfed (12.5%)(P < 0.001). When both the mother and child did not receive ARV drugs, the transmission rate significantly lower in those who did not breastfeed (21.1%)than in those who breastfed (37.5%) (P < 0.02). The use of HAART in PMTCT programme in the under resourced areas can achieve similar success rates to that in the industrialized countries. Breastfeeding reduces the efficacy achieved by the use of ARV drugs. Provision of wider access to HAART as well as adequate counselling and support for safer infant feeding practices is recommended.

  11. Single fluoxetine treatment before but not after stress prevents stress-induced hippocampal long-term depression and spatial memory retrieval impairment in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10 μM) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30 min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals. PMID:26218751

  12. Rib stress fractures among rowers: a systematic review on return to sports, risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ailly, Philip N; Sluiter, Judith K; Kuijer, Paul P

    2016-06-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) are injuries frequently sustained by elite rowers with an injury rate of 8-16% over the course of a rowing career, resulting in negative effects on training and performance. For clinical management, the aim of this review was to describe time to return to sports, summarize potentially preventive measures and appraise the evidence on risk factors. A search strategy was performed in PubMed, SportDiscus, Web of Science and Embase till June 1st 2015. All studies were graded on their quality. The search resulted in 124 studies, of which 17 were included: Ten reported on return to sports, 17 reported on risk factors and nine on preventive measures. For return to sports, nine studies mentioned a loss of training of 4-6 weeks. The shortest period was one week and the longest 16 weeks. For risk factors, insufficient or conflicting evidence was found for changes in the training program, incorrect rowing technique, female gender, low bone mineral density, inadequate equipment, and training type. For prevention, gradual changes in the training program, alertness on the part of coaches and clinicians, and supplementation of diet and hormones are suggested as effective measures. However, no effect studies have been found. The main outcome of this review on RSFs is that little evidence is available on return to sports, risk factors and preventive measures. Coaches and clinicians should carefully guide and assist rowers suffering from RSFs in off training and in the subsequent training period to regain their pre-injury level.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of sertraline to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Luthra, Rohini; Sorrentino, Erica A; Saxe, Glenn N; Drake, Jennifer; Chang, Yuchiao; Levine, John B; Chedekel, David S; Sheridan, Robert L

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefits of a centrally acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sertraline, versus placebo for prevention of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in burned children. This is the first controlled investigation based on our review of the early use of a medication to prevent PTSD in children. Twenty-six children aged 6-20 were assessed in a 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled design. Each child received either flexibly dosed sertraline between 25-150 mg/day or placebo. At each reassessment, information was collected in compliance with the study medication, parental assessment of the child's symptomatology and functioning, and the child's self-report of symptomatology. The protocol was approved by the Human Studies Committees of Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Hospitals for Children. The final sample was 17 subjects who received sertraline versus 9 placebo control subjects matched for age, severity of injury, and type of hospitalization. There was no significant difference in change from baseline with child-reported symptoms; however, the sertraline group demonstrated a greater decrease in parent-reported symptoms over 8 weeks (-4.1 vs. -0.5, p=0.005), over 12 weeks (-4.4 vs. -1.2, p=.008), and over 24 weeks (-4.0 vs. -0.2, p=0.017). Sertraline was a safe drug, and it was somewhat more effective in preventing PTSD symptoms than placebo according to parent report but not child report. Based on this study, sertraline may prevent the emergence of PTSD symptoms in children.

  14. The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Charles, Marie-Aline; Dargent-Molina, Patricia

    2013-10-29

    To determine whether, and to what extent, fall prevention exercise interventions for older community dwelling people are effective in preventing different types of fall related injuries. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews from inception to July 2013. Randomised controlled trials of fall prevention exercise interventions, targeting older (>60 years) community dwelling people and providing quantitative data on injurious falls, serious falls, or fall related fractures. Based on a systematic review of the case definitions used in the selected studies, we grouped the definitions of injurious falls into more homogeneous categories to allow comparisons of results across studies and the pooling of data. For each study we extracted or calculated the rate ratio of injurious falls. Depending on the available data, a given study could contribute data relevant to one or more categories of injurious falls. A pooled rate ratio was estimated for each category of injurious falls based on random effects models. 17 trials involving 4305 participants were eligible for meta-analysis. Four categories of falls were identified: all injurious falls, falls resulting in medical care, severe injurious falls, and falls resulting in fractures. Exercise had a significant effect in all categories, with pooled estimates of the rate ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.77, 10 trials) for all injurious falls, 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92, 8 trials) for falls resulting in medical care, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.90, 7 trials) for severe injurious falls, and 0.39 (0.22 to 0.66, 6 trials) for falls resulting in fractures, but significant heterogeneity was observed between studies of all injurious falls (I(2)=50%, P=0.04). Exercise programmes designed to prevent falls in older adults also seem to prevent injuries caused by falls, including the most severe ones. Such programmes also reduce the rate of falls leading

  15. Obesity and eating disorders in integrative prevention programmes for adolescents: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusin...

  16. Process evaluation of a parcipatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  17. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  18. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  19. Peering into "Spaces for Change": Empowerment, Subversion and Resistance in a Gendered Violence Prevention Education Programme in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett-Ondiek, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Changing and challenging social norms is essential to preventing gendered violence, and education is widely regarded as a key means through which this can happen. Whilst good-quality research exploring the outcomes of such educational interventions exists, very little is known about what actually happens inside educational spaces aiming to…

  20. Heading towards the Safer Highways: an assessment of the Avahan prevention programme among long distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sahu, Damodar; Benara, Sudhir Kumar; Sengupta, Uttpal; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Gautam, Abhishek; Lenka, Satya Ranjan; Adhikary, Rajatshurva

    2011-12-29

    Using data from two rounds of a cross-sectional, national-level survey of long-distance truck drivers, this paper examines the extent and trend of sexual risk behavior, prevalence of STI/HIV, and the linkage between exposure to HIV prevention programs and safe sex behavior. Following the time location cluster sampling approach, major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, North-East (NE), North-South (NS), North-West (NW) and South-East (SE) were surveyed. First round of the survey was conducted in 2007 (sample size 2066) whereas the second round was undertaken in 2009-2010 (sample size 2085). Long distance truck drivers were interviewed about their sexual behaviors, condom use practices, exposure to different HIV prevention interventions, and tested for HIV, reactive syphilis serology, Neiserria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The key variable of this evaluation study - exposure to HIV prevention interventions was divided into three categories - no exposure, less intensive exposure and intensive exposure. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods to understand the relationship between risk behavior and exposure to intervention and between program exposure and condom use. The proportion of truckers exposed to HIV prevention interventions has increased over time with much significant increase in the intensive exposure across all the four routes (NE: from 14.9% to 28%, P India and elsewhere. The simultaneous targeted interventions among female sex workers appeared to have contributed to safe sexual practices among truckers.

  1. Players' and coaches' knowledge and awareness of the BokSmart Safe Six injury prevention programme: an ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, James

    2017-11-03

    Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six . Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments. Questionnaires were completed by 4502 players and coaches who attended any of the four youth week tournaments during 2014-2016. Logistic regression (adjusted OR, 95% CI) was performed in comparison to year prior to targeted marketing, separately for coaches and players, for changes in awareness and knowledge. The awareness of the Safe Six increased significantly for players in 2015 (1.74 times (95% CI 1.49 to 2.04)) and in 2016 (1.54 times (95% CI 1.29 to 1.84)). Similarly for coaches, there was a 3.55 times (95% CI 1.23 to 9.99) increase in 2015 and a 10.11 times (95% CI 2.43 to 42.08) increase in 2016 compared with 2014. Furthermore, a player was significantly more likely to be aware of the Safe Six if his coach was aware of the programme (psocial media were the largest contributors to knowledge in coaches and players. While the 'targeted marketing approach' was associated with an increase in awareness, future studies should determine if this translates into behavioural change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  4. Chitosan Prevents Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via a Carbonyl Stress-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Kung Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are widely used to treat infections; however, their applications are limited by nephrotoxicity. With the increase of antibiotic resistance, the use of aminoglycosides is inevitable. Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC has shown renal protective effects in dialysis patients. However, no study has evaluated LMWC for preventing aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity or determined the mechanisms underlying the renal protective effects. In this study, LMWC (165 or 825 mg/kg/day or metformin (100 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 13 days to rats with nephropathy induced by gentamicin (GM, a kind of aminoglycoside (150 mg/kg/day i.p. for 6 days. Both LMCW doses improved renal function. Serum creatinine levels improved in rats treated with 165 and 825 mg/kg/day LMWC (from 2.14 ± 0.74 mg/dL to 1.26 ± 0.46 mg/dL and 0.69 ± 0.12 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05. Blood urea nitrogen levels were also improved in these rats (from 73.73 ± 21.13 mg/dL to 58.70 ± 22.71 mg/dL and 28.82 ± 3.84 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05. Additionally, renal tissue morphology improved after LMWC treatment, and accumulation of renal methylglyoxal, a damage factor associated with carbonyl stress, was reversed. These results show that LMWC prevents GM-induced renal toxicity via a carbonyl stress-dependent pathway.

  5. Obesity and eating disorders in integrative prevention programmes for adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Thompson, Debbe; Lenz Dunker, Karin Louise; Nicklas, Theresa; Tucunduva Philippi, Sonia; Lopez, Tabbetha; Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-04-19

    Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusing on weight may contribute to excessive concern with diet and weight. Therefore, the proposed research will assess whether integrating obesity and eating disorder prevention procedures ('integrated approach') do better than single approach interventions in preventing obesity among adolescents, and if integrated approaches influence weight-related outcomes. Integrated obesity and eating disorder prevention interventions will be identified. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials reporting data on adolescents ranging from 10 to 19 years of age from both sexes will be included. Outcomes of interest include body composition, unhealthy weight control behaviours and body satisfaction measurements. MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SciELO will be searched. Data will be extracted independently by two reviewers using a standardised data extraction form. Trial quality will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. The effects of integrated versus single approach intervention studies will be compared using systematic review procedures. If an adequate number of studies report data on integrated interventions among similar populations (k>5), a meta-analysis with random effects will be conducted. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression will be performed only if between-study heterogeneity is high (I 2 ≥75%). Ethics approval will not be required as this is a systematic review of published studies. The findings will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  6. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in

  7. An overview of the NeT international round-robin programme: weld residual stress measurement and modelling in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.H.; Hamelin, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    This talk provides an overview of the European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardisation for Structural Integrity (NeT). The network involves some 35 organisations from industry and academia, whose goal is to identify best practice in the application of modern experimental and numerical techniques to problems related to the structural integrity of components, mainly relevant to nuclear applications. While the programme was originally built around neutron scattering techniques for residual stress measurement, it has grown considerably to include studies of X-ray diffraction, deep-hole drilling, the contour method and other measurement techniques. Significant efforts have also been made within NeT to understand and predict weld residual stresses, often employing commercially available finite element (FE) codes. Several Task Groups have been developed to address unique challenges found in nuclear applications, from stress development in multi-pass AISI 316LN austenitic steel welds to the effects of solid-state phase transformation on residual stress development in SA508 ferritic steel, which is often used for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) construction. Some current and future work performed under the auspices of NeT are provided, with a focus on work Conducted at ANSTO. The aim is to give the audience a comprehensive overview of the work undertaken in NeT, and to shed some light on the potential present in this kind of collaborative effort. (author)

  8. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Prevents Ovarian Aging by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important inducement in ovarian aging which results in fecundity decline in human and diverse animals. As a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE was investigated to ameliorate chicken ovarian aging in this study. Firstly, ovarian antioxidant capacity of hens at different ages (90, 150, 280, and 580 days old was compared to elucidate its age-related changes. Subsequently, a D-gal-induced (2.5 mg/mL aging ovarian model was established and the cultured ovarian tissues were treated with GSPE at 5 μg/mL for 72 h to evaluate the putative attenuating effects of GSPE on ovarian aging. Meanwhile, ovaries of D280 (young and D580 (old were treated with GSPE for 72 h in culture to verify the protective effects of GSPE on natural aging ovary. The results showed that GSPE could rescue the antioxidant capacity decline by increasing the antioxidase activities and their gene expression in either D-gal-induced or natural aging ovaries. Moreover, GSPE could maintain the homeostasis between cell proliferation and apoptosis in the D-gal-induced and natural aging ovaries, as well as alleviate D-gal-induced nucleus chromatin condensation in the ovarian granulosa cells. In conclusion, GSPE treatment can effectively prevent the ovarian aging process in hens by reducing oxidative stress.

  9. Tongxinluo Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Homocysteine Thiolactone In Vivo via Suppression of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore whether Chinese traditional medicine, tongxinluo (TXL, exerts beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteine thiolactone (HTL and to investigate the potential mechanisms. Methods and Results. Incubation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with HTL (1 mM for 24 hours significantly reduced cell viabilities assayed by MTT, and enhanced productions of reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment of cells with TXL (100, 200, and 400 μg/mL for 1 hour reversed these effects induced by HTL. Further, coincubation with GW9662 (0.01, 0.1 mM abolished the protective effects of TXL on HTL-treated cells. In ex vivo experiments, exposure of isolated aortic rings from rats to HTL (1 mM for 1 hour dramatically impaired acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, reduced SOD activity, and increased malondialdehyde content in aortic tissues. Preincubation of aortic rings with TXL (100, 200, and 400 μg/mL normalized the disorders induced by HTL. Importantly, all effects induced by TXL were reversed by GW9662. In vivo analysis indicated that the administration of TXL (1.0 g/kg/d remarkably suppressed oxidative stress and prevented endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with HTL (50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. Conclusions. TXL improves endothelial functions in rats fed with HTL, which is related to PPARγ-dependent suppression of oxidative stress.

  10. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Jay M.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Bolnick, Alan D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. PMID:25431453

  11. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Process assessment of a peer education programme for HIV prevention among sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh : a social support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-07-24

    A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical

  14. Atorvastatin and Fluoxetine Prevent Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Evoked by Glutamate Toxicity in Hippocampal Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludka, Fabiana K; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Massari, Caio; Tasca, Carla I

    2017-07-01

    Atorvastatin has been shown to exert a neuroprotective action by counteracting glutamatergic toxicity. Recently, we have shown atorvastatin also exerts an antidepressant-like effect that depends on both glutamatergic and serotonergic systems modulation. Excitotoxicity is involved in several brain disorders including depression; thus, it is suggested that antidepressants may target glutamatergic system as a final common pathway. In this study, a comparison of the mechanisms involved in the putative neuroprotective effect of a repetitive atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal slices was performed. Adult Swiss mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), once a day during seven consecutive days. On the eighth day, animals were killed and hippocampal slices were obtained and subjected to an in vitro protocol of glutamate toxicity. An acute treatment of atorvastatin or fluoxetine was not neuroprotective; however, the repeated atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment prevented the decrease in cellular viability induced by glutamate in hippocampal slices. The loss of cellular viability induced by glutamate was accompanied by increased D-aspartate release, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine repeated treatment also presented an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment was effective in protecting mice hippocampal slices from glutamate toxicity by preventing the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. [Nutritional approaches to modulate oxidative stress that induce Alzheimer's disease. Nutritional approaches to prevent Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Humberto Herman; Alanís-Garza, Eduardo Javier; Estrada Puente, María Fernanda; Mureyko, Lucía Liliana; Alarcón Torres, David Alejandro; Ixtepan Turrent, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the world; symptoms first appear after age 65 and have a progressive evolution. Expecting an increase on its incidence and knowing there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, it is a necessity to prevent progression. The change in diet due to globalization may explain the growth of the incidence in places such as Japan and Mediterranean countries, which used to have fewer incidences. There is a direct correlation between disease progression and the increased intake of alcohol, saturated fats, and red meat. Therefore, we find obesity and higher serum levels in cholesterol due to saturated fat as a result. A way to decrease the progression of Alzheimer's is through a diet rich in polipheno/es (potent antioxidants), unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), fish, vegetable fa t, fruits with low glycemic index, and a moderate consumption of red wine. Through this potent antioxidant diet we accomplish the prevention of dementia and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This article emphasizes the food and other components that have been demonstrated to decrease the oxidative stress related to these progressive diseases.

  16. New insights into secondary prevention in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Sonnino, Rachel; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Cohen, Hagit

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unique amongst psychiatric disorders in two ways. Firstly, there is usually a very clear point of onset- the traumatic event The second unique feature of PTSD is that it is characterized by a failure of the normal response to resolve. Given these two characteristics, PTSD appears a good candidate for secondary prevention, ie, interventions immediately after the trauma. Evidence available starting from current concepts and contemporary research of potential secondary prevention interventions are presented. Common practices in the aftermath of trauma such as debriefing and benzodiazepines need to be carefully considered, taking into account their potential harm to the spontaneous recovery process, and the trajectory of PTSD, and not only judging them according to their immediate (comforting) effects. A discussion of the balance required between aiding recovery but not interfering with the potent natural resolution of symptoms (that is expected in most cases), along with potential avenues of future research, are presented. Results of a small pilot study with a single intervention of hydrocortisone immediately after trauma appear to be promising, and clearly indicate the need for further studies. PMID:22033784

  17. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  18. Stroke survivors' endorsement of a "stress belief model" of stroke prevention predicts control of risk factors for recurrent stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Tuhrim, Stanley; Kronish, Ian M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions that stress causes and stress-reduction controls hypertension have been associated with poorer blood pressure (BP) control in hypertension populations. The current study investigated these "stress-model perceptions" in stroke survivors regarding prevention of recurrent stroke and the influence of these perceptions on patients' stroke risk factor control. Stroke and transient ischemic attack survivors (N=600) participated in an in-person interview in which they were asked about their beliefs regarding control of future stroke; BP and cholesterol were measured directly after the interview. Counter to expectations, patients who endorsed a "stress-model" but not a "medication-model" of stroke prevention were in better control of their stroke risk factors (BP and cholesterol) than those who endorsed a medication-model but not a stress-model of stroke prevention (OR for poor control=.54, Wald statistic=6.07, p=.01). This result was not explained by between group differences in patients' reported medication adherence. The results have implications for theory and practice, regarding the role of stress belief models and acute cardiac events, compared to chronic hypertension.

  19. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high

  20. [Second wave of the French drug harmonisation programme to prevent medication errors: overall appreciation of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, D; Nacry, R; Journois, D; Auroy, Y; Durand, D; Arnoux, A; Olier, L; Castot, A

    2012-01-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of severe healthcare-associated complications. In December 2006, the French Health Products Agency (Afssaps) has issued a protocol to harmonise labeling of injectable drugs vials. In 2007, a first change was launched for four drugs and was followed in 2008-2009 by a second wave concerning 42 active drugs. The present study describes how healthcare professionals have perceived this change and their overall appreciation of the drug harmonisation programme. A survey using an electronic questionnaire was distributed to medical and non-medical professionals in anaesthesia and intensive care and pharmacists in a representative sample of 200 French hospitals. The harmonisation procedure was felt as being overall satisfactory by 53% of professionals who had responded but it was recognised that the new procedure is associated with improved readability and understanding of drug dosage. The use of colour coding was also well accepted by the personnel of clinical units. Respondents expressed significant criticisms regarding both the communication plan and the way the plan was implemented locally in hospitals. Old and new labeling coexisted in 66% of responding hospitals and many respondents described being aware of errors or near-misses that were considered related to the transition. For many important topics, pharmacists had views that were significantly different from clinicians. This national survey describing the perception of healthcare professionals regarding the new harmonisation procedure for injectable drugs highlighted some progress but also a number of deficiencies, notably regarding communication and implementation of the change in clinical units. This survey will be used by the French Health Products Agency to improve future steps of the long-lasting campaign against medication errors. Copyright © 2011 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study

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    Abdul Quaiyum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum’s delivery mat, a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh.

  2. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Healthcare Work and Organizational Interventions to Prevent Work-related Stress in Brindisi, Italy

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    Gabriele d'Ettorre

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.

  4. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.

  5. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) can have serious effects on rowing training and performance and accordingly represent an important topic for sports medicine practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this review is to outline the definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, injury management and injury prevention strategies for RSF in rowers. To this end, nine relevant books, 140 journal articles, the proceedings of five conferences and two unpublished presentations were reviewed after searches of electronic databases using the keywords 'rowing', 'rib', 'stress fracture', 'injury', 'mechanics' and 'kinetics'. The review showed that RSF is an incomplete fracture occurring from an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and the rate of bone formation. RSF occurs in 8.1-16.4% of elite rowers, 2% of university rowers and 1% of junior elite rowers. Approximately 86% of rowing RSF cases with known locations occur in ribs four to eight, mostly along the anterolateral/lateral rib cage. Elite rowers are more likely to experience RSF than nonelite rowers. Injury occurrence is equal among sweep rowers and scullers, but the regional location of the injury differs. The mechanism of injury is multifactorial with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors contributing. Posterior-directed resultant forces arising from the forward directed force vector through the arms to the oar handle in combination with the force vector induced by the scapula retractors during mid-drive, or repetitive stress from the external obliques and rectus abdominis in the 'finish' position, may be responsible for RSF. Joint hypomobility, vertebral malalignment or low bone mineral density may be associated with RSF. Case studies have shown increased risk associated with amenorrhoea, low bone density or poor technique, in combination with increases in training volume. Training volume alone may have less effect on injury than other factors. Large differences in seat and handle

  7. The Bodenmann Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET): A New Approach to Prevention of Marital Distress Based upon Stress and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Shantinath, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a distress prevention training program for couples and three empirical studies that support its effectiveness. The program, Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET), is based both upon stress and coping theory and research on couples. In addition to traditional elements of couples programs (e.g., communication and problem-solving…

  8. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  9. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

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    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  10. A Multinational Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of '11+ Kids': A Warm-Up Programme to Prevent Injuries in Children's Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Bizzini, Mario; Verhagen, Evert; Chomiak, Jiri; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Meyer, Tim; Dvorak, Jiri; Lichtenstein, Eric; Beaudouin, Florian; Faude, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a newly developed warm-up programme ('11+ Kids') regarding its potential to reduce injuries in children's football. Children's football teams (under 9 years, under 11 years, and under 13 years age groups) from Switzerland, Germany, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands were invited. Clubs were randomised to an intervention group and a control group, and followed for one season. The intervention group replaced their usual warm-up by '11+ Kids', while the control group warmed up as usual. The primary outcome was the overall risk of football-related injuries. Secondary outcomes were the risks of severe and lower extremity injuries. We calculated hazard ratios using extended Cox models, and performed a compliance analysis. In total, 292,749 h of football exposure of 3895 players were recorded. The mean age of players was 10.8 (standard deviation 1.4) years. During the study period, 374 (intervention group = 139; control group = 235) injuries occurred. The overall injury rate in the intervention group was reduced by 48% compared with the control group (hazard ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.86). Severe (74% reduction, hazard ratio 0.26; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.64) and lower extremity injuries (55% reduction, hazard ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.84) were also reduced. Injury incidence decreased with increasing compliance. '11+ Kids' is efficacious in reducing injuries in children's football. We observed considerable effects for overall, severe and lower extremity injuries. The programme should be performed at least once per week to profit from an injury preventive effect. However, two sessions per week can be recommended to further increase the protective benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02222025.

  11. Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

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    Sara A. Freedman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.

  12. Role of Nrf2 in preventing oxidative stress induced chloride current alteration in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Rita; Benedusi, Mascia; Martini, Marta; Cervellati, Franco; Cavicchio, Carlotta; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2018-08-01

    The lung tissue is one of the main targets of oxidative stress due to external sources and respiratory activity. In our previous work, we have demonstrated in that O 3 exposure alters the Cl - current-voltage relationship, with the appearance of a large outward rectifier component mainly sustained by outward rectifier chloride channels (ORCCs) in human lung epithelial cells (A549 line). In the present study, we have performed patch clamp experiments, in order to identify which one of the O 3 byproducts (4hydroxynonenal (HNE) and/or H 2 O 2 ) was responsible for chloride current change. While 4HNE exposition (up to 25 μM for 30' before electrophysiological analysis) did not reproduce O 3 effect, H 2 O 2 produced by glucose oxidase 10 mU for 24 hr before electrophysiological analysis mimicked O 3 response. This result was confirmed treating the cell with catalase (CAT) before O 3 exposure (1,000 U/ml for 2 hr): CAT was able to rescue Cl - current alteration. Since CAT is regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor, we pre-treated the cells with the Nrf2 activators, resveratrol and tBHQ. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical results showed Nrf2 activation with both substances that lead to prevent OS effect on Cl - current. These data bring new insights into the mechanisms involved in OS-induced lung tissue damage, pointing out the role of H 2 O 2 in chloride current alteration and the ability of Nfr2 activation in preventing this effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevention of sexual transmission of Ebola in Liberia through a national semen testing and counselling programme for survivors: an analysis of Ebola virus RNA results and behavioural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soka, Moses J; Choi, Mary J; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Purpura, Lawrence J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Abad, Neetu; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip K; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Oneykachi C; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Kowalewski, Stephen; German, Emilio; Stenger, Mark; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Vanderende, Kristin E; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Green, Hugh Henry W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus. The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for Ebola virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR and participants received counselling on safe sexual practices. Participants graduated after receiving two consecutive negative semen tests. Counsellors collected information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviours using questionnaires administered at enrolment, follow up, and graduation visits. Because the programme is ongoing, data analysis was restricted to data obtained from July 7, 2015, to May 6, 2016. As of May 6, 2016, 466 Ebola virus disease survivors had enrolled in the programme; real-time RT-PCR results were available from 429 participants. 38 participants (9%) produced at least one semen specimen that tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Of these, 24 (63%) provided semen specimens that tested positive 12 months or longer after Ebola virus disease recovery. The longest interval between discharge from an Ebola treatment unit and collection of a positive semen sample was 565 days. Among participants who enrolled and provided specimens more than 90 days since their Ebola treatment unit discharge, men older than 40 years were more likely to have a semen sample test positive than were men aged 40 years or younger (p=0·0004). 84 (74%) of 113 participants who reported not using a condom at enrolment reported using condoms at their first follow-up visit (pEbola virus RNA by real-time RT

  14. Transitioning from antenatal surveillance surveys to routine HIV testing: a turning point in the mother-to-child transmission prevention programme for HIV surveillance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2017-07-05

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS. Both the PMTCT programme and the ANC SS tested for HIV using sequential ELISA and western blot for confirmation. We assessed the completeness (% missing) of the PMTC data included in the ANC SS. Of the 36,713 pregnant women who had ANC SS HIV tests performed, 30,588 also underwent PMTCT HIV testing. The HIV prevalence rate from routine PMTCT testing was 0.36%, compared to 0.38% from the ANC SS testing (relative difference -0.05%; absolute difference -0.02%). The relative difference in prevalence rates between pregnant women in northern Brazil and pregnant women central-west Brazil was -0.98 and 0.66, respectively. Of the 29,856 women who had HIV test results from both the PMTCT and ANC SS, the positive percent agreement of the PMTCT versus the surveillance test was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.8-91.0), and the negative percent agreement was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.9-100.0). The PMTCT HIV testing uptake was 86.4%. The ANC SS HIV prevalence was 0.33% among PMTCT non-refusers and 0.59% among refusers, with a percent bias of -10.80% and a differential prevalence ratio of 0.56. Syphilis and HIV testing results were complete in 98% and 97.6% of PMTCT reports, respectively. The reported HIV status for the women at clinic entry was missing. Although there were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from the PMTCT data and the ANC SS, the overall positive percent agreement of 84.1% falls below the

  15. Mental stress as consequence and cause of vision loss: the dawn of psychosomatic ophthalmology for preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Wang, Jiaqi; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Faiq, Muneeb; Heim, Christine

    2018-06-01

    The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy. Although stress is a known risk factor, its causal role in the development or progression of certain visual system disorders is not widely appreciated. This review of the literature discusses the relationship of stress and ophthalmological diseases. We conclude that stress is both consequence and cause of vision loss. This creates a vicious cycle of a downward spiral, in which initial vision loss creates stress which further accelerates vision loss, creating even more stress and so forth. This new psychosomatic perspective has several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss but possibly as preventive means to reduce progression of vision loss. Secondly, doctors should try their best to inculcate positivity and optimism in their patients while giving them the information the patients are entitled to, especially regarding the important value of stress reduction. In this way, the vicious cycle could be interrupted. More clinical studies are now

  16. Prevention of MSDs and psychological stress at computer-equipped workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reinhold

    2014-12-01

    season. As muscle strain is often coming from the static posture, it may be influenced also by the psycho-emotional stress at workplace. The questionnaires, objective methods and environmental measurements are useful to plan prevention and early rehabilitation before the disability appears.

  17. Improving ART programme retention and viral suppression are key to maximising impact of treatment as prevention - a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Strong, Mark; Vernon, Ian; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Oakley, Jeremy E; Goldstein, Michael; Hayes, Richard; White, Richard G

    2017-08-09

    UNAIDS calls for fewer than 500,000 new HIV infections/year by 2020, with treatment-as-prevention being a key part of their strategy for achieving the target. A better understanding of the contribution to transmission of people at different stages of the care pathway can help focus intervention services at populations where they may have the greatest effect. We investigate this using Uganda as a case study. An individual-based HIV/ART model was fitted using history matching. 100 model fits were generated to account for uncertainties in sexual behaviour, HIV epidemiology, and ART coverage up to 2015 in Uganda. A number of different ART scale-up intervention scenarios were simulated between 2016 and 2030. The incidence and proportion of transmission over time from people with primary infection, post-primary ART-naïve infection, and people currently or previously on ART was calculated. In all scenarios, the proportion of transmission by ART-naïve people decreases, from 70% (61%-79%) in 2015 to between 23% (15%-40%) and 47% (35%-61%) in 2030. The proportion of transmission by people on ART increases from 7.8% (3.5%-13%) to between 14% (7.0%-24%) and 38% (21%-55%). The proportion of transmission by ART dropouts increases from 22% (15%-33%) to between 31% (23%-43%) and 56% (43%-70%). People who are currently or previously on ART are likely to play an increasingly large role in transmission as ART coverage increases in Uganda. Improving retention on ART, and ensuring that people on ART remain virally suppressed, will be key in reducing HIV incidence in Uganda.

  18. CaPSCA: Evaluation of a Brief Cancer Prevention Education Programme to Promote Balanced Diet in French School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two cancer prevention interventions in improving balanced diet among French children aged 12-14 years. The educational techniques used were taken from the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs; Abraham & Michie, 2008). Allocation to intervention group (intervention versus control) was randomised at the school-level, the intervention group received two interventions, each of 1-h duration, containing BCTs including advocated attitude, anticipated success/regret, behaviour modelling and barrier identification. Self-reported diet was assessed pre- and post-interventions. The resulting data were coded by a nutritionist and transformed into a novel measure representing the extent to which the participant achieved a balanced diet. Multilevel modelling indicated that, having taken into account the clustered nature of the data, gender and the differing socio-economic status of the participants, balanced diet decreased over time, b=-1.23, t(1830)=-2.79, p=0.005, but this was qualified by a significant interaction effect with intervention, b=1.42, t(1830)=1.98, p=0.047. Separate models for each intervention group revealed that balanced diet decreased over time in the control group, b=-1.25, t(1195)=-2.47, p=0.014, but did not in the intervention group, b=0.19, t(635)=0.44, p=0.66, suggesting a buffering effect of the interventions on balanced diet over time. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of educational interventions using established behaviour change techniques, to change behaviour.

  19. Development of macaronic Hindi-English ‘Hinglish’ text message content for a coronary heart disease secondary prevention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288

  20. [Initial evaluation of a programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Equatorial Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Navarro, Katie; Prieto-Tato, Luis; Obiang-Esomoyo, Jacinta; Avedillo-Jiménez, Pedro; Vargas-Brizuela, Antonio; Rojo-Conejo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (EG) has been reported as 7.3%. In 2008 an updated version of the PMTCT protocol was accepted according to the current WHO guidelines. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of children exposed to HIV after the introduction of the protocol. A retrospective review was conducted on the clinical characteristics of the infants born to HIV-infected mothers in the Hospital Regional de Bata and Primary Health Care Centre Maria Rafols in Bata (EG) between June 2008 and November 2011. The diagnosis of HIV infection in children was based on rapid serology tests. A total of 103 children were included, of which 47 were males. Fifty three patients (51%) completed the follow-up (51%). Fourteen children (26%) were diagnosed with HIV infection (11 presumptive diagnosis, 3 due to persistence of antibodies at 18 months). Six children (12%) died before a definitive diagnosis. Just over than half (52%) of mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy. The transmission rate in children whose mothers received ART was 16% (3/19), compared with 43% (10/23) in children whose mothers did not receive it. Only one child was infected (8%) when the mother received ART, and child received postnatal prophylaxis. The PMTCT protocol compliance was still very low. Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women decreased the rate of vertical transmission, but the rate still remains very high. Many children were lost to follow-up. Strategies to prevent loss to follow-up and methods for earlier virological diagnostic are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Stress, Gender, and Culture on Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Among Black Men: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Asani H; Hurt, Tera R; Shirley, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    This study used focus-group methodology to seek understanding about the unique influence of stress, gender, and culture on type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) prevention and management among Black men. Twenty men from Iowa were recruited from a larger longitudinal study on Black families; each of these men participated in one of three focus groups. Ninety-five percent of the men in the sample were Black and all were either diagnosed with t2dm (n = 10), were prediabetic (n = 1), or had experience with t2dm through family and friends (n = 9). Our results revealed the existence of significant stress and some pessimism with respect to perceived ability to prevent and manage t2dm. The participants made it clear that, while their families are primary sources of support for managing stress, including t2dm, they can also be a source of stress, particularly with respect to parenting. Black men had mixed opinions on their relationships with respect to their health care providers; some had positive, long-standing relationships while others reported little or no relationship with their providers. In response to life stress, Black men reported experiencing inadequate and disrupted sleep as well as consuming too much alcohol at times. Some of the participants reported engaging in physical activity to manage their stress. The study concluded that, as researchers develop t2dm prevention and management programs, they should continue to consider the unique role that stress in its various forms, plays in the lives of Black men. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Ya-Xian Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB, a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent.

  3. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jian-Nan; Huang, Song; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent. PMID:26903706

  4. Halotolerant PGPRs Prevent Major Shifts in Indigenous Microbial Community Structure Under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nidhi; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2015-07-01

    The resilience of soil microbial populations and processes to environmental perturbation is of increasing interest as alteration in rhizosphere microbial community dynamics impacts the combined functions of plant-microbe interactions. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with halotolerant rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus (STR2), Halomonas desiderata (STR8), and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the indigenous root-associated microbial (bacterial and fungal) communities in maize under non-saline and salinity stress. Plants inoculated with halotolerant rhizobacteria recorded improved growth as illustrated by significantly higher shoot and root dry weight and elongation in comparison to un-inoculated control plants under both non-saline and saline conditions. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction ordination analysis revealed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculations as well as salinity are major drivers of microbial community shift in maize rhizosphere. Salinity negatively impacts microbial community as analysed through diversity indices; among the PGPR-inoculated plants, STR2-inoculated plants recorded higher values of diversity indices. As observed in the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, the inoculation of halotolerant rhizobacteria prevents major shift of the microbial community structure, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of the microbial communities.

  5. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  6. [Screening for colorectal cancer: a cost benefit analysis on a health prevention programme at the Boehringer Ingelheim Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Häck, H-J

    2011-05-01

    In Germany, approximately 70.000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer every year. With early diagnosis the recovery rates are over 90 % and early intervention can significantly reduce the costs of medical treatment as well as the economic losses from worker productivity. We here present the organisational procedure for bowel cancer screening and have weighed the costs against benefits to employees, the company and the healthcare system. The screening costs are compared with economic benefits. The target group for the study consisted of all 11.536 employees at the company's site in Germany. Volunteers were given a standardized questionnaire about the risk factors for colorectal cancers and an immunological fecal occult blood test (IFOBT). If risk factors for development of colorectal cancer were present or if the test result was positive, a colonoscopy was recommended in accordance with DGVS guidelines (German Society of Digestive and Metabolic diseases). A total of 4.287 employees (37.2 %) indicated an interest in undergoing screening; at the end of the period 3.958 complete datasets (2.296 men and 1.662 women, mean age 51.2 years) were available for evaluation. A colonoscopy was performed on 114 persons. Six cases of overt cancer were detected with three in the 36 - 50 age group and three in the 51 - 65 age group. Five of the six cases were stage T1 or T2. Adenomatous polyps were found and removed in 29 persons. The calculated cost benefit ratio was 1:2 for the company and 1:35 for the public health system. Using the example of colorectal screening, this study represents a cost benefit analysis of this preventative health measure in a company environment. The results show that even while taking into account the financial and personal commitment required, the cost benefit ratio is positive both for the company and for the healthcare system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. New guidelines are needed to manage heat stress in elite sports--The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) Heat Stress Monitoring Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Roald; Reeser, Jonathan C

    2012-09-01

    There seems to be a discrepancy between the available heat stress guidelines and the actual risk of heat-related illness among professional beach volleyball players competing under hot and humid conditions. To monitor heat stress and record cases of heat-related medical forfeits on the Swatch FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour. The FIVB Heat Stress Monitoring Protocol covered events on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Championships during the 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons (51 events, most of these double gender). The protocol consisted of (1) measuring the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) on centre court prior to the start of every match, and (2) recording any heat-related medical forfeits during the tournament. Data were collected during 48 of 51 events. There were nine events where the peak WBGT exceeded the US Navy Black flag conditions of >32.3°C and an additional two events where the peak WBGT exceeded 31°C, (meeting Red flag conditions.) In two events, the average WBGT equalled at least 31°C. One case of a medical forfeit related to heat stress was recorded over the 3-year surveillance period: an athlete whose fluid balance was compromised from a 3-day bout of acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of significant heat illness among athletes competing on the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour appears to be quite low, even though weather conditions frequently result in a WBGT index >32°C. Currently available guidelines appear to be inadequate to fully assess the risk of heat stress and too conservative to inform safety decisions in professional beach volleyball.

  8. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    Family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity depend upon parents' taking action to improve diet and other lifestyle behaviours in their families. Programmes that attract and retain high numbers of parents provide an enhanced opportunity to improve public health and are also likely to be more cost-effective than those that do not. We have developed a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement within an existing childhood obesity prevention group programme, HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young). Here, we describe a proposal to evaluate the effectiveness of this optimisation intervention in regard to the engagement of parents and cost-effectiveness. The Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial is a cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted across 24 local authorities (approximately 144 children's centres) which currently deliver HENRY programmes. The primary outcome will be parental enrolment and attendance at the HENRY programme, assessed using routinely collected process data. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of primary outcomes using acceptability curves and through eliciting the willingness to pay for the optimisation from HENRY commissioners. Secondary outcomes include the longitudinal impact of the optimisation, parent-reported infant intake of fruits and vegetables (as a proxy to compliance) and other parent-reported family habits and lifestyle. This innovative trial will provide evidence on the implementation of a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement in HENRY, a community-based childhood obesity prevention programme. The findings will be generalisable to other interventions delivered to parents in other community-based environments. This research meets the expressed needs of commissioners, children's centres and parents to optimise the potential impact that HENRY has on obesity prevention. A subsequent cluster randomised controlled pilot

  9. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  10. Level of Awareness of Various Aspects of Lung Cancer Among College Teachers in India: Impact of Cancer Awareness Programmes in Prevention and Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Malik, Abhidha; Rath, G K; Julka, P K; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Barnwal, Keshav; Upadhyaya, Sneha; Singh, Rajan; Srivastava, Vivek

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality among men in India and incidence is increasing, but actually, they are largely preventable diseases. In India, advanced stage at the time of presentation is responsible for high mortality and morbidity and early detection is the only way to reduce it. The purpose of this study is to know the level of awareness of various aspects of lung cancer among college teachers and impact of awareness programmes in its prevention and early detection. This assessment was part of Pink Chain Campaign-a campaign on cancer awareness. During the cancer awareness events in 2011-2013 at various women colleges in different parts in India, pre-test related to lung cancer was followed by awareness programme. Post-test using the same questionnaire was conducted at the end of interactive session, at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 872 out of 985 teachers participated in the study (overall response rate was 88.5 %). Mean age of the study population was 41.6 years (range 26-59 years). There was a significant increase in the level of knowledge regarding lung cancer at 6 months, and this was sustained at 1 year. Among teachers who were just asked yes or no question, 117 teachers (13.4 %) were smokers and 241 teachers (27.6 %) were alcoholics. Magazines and newspapers were sources for knowledge in 50-60 % of teachers, whereas approximately 30 % of teachers were educated by TV and Internet regarding various aspects of lung cancer. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, Pink Chain Campaign was the major source of knowledge related to lung cancer in more than 90 % of teachers by continuous and timely update on subject. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, there was a significant change in alcohol and smoking habits. Major reasons for not going for check-up were ignorance (83.1 %), fear (30.1 %) and lethargic attitude (29.3 %) initially, but over time, lack of time, lethargic attitude and hesitation became

  11. Gallic acid prevents nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy in rat by blocking oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Maity, Pallab; Adhikari, Susanta S; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2010-07-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and gastropathy. NSAIDs induce the generation of hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) through the release of free iron, which plays an important role in developing gastropathy. Thus, molecules having both iron-chelating and antiapoptotic properties will be beneficial in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic natural product, has the capacity to chelate free iron. Here, we report that GA significantly prevents, as well as heals, NSAID-induced gastropathy. In vivo, GA blocks NSAID-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. In vitro, GA scavenges free radicals and blocks (*)OH-mediated oxidative damage. GA also attenuates gastric mucosal cell apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro in cultured gastric mucosal cells as evident from the TUNEL assay. GA prevents NSAID-induced activation of caspase-9, a marker for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and restores NSAID-mediated collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and dehydrogenase activity. Thus, the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress by GA is associated with the inhibition of NSAID-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which are responsible for gastric injury or gastropathy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3 ± 13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  13. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3±13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  14. [Evaluation of the implementation of the FAPACAN programme to prevent cancer behavioral risk in primary care users in the North of Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López González, M Luisa; Fernández Carreira, Jose Manuel; López González, Santiago; del Olivo del Valle Gómez, M; García Casas, Juan Bautista; Cueto Espinar, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the process is an essential condition to correctly measure the impact of educational interventions on behaviour, its psychosocial determinants and the state of change, in the context of health promotion. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the implementation of the FAPACAN Programme, designed to prevent behavioural risk of cancer in Primary Care, and to improve its psychosocial determinants in the A.S.E. Model and the state of change according to Prochaska and DiClemente Theory. The quality of implementation was measured by means of a visit to the health centre, by filling in a checklist 'in situ', and a phone survey with the patient. Centralisation and association measures were found (Pearson and Spearman's coefficient). A multiple regression model was obtained with the score made by the patient (range of 0 to 8) and the covariables: gender, age, level of education, locality and family history of cancer. The quality scores obtained oscillate between 72% and 81% of optimum quality. Significant differences were found owing to the administrator (better with fewer years of exercise) and the patient (better with higher level of study). In general, the quality of implementation was more than sufficient, in spite of the poor provision by the health system.

  15. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  16. Prevention of Stress-Impaired Fear Extinction Through Neuropeptide S Action in the Lateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fe...

  17. Rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A means to prevent missed acute ischemic coronary syndrome diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Pattekar, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The sensitivity and specificity of rest/stress (R/S) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in detecting an acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) was determined in 100 consecutive patients (pts) admitted to the Chest Pain Clinic-Observation Unit (CPC-OU) with chest pain (CP) of suspected cardiac etiology and a negative (neg) or non diagnostic (dx) EKG. There were 57 females and 43 males, 30-83 years of age. 50 studies were performed from 1/15/98 to 4/2/98; 50 from 11/19/99 to 1/10/00. Material and Methods: An AICS was deemed present if a reversible perfusion defect was demonstrated scintigraphically; a ?50% luminal narrow angiographically. No AICS if the pt had a normal R/S MPI, a fixed defect with normal wall motion and thickening, a neg cardiac catheterization, or was free of cardiac symptoms and had no history of a vascular event for 2-3 years post CPC-OU admission. 13 pts with a positive MPI had a cardiac catheterization, none with a neg MPI. SPECT rest MPI's were performed 30-90 minutes (mins) post 10.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. SPECT stress MPI's were performed following a 6-8 hour acute myocardial infarction enzyme (CP-MB/Troponin 1) rule out and 30-90 mins post 30.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. Results: 29 pts were lost to follow-up. There were 12 true positive, 5 false positive, 54 true negative and 0 false negative studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a R/S MPI in detecting an AICS is 100%, 91%, 70% and 100%, respectively. An AICS was detected in 12% of pts admitted to the CPC-OU; a finding that correlates with its reported incidence of 2-12%. 6 were managed medically, 3 required emergent bypass surgery, 3 were stented. Conclusion: R/S MPI should be included in the CPC-OU dx work-up of pts with CP of suspected cardiac etiology to prevent missed AICS diagnoses. Patient care will be optimized and health care and medical malpractice awards for failure to diagnosis an acute myocardial infarction

  18. Novel oxindole derivatives prevent oxidative stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoko; Yamada, Chika; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Shotaro; Nagase, Haruna; Oh-Hashi, Kentaro; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Furuta, Kyoji

    2018-03-15

    The current medical and surgical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure. Thus, small synthetic compounds that protect neuronal cells from degeneration are critically needed to prevent and treat these. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In a search for neuroprotective agents against oxidative stress using the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line, we found a novel oxindole compound, GIF-0726-r, which prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death, including glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis. This compound also exerted a protective effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress to a lesser extent but had no effect on campthothecin-, etoposide- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis. In addition, GIF-0726-r was also found to be effective after the occurrence of oxidative stress. GIF-0726-r was capable of inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation and Ca 2+ influx, a presumed executor in cell death, and was capable of activating the antioxidant response element, which is a cis-acting regulatory element in promoter regions of several genes encoding phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant proteins. These results suggest that GIF-0726-r is a low-molecular-weight compound that prevents neuronal cell death through attenuation of oxidative stress. Among the more than 200 derivatives of the GIF-0726-r synthesized, we identified the 11 most potent activators of the antioxidant response element and characterized their neuroprotective activity in HT22 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diaphragm Muscle Weakness Following Acute Sustained Hypoxic Stress in the Mouse Is Prevented by Pretreatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. O’Leary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen deficit (hypoxia is a major feature of cardiorespiratory diseases characterized by diaphragm dysfunction, yet the putative role of hypoxic stress as a driver of diaphragm dysfunction is understudied. We explored the cellular and functional consequences of sustained hypoxic stress in a mouse model. Adult male mice were exposed to 8 hours of normoxia, or hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.10 with or without antioxidant pretreatment (N-acetyl cysteine, 200 mg/kg i.p.. Ventilation and metabolism were measured. Diaphragm muscle contractile function, myofibre size and distribution, gene expression, protein signalling cascades, and oxidative stress (TBARS were determined. Hypoxia caused pronounced diaphragm muscle weakness, unrelated to increased respiratory muscle work. Hypoxia increased diaphragm HIF-1α protein content and activated MAPK, mTOR, Akt, and FoxO3a signalling pathways, largely favouring protein synthesis. Hypoxia increased diaphragm lipid peroxidation, indicative of oxidative stress. FoxO3 and MuRF-1 gene expression were increased. Diaphragm 20S proteasome activity and muscle fibre size and distribution were unaffected by acute hypoxia. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine substantially enhanced cell survival signalling, prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm oxidative stress, and prevented hypoxia-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Hypoxia is a potent driver of diaphragm weakness, causing myofibre dysfunction without attendant atrophy. N-acetyl cysteine protects the hypoxic diaphragm and may have application as a potential adjunctive therapy.

  20. Garlic activates SIRT-3 to prevent cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Md Razia; Bagul, Pankaj K; Katare, Parameshwar B; Anwar Mohammed, Soheb; Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl). Garlic was administered at a dose of 250mg/kg/day, orally for four weeks. An additional group was maintained to evaluate the effect of raw garlic administration on control rat heart. We have observed altered functioning of cardiac mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and increased levels of cardiac ROS with decreased activity of catalase and SOD in diabetic rats. Cardiac mRNA expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, and CO1 was also altered in diabetes. In addition, reduced levels of electron transport chain complexes that observed in Dia group were normalized with garlic administration. This indicates the presence of increased oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunctioning in diabetic heart. We have observed reduced activity of SIRT3 and increased acetylation of MnSOD. Silencing SIRT-3 in cells also revealed the same. However, administration of garlic improved the SIRT-3 and MnSOD activity, by deacetylating MnSOD. Increased SOD activity was correlated with reduced levels of ROS in garlic-administered rat hearts. Collectively, our results provide an insight into garlic's protection to T1DM heart through activation of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of change: Testing how preventative interventions impact psychological and physiological stress functioning in mothers in neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.

  2. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  3. Irie Classroom Toolbox: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial of a universal violence prevention programme in Jamaican preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Vera-Hernández, Marcos; Alderman, Harold; Walker, Susan

    2016-05-10

    We aim to determine the effectiveness of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Jamaican preschools, on reducing the levels of aggression among children at school, and violence against children by teachers. This is a 2-arm, single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Clusters are 76 preschools in Kingston, and all teachers and classrooms in the selected schools are included in the study. In addition, a random sample of up to 12 children in the 4-year-old classes have been selected for evaluation of child-level outcomes. The intervention involves training teachers in classroom behaviour management and in strategies to promote children's social-emotional competence. Training is delivered through five full-day workshops, monthly in-class coaching over 2 school terms, and weekly text messages. The primary outcome measures are: (1) observed levels of child aggression and (2) observed violence against children by teachers. Secondary outcomes include observations of the levels of children's prosocial behaviour and the quality of the classroom environment, teachers' reports of their mental health, teacher-reported child mental health, direct tests of children's self-regulation and child attendance. If this intervention were effective at improving the caregiving environment of young children in school, this would have significant implications for the prevention of child mental health problems, and prevention of violence against children in low and middle-income countries where services are often limited. The intervention is integrated into the school system and involves training existing staff, and thus, represents an appropriate strategy for large-scale implementation and benefits at the population level. Ethical consent for the study was given by the School of Psychology Ethics and Research Committee, Bangor University (ref: 2014-14167), and by the University of the West Indies Ethics Committee (ref: ECP 50

  4. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-18

    To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  7. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  8. Periparturient stress and immune suppression as a potential cause of retained placenta in highly productive dairy cows: examples of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordak, Ryszard; Stewart, Peter Anthony; Anthony, Stewart Peter

    2015-12-02

    The immune system during the periparturient period is impaired. At this time the most important factor causing immune-suppression in highly productive cows is metabolic stress resulting from hormonal and metabolic fluctuations, a negative energy balance, shortage of proteins, minerals and vitamins which are required to meet the demands of the fetus as well as the onset of lactation. This stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA), which results in increase plasma corticosteroids. As a result, the cortisol concentration during the periparturient period increases by several folds particularly on the day of calving. Cortisol is a powerful immune-suppressive agent. During stress, this hormone causes depression of the leukocyte proliferation and their functions. Decreased phagocytosis of neutrophils, decreased cytotoxic ability of lymphocytes, as well as depressed activity of their cytokines, make it impossible for the normal, efficient maternal immune recognition and rejection of fetal membranes (as a foreign, allogeneic tissue expressed fetal antigens-MHC class I proteins by trophoblast cells) and finally results in their retention in cows. The metabolic periparturient stress also activates production of catecholamines, especially adrenalin. Adrenalin activates adrenoreceptors of the myometrium and then causes hypotony or atony of the uterus. Thus, cortisol and adrenalin inhibit rejection and expulsion of fetal membranes and cause their retention. These mechanisms of retained placenta (RP) often have a metabolic etiology and occur in herds, where important infectious diseases causing placentitis are absent or prevented. The aim of this article is to show the fundamental mechanisms occurring during periparturient stress and the accompanied immune-suppression in cows, as well as their consequences in relation to RP. The paper also gives examples of the symptomatic prevention of RP in cows caused by metabolic and immune suppressive factors

  9. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress.

  10. The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2018-03-06

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.

  11. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, H L; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, B M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, pViolence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), pviolence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.

  12. Patients' perceptions and experiences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review and framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; Holland, Carol; Pattison, Helen M; Cooke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This review provides a worked example of 'best fit' framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of health psychology theories as an a priori framework in the synthesis of qualitative evidence. Framework synthesis works best with 'policy urgent' questions. The review question selected was: what are patients' experiences of prevention programmes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes? The significance of these conditions is clear: CVD claims more deaths worldwide than any other; diabetes is a risk factor for CVD and leading cause of death. A systematic review and framework synthesis were conducted. This novel method for synthesizing qualitative evidence aims to make health psychology theory accessible to implementation science and advance the application of qualitative research findings in evidence-based healthcare. Findings from 14 original studies were coded deductively into the TDF and subsequently an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Synthesized findings produced six themes relating to: knowledge, beliefs, cues to (in)action, social influences, role and identity, and context. A conceptual model was generated illustrating combinations of factors that produce cues to (in)action. This model demonstrated interrelationships between individual (beliefs and knowledge) and societal (social influences, role and identity, context) factors. Several intervention points were highlighted where factors could be manipulated to produce favourable cues to action. However, a lack of transparency of behavioural components of published interventions needs to be corrected and further evaluations of acceptability in relation to patient experience are required. Further work is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the TDF as an a priori framework for 'policy urgent' questions using 'best fit' framework synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Failure prevention with stress measurement for dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komber, T.; Reimche, W.; Bach, F.W.

    2003-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities is in progress since 20 years in Germany. Practical experiences in decommissioning have shown, that problem can occur during dismantling operations caused by release of residual stresses. In this case cutting parts or cutting tools get jammed if mechanical cutting techniques are used. The aim of this research work was to develop measuring techniques for the determination of the stress state in RPV, to predict the deformation during dismantling operations. This can serve as additional base for improved decommissioning planning and for time optimised dismantling. For determination of the stress state in components two small and inexpensive measuring techniques were new designed, for remote-controlled on-site use in atmosphere and under water. For the nondestructive determination of the directional stress state, based on the magnetostriction and the Harmonic-Analysis of alternating magnetic fields, a new developed rotating sensor is in use with a principal magnetisation direction. Because of the mainly isotropic material properties and the directional stresses, measured Harmonic values are influenced mainly by the stress state in the surface areas. In this way it is possible to determine the stress state qualitatively and the direction of principal stresses in the surface areas of the component. As an alternative to the established wire strain gauge, which remote-controlled application is still not possible under water, a new slot jet cutting strain control technique was designed. This technique detects the deformation in the surface after stresses are cut free by a water jet. So the stress state could be determined quantitatively in the surface and assessed in the depth. With the help of these two measuring techniques it is possible to characterize the stress