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Sample records for stress post-stress dissociation

  1. Usefulness of combination post-stress dysfunction and perfusion imaging in technetium-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoko; Imai, Kamon; Konaka, Ryohei; Nakajima, Takatomo; Goto, Sayaka; Horie, Toshinobu; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has lower sensitivity for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with three-vessel disease. The presence of post-stress dysfunction of the left ventricle, evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a quantitative gated SPECT program, was investigated in patients with coronary artery disease, and also whether combining post-stress dysfunction and myocardial perfusion imaging improved the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. ECG gated technetium-99m-tetrofosmin SPECT was performed using a one day, stress and rest, protocol in 139 patients. SPECT and coronary angiography were performed within 1 month. The coronary artery disease group consisted of 89 patients: 43 with one-vessel disease (1VD), 28 with two-vessel disease (2VD), and 18 with three-vessel disease (3VD). The group with zero-vessel disease (0VD) consisted of 50 patients. According to post-stress and rest ejection fraction (EF) and end-systolic volume (ESV), post-stress dysfunction is defined as follows: rest EF - post-stress EF≥5% and post-stress ESV - rest ESV≥5ml. In the coronary artery disease group, post-stress ESV was larger than rest ESV (37.8±26.4, 34.0±24.2 ml, p<0.001), and post-stress EF was lower than rest EF (61.5±11.1%, 64.2±10.8%, p<0.001). In the 0VD group, ESV and EF were the same for post-stress and rest (25.7±20.8, 26.2±21.6 ml, NS; 70.4±9.5%, 70.0±9.6%, NS). Post-stress dysfunction was 6.0% in the 0VD group and 30.3% in the coronary artery disease group (p<0.001). Furthermore, post-stress dysfunction in the 2VD (35.7%) and 3VD (38.9%) groups was higher than that in the 0VD group (p<0.01, p<0.01). Sensitivity of coronary artery disease diagnosis by myocardial perfusion imaging was 75%. The combination of post-stress dysfunction and myocardial perfusion imaging improved sensitivity from 75% to 82% (p<0.05), but reduced the specificity from 92% to 86% (p=0.08). Post-stress

  2. Criterial learning is not enough: Retrieval practice is necessary for improving post-stress memory accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy M; Davis, F Caroline; Thomas, Ayanna K

    2018-06-01

    In a recent study, having participants make three retrieval attempts (i.e., retrieval practice) when learning information strengthened memory against the detrimental effects of psychological stress. We aimed to determine whether learning to criterion, in which only one successful retrieval attempt is made, would similarly buffer memory against stress, or whether multiple retrieval attempts are necessary to achieve that effect. In Experiment 1, participants learned to criterion and then engaged in additional restudying (CL S ) or retrieval practice (CL R ). Twenty-four hours later, stress was induced and stress-related increases in cortisol were observed. However, no differences in recall performance were observed between any of the groups. Experiment 2 was similar but introduced a 1-week delay between encoding and retrieval. Recall performance was impaired for both groups under stress, but recall for those in the CL R group was still better than either pre- or post-stress performance for those in the CL S group. Thus, criterial learning may protect memory against stress in the short-term, but additional retrieval practice is more beneficial for achieving this effect in the long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Blue lighting accelerates post-stress relaxation: Results of a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, Jesus; Lopez-Gordo, Miguel Angel; Renedo-Criado, Diego A; Sanchez-Carrion, Maria Jose; Pelayo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Several authors have studied the influence of light on both human physiology and emotions. Blue light has been proved to reduce sleepiness by suppression of melatonin secretion and it is also present in many emotion-related studies. Most of these have a common lack of objective methodology since results and conclusions are based on subjective perception of emotions. The aim of this work was the objective assessment of the effect of blue lighting in post-stress relaxation, in comparison with white lighting, by means of bio-signals and standardized procedures. We conducted a study in which twelve healthy volunteers were stressed and then performed a relaxation session within a chromotherapy room with blue (test group) or white (control group) lighting. We conclude that the blue lighting accelerates the relaxation process after stress in comparison with conventional white lighting. The relaxation time decreased by approximately three-fold (1.1 vs. 3.5 minutes). We also observed a convergence time (3.5-5 minutes) after which the advantage of blue lighting disappeared. This supports the relationship between color of light and stress, and the observations reported in previous works. These findings could be useful in clinical and educational environments, as well as in daily-life context and emerging technologies such as neuromarketing. However, our study must be extended to draw reliable conclusions and solid scientific evidence.

  4. Blue lighting accelerates post-stress relaxation: Results of a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Minguillon

    Full Text Available Several authors have studied the influence of light on both human physiology and emotions. Blue light has been proved to reduce sleepiness by suppression of melatonin secretion and it is also present in many emotion-related studies. Most of these have a common lack of objective methodology since results and conclusions are based on subjective perception of emotions. The aim of this work was the objective assessment of the effect of blue lighting in post-stress relaxation, in comparison with white lighting, by means of bio-signals and standardized procedures. We conducted a study in which twelve healthy volunteers were stressed and then performed a relaxation session within a chromotherapy room with blue (test group or white (control group lighting. We conclude that the blue lighting accelerates the relaxation process after stress in comparison with conventional white lighting. The relaxation time decreased by approximately three-fold (1.1 vs. 3.5 minutes. We also observed a convergence time (3.5-5 minutes after which the advantage of blue lighting disappeared. This supports the relationship between color of light and stress, and the observations reported in previous works. These findings could be useful in clinical and educational environments, as well as in daily-life context and emerging technologies such as neuromarketing. However, our study must be extended to draw reliable conclusions and solid scientific evidence.

  5. Prognostic implications of post-stress ejection fraction decrease detected by gated SPECT in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Manjola; Massi, Lucia; Settimo, Leonardo; Bartolini, Matteo; Gianni, Gianluca; Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The prognostic meaning of a post-stress ejection fraction (EF) decrease detected by perfusion gated SPECT is still unclear. We therefore followed up patients with post-stress EF decrease in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. We prospectively enrolled 57 consecutive patients with post-stress EF drop {>=} 5 EF units and summed difference score (SDS) {<=} 1. They were followed up for more than 1 year and their outcome was compared with a group of sex- and age-matched controls with the same SDS but without EF decrease. During follow-up there were 13 events (1 cardiac death, 1 non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1 congestive heart failure and 10 late revascularizations). In the control group we registered six events. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the event-free survival curves of the two groups. The event rate of patients with post-stress EF decrease {>=} 5 EF units is relatively high and is significantly worse than that of a control group of patients with similarly normal SDS but without EF changes. Therefore, a post-stress EF decrease without stress-induced perfusion abnormalities should be cautiously interpreted. (orig.)

  6. Effects of perfusion detect on the measurement of left ventricular mass, ventricular volume and post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    The presence of perfusion defect may influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) measurement by quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (QGS), and ischemic myocardium, usually showing perfusion defect may produce post-stress LV dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluated the effects of extent and reversibility of perfusion defect on the automatic measurement of LVM by QGS and to investigate the effect of reversibility of perfusion defect on post-stress LV dysfunction. Forty-six patients (male/female=34:12, mean age=64 years) with perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion SPECT underwent rest and post-stress QGS. Forty patients (87%) showed reversible defect. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF), and LV myocardial volume were obtained from QGS by autoquant program, and LVM was calculated by multiplying the LV myocardial volume by the specific gravity of myocardium. LVMs measured at rest and post-stress QGS showed good correlation, and higher correlation was founded in the subjects with fixed perfusion defect and with small defect (smaller than 20%). There were no significant differences in EDVs, ESVs and EFs between obtained by rest and post-stress QGS in patients with fixed myocardial defect. Whereas, EF obtained by post-stress QGS was lower than that by rest QGS in patients with reversible defect and 10 (25%) of them showed decreases in EF more than 5% in post-stress QGS, as compared to that of rest QGS. Excellent correlations of EDVs, ESVs, EFs between rest and post-stress QGS were noted. Patients with fixed defect had higher correlation between defect can affect LVM measurement by QGS and patients with reversible defect shows post-stress LV dysfunction more frequently than patients with fixed perfusion defect

  7. Coping with racism: the impact of prayer on cardiovascular reactivity and post-stress recovery in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R

    2014-04-01

    Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.

  8. Post-stress recovery of pituitary-adrenal hormones and glucose, but not the response during exposure to the stressor, is a marker of stress intensity in highly stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio

    2002-02-01

    Acute immobilization in male rats elicited the same ACTH, corticosterone and glucose response as foot shock when measured immediately after stress. However, post-stress recovery of plasma ACTH, corticosterone and glucose levels were delayed in immobilized versus shocked rats. Similarly, stress-induced anorexia was much greater in the former animals. All these data suggest that post-stress speed of recovery of some physiological variables is positively related to stressor intensity and could be used to evaluate it.

  9. Similar post-stress metabolic trajectories in young and old flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David

    2018-02-01

    Homeostenosis (i.e. decline in stress resistance and resilience with age) is a fundamental notion of the biogerontology and physiology of aging. Stressful situations typically challenge metabolic homeostasis and the capacity to recover from a stress-induced metabolic disorder might be particularly compromised in senescent individuals. In the present work, we report the effects of aging on low temperature stress tolerance and metabolic profiles in Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages. Adult flies aged 4, 16, 30 and 44days were subjected to acute and chronic cold stress, and data confirmed a strong decline in cold tolerance and resilience of old flies compared to young counterparts. Using quantitative target GC-MS analysis, we found distinct metabolic phenotypes between young (4day-old) and old (44day-old) flies, with glycolytic pathways being differentially affected between the two age groups. We also compared the robustness of metabolic homeostasis in young vs. old flies when exposed to cold stress using time-series metabolic analysis. In both age groups, we found evidence of strong alteration of metabolic profiles when flies were exposed to low temperature stress. Interestingly, the temporal metabolic trajectories during the recovery period were similar in young and old flies, despite strong differences in thermotolerance. In conclusion, metabolic signatures markedly changed with age and homeostenosis was observed in the phenotypic response to cold stress. However, these changes did not reflect in different temporal homeostatic response at metabolic level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  11. Changes in the protein patterns in pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots under the influence of long- and short-term chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowiec, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Weidner, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Amongst many factors restricting geographical distribution of plants and crop productivity, low temperature is one of the most important. To gain better understanding of the molecular response of germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) to low temperature, we investigated the influence of long and short chilling stress as well as post-stress recovery on the alterations in the root proteomes. The impact of long stress was examined on the pea seeds germinating in the continuous chilling conditions of 10 °C for 8 days (LS). To examine the impact of short stress, pea seeds germinating for 72 h in the optimal temperature of 20 °C were subjected to 24-h chilling (SS). Additionally, both stress treatments were followed by 24 h of recovery in the optimal conditions (accordingly LSR and SR). Using the 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS protein identification, it was revealed, that most of the proteins undergoing regulation under the applied conditions were implicated in metabolism, protection against stress, cell cycle regulation, cell structure maintenance and hormone synthesis, which altogether may influence root growth and development in the early stages of plant life. The obtained results have shown that most of detected alterations in the proteome patterns of pea roots are dependent on stress duration. However, there are some analogical response pathways which are triggered regardless of stress length. The functions of proteins which accumulation has been changed by chilling stress and post-stress recovery are discussed here in relation to their impact on pea roots development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of osmotic stress and post-stress recovery on the content of phenolics and properties of antioxidants in germinating seeds of grapevine Vitis californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tested material consisted of grapevine Vitis californica stratified seeds germinated under optimum conditions (+25°C in water, under osmotic stress (-0.2 MPa in PEG solution and submitted to recovery after stress (+25°C in water. The germinating seeds were determined to contain tannins, catechins and the following phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic. The acids occurred in free, ester- and glycoside-bound forms. The dominant form of phenolic acids was the ester-bound fraction. Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in germinating seeds, while ferulic acid appeared in the smallest amounts. Our analysis of tannins demonstrated that osmotic stress depressed their concentration. Presence of catechin group compounds such as catechin and epicatechin was also determined. In each sample epicatechin was dominant. The total concentration of catechin increased under stress conditions and declined during post-stress recovery. Catechins are a constituent of tannins and their increase under osmotic stress is most probably caused by the breakdown of some tannins in seeds germinating under stress conditions. Samples submitted to osmotic stress were also found to contain less of total phenolic compounds, whereas in samples which underwent post-stress recovery the total level of phenolic compounds increased. Compared to extracts from seeds germinating under optimum conditions, osmotic stress depressed the capacity of extract to scavenge DPPH● (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS●+ – 2,2-Azino-bis (3-etylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals, but the antioxidant activity rose in seeds submitted to recovery after stress. Positive correlation was therefore demonstrated between the total content of phenolic acids in germinating grapevine seeds and the reducing power of extracts obtained from these seeds and their free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that osmotic stress inhibits the activity of

  13. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  14. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-Tetrofosmin: Influence of post-stress acquisition time, regional radiotracer uptake, and wall motion abnormalities on the clinical result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette; Casagranda, Mirta; Tagliavia, Irene D'Aragona; Marzullo, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that early (15', T1) post-stress myocardial imaging with Tetrofosmin could be more accurate than standard acquisitions (45', T2) in identifying coronary artery disease. To clarify this phenomenon, 120 subjects (age 61 +/- 10 years) with both T1 and T2 scans were divided into Group 1 (53/120 pts) with more ischemia at T1 vs T2 imaging (T1-T2SDS > or = 3); Group 2 (67/120 pts) with similar results (T1-T2SDS statistic and semiquantitative wall motion/thickening values were obtained. Analysis of T1 and T2 post-stress myocardial counts demonstrated a significant Tetrofosmin wash-out rate that was higher in Group 1 control nonischemic regions (15 +/- 8% vs 13.6 +/- 9.6%, P stress wall thickening (T1-T2) was lower in Group 1 ischemic regions (-4.5 +/- 9.15% vs -1.90 +/- 7.0%, P stress acquisition time because of ischemic-induced regional wall thickening abnormalities and the existence of a differential radiotracer myocardial wash-out.

  15. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with early post-stress left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shen, Thau-Yun [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Changhua (China); Chang, Ming-Che [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Wan-Chen [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Ji [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In {sup 201}Tl SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) data are acquired shortly after the stress injection to assess early post-stress left ventricle (LV) function. The purpose of this study was to use {sup 201}Tl SPECT MPI to investigate whether stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with LV mechanical dyssynchrony. Enrolled in the study were 75 patients who were referred for dipyridamole stress and rest {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. The early post-stress scan was started 5 min after injection, and followed by the rest scan 4 h later. The patients were divided into three groups: ischemia group (N = 25, summed stress score, SSS, {>=}5, summed rest score, SRS, <5), infarct group (N = 16, SSS {>=}5, SRS {>=}5) and normal group (N = 34, SSS <5, SRS <5). LV dyssynchrony parameters were calculated by phase analysis, and compared between the stress and rest images. In the ischemia group, LV dyssynchrony was significantly larger during stress than during rest. On the contrary, LV dyssynchrony during stress was significantly smaller than during rest in the normal and infarct groups. LV dyssynchrony during rest was significantly larger in the infarct group than in the normal and ischemia groups. There were no significant differences in LV dyssynchrony during rest between the normal and ischemia groups. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia caused dyssynchronous contraction in the ischemic region, leading to a deterioration in LV synchrony. Normal myocardium had more synchronous contraction during stress. The different dyssynchrony pattern between ischemic and normal myocardium early post-stress may aid the diagnosis of coronary artery disease using {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  17. Baseline and post-stress seasonal changes in immunocompetence and redox state maintenance in the fishing bat Myotis vivesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Miranda-Labra, Roxana U.; Flores-Martínez, José Juan

    2018-01-01

    Little is known of how the stress response varies when animals confront seasonal life-history processes. Antioxidant defenses and damage caused by oxidative stress and their link with immunocompetence are powerful biomarkers to assess animal´s physiological stress response. The aim of this study was A) to determine redox state and variation in basal (pre-acute stress) immune function during summer, autumn and winter (spring was not assessed due to restrictions in collecting permit) in the fish-eating Myotis (Myotis vivesi; Chiroptera), and B) to determine the effect of acute stress on immunocompetence and redox state during each season. Acute stress was stimulated by restricting animal movement for 6 and 12 h. The magnitude of the cellular immune response was higher during winter whilst that of the humoral response was at its highest during summer. Humoral response increased after 6 h of movement restriction stress and returned to baseline levels after 12 h. Basal redox state was maintained throughout the year, with no significant changes in protein damage, and antioxidant activity was modulated mainly in relation to variation to environment cues, increasing during high temperatures and decreasing during windy nights. Antioxidant activity increased after the 6 h of stressful stimuli especially during summer and autumn, and to a lesser extent in early winter, but redox state did not vary. However, protein damage increased after 12 h of stress during summer. Prolonged stress when the bat is engaged in activities of high energy demand overcame its capacity to maintain homeostasis resulting in oxidative damage. PMID:29293551

  18. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Herman, James P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NTS NA A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n = 5; HPA study, n = 5] or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n = 6; HPA study, n = 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 d of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress.

  19. Effects of post-stress hydrogen annealing on MOS oxides after 60Co irradiation or Fowler-Nordheim injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, N.S.; Stahlbush, R.E.; Mrstik, B.J.; Rendell, R.W.; Klein, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in interface trap density D it have been determined in MOSFETs as a function of time during hydrogen annealing at 295K. Large increases in D it are observed during H 2 annealing in MOSFETs previously stressed by either 60 Co irradiation or Fowler-Nordheim electron injection. The annealing behavior is very similar for both types of stress, which suggests that the D it creation mechanism involves similar chemistry for hydrogen reactions. Studies of the time dependence of D it creation as a function of MOSFET gate length show that the time dependence is limited primarily by lateral diffusion of molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) through the gate oxide. An activation energy of 0.57 eV, which is consistent with H 2 diffusion, is obtained from the temperature dependence

  20. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  1. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  2. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  3. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  4. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  5. Traumatic dissociation as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder in South African female rape survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-04-01

    Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development.The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD.Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD.As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape.

  6. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD. Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD. As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape. PMID:25906104

  7. Daily stress interacts with trait dissociation to predict sleep-related experiences in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2011-08-01

    Building on the previously documented effects of stress and dissociation on sleep and dreaming, we examined their interactive role in general sleep-related experiences (GSEs; e.g., nightmares, falling dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations; see Watson, 2001). Stress, sleep quality, and GSEs were assessed daily for 14 days among young adults. Baseline assessment included life stress, sleep quality, psychopathology, dissociation, and related dimensions. Multilevel analyses indicated that daily stress brings about GSEs among highly dissociative young adults. Additionally, baseline trait dissociation predicted within-subject elevation in GSEs when daily stress was high. Flawed sleep-wake transitions, previously linked to dissociation and sleep-related experiences, might account for this effect. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  8. Investigating the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of traumatized detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K; Chaplo, Shannon D

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we tested the validity of a dissociative subtype in a sample of 225 detained adolescents (142 boys, 83 girls) likely meeting full or partial criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing theories of dissociation pose controversy regarding dissociation as a taxon versus a continuum, and results of the current study contribute to this debate by providing evidence of distinct group differences between those high and low in dissociation. Mixture modeling revealed 2 groups of youth with differing levels of depersonalization/derealization dissociative symptoms. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding trauma exposure and several posttraumatic reactions: posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotion dysregulation, and emotional numbing. Compared with youth classified in the low-dissociation group, youth who exhibited high levels of dissociation demonstrated higher levels of total PTSS, posttraumatic symptom clusters of emotional numbing, intrusion, and associated features, as well as reporting more difficulties with emotion dysregulation. To test theory regarding the factors that increase the likelihood of persistent dissociation, bootstrapped regression analyses were performed to examine the possibility of an indirect effect of peritraumatic dissociation. Results consistent with statistical mediation suggested that the presence of peritraumatic dissociation at the time of trauma may contribute to the continuation of dissociative symptoms as a more generalized pattern. The results of the current study have implications for clinical treatment with traumatized youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Dissociative Subtype of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Research Update on Clinical and Neurobiological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huijstee, Jytte; Vermetten, Eric

    2017-10-21

    Recently, a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been included in the DSM-5. This review focuses on the clinical and neurobiological features that distinguish the dissociative subtype of PTSD from non-dissociative PTSD. Clinically, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is associated with high PTSD severity, predominance of derealization and depersonalization symptoms, a more significant history of early life trauma, and higher levels of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms exhibit different psychophysiological and neural responses to the recall of traumatic memories. While individuals with non-dissociative PTSD exhibit an increased heart rate, decreased activation of prefrontal regions, and increased activation of the amygdala in response to traumatic reminders, individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD show an opposite pattern. It has been proposed that dissociation is a regulatory strategy to restrain extreme arousal in PTSD through hyperinhibition of limbic regions. In this research update, promises and pitfalls in current research studies on the dissociative subtype of PTSD are listed. Inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the DSM-5 stimulates research on the prevalence, symptomatology, and neurobiology of the dissociative subtype of PTSD and poses a challenge to improve treatment outcome in PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms.

  10. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Among Adolescents: Co-Occurring PTSD, Depersonalization/Derealization, and Other Dissociation Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Seng, Julia S; Briggs, Ernestine C; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Lee, Robert C; Ford, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation in a clinical sample of trauma-exposed adolescents by evaluating evidence for the depersonalization/derealization dissociative subtype of PTSD as defined by the DSM-5 and then examining a broader set of dissociation symptoms. A sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed adolescents 12 to 16 years old (N = 3,081) from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set was used to meet the study objectives. Two models of PTSD/dissociation co-occurrence were estimated using latent class analysis, one with 2 dissociation symptoms and the other with 10 dissociation symptoms. After model selection, groups within each model were compared on demographics, trauma characteristics, and psychopathology. Model A, the depersonalization/derealization model, had 5 classes: dissociative subtype/high PTSD; high PTSD; anxious arousal; dysphoric arousal; and a low symptom/reference class. Model B, the expanded dissociation model, identified an additional class characterized by dissociative amnesia and detached arousal. These 2 models provide new information about the specific ways PTSD and dissociation co-occur and illuminate some differences between adult and adolescent trauma symptom expression. A dissociative subtype of PTSD can be distinguished from PTSD alone in adolescents, but assessing a wider range of dissociative symptoms is needed to fully characterize adolescent traumatic stress responses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DSM-5's posttraumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; van der Hart, Onno

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, formally recognizes a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; PTSD with dissociative symptoms). This nomenclative move will boost empirical and theoretical efforts to further understand the links between dissociation, trauma, and PTSD. This article examines the empirical literature showing that patients with PTSD can be divided into 2 different groups based on their neurobiology, psychological symptom profile, history of exposure to early relational trauma, and depersonalization/derealization symptoms. It then explores the conceptual and empirical challenges of conceiving 1 of these types as reflecting a "dissociative" type of PTSD. First, this classification is based on the presence of a limited subset of dissociative symptoms (i.e., depersonalization, derealization). This sets aside an array of positive and negative psychoform and somatoform dissociative symptoms that may be related to PTSD. Second, empirical evidence suggests heightened dissociation in PTSD compared to many other disorders, indicating that dissociation is relevant to PTSD more broadly rather than simply to the so-called dissociative subtype. This article sets out important issues to be examined in the future study of dissociation in PTSD, which needs to be informed by solid conceptual understandings of dissociation.

  12. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444

  13. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craparo G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Craparo,1 Alessio Gori,2 Elvira Mazzola,1 Irene Petruccelli,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Giuseppe Rotondo3 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Unit of Psychotraumatology, San Raffaele Giglio Hospital of Cefalù, Cefalù, Italy Background: Several studies have demonstrated a significant association between dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms. A dissociative reaction during a traumatic event may seem to predict the later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, several researchers also observed an alexithymic condition in a variety of traumatized samples.Methods: A total of 287 flood victims (men =159, 55.4%; women =128, 44.6% with an age range of 17–21 years (mean =18.33; standard deviation =0.68 completed the following: Impact of Event Scale–Revised, Dissociative Experiences Scale II, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.Results: We found significant correlations among all variables. Linear regression showed that peritraumatic dissociation plays a mediator role between alexithymia, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.Conclusion: Our results seem to confirm the significant roles of both dissociation and alexithymia for the development of posttraumatic symptoms. Keywords: peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic symptoms, PTSD

  14. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Post-Stress Combined Administration of Beta-Receptor and Glucocorticoid Antagonists as a Novel Preventive Treatment in an Animal Model of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    reduced extinction of cue- conditioned fear. The temporal characteristics of the model must be amenable to testing acute drug treatment in the...that is sensitive to both enhanced and attenuated fear conditioning and extinction -Established a drug treatment regimen that is feasible in the...nonassociative theories of the UCS preexposure phenomenon: Implications for Pavlovian conditioning . Psychol Bull 86: 523-548 Stam R (2007) PTSD and stress

  16. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  17. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Structural brain aberrations associated with the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J K; Frewen, P; Theberge, J; Lanius, R A

    2016-03-01

    One factor potentially contributing to the heterogeneity of previous results on structural grey matter alterations in adult participants suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the varying levels of dissociative symptomatology. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether the recently defined dissociative subtype of PTSD characterized by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization is characterized by specific differences in volumetric brain morphology. Whole-brain MRI data were acquired for 59 patients with PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences between patients classified as belonging (n = 15) vs. not belonging (n = 44) to the dissociative subtype of PTSD. The correlation between dissociation (depersonalization/derealization) severity and grey matter volume was computed. Patients with PTSD classified as belonging to the dissociative subtype exhibited greater grey matter volume in the right precentral and fusiform gyri as well as less volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Greater dissociation severity was associated with greater volume in the right middle frontal gyrus. The results of this first whole-brain investigation of specific grey matter volume in dissociative subtype PTSD indentified structural aberrations in regions subserving the processing and regulation of emotional arousal. These might constitute characteristic biomarkers for the dissociative subtype PTSD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dissociative subtype of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Armour, Cherie; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) formally introduced a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the proportion of U.S. veterans with DSM-5 PTSD that report dissociative symptoms; and compared veterans with PTSD with and without the dissociative subtype and trauma-exposed controls on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and quality of life. Multivariable analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of 1484 veterans from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (second baseline survey conducted September-October, 2013). Of the 12.0% and 5.2% of veterans who screened positive for lifetime and past-month DSM-5 PTSD, 19.2% and 16.1% screened positive for the dissociative subtype, respectively. Among veterans with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype reported more severe PTSD symptoms, comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use problems, and hostility than those without the dissociative subtype. Adjusting for PTSD symptom severity, those with the dissociative subtype continued to report more depression and alcohol use problems. These results underscore the importance of assessing, monitoring, and treating the considerable proportion of veterans with PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were...

  1. Criteria for definition of regional functional improvement on quantitative post-stress gated myocardial SPET after bypass surgery in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Ki Bong

    2002-01-01

    Myocardial viability can be defined as functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium after revascularization. The purpose of this study was to define the optimal criteria for definition of regional functional improvement after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery on quantitative gated single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Thirty-two patients (26 men, 6 women; age 56±13 years) with coronary artery disease (three-vessel disease, 17; two-vessel disease, 15; previous history of myocardial infarction, 9) and severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF≤35%) underwent CABG. Rest thallium-201/dipyridamole stress technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile gated myocardial SPET was performed before and 3 months after CABG. Global LV functional improvement was defined as either an improvement in LVEF of 10% (n=15) or an improvement in LVEF of 5% combined with a decrease in end-systolic volume of 10 ml (n=2) after CABG on quantitative gated SPET. Postoperative regional wall thickening improvement (ΔRWT), regional wall motion improvement (ΔRWM) and regional resting (ΔRP) and stress perfusion improvement (ΔRstrP) were used to determine global functional improvement by ROC curve analysis, and the optimal criteria for definition of viable regional dysfunctional myocardium were defined on the ROC curves. Correlations were verified by determining the number of improved myocardial regions and LVEF improvement. LVEF was improved from 25%±6% to 34%±11% after CABG. A total of 229 segments were dysfunctional (wall motion ≤2 mm, thickening ≤20%) before CABG. On ROC curve analysis using global functional improvement as an indicator of viability, the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) of ΔRWT and ΔRWM were 0.717 and 0.620, respectively. The AUC of ΔRWT was significantly larger than that of ΔRWM (P=0.009) and the optimal cut-off value of ΔRWT was 15%. The AUCs of ΔRP and ΔRstrP were not significant. The correlation coefficients between summed ΔRWT and

  2. Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco; Maldonato, Nelson Mauro; Moretto, Enrico; Leone, Elena; De Luca, Vincenzo; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative phenomena are common among psychiatric patients; the presence of these symptoms can worsen the prognosis, increasing the severity of their clinical conditions and exposing them to increased risk of suicidal behavior. Personality disorders as long duration stressful experiences may support the development of dissociative phenomena. In 933 psychiatric outpatients consecutively recruited, presence of dissociative phenomena was identified with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Dissociative phenomena were significantly more severe in the group of people with mental disorders and/or personality disorders. All psychopathologic traits detected with the symptom checklist-90-revised had a significant correlation with the total score on the DES. Using total DES score as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was constructed. Mental and personality disorders which were associated with greater severity of dissociative phenomena on analysis of variance were included as predictors; scores from the nine scales of symptom checklist-90-revised, significantly correlated to total DES score, were used as covariates. The model consisted of seven explanatory variables (four factors and three covariates) explaining 82% of variance. The four significant factors were the presence of borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, substance abuse disorders and psychotic disorders. Significant covariates were psychopathologic traits of anger, psychoticism and obsessiveness. This study, confirming Janet’s theory, explains that, mental disorders and psychopathologic experiences of patients can configure the chronic stress condition that produces functional damage to the adaptive executive system. The symptoms of dissociative depersonalization/derealization and dissociative amnesia can be explained, in large part, through their current and previous psychopathologic experiences. PMID:29296086

  3. Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress after pregnancy loss: A prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, I.M.; van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.; Arntz, A.; Schouten, E.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined (1) predictors for peritraumatic dissociation, (2) its relations with acute and chronic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and (3) pathways regarding these relations in response to pregnancy loss. In early pregnancy, about 1,370 women volunteers completed

  4. Force and Stress along Simulated Dissociation Pathways of Cucurbituril-Guest Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Vega, Camilo; Gilson, Michael K

    2012-03-13

    The field of host-guest chemistry provides computationally tractable yet informative model systems for biomolecular recognition. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to study the forces and mechanical stresses associated with forced dissociation of aqueous cucurbituril-guest complexes with high binding affinities. First, the unbinding transitions were modeled with constant velocity pulling (steered dynamics) and a soft spring constant, to model atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. The computed length-force profiles yield rupture forces in good agreement with available measurements. We also used steered dynamics with high spring constants to generate paths characterized by a tight control over the specified pulling distance; these paths were then equilibrated via umbrella sampling simulations and used to compute time-averaged mechanical stresses along the dissociation pathways. The stress calculations proved to be informative regarding the key interactions determining the length-force profiles and rupture forces. In particular, the unbinding transition of one complex is found to be a stepwise process, which is initially dominated by electrostatic interactions between the guest's ammoniums and the host's carbonyl groups, and subsequently limited by the extraction of the guest's bulky bicyclooctane moiety; the latter step requires some bond stretching at the cucurbituril's extraction portal. Conversely, the dissociation of a second complex with a more slender guest is mainly driven by successive electrostatic interactions between the different guest's ammoniums and the host's carbonyl groups. The calculations also provide information on the origins of thermodynamic irreversibilities in these forced dissociation processes.

  5. Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociation is a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control. A limited number of studies investigated combat-related dissociation. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dissociative symptoms and combat-related trauma. Method: This study included 184 individuals, including 84 patients who were exposed to combat and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD (Group I, 50 subjects who were exposed to combat but were not diagnosed with PTSD (Group II, and 50 healthy subjects without combat exposure (Group III. The participants were evaluated using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES to determine their total and sub-factor (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption dissociative symptom levels. In addition, Group I and Group II were compared with respect to the relationship between physical injury and DES scores. Results: The mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors of Group I were higher than those of Group II (p30 was highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. When we compared combat-exposed subjects with high total DES scores, Group I had higher scores than Group II. In contrast, no relationship between the presence of bodily injury and total DES scores could be demonstrated. In addition, our results demonstrated that high depersonalization/derealization factor scores were correlated with bodily injury in PTSD patients. A similar relationship was found between high absorption factor scores and bodily injury for Group II. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of dissociation was significantly higher in subjects with combat-related PTSD than in subjects without combat-related PTSD. In addition, combat-exposed subjects without PTSD also had higher dissociation levels than

  6. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and dissociative experiences during men's intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Adam D; Murphy, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs. The primary goals of this study were to provide descriptive information about the rates of endorsement of dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration and to examine their associations with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 302 men presenting for services at a community-based IPV intervention program. All variables were assessed via self-report and clinician interview at program intake. Results indicated that 22.2% of participants reported 1 or more dissociative experiences during partner violence perpetration. Additionally, frequency of dissociative IPV perpetration showed significant positive correlations with the total number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) reported and PTSD symptoms, with effect sizes in the small and medium ranges of magnitude, respectively. Finally, PTSD symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between total number of PTEs and dissociative IPV perpetration. Findings indicate a potentially meaningful relationship between trauma, PTSD symptoms, and dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration. Further qualitative and quantitative investigation is needed to better understand this phenomenon and how it can be addressed in IPV treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Superior colliculus resting state networks in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis. We observed group-specific resting state functional connectivity between the SC for both PTSD and its dissociative subtype, indicative of dedicated IAS collicular pathways in each group of patients. When comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, we observed increased resting state functional connectivity between the left SC and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in PTSD. The DLPFC is involved in modulation of emotional processes associated with active defensive responses characterising PTSD. Moreover, when comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, increased resting state functional connectivity was observed between the right SC and the right temporoparietal junction in the dissociative subtype. The temporoparietal junction is involved in depersonalization responses associated with passive defensive responses typical of the dissociative subtype. Our findings suggest that unique resting state functional connectivity of the SC parallels the unique symptom profile and defensive responses observed in PTSD and its dissociative subtype. Hum Brain Mapp 39:563-574, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assessing DSM-5 latent subtypes of acute stress disorder dissociative or intrusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Hansen, Maj

    2015-02-28

    Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was first included in the DSM-IV in 1994. It was proposed to account for traumatic responding in the early post trauma phase and to act as an identifier for later Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Unlike PTSD it included a number of dissociative indicators. The revised DSM-5 PTSD criterion included a dissociative-PTSD subtype. The current study assessed if a dissociative-ASD subtype may be present for DSM-5 ASD. Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in symptomatic compared to a baseline ASD profile. We used data from 450 bank robbery victims. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover latent profiles of ASD. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if female gender, age, social support, peritraumatic panic, somatization, and number of trauma exposures increased or decreased the probability of profile membership. Four latent profiles were uncovered and included an intrusion rather than dissociative subtype. Increased age and social support decreased the probability of individuals being grouped into the intrusion subtype whereas increased peritraumatic panic and somatization increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the intrusion subtype. Findings are discussed in regard to the ICD-11 and the DSM-5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandeo R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raffaele Sperandeo,1,2,* Vincenzo Monda,3,* Giovanni Messina,4 Marco Carotenuto,5 Nelson Mauro Maldonato,1,2 Enrico Moretto,1,2 Elena Leone,1,2 Vincenzo De Luca,6 Marcellino Monda,3 Antonietta Messina3 1Department of Human Sciences, Università Della, Basilicata, 2School of Integrated Gestaltic Psychotherapy, Torre Annunziata, 3Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetic and Sport Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 5Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 6Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Dissociative phenomena are common among psychiatric patients; the presence of these symptoms can worsen the prognosis, increasing the severity of their clinical conditions and exposing them to increased risk of suicidal behavior. Personality disorders as long duration stressful experiences may support the development of dissociative phenomena. In 933 psychiatric outpatients consecutively recruited, presence of dissociative phenomena was identified with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Dissociative phenomena were significantly more severe in the group of people with mental disorders and/or personality disorders. All psychopathologic traits detected with the symptom checklist-90-revised had a significant correlation with the total score on the DES. Using total DES score as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was constructed. Mental and personality disorders which were associated with greater severity of dissociative phenomena on analysis of variance were included as predictors; scores from the nine scales of symptom checklist-90-revised

  10. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttratimatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16

  11. Dissociation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Shahly, Victoria; Spiegel, David; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Matschinger, Herbert; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Tachimori, Hisateru; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the proposal for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 is supported by considerable clinical and neurobiological evidence, this evidence comes mostly from referred samples in Western countries. Cross-national population epidemiologic surveys were analyzed to evaluate generalizability of the subtype in more diverse samples. Methods Interviews were administered to 25,018 respondents in 16 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess 12-month DSM-IV PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Items from a checklist of past-month nonspecific psychological distress were used to assess dissociative symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. Differences between PTSD with and without these dissociative symptoms were examined across a variety of domains, including index trauma characteristics, prior trauma history, childhood adversity, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, and treatment seeking. Results Dissociative symptoms were present in 14.4% of respondents with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview PTSD and did not differ between high and low/middle income countries. Symptoms of dissociation in PTSD were associated with high counts of re-experiencing symptoms and net of these symptom counts with male sex, childhood onset of PTSD, high exposure to prior (to the onset of PTSD) traumatic events and childhood adversities, prior histories of separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia, severe role impairment, and suicidality. Conclusion These results provide community epidemiologic data documenting the value of the dissociative subtype in distinguishing a meaningful proportion of severe and impairing cases of PTSD that have distinct correlates across a diverse set of countries. PMID:23059051

  12. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Görg, Nora; Dyer, Anne; Steil, Regina; Lyssenko, Lisa; Winter, Dorina; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (DBT-PTSD). We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre-post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD). Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1) state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2) trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed.

  13. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kleindienst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. Objective: The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA (DBT-PTSD. We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. Methods: We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre–post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD. Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1 state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2 trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. Results: State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Conclusions: Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed.

  14. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  15. Gestational and Postnatal Cortisol Profiles of Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Dissociative Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S; Li, Yang; Yang, James J; King, Anthony P; Kane Low, Lisa M; Sperlich, Mickey; Rowe, Heather; Lee, Hyunhwa; Muzik, Maria; Ford, Julian D; Liberzon, Israel

    2018-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have greater salivary cortisol levels across the diurnal curve and throughout gestation, birth, and the postpartum period than women who do not have PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal, biobehavioral cohort study. Prenatal clinics at academic health centers in the Midwest region of the United States. Women expecting their first infants who fit with one of four cohorts: a nonexposed control group, a trauma-exposed control group, a group with PTSD, and a group with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. In the first half of pregnancy, 395 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens on a single day for diurnal data. A subsample of 111 women provided three salivary cortisol specimens per day, 12 times, from early pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum for longitudinal data. Trauma history, PTSD, and dissociative symptoms were measured via standardized telephone diagnostic interviews with the use of validated epidemiologic measures. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine group differences. Generalized estimating equations showed that women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD had the highest and flattest gestational cortisol level curves. The difference was greatest in early pregnancy, when participants in the dissociative subtype group had cortisol levels 8 times greater in the afternoon and 10 times greater at bedtime than those in the nonexposed control group. Women with the dissociative subtype of PTSD, a complex form associated with a history of childhood maltreatment, may have toxic levels of cortisol that contribute to intergenerational patterns of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The dissociative post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype: A treatment outcome cohort study in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen, Joris F G; van Rijn, Allison; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2018-06-01

    Dissociation is a prevalent phenomenon among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may interfere with the effectiveness of treatment. This study aimed to replicate findings of a dissociative PTSD subtype, to identify corresponding patterns in coping style, symptom type, and symptom severity, and to investigate its impact on post-traumatic symptom improvement. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to baseline data from 330 predominantly (97%) male treatment-seeking veterans (mean age 39.5 years) with a probable PTSD. Multinomial logistic models were used to identify predictors of dissociative PTSD. Eighty veterans with PTSD that commenced with psychotherapy were invited for a follow-up measure after 6 months. The majority (n = 64, 80% response rate) completed the follow-up measure. Changes in post-traumatic stress between baseline and follow-up were explored as a continuous distal outcome. Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct patient profiles: 'low' (12.9%), 'moderate' (33.2%), 'severe' (45.1%), and 'dissociative' (8.8%) PTSD. The dissociative PTSD profile was characterized by more severe pathology levels, though not post-traumatic reactions symptom severity. Veterans with dissociative PTSD benefitted equally from PTSD treatment as veterans with non-dissociative PTSD with similar symptom severity. Within a sample of veterans with PTSD, a subsample of severely dissociative veterans was identified, characterized by elevated severity levels on pathology dimensions. The dissociative PTSD subtype did not negatively impact PTSD treatment. The present findings confirmed the existence of a distinct subgroup veterans that fit the description of dissociative PTSD. Patients with dissociative PTSD subtype symptoms uniquely differed from patients with non-dissociative PTSD in the severity of several psychopathology dimensions. Dissociative and non-dissociative PTSD patients with similar post-traumatic severity levels showed similar levels of

  17. Stress-induced dissociations between intracellular calcium signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farhan M; Dejene, Eden A; Corbin, Kathryn L; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2015-05-01

    In healthy pancreatic islets, glucose-stimulated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) provide a reasonable reflection of the patterns and relative amounts of insulin secretion. We report that [Ca(2+)]i in islets under stress, however, dissociates with insulin release in different ways for different stressors. Islets were exposed for 48h to a variety of stressors: cytokines (low-grade inflammation), 28mM glucose (28G, glucotoxicity), free fatty acids (FFAs, lipotoxicity), thapsigargin (ER stress), or rotenone (mitochondrial stress). We then measured [Ca(2+)]i and insulin release in parallel studies. Islets exposed to all stressors except rotenone displayed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)]i in low glucose, however, increased insulin secretion was only observed for 28G due to increased nifedipine-sensitive calcium-channel flux. Following 3-11mM glucose stimulation, all stressors substantially reduced the peak glucose-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i response (first phase). Thapsigargin and cytokines also substantially impacted aspects of calcium influx and ER calcium handling. Stressors did not significantly impact insulin secretion in 11mM glucose for any stressor, although FFAs showed a borderline reduction, which contributed to a significant decrease in the stimulation index (11:3mM glucose) observed for FFAs and also for 28G. We also clamped [Ca(2+)]i using 30mM KCl+250μM diazoxide to test the amplifying pathway. Only rotenone-treated islets showed a robust increase in 3-11mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under clamped conditions, suggesting that low-level mitochondrial stress might activate the metabolic amplifying pathway. We conclude that different stressors dissociate [Ca(2+)]i from insulin secretion differently: ER stressors (thapsigargin, cytokines) primarily affect [Ca(2+)]i but not conventional insulin secretion and 'metabolic' stressors (FFAs, 28G, rotenone) impacted insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression and dissociation as predictors of physical health symptoms among female rape survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R; Johnides, Benjamin D; Mitchell, Karen S; Smith, Brian N; Resick, Patricia A; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed before engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that only dissociative and depression symptoms contributed significantly to physical health symptoms. Similarly, among the subsample of women with either childhood sexual or physical abuse, depression and dissociation were significant predictors of somatic symptoms. However, among women without childhood abuse, only dissociation significantly predicted somatic symptoms. Understanding the psychological and biological mechanisms that link childhood versus adult trauma exposure, PTSD, and comorbid depression or dissociation to physical health symptoms may aid development of individualized treatments for the physical and psychological consequences of trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Dissociation between working memory performance and proactive interference control in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Cayton, Julien; Ashley, Victoria; Turken, And U

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory. It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E.W.; van der Hart, O.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Chu, J.A.; Glas, G.; Draaijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID).We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex

  1. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary.

  2. Pre-deployment dissociation and personality as risk factors for post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder in Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponce de León, Beatriz; Andersen, Søren; Karstoft, Karen Inge

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether pre-deployment dissociation was associated with previously identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories from before to 2.5 years after military deployment. Furthermore, it examined whether the tendency to dissociate, pre-deployme......Objective: This study investigated whether pre-deployment dissociation was associated with previously identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories from before to 2.5 years after military deployment. Furthermore, it examined whether the tendency to dissociate, pre...

  3. Characteristics of child maltreatment and their relation to dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Schumacher, Sonja; Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Wirtz, Gustav; Fuhrhans, Christoph; Hindermann, Esther; Rufer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the influence of particular characteristics of childhood maltreatment, such as developmental stage, relationship to the perpetrator, and nature of the trauma, on adult psychopathology. The effects of childhood maltreatment were assessed in adult psychiatric patients (N = 287) using self-rating scales and diagnostic checklists. Maltreatment was strongly associated with dissociation. This relationship was observed for all childhood developmental stages and was strongest when the perpetrator was outside the family. Dissociation was more strongly correlated with childhood emotional abuse and sexual harassment than with sexual or physical abuse. Childhood sexual abuse was found to be associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The findings suggest that dissociation is a relatively specific consequence of childhood maltreatment that is largely independent of the familial relationship to the perpetrator or the child's developmental stage.

  4. Daily Elevations in Dissociative Absorption and Depersonalization in a Nonclinical Sample Are Related to Daily Stress and Psychopathological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are associated with several psychopathological symptoms and are a hindrance to therapeutic gain. Depersonalization-derealization (DEP-DER) is positively associated with stress and anxiety, while absorption and imaginative involvement (ABS), a tendency for total, immersed attention, is commonly referred to as nonpathological dissociation, although it is positively associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Previous studies in the field have been mainly cross-sectional. The present study aimed to examine these associations rigorously and attempted to determine directionality between dissociation and distress. The current study employed both variable-centered (cross-sectional) and person-centered (longitudinal, within-subjects) analyses of the associations of DEP-DER and ABS with distress. Undergraduate students (N = 184) completed trait questionnaires on dissociation, stress, anxiety, depression, and OC symptoms, and n = 78 also completed questionnaires assessing the same constructs daily for 14 days. Multiple regression and multilevel modeling analyses were conducted. In the cross-sectional phase, DEP-DER was uniquely positively related to anxiety and OC symptoms, and ABS was uniquely positively related to OC symptoms. In the daily diary phase, increases in DEP-DER were related to increases in anxiety, depression, OC symptoms, and stress, while increases in ABS were related to increases in OC symptoms and stress. In addition, time-lag analysis showed that ABS tended to temporally precede OC. ABS foretold increases in OC symptoms, at least in this nonclinical sample. Future studies on clinical samples should explore whether ABS should be referred to as "nonpathological" and its possible role in the development or maintenance of clinical-level OCD.

  5. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  6. Effectiveness of trauma-focused treatment for patients with psychosis with and without the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Minnen, A; van der Vleugel, B M; van den Berg, D P G; de Bont, P A J M; de Roos, C; van der Gaag, M; de Jongh, A

    2016-10-01

    This study presents secondary analyses of a recently published trial in which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with psychosis (n = 108) underwent 8 sessions of trauma-focused treatment, either prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. 24.1% fulfilled the criteria for the dissociative subtype, a newly introduced PTSD subtype in DSM-5. Treatment outcome was compared for patients with and without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD showed large reductions in clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) score, comparable with patients without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. It is concluded that even in a population with severe mental illness, patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD do benefit from trauma-focused treatments without a pre-phase of emotion regulation skill training and should not be excluded from these treatments. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  8. Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Sapru, Iman; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-04-30

    The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. Resting-state fMRI was conducted with (n=61) PTSD patients (n=44 PTSD-DS; n=17 PTSD+DS), and (n=40) age-matched healthy controls. When compared to controls, the PTSD-DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, bilateral mid, and left posterior) to basolateral amygdala clusters in both hemispheres, and the PTSD+DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and left posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala complex. Moreover, as compared to PTSD-DS, increased insula subregion connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and right posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala was found in PTSD+DS. Depersonalization/derealization symptoms and PTSD symptom severity correlated with insula subregion connectivity to the basolateral amygdala within PTSD patients. This study is an important first step in elucidating patterns of neural connectivity associated with unique symptoms of arousal/interoception, emotional processing, and awareness of bodily states, in PTSD and its dissociative subtype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pain sensitivity and neural processing during dissociative states in patients with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Petra; Valerius, Gabriele; Stiglmayr, Christian; Mauchnik, Jana; Lanius, Ruth A; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Stress-induced dissociative states involving analgesia are a common feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our aim was to investigate the psychologic, somatosensory (pain sensitivity) and neural correlates of dissociative states in patients with these disorders. We included 15 women with BPD who were not taking medication; 10 of these women had comorbid PTSD. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, participants were exposed to a script describing a personalized dissociation-inducing situation and a personalized script describing a neutral situation. We assessed dissociative psychopathology and pain sensitivity. Dissociative psychopathology scores were significantly higher and pain sensitivity was lower after the dissociation-inducing script was read compared with the neutral script. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was significantly increased in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9) during the presentation of the dissociation-inducing script. Regression analyses revealed positive correlations between BOLD signal and dissociative psychopathology in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6) and negative correlations in the right middle (BA 21) and inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20). In the subgroup of participants with comorbid PTSD, we also found increased activity in the left cingulate gyrus (BA 32) during script-driven imagery-induced dissociation, a positive correlation between dissociation scores and activity in the right and left insula (BA 13) and a negative correlation in the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35). The main limitation of this pilot study is the absence of a control group. Therefore, the results may also reflect the neural correlates of non-BPD/PTSD specific dissociative states or the neural correlates of emotionally stressful or "loaded" memories. Another limitation is the uncorrected statistical level of the functional magnetic resonance

  11. A Cross-Lagged Panel Study of Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current prospective study assessed the temporal relations between dissociation and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in a sample of treatment-seeking female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PTS refers to symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the absence...... clinical implications that may affect their treatment and trauma recovery....

  12. Body Esteem as a Common Factor of a Tendency Toward Binge Eating and Sexual Dissatisfaction Among Women: The Role of Dissociation and Stress Response During Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ricca, Valdo; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have suggested a relevant overlap between eating disorders and sexual dysfunction involving the emotional component of body image esteem and dissociative experiences. To evaluate the common maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors and their relation to a physiologic stress response. In the present cross-sectional study, we evaluated a non-clinical sample of 60 heterosexual women (25-35 years old) for dissociation during sex with a partner, body image disturbance, and tendency toward pathologic eating behaviors. We also evaluated the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in response to a sexual stimulus and its association with binge eating and dissociation. Participants completed the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women, the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, and the Eating Attitudes Test Short Version. Furthermore, we assessed cortisol levels before, during, and after exposure to explicit sexual stimuli shown within a laboratory setting. Dysfunctional body image esteem and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors were associated with greater sexual distress in women. In particular, body esteem was significantly associated with greater dissociation during sex with a partner. Moreover, women who reported greater dissociation during sex with a partner and a tendency toward binge-eating behaviors showed higher levels of cortisol in response to sexual stimuli. These results support further research based on trans-diagnostic treatments targeted to dissociation and body image esteem, which could lessen sexual dysfunction and vulnerability to pathologic eating behaviors. Despite the small sample and self-reported questionnaires, this is the first study to consider the association of the stress response during sexual stimuli with sexual distress and with pathologic eating behaviors adopting a dimensional approach. Body

  13. The influence of the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder on treatment efficacy in female veterans and active duty service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J; Lunney, Carole A; Schnurr, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was recently added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and is thought to be associated with poor PTSD treatment response. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine data from a randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure and present-centered therapy for PTSD in a sample of 284 female veterans and active duty service members with PTSD to test the association between the dissociative subtype and treatment response. Individuals with the dissociative subtype (defined using latent profile analysis) had a flatter slope (p = .008) compared with those with high PTSD symptoms and no dissociation, such that the former group showed, on average, a 9.75 (95% confidence interval [-16.94, -2.57]) lesser decrease in PTSD severity scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) over the course of the trial. However, this effect was small in magnitude. Dissociative symptoms decreased markedly among those with the subtype, though neither treatment explicitly addressed such symptoms. There were no differences as a function of treatment type. Results raise doubt about the common clinical perception that exposure therapy is not effective or appropriate for individuals who have PTSD and dissociation, and provide empirical support for the use of exposure treatment for individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The cerebellum after trauma: Resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-04-17

    The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47). Here, we observed decreased functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum and anterior vermis with brain regions involved in somatosensory processing, multisensory integration, and bodily self-consciousness (temporo-parietal junction, postcentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule) in PTSD + DS as compared to PTSD and HC. Moreover, the PTSD + DS group showed increased functional connectivity of the posterior cerebellum with cortical areas related to emotion regulation (ventromedial prefrontal and orbito-frontal cortex, subgenual anterior cingulum) as compared to PTSD. By contrast, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum with cortical areas associated with visual processing (fusiform gyrus), interoceptive awareness (posterior insula), memory retrieval, and contextual processing (hippocampus) as compared to HC. Finally, we observed decreased functional connectivity between the posterior cerebellum and prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation, in PTSD as compared to HC. These findings not only highlight the crucial role of each cerebellar region examined in the psychopathology of PTSD but also reveal unique alterations in functional connectivity distinguishing the dissociative subtype of PTSD versus PTSD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  16. Management of traumatic events: influence of emotion-centered coping strategies on the occurrence of dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder

  17. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissia, E M; Giesen, M E; Chalavi, S; Nijenhuis, E R S; Draijer, N; Brand, B L; Reinders, A A T S

    2016-08-01

    The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16). Additionally, personality-state-dependent measures were obtained for DID-G and DID-S; both neutral personality states (NPS) and trauma-related personality states (TPS) were tested. For Trauma measures, the DID-G group had the highest scores, with TPS higher than NPS, followed by the PTSD, DID-S, and HC groups. The DID-G group was not more fantasy-prone or suggestible and did not generate more false memories. Malingering measures were inconclusive. Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A right hemisphere safety backup at work: hypotheses for deep hypnosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, and dissociation identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Problem theory points to an a priori relation between six key problems of living, to which people have adapted through evolution. Children are guided through the problems one by one, learning to switch between them automatically and unawares. The first problem of raising hope of certainty (about the environment), is dealt with in the right hemisphere (RH). The second of raising hope of freedom (or power to control), is dealt with in the left hemisphere (LH). Here adventurousness and ignoring the goodness of outcomes potentially create recklessness. When uncertainty rises the RH activates a backup with an override that substitutes immobility, takes over sensory inputs, but allows obedience to parental commands, and a cut-out that stops new work on the freedom problem. Support for the use of the backup by infants is found in the immobility that precedes the crying in strange conditions, and in childhood EEGs. The hypothesis that the backup is active in deep hypnosis imposes accord on findings that appear contradictory. For example it accounts for why observations during deep hypnosis emphasize the activity of the RH, but observations of responsive people not under hypnosis emphasize the activity of the LH. The hypothesis that the backup is active in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is supported by (a) fMRI observations that could reflect the cut-out, in that part of the precuneus has low metabolism, (b) the recall of motionlessness at the time of the trauma, (c) an argument that playing dead as a defence against predators is illogical, (d) the ease of hypnosis. With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state where childhood traumas are re-experienced. Support for the cut-out affecting the trauma identity state comes from suppression of part of the precuneus and other parts of the parietal lobe when the trauma identity state is salient and a general script about a

  20. Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Erik W; van der Hart, Onno; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Chu, James A; Glas, Gerrit; Draijer, Nel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex PTSD therapists), and in the second round we surveyed a subset of 22 of the 42 therapists (13 DID and 9 complex PTSD therapists). First, we drew on therapists' knowledge of prognostic factors for stabilization-oriented treatment of complex PTSD and DID. Second, therapists prioritized a list of prognostic factors by estimating the size of each variable's prognostic effect; we clustered these factors according to content and named the clusters. Next, concept mapping methodology and statistical analyses (including principal components analyses) were used to transform individual judgments into weighted group judgments for clusters of items. A prognostic model, based on consensually determined estimates of effect sizes, of 8 clusters containing 51 factors for both complex PTSD and DID was formed. It includes the clusters lack of motivation, lack of healthy relationships, lack of healthy therapeutic relationships, lack of other internal and external resources, serious Axis I comorbidity, serious Axis II comorbidity, poor attachment, and self-destruction. In addition, a set of 5 DID-specific items was constructed. The model is supportive of the current phase-oriented treatment model, emphasizing the strengthening of the therapeutic relationship and the patient's resources in the initial stabilization phase. Further research is needed to test the model's statistical and clinical validity.

  1. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena eVan Heugten - Van Der Kloet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder patients, post-traumatic stress disorder patients, and healthy controls. Both patient groups reported more sleep problems and lower sleep quality and displayed higher levels of fantasy proneness and cognitive failures than controls. However, the two patient groups did not differ with regard to these variables. Moreover, a higher level of unusual sleep experiences tended to predict participants belonging to the DID group, while specifically a lower sleep quality and more cognitive failures tended to predict participants belonging to the PTSD group.

  2. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Huntjens, Rafaele; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and healthy controls. Both patient groups reported more sleep problems and lower sleep quality and displayed higher levels of fantasy proneness and cognitive failures than controls. However, the two patient groups did not differ with regard to these variables. Moreover, a higher level of unusual sleep experiences tended to predict participants belonging to the DID group, while specifically a lower sleep quality and more cognitive failures tended to predict participants belonging to the PTSD group.

  3. Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Elmore, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the...

  4. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissia, E. M.; Giesen, M. E.; Chalavi, S.; Nijenhuis, E. R. S.; Draijer, N.; Brand, B. L.; Reinders, A. A. T. S.

    Objective: The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness,

  5. Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Hopman, Juliette A B; Ford, Julian D

    2018-01-01

    Objective : Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested. Method and Results : In a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with severe and chronic psychiatric and personality disorders ( n  = 472; M  = 34.7 years, SD  = 10.1), structural equation modelling with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals demonstrated that the association between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS symptoms in adulthood was partially mediated by under-regulation of affect, negative psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears of closeness and of abandonment. These results also were independent of the effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Conclusions : Some, but not all, hypothesized components of the DESNOS formulation of CPTSD statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and adult CPTSD/DESNOS. These relationships appear specific to CPTSD/DESNOS and not to the effects of another potential sequelae of childhood trauma BPD. Replication with prospective longitudinal studies is needed.

  6. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  7. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  8. Some of the people, some of the time: field evidence for associations and dissociations between stress and drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Melody; Epstein, David H; Phillips, Karran A; Jobes, Michelle L; Kowalczyk, William J; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2015-10-01

    Stress's role in drug use is supported by retrospective interview and laboratory studies, but prospective data confirming the association in daily life are sparse. This study aims to assess the relationship between drug use and stress in real time with ambulatory monitoring. For up to 16 weeks, 133 outpatients on opiate agonist treatment used smartphones to report each time they used drugs or felt more stressed than usual. They rated stress-event severity on a 10-point scale and as a hassle, day spoiler, or more than a day spoiler. For analysis, stress reports made within 72 h before a reported use of cocaine or opioid were binned into 24-h periods. Of 52 participants who reported stress events in the 72-h timeframe, 41 reported stress before cocaine use and 26 before opioid use. For cocaine use, the severity of stressors, rated numerically (r effect = 0.42, CL95 0.17-0.62, p = 0.00061) and percent rated as "more than a day spoiler" (r effect = 0.34, CL95 0.07-0.56, p = 0.0292)], increased linearly across the three days preceding use. The number of stressors did not predict cocaine use, and no measure of stress predicted opioid use. In ecological momentary assessment (EMA) from the whole sample of 133, stress and drug use occurred independently and there was no overall relationship. EMA did not support the idea that stress is a necessary or sufficient trigger for cocaine or heroin use after accounting for the base rates of stress and use. But EMA did show that stressful events can increase in severity in the days preceding cocaine use.

  9. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic spectrum within the context of cancer, emphasizing the close relationship between the origin of dissociative constituents which, according to the scientific literature, compose the traumatic experience. Our results have implications for understanding dissociative symptomatology in a cancer

  10. The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Comorbid Dissociation and Self-Harm: The Case of a Client With Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Hollie F; Wilks, Chelsey R; Miga, Erin M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-08-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Pagura et al., 2010). Preliminary studies have evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population and found positive outcomes for the integration of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE). This case study illustrates the implementation of a PE protocol into standard DBT treatment, specifically focusing on the management of self-harm and severe dissociation for a client with co-occurring PTSD and BPD. The client entered into treatment with severe and persistent dissociation and a recent history of self-harm, and the case includes consideration of two separate pauses in PTSD treatment related to elevated dissociation and self-harm behaviors. The client successfully completed the DBT PE protocol and results indicate significant improvements in PTSD symptoms as well as outcomes related to self-harm and dissociation. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of combining DBT with PE for clients with comorbid BPD and PTSD and exemplify how complex clients with BPD who present with severe dissociation and self-harm behavior can safely and successfully receive treatment for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  12. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Huntjens, Rafaele; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder

  13. Somatoform dissociation and posttraumatic stress syndrome - two sides of the same medal? A comparison of symptom profiles, trauma history and altered affect regulation between patients with functional neurological symptoms and patients with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Johanna; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Bohus, Martin; Fiess, Johanna; Huffziger, Silke; Steffen-Klatt, Astrid

    2017-07-11

    History of traumatic experience is common in dissociative disorder (DD), and similarity of symptoms and characteristics between DD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) encouraged to consider DD as trauma-related disorder. However, conceptualization of DD as a trauma-related syndrome would critically affect diagnosis and treatment strategies. The present study addressed overlap and disparity of DD and PTSD by directly comparing correspondence of symptoms, adverse/traumatic experience, and altered affect regulation between patients diagnosed with dissociative disorder (characterized by negative functional neurological symptoms) and patients diagnosed with PTSD. Somatoform and psychoform dissociation, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, general childhood adversities and lifetime traumata, and alexithymia as index of altered affect regulation were screened with standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in 60 patients with DD (ICD-codes F44.4, F44.6, F44.7), 39 patients with PTSD (ICD-code F43.1), and 40 healthy comparison participants (HC). DD and PTSD patients scored higher than HC on somatoform and psychoform dissociative symptom scales and alexithymia, and reported more childhood adversities and higher trauma load. PTSD patients reported higher symptom severity and more traumata than DD patients. Those 20 DD patients who met criteria of co-occuring PTSD did not differ from PTSD patients in the amount of reported symptoms of somatoform dissociation, physical and emotional childhood adversities and lifetime traumata, while emotional neglect/abuse in childhood distinguished DD patients with and without co-occuring PTSD (DD patients with co-occuring PTSD reporting more emotional maltreatment). The pattern of distinctive somatoform and psychoform dissociative symptom severity, type of childhood and lifetime traumata, and amount of alexithymia suggests that DD and PTSD are distinctive syndromes and, therefore, challenges the conceptualization of DD as

  14. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  16. Dissociation in Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Bockhacker, Laura; Vonderlin, Ruben; Bohus, Martin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis. More than 1,900 original publications were screened, and 216 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 15,219 individuals in 19 diagnostic categories. The largest mean dissociation scores were found in dissociative disorders (mean scores >35), followed by posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and conversion disorder (mean scores >25). Somatic symptom disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, OCD, and most affective disorders also showed mean dissociation scores >15. Bipolar disorders yielded the lowest dissociation scores (mean score, 14.8). The findings underline the importance of careful psychopathological assessment of dissociative symptoms in the entire range of mental disorders.

  17. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P; Tzannis, A -P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  18. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.

  19. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  20. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  1. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  2. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Karstoft, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD....... The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants...... were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity...

  3. Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders : preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehling, T.; Nijenhuis, E. R. S.; Krikke, A. P.; DeKloet, ER; Vermetten, E

    2007-01-01

    Based on findings in traumatized animals and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and on traumatogenic models of complex dissociative disorders, it was hypothesized that (1) patients with complex dissociative disorders have smaller volumes of hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala

  4. Dissociation in small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The study of molecular dissociation processes is one of the most interesting areas of modern spectroscopy owing to the challenges presented bt even the simplest of diatomic molecules. This paper reviews the commonly used descriptions of molecular dissociation processes for diatomic molecules, the selection rules for predissociation, and a few of the principles to be remembered when one is forced to speculate about dissociation mechanisms in a new molecule. Some of these points will be illustrated by the example of dissociative ionization in O 2

  5. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  6. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processin...

  7. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  8. Dissociation in mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Muraru

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches several texts that are part of the so-called discourse of mediation, adopting a pragma-dialectical perspective of the theory of dissociation. It is an attempt to identify the uses of dissociative patterns, with special emphasis on the indicators of dissociation. The paper investigates the various uses of the concept of dissociation as a discursive technique in the argumentation on the different aspects that are involved in international conflict, such as the discussion of the notion of peace. The purpose is to identify the role of dissociation, as a device strategically used by the mediator to help the parties minimize the disagreement space, and come to a conflict resolution.

  9. PTSD in relation to dissociation in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with

  10. The Many Faces of Dissociation: Opportunities for Innovative Research in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that the progress of psychiatry has lagged behind that of other medical disciplines over the last few decades. This may suggest the need for innovative thinking and research in psychiatry, which should consider neglected areas as topics of interest in light of the potential progress which might be made in this regard. This review is concerned with one such field of psychiatry: dissociation and dissociative disorders. Dissociation is the ultimate form of human response to chronic developmental stress, because patients with dissociative disorders report the highest frequency of childhood abuse and/or neglect among all psychiatric disorders. The cardinal feature of dissociation is a disruption in one or more mental functions. Dissociative amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, identity confusion, and identity alterations are core phenomena of dissociative psychopathology which constitute a single dimension characterized by a spectrum of severity. While dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the most pervasive condition of all dissociative disorders, partial representations of this spectrum may be diagnosed as dissociative amnesia (with or without fugue), depersonalization disorder, and other specified dissociative disorders such as subthreshold DID, dissociative trance disorder, acute dissociative disorders, and identity disturbances due to exposure to oppression. In addition to constituting disorders in their own right, dissociation may accompany almost every psychiatric disorder and operate as a confounding factor in general psychiatry, including neurobiological and psycho-pharmacological research. While an anti- dissociative drug does not yet exist, appropriate psychotherapy leads to considerable improvement for many patients with dissociative disorders. PMID:25598819

  11. Predictors of trait dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation induced via cold pressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Lydia; López-Martínez, Alicia Eva; Asmundson, Gordon John Glenn

    2013-11-30

    Understanding which factors predict individual dissociative response during stressful situations is important to clarify the nature of dissociation and the mechanisms associated to its use as a coping strategy. The present study examined (1) whether experiential avoidance (EA), anxiety sensitivity (AS), depressive symptoms, and state anxiety concurrently predicted trait dissociation (TD)-absorption, amnesia, depersonalization, and total TD scores-and laboratory induced dissociation (LID); and (2) whether TD and catastrophizing predicted LID. We also examined whether catastrophizing mediated the relationships between both AS and depressive symptoms and LID. A total of 101 female undergraduate students participated in a cold pressor task, which significantly induced dissociation. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that AS at Time 1 (9 months before the experimental session), as well as depressive symptoms and catastrophizing at the time of the experiment (Time 2), predicted LID at Time 2. Depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted total TD, absorption, and amnesia scores. AS at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted depersonalization. AS, depressive symptoms, and catastrophizing seem to facilitate the use of dissociative strategies by healthy individuals, even in response to non-traumatic but discomforting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Evidence for the Trauma and Fantasy Models of Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Constance J.; Brand, Bethany L.; Gleaves, David H.; Dorahy, Martin J.; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Cardena, Etzel; Frewen, Paul A.; Carlson, Eve B.; Spiegel, David

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between a reported history of trauma and dissociative symptoms has been explained in 2 conflicting ways. Pathological dissociation has been conceptualized as a response to antecedent traumatic stress and/or severe psychological adversity. Others have proposed that dissociation makes individuals prone to fantasy, thereby…

  13. Dissociation and Alterations in Brain Function and Structure: Implications for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Frost, Rachel; Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2017-01-01

    Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation. Neuroimaging studies in borderline personality disorder (BPD), investigating links between altered brain function/structure and dissociation, are still relatively rare. In this article, we provide an overview of neurobiological models of dissociation, primarily based on research in DDD, DID, and D-PTSD. Based on this background, we review recent neuroimaging studies on associations between dissociation and altered brain function and structure in BPD. These studies are discussed in the context of earlier findings regarding methodological differences and limitations and concerning possible implications for future research and the clinical setting.

  14. Duality in diffraction dissociations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto.

    1977-01-01

    Diffractive dissociations (aN→a*πN) are naturally explained and a model that accounts for the three-variable correlation (mass-transfer-Jackson angle correlation) is presented. This model takes into account the three possible exchanges: t (pion), u(a*) and s(a) channel exchanger. The physical consequences of the model are: a strong mass-slope correlation due to the zeros of the amplitude, a factorization of diffractive dissociations (factorization of the Pomeron), the possibility of extending this model to double diffractive dissociation and diffraction by nuclei. This model was applied to the NN→NπN reaction. Using the usual parameters of the Deck model, a comparison is made with experiments for all available distributions. the strong slope of the peak at 1400 MeV is naturally explained [fr

  15. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.

  16. Dissociative symptoms in kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-02-01

    Many patients with kleptomania report an altered state of consciousness during acts of theft. The purpose of this investigation was to clarify a possible link between dissociation and kleptomania, a disabling disorder whose phenomenology remains understudied. 26 adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for kleptoania were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and compared to 22 normal controls. The patients with kleptomania had scores that differed significantly from those reported by normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences by sex. Because kleptomania patients seeking treatment with medication may differ from others with kleptomania, further studies are needed.

  17. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia.

  18. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  19. Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijs, van der S.J.M.; Bodde, N.M.G; Carrette, E.C.B.; Lazeron, R.H.C; Vonck, K.E.J.; Boon, P.A.J.M.; Langereis, G.R.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients

  20. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  1. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palic, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2015-05-01

    Dissociative experiences are common in traumatized individuals, and can sometimes be mistaken for psychosis. It is difficult to identify pathological dissociation in the treatment of traumatized refugees, because there is a lack of systematic clinical descriptions of dissociative phenomena in refugees. Furthermore, we are currently unaware of how dissociation measures perform in this clinical group. To describe the phenomenology of dissociative symptoms in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. As a part of a larger study, dissociation was assessed systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES). The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence of pathological dissociation as the DES. According to the DES, 30% of the refugees had pathological dissociation 15 years after their resettlement. On the SIDES-D, depersonalization and derealization experiences were the most common. Also, questions about depersonalization and derealization at times elicited reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon, characteristic of severe traumatization in adulthood, needs further examination. Knowledge of dissociative symptoms in traumatized refugees is important in clinical settings to prevent misclassification and to better target psychotherapeutic interventions. Much development in the measurement of dissociation in refugees is needed.

  3. Dysregulation in cortical reactivity to emotional faces in PTSD patients with high dissociation symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klimova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients with high dissociative symptoms will display increased event-related potential (ERP amplitudes in early components (N1, P1 to threatening faces (angry, fearful, and reduced later ERP amplitudes (Vertex Positive Potential (VPP, P3 to happy faces compared to PTSD patients with low dissociative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-nine civilians with PTSD were classified as high dissociative (n=16 or low dissociative (n=23 according to their responses on the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale. ERPs were recorded, whilst participants viewed emotional (happy, angry, fear and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. Results: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed significantly increased N120 amplitude to the majority of facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry compared to low dissociative PTSD patients under conscious and preconscious conditions. The high dissociative PTSD group had significantly reduced VPP amplitude to happy faces in the conscious condition. Conclusion: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed increased early (preconscious cortical responses to emotional stimuli, and specific reductions to happy facial expressions in later (conscious, face-specific components compared to low dissociative PTSD patients. Dissociation in PTSD may act to increase initial pre-attentive processing of affective stimuli, and specifically reduce cortical reactivity to happy faces when consciously processing these stimuli.

  4. Testing the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder through measures of dissociation, absorption, hypnotizability and PTSD: a Norwegian pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Karl Yngvar; Berg, Renate; Elden, Ake; Ødegård, Atle; Holte, Arne

    2009-01-01

    A total of 14 women meeting criteria for dissociative identity disorder (DID) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]) were compared to a group of women (n = 10) with other dissociative diagnoses and a group of normal controls (n = 14) with regard to dissociativity, absorption, trauma related symptoms and hypnotizability. Both of the clinical groups reported histories of childhood trauma and attained high PTSD scores. The DID group differed significantly from the group with other dissociative diagnoses and the non-diagnosed comparison group with regard to hypnotizability, the variety of dissociative symptomatology, and the magnitude of dissociative symptomatology. However, no significant differences between the two clinical groups were detected with regard to absorption, general dissociative level, or symptoms related to traumatic stress. Results support the notion that DID can be regarded as a clinical entity which is separable from other dissociative disorders. Results also indicated that hypnotizability is the most important clinical feature of DID.

  5. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  6. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  8. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  9. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiphoton dissociation of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, P.A.

    1979-10-01

    The dynamics of infrared multiphoton excitation and dissociation of SF 6 was investigated under collision free conditions by a crossed laser-molecular beam method. In order to understand the excitation mechanism and to elucidate the requirements of laser intensity and energy fluence, a series of experiments were carried out to measure the dissociation yield dependences on energy fluence, vibrational temperature of SF 6 , the pulse duration of the CO 2 laser and the frequency in both one and two laser experiments. Translational energy distributions of the SF 5 dissociation product measured by time of flight and angular distributions and the dissociation lifetime of excited SF 6 as inferred from the observation of secondary dissociation of SF 5 into SF 4 and F during the laser pulse suggest that the dynamics of dissociation of excited molecules is dominated by complete energy randomization and rapid intramolecular energy transfer on a nanosecond timescale, and can be adequately described by RRKM theory. An improved phenomenological model including the initial intensity dependent excitation, a rate equation describing the absorption and stimulated emission of single photons, and the unimolecular dissociation of excited molecules is constructed based on available experimental results. The model shows that the energy fluence of the laser determines the excitation of molecules in the quasi-continuum and the excess energy with which molecules dissociate after the laser pulse. The role played by the laser intensity in multiphoton dissociation is more significant than just that of overcoming the intensity dependent absorption in the lowest levels. 63 references

  11. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  12. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  14. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  15. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H. G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  16. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder in an elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushad Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  17. Dissociation: a developmental psychoneurobiological perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    ... the stream of con- sciousness and memory.1 It is a frequent symptom of a range ... infant for long time spans in an extremely disturbed psycho- biological state that ... Advantage: Dissociation is adaptive in the short-term. Dissociation can be ...

  18. Dissociated dislocations in Ni: a computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelestey, P.; Patriarca, M.; Kaski, K.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic computational study of the behavior of a (1/2) dissociated screw dislocation in fcc nickel is presented, in which atomic interactions are described through an embedded-atom potential. A suitable external stress is applied on the system, both for modifying the equilibrium separation distance d and moving the dislocation complex. The structure of the dislocation and its corresponding changes during the motion are studied in the framework of the two-dimensional Peierls model, for different values of the ratio d/a', where a' is the period of the Peierls potential. The distance between the edge and screw components of the partials, as well as their widths, undergo a modulation with period a', as the dislocation moves, and the amplitudes of such oscillations are shown to depend on d/a'. The stress profile acting on the dislocation complex is analyzed and the effective Peierls stress is estimated for different values of d/a'

  19. Dissociative recombination of dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiersen, K.; Heber, O.; Jensen, M.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Andersen, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of doubly-charged positive ions has been studied at the heavy ion storage ring ASTRID. Low-energy electrons were scattered on the dication of the N 2 molecule, and the absolute cross section was measured in the energy range of 10 -4 -50 eV. From the measured cross section, a thermal rate coefficient of 5.8x10 -7 cm 3 s -1 at 300 K was extracted. Furthermore, we present new results on the CO 2+ DR rate, and a summary and comparison of measured DR rate coefficients for both the singly and doubly-charged ions of CO, CO 2 , and N 2 is presented

  20. Quarkonium dissociation by anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We compute the screening length for quarkonium mesons moving through an anisotropic, strongly coupled mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary velocities and orientations of the mesons, as well as for arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic screening length can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. For generic motion we find that: (i) mesons dissociate above a certain critical value of the anisotropy, even at zero temperature; (ii) there is a limiting velocity for mesons in the plasma, even at zero temperature; (iii) in the ultra-relativistic limit the screening length scales as (1 - v 2)ɛ with ɛ = 1 /2, in contrast with the isotropic result ɛ = 1 /4.

  1. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  2. How Do We Assess Dissociation in Treatment Seeking Refugees in the West?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    Bosnian treatment seeking refugees with the dissociation subscale of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-D), the self-report version of the SIDES-D (SIDES-D-SR), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the DES-Taxon. The DES correlated strongly with the SIDES...

  3. Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. Method The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Results Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects. PMID:16585437

  4. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J; Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects.

  5. Negligência das classificações diagnósticas atuais com os fenômenos dissociativos do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático Negligence of current diagnostic classifications in dissociative phenomena of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Azevedo Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Apesar da importância crescente da dissociação no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT, os sintomas dissociativos não são contemplados pelos critérios diagnósticos das classificações oficiais (CID-10 e DSM-IV. A hipótese de um subtipo dissociativo para o TEPT tem sido corroborada por pesquisas em psicofisiologia, neuroimagem funcional, psicoendocrinologia e sistemas opióides. Pretende-se demonstrar a insuficiência dos critérios vigentes na detecção dos sintomas dissociativos no TEPT mediante relato de um caso com sintomas dissociativos persistentes desde o trauma. RELATO DE CASO: O paciente preenche critérios para TEPT e transtorno depressivo maior pelo DSM-IV. Embora também preencha critérios para transtorno de despersonalização, esse diagnóstico é impossibilitado na presença de TEPT. O paciente apresentou sintomas conversivos peritraumáticos, avaliados pela Escala de Imobilidade Tônica, e sintomas dissociativos proeminentes, peritraumáticos e atuais, já que obteve escores significativos no Questionário de Experiências Dissociativas Peritraumáticas e na Escala de Experiências Dissociativas. Após 3 anos de tratamento, não houve melhora do quadro. CONCLUSÃO: O reconhecimento da importância dos fenômenos dissociativos/conversivos no TEPT poderá contribuir para o aprimoramento do diagnóstico, investigações sobre sua fisiopatologia e o desenvolvimento de tratamentos mais eficazes.BACKGROUND: In spite of the growing importance of dissociation in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, dissociative symptoms are not included in the diagnostic criteria of official classifications (CID-10, DSM-IV. Research in psychophysiology, functional neuroimaging, psycho-endocrinology and opioid systems provides support for a dissociative subtype of PTSD. CASE REPORT: A case study on a PTSD patient with persistent dissociative symptoms since the trauma will show that current criteria are insufficient for

  6. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  8. Can the dissociative PTSD subtype be identified across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Műllerová, Jana; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    2016-08-01

    For over a century, the occurrence of dissociative symptoms in connection to traumatic exposure has been acknowledged in the scientific literature. Recently, the importance of dissociation has also been recognized in the long-term traumatic response within the DSM-5 nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the existence of the dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype. However, there is a lack of studies investigating latent profiles of PTSD solely in victims with PTSD. This study investigates the possible presence of PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) across two distinct trauma samples meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD based on self-reports (N = 787). Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in a dissociative compared with a non-dissociative PTSD class. The results of LCA revealed a two-class solution with two highly symptomatic classes: a dissociative class and a non-dissociative class across both samples. Increased emotion-focused coping increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class across both samples. Social support reduced the probability of individuals being grouped into the dissociative class but only in the victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) suffering from whiplash. The results are discussed in light of their clinical implications and suggest that the dissociative subtype can be identified in victims of incest and victims of MVA suffering from whiplash meeting caseness for DSM-5 PTSD.

  9. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  10. Dissociation Energies of Diatomic Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qun-Chao, Fan; Wei-Guo, Sun

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dissociation energies of 10 electronic states of alkali molecules of KH, 7 LiD, 7 LiH, 6 LiH, NaK, NaLi and NaRb are studied using the highest three accurate vibrational energies of each electronic state, and an improved parameter-free analytical formula which is obtained starting from the LeRoy–Bernstein vibrational energy expression near the dissociation limit. The results show that as long as the highest three vibrational energies are accurate, the current analytical formula will give accurate theoretical dissociation energies D e theory , which are in excellent agreement with the experimental dissociation energies D e expt . (atomic and molecular physics)

  11. Neural complexity, dissociation, and schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bob, P.; Šusta, M.; Chládek, Jan; Glaslová, K.; Fedor-Ferybergh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2007), HY1-5 ISSN 1234-1010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : neural complexity * dissociation * schizophrenia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2007

  12. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  13. Atrioventricular Dissociation after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried William Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is increasingly used as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. Cardiac effects are the principal cause of medical complications in these patients. We report a case of atrioventricular (AV dissociation that occurred after ECT that was treated with pacemaker implantation. The mechanisms contributing to the onset of AV dissociation in this patient, and the management and rationale for device therapy, in light of the most recent guidelines, are reviewed.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder and prevalence of dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  16. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  17. Modeling dissociation behaviour of methane hydrate in porous soil media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, A.G.; Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates, or clathrates, exist in the form of crystalline solid structures of hydrogen bonded water molecules where the lattice cages are occupied by guest gas molecules. Methane gas hydrates are the most common. As such, hydrate bearing sediments are considered to be a potential future energy resource. Gas hydrates also function as a source or sink for atmospheric methane, which may influence global warming. The authors emphasized that an understanding of the behaviour of soils containing gas hydrates is necessary in order to develop ways of recovering the vast gas resources that exist in the form of hydrates, particularly since hydrates are also suspected to be a potential factor in the initiation and propagation of submarine slope failures. Gas hydrate dissociation occurs when water and gas are released, resulting in an increase in pore fluid pressure, thereby causing significant reductions in effective stress leading to sediment failure. Dissociation may occur as a result of pressure reductions or increases in temperature. This study focused on the strength and deformation behaviour of hydrate bearing soils associated with temperature induced dissociation. Modeling the dissociation behavior of hydrates in porous soil media involves an understanding of the geomechanics of hydrate dissociation. This paper addressed the issue of coupling the hydrate dissociation problem with the soil deformation problem. A mathematical framework was constructed in which the thermally stimulated hydrate dissociation process in porous soil media under undrained conditions was considered with conduction heat transfer. It was concluded that a knowledge of geomechanical response of hydrate bearing sediments will enable better estimates of benefits and risks associated with the recovery process, thereby ensuring safe and economical exploration. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 appendix.

  18. [Dissociative disorders: from Janet to DSM-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y

    2000-01-01

    dissociation and trauma was revived in different areas: the feminism movement was linked with concerns about child sexual abuse, public curiosity about multiple personalities was heightened by novels and movies, and recognition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam War veterans. In 1980, dissociative disorders were finally adopted as a diagnostic category in the official nomenclature of DSM-III. Although current research on dissociation is being carried out in various fields, two basic assumptions, reflected in the definition of DSM-IV, can be made. One is the "trauma-genic hypothesis," and the other is the great importance attached to multiple personality disorder (MPD). According to the predominantly held view, dissociation represents a reaction to early traumatic experience, especially sexual and physical abuse in childhood. In contrast, some authors argue that the causality of childhood traumatic experience has not been empirically confirmed, and other factors such as the influence of the environment and the predisposition of patients should be taken into consideration. MPD, which was originally described as an unusual phenomenon in classical literature, is currently thought to be a common type of dissociation. However, the reported rapid increase in the number of MPD patients in North America may be partially due to over-diagnosis and inclusion of iatrogenic cases. Significance is also given to MPD in respect to classification of dissociative phenomena. According to the widely held scheme of a "dissociative continuum," which ranges from normal experiences such as daydreams to pathological states, MPD is placed at the extreme end of the continuum. Furthermore, most researchers tend to classify MPD as the severest dissociative disorder due to chronic trauma. On this point, there seems to be confusion about "extremity" and "severity" of MPD. I conclude that the trauma-genic hypothesis of dissociation and the overemphasis placed on MPD should be reexamin

  19. Marcadores neurobiológicos e psicométricos da eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático associado a sintomas dissociativos: relato de caso Neurobiological and psychometric markers of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in post-traumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lages

    2011-01-01

    different psychopathologies, including dissociation, potentially affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in a patient with PTSD and dissociative symptoms based on psychophysiological and psychometric measures at different time points throughout the course of treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient is a 38-year old man diagnosed with PTSD, major depression, and dissociative symptoms, resistant to pharmacotherapy. Psychological treatment lasted for 4 months and consisted of one weekly therapy session and three weekly coaching sessions. Physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, sympathovagal balance, and cortisol and psychometric measures (negative and positive affect, resilience, and post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms were obtained before, during (once a month and after treatment. COMMENTS: Results showed a decrease in sympathovagal balance and an increase in heart rate, vagal tone and cortisol levels during the course of treatment. Treatment also lead to a decrease in negative affect and in post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms, as well as to an increase in resilience, social support and positive affect scores. These results suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms. Moreover, the treatment seems to be able to normalize PTSD-related physiological parameters in the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems.

  20. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Tonny E

    2018-03-16

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD.

  1. Type of presentation of dissociative disorder and frequency of co-morbid depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Tabassum; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2009-02-01

    To determine the frequency distribution of various types of dissociative disorders, along with existing co-morbid depression and its level of severity in patients with dissociative disorder. Observational, cross-sectional study. The Institute of Psychiatry, Rawalpindi General Hospital from October 2004 to March 2005. Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study through non-probable purposive sampling technique. Encounter form included socio-demographic profile and brief psychiatric history. ICD 10 diagnostic criteria for research were administered for determining the presentation of dissociative disorder. Present state examination was applied to make diagnosis of depressive disorder in the studied patients. Descriptive statistics for frequency analysis of sociodemographic variables, type of presentation of dissociative disorder and the frequency of depressive disorder in patients of dissociative disorder. The mean age was 23.6+/-8.67 years with female preponderance (n=40, 80% patients). Most of them were single, unemployed and belonged to urban population. Main stress was primary support group issue. Mixed category of dissociative disorder was highest (n=18, 38%) followed by unspecified and motor symptoms (n=13, 26%) in each group. Depression was present in 42 (84%) patients. Moderate depression was most frequent (n=19, 38%). Mixed dissociative symptoms were found in 38%, while 26% had motor and unspecified category of dissociative symptoms respectively. Depressive disorder was present in 42 (84%) cases of dissociative disorder with 38% having moderate depression.

  2. Contextual Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N; Elhai, Jon D; Rea, Bayard D; Weiss, Donna; Masino, Theodore; Morris, Staci Leon; McIninch, Jessica

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of contextual therapy, a new approach for treating adult survivors of prolonged child abuse (PCA), is provided via case studies of three women with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Contextual therapy is based on the premise that it is not only traumatic experiences that account for PCA survivors' psychological difficulties. Even more fundamentally, many survivors grow up in an interpersonal context in which adequate resources for secure attachment and acquisition of adaptive living skills are not available. As a result, they are left with lasting deficits that undermine not only their current functioning, but also their ability to cope with reliving their traumatic memories in therapy. The primary focus of this treatment approach, therefore, is on developing capacities for feeling and functioning better in the present, rather than on extensive exploration and processing of the client's trauma history or, in the case of DID, of identity fragments. Treatment of the three cases presented ranged from eight months to two and one-half years' duration, and culminated in very positive outcomes. The women's reports of achievements, such as obtaining and maintaining gainful employment, greater self-sufficiency, and the establishment of more intimate and gratifying relationships, indicated marked improvements in daily functioning. Objective test data obtained at admission and discharge, and in one case, at follow-up, documented substantial reductions in dissociative, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and other symptoms.

  3. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  4. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  5. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680, Ukraine and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Orava, Risto [Institute of Physics, Division of Elementary Particle Physics, P.O. Box 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland and CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salii, Andrii [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  6. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  7. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative expe...

  8. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS IN DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  9. Hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijzenbroek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative chemisorption is an important reaction step in many catalytic reactions. An example of such a reaction is the Haber-Bosch process, which is used commercially to produce ammonia, an important starting material in the production of fertilisers. In theoretical descriptions of such chemical

  10. Energy localization and molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, S.; Tsironis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    We study analytically as well as numerically the role that large-amplitude vibrations play during the process of molecular dissociation. Our model consists of a linear three-atom molecule composed of identical atoms interacting with their nearest neighbors by Morse potentials. We find a close relation between energy localization and bond breaking and evaluate numerically the corresponding reaction paths

  11. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder : A PET study and neurobiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.; Vos, Herry P. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Loewenstein, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the

  12. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  14. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  15. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  16. Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldegol, Alexandre.

    1991-05-01

    A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs

  17. Dissociation in the phenomenological perspective (in athletes and representatives of extreme careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Vlasik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze dissociation from the perspective of phenomenology as experience of persons engaged in activities related to high stress (physical and/ or psychological. Dissociation is usually correlated with the so-called reaction fading in life-threatening situations, which along with the reactions of “fight or flight” reveal both in humans and the representatives of the animal world (“fight, flight or freeze”. However, unlike animals humans are often able to act purposefully in dissociative states, or randomly enter them. Specific features and diversity of manifestations of dissociation in humans are determined by the linguistic nature of human consciousness, which is logical to appeal to the philosophers of the phenomenological direction within which consciousness is the subject matter of their research. Based on the concept of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze various manifestations of dissociation are detected: from the grave symptoms of PTSD (the so-called invasion of symptoms to controlled arbitrarily selected dissociative strategies for athletes. Dissociative experiences by experts of extreme careers are considered: law enforcement officers who participated in missions in «hot spots», and EMERCOM psychologists. Dissociation mechanism in terms of phenomenology is defined. The development and application of adequate diagnostic tools, psychological work with the athletes to regulate the focus of attention during the competition is supposed to contribute to the achievement of a high sports results.

  18. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palic, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Armour, Cherie

    2015-01-01

    systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES). Results: The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence...... reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon...

  20. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, H.; Physics

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  1. Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  2. Hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wijzenbroek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative chemisorption is an important reaction step in many catalytic reactions. An example of such a reaction is the Haber-Bosch process, which is used commercially to produce ammonia, an important starting material in the production of fertilisers. In theoretical descriptions of such chemical processes often approximations need to be made in order to keep the computational cost feasible, such as fixing the surface atoms in place, rather than allowing them to vibrate. In this work, seve...

  3. Diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verebryusov, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of Regge scheme with supercritical pomeron a model is suggested for the NN-scattering amplitude which takes into account the contribution introduced to the intermediate state by diffraction dissociation (DD) processes. The DD amplitude is written in terms of the Deck model which has been previously applied to describing the main DD features. The calculated NN cross sections are compared with those obtained experimentally. Theoretical predictions for higher energy are presented

  4. Dissociative Photoionization of Diethyl Ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, Krisztina; Mozaffari Easter, Chrissa M; Covert, Kyle J; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-10-29

    The dissociative photoionization of internal energy selected diethyl ether ions was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. In a large, 5 eV energy range Et2O(+) cations decay by two parallel and three sequential dissociative photoionization channels, which can be modeled well using statistical theory. The 0 K appearance energies of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (H-loss, m/z = 73) and CH3CH2O═CH2(+) (methyl-loss, m/z = 59) fragment ions were determined to be 10.419 ± 0.015 and 10.484 ± 0.008 eV, respectively. The reemergence of the hydrogen-loss ion above 11 eV is attributed to transition-state (TS) switching, in which the second, outer TS is rate-determining at high internal energies. At 11.81 ± 0.05 eV, a secondary fragment of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (m/z = 73) ion, protonated acetaldehyde, CH3CH═OH(+) (m/z = 45) appears. On the basis of the known thermochemical onset of this fragment, a reverse barrier of 325 meV was found. Two more sequential dissociation reactions were examined, namely, ethylene and formaldehyde losses from the methyl-loss daughter ion. The 0 K appearance energies of 11.85 ± 0.07 and 12.20 ± 0.08 eV, respectively, indicate no reverse barrier in these processes. The statistical model of the dissociative photoionization can also be used to predict the fractional ion abundances in threshold photoionization at large temperatures, which could be of use in, for example, combustion diagnostics.

  5. Autonoesis and dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder is characterised by the presence in one individual of two or more alternative personality states (alters). For such individuals, the memory representation of a particular event can have full episodic, autonoetic status for one alter, while having the status of knowledge or even being inaccessible to a second alter. This phenomenon appears to create difficulties for a purely representational theory and is presented to Mahr & Csibra (M&C) for their consideration.

  6. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  7. Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport coefficients of a dissociating gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The calculation of the transport coefficients of a dissociating gas involves fundamental difficulties which arise when the internal degrees of freedom of the molecules are taken strictly into account. In practical calculations extensive use is made of the approximation in the context of which the dependence of a diffusion velocity of the molecule on its internal state is totally neglected. In this case the expressions for the stress tensor and the diffusion velocities coincide with the corresponding expressions for a mixture of structureless particles; in the expression for the heat flux the diffusion transport of internal energy is taken only approximately into account. Here, analytic expressions for the diffusion velocities, heat flux and stress tensor are obtained without introducing simplifying assumptions. The calculation method is based on an approximate method of calculating the transport coefficients of a multicomponent mixture of structureless particles. The relations obtained are analyzed and compared with the existing results; their accuracy is estimated. A closed system of equations of gas dynamics is presented for a number of cases of practical importance

  9. Psychological Dissection of Patients Having Dissociative Disorder: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Lohit Somashekar; Patil, N M; Nayak, Raghavendra B; Chate, Sameeran S; Ansari, Saba

    2018-01-01

    Patients present with dissociative disorders as a decompensation to underlying stressful situation. It is clinically important to evaluate the presence, type, and temporal relation of the stressors resulting in dissociation. Further knowing the sociodemographic and psychological profile of the dissociative patient helps in better management. The study included 55 dissociative patients aged between 5 to 45 years. Psychiatric diagnosis was made using ICD-10 DCR. Psychosocial stressors and stressful life events were assessed using presumptive stressful life events scale/life events scale for Indian children and clinical interview. Personality and temperament traits were assessed using medico psychological questionnaire and temperament measurement schedule, respectively. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed using standard progressive matrices and colored progressive matrices. Statistical analysis was done using Epi Info 7 software. All patients had significant psychosocial stressors preceding dissociation. Precipitating factor with temporal association was observed in only 83.64%. Family disharmony (41.82%) followed by education-related problems (29.09%) was the most common psychosocial stressors. 61.82% of the dissociative patients had psychiatric comorbidity. Mean IQ of study sample was 92.47. Dissociative children had high emotionality and energy levels but low sociability, rhythmicity, and distractibility. 50% of the adults were neurotic and had emotionally unstable personality. Dissociative disorders are commonly seen in females, adolescents, and in those from lower socioeconomic status and rural areas. They are always preceded by psychosocial stressors. Most of them have comorbid psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Neuroticism and emotionally unstable personality traits are common in adult patients while temperamental traits such as low sociability, low rhythmicity, low distractibility, high emotionality, and high energy levels are common in

  10. Metastablity of the undissociated state of dissociated dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    Undissociated, metastable dislocations have been observed in various crystals in addition to stable dissociated dislocations by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The origin of the metastablity of the undissociated state has been discussed specifically for the dissociation into Shockley partial dislocations in fcc or hcp lattice. It is shown that the metastability is due either to a high Peierls-Nabarro stress larger than a few percent of the shear modulus of the partial dislocations and/or to the increase of the total core energy by an increase of the dangling bonds. The metastablity of undissociated dislocations in zincblende III-V compounds is concluded to be due to a contribution of the latter effect

  11. Diffractive dissociation and new quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    We argue that the chiral limit of QCD can be identified with the strong (diffractive dissociation) coupling limit of reggeon field theory. Critical Pomeron scaling at high energy must then be directly related to an infra-red fixed-point of massless QCD and so requires a large number of flavors. This gives a direct argument that the emergence of diffraction-peak scaling, KNO scaling etc. at anti p-p colliders are evidence of a substantial quark structure still to be discovered

  12. [Characteristics of Bacillus cereus dissociants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, E V; Loĭko, N G; Il'inskaia, O N; Kolpakov, A I; Gornova, I B; Klimanova, E V; El'-Registan, G I

    2001-01-01

    The autoregulation of the phenotypic (populational) variability of the Bacillus cereus strain 504 was studied. The isolated colonial morphotypes of this bacterium were found to differ in their growth characteristics and the synthesis of extracellular proteases. The phenotypic variabilities of vegetative proliferating cells and those germinated from endospores and cystlike refractory cells were different. Bacterial variants also differed in the production of the d1 and d2 factors (the autoinducers of dormancy and autolysis, respectively) and sensitivity to them. The possible role of these factors in the dissociation of microorganisms is discussed.

  13. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizik G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Bizik,1 Petr Bob,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Josef Pavlat,1 Jana Uhrova,2 Hana Benakova,2 Tomas Zima2 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40, and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively, and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years. The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01, SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01, and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01, but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. Keywords: depression, dissociation, TNF-alpha, traumatic stress

  14. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  15. Collision-induced dissociation of diatomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los, J.; Govers, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to illustrate how mass spectrometric studies of dissociation in diatomic molecular ions can provide information on the dynamics of these collisions and on the predissociative states involved. Restriction is made to primary beam energies of the order of at least keV. The review covers the dynamics of dissociation, experimental techniques, direct dissociation in heavy-particle collisions, and translational spectroscopy. 120 references

  16. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror...

  17. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Le

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  18. Mirror writing and a dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder.

  19. A pilot study on peritraumatic dissociation and coping styles as risk factors for posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents after their child's unexpected admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Madelon B.; Kayser, Anne-Marie; Knoester, Hendrika; Bos, Albert P.; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Aim: To study the prevalence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents three months after pediatric intensive care treatment of their child and examine if peritraumatic dissocation and coping styles are related to these mental health problems. METHODS: This is a

  20. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes.

  2. High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindholm, Torun; Nordenström, Anna; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in every-day life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  3. From dissociation to trauma? Individual differences in dissociation as predictor of 'trauma' perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassin, Eric; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2006-01-01

    In clinical literature, dissociative complaints are generally considered to be the result of traumatic experiences. However, it has been argued that dissociative complaints, in turn, may indulge over-reporting of traumatic experiences. Hence, correlations between dissociation and self-reported

  4. Dissociation in patients with dissociative seizures: relationships with trauma and seizure symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.

  5. A study of clinico-demographic profile of patients with dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Shah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study the clinical and socio demographic profile of patients with dissociative disorder and their comorbid mental illness. Materials and methods Fifty-one patients of dissociative disorder presenting to emergency and outpatient department of Psychiatry at College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital during the period from Jan to March 2012 were included. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems tenth edition, diagnostic criteria for research (ICD-10, DCR was used. Results Out of 51 patients, the majority 24 (47.1%, were in the age group 15-29. However the age of presentation ranged from 9-45 years. The females were more, 44 (86.3% as compared to males 7 (13.7%. The majority of patients had low level of education with none of the patients having education above intermediate level. The majority of patients, 27(52.9% belonged to lower middle class. 49% of the patients presented with dissociative convulsions, 15.7% with dissociative motor disorders, 15.7% with dissociative stupor, 11.8% with dissociative anesthesia and sensory loss and 7.8% with trance and possession disorder. Depressive illness was found co-morbid with dissociative disorder in 33.3%, borderline personality disorder in 9.8% and histrionic personality disorder in 7.8%. There was history of immediate stressful events that supposedly precipitated the event in 76.5%. Conclusion Dissociative disorder mainly affects young female of lower socio-economic and educational status with history of immediate stressful life events precipitating the illness. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-3, 30-35 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i3.8683

  6. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  7. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V [Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Nair, Janardhanan [Ion Arc Technologies Pvt Ltd, Coimbatore (India)

    2010-02-01

    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO{sub 2} and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  8. Inflight dissociation of zircon in air plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugeswaran, S; Selvarajan, V; Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Thiyagarajan, T K; Nair, Janardhanan

    2010-01-01

    Thermal dissociation of zircon can be conveniently carried out in a plasma reactor, which is characterized by high temperature, high energy density and high quench rate. Zirconia is recovered from this partially dissociated zircon by alkali leaching. Dissociation of zircon has been conventionally carried out in argon gas, which is expensive. The present paper reports experimental results on thermal dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium. Process simulation for 'inflight' dissociation of zircon in air plasma medium is also presented. The experimental system consists of a central hollow graphite electrode, which acts as the cathode and a graphite anode. The material to be processed is fed centrally through the cathode. The unique feature of the system is that it uses air as the working gas to generate the thermal plasma. The system has been used to study in-flight dissociation of zircon in the thermal plasma jet. Dissociation was carried out over 10-25 kW power range. Results of the study indicate that complete dissociation of zircon to ZrO 2 and silica could be accomplished at 25 kW in air plasma.

  9. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Rigollet, Catherine; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Van de Walle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  10. Dissociation of ethane by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The absolute total dissociation cross section for ethane is reported for electron energies between 10 and 600 eV. A maximum value of 7.6 X 10 -16 cm 2 occurs at 80 eV while the apparent threshold is approximately 10 eV. Dissociative ionization is more probable than dissociation into neutral fragments at all energies except in the threshold region. The data indicates that fragmentation involving methane elimination (e - +C 2 H 6 → CH 4 + CH 2 ) occurs in less than 2% of the dissociative events for 50 < E < 600 eV. Arguments are presented which suggest that some of the lower excited states of ethane are stable against dissociation. (Auth.)

  11. Is the dissociative adult suggestible? A test of the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Nicole S; Dalenberg, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the trauma model of dissociation. In the past decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative fantasy model of dissociation. In the present research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness was examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS) as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the trauma model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p suggestibility measure. Although some participants did become quite emotional during the procedure, the risk/benefit ratio was perceived by almost all participants to be positive, with more reactive individuals evaluating the procedure more positively. The results consistently support the trauma model of dissociation and fail to support the fantasy model of dissociation.

  12. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  13. Involvement of noradrenergic and corticoid receptors in the consolidation of the lasting anxiogenic effects of predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R; Muir, C; Grimes, M; Pearcey, K

    2007-05-16

    The roles of beta-NER (beta-noradrenergic receptor), GR (glucocorticoid) and mineral corticoid receptors (MR) in the consolidation of anxiogenic effects of predator stress were studied. One minute after predator stress, different groups of rats were injected (ip) with vehicle, propranolol (beta-NER blocker, 5 and 10 mg/kg), mifepristone (RU486, GR blocker, 20 mg/kg), spironolactone (MR blocker, 50 mg/kg), propranolol (5 mg/kg) plus RU486 (20 mg/kg) or the anxiolytic, chloradiazepoxide (CPZ, 10 mg/kg). One week later, rodent anxiety was assessed in elevated plus maze, hole board, light/dark box, social interaction and acoustic startle. Considering all tests except startle, propranolol dose dependently blocked consolidation of lasting anxiogenic effects of predator stress in all tests. GR receptor block alone was ineffective. However, GR block in combination with an ineffective dose of propranolol did blocked consolidation of predator stress effects in all tests, suggesting a synergism between beta-NER and GR. Surprisingly, MR block prevented consolidation of anxiogenic effects in all tests except the light/dark box. CPZ post stress was ineffective against the anxiogenic impact of predator stress. Study of startle was complicated by the fact that anxiogenic effects of stress on startle amplitude manifested as both an increase and a decrease in startle amplitude. Suppression of startle occurred in stressed plus vehicle injected groups handled three times prior to predator stress. In contrast, stressed plus vehicle rats handled five times prior to predator stress showed increases in startle, as did all predator stressed only groups. Mechanisms of consolidation of the different startle responses appear to differ. CPZ post stress blocked startle suppression but not enhancement of startle. Propranolol post stress had no effect on either suppression or enhancement of startle. GR block alone post stress prevented suppression of startle, but not enhancement. In contrast

  14. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder : A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jaencke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have

  15. Axis-I comorbidity in female patients with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative identity disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Frauke; Wilhelm-Göling, Claudia; Emrich, Hinderk M; Reddemann, Luise; Gast, Ursula

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate axis-I comorbidity in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS). Using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychiatric Disorders, results from patients with DID (n = 44) and DDNOS (n = 22) were compared with those of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 13), other anxiety disorders (n = 14), depression (n = 17), and nonclinical controls (n = 30). No comorbid disorders were found in nonclinical controls. The average number of comorbid disorders in patients with depression or anxiety was 0 to 2. Patients with dissociative disorders averagely suffered from 5 comorbid disorders. The most prevalent comorbidity in DDNOS and DID was PTSD. Comorbidity profiles of patients with DID and DDNOS were very similar to those in PTSD (high prevalence of anxiety, somatoform disorders, and depression), but differed significantly from those of patients with depression and anxiety disorders. These findings confirm the hypothesis that PTSD, DID, and DDNOS are phenomenologically related syndromes that should be summarized within a new diagnostic category.

  16. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  17. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5 currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method: We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results: A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1 severe or 2 moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes. Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1 Reexperiencing, 2 Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3 Dissociation, 4 Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5 Avoidance, and 6 Hyperarousal. Conclusions: The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.

  18. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Brown, Matthew F D; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD.

  19. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity of CBCL-derived PTSD and dissociation scales: further evidence in a sample of neglected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; Plamondon, André; Ethier, Louise S; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; St-Laurent, Diane; Rousseau, Michel

    2013-05-01

    There is growing evidence that child neglect is an important risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation. Considering that the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely used measure, the possibility of using validated CBCL-derived trauma symptoms scales could be particularly useful to better understand how trauma symptoms develop among neglected children and adolescents. This study examined the factor structure of three CBCL-derived measures of PTSD and dissociation (namely, PTSD scale, Dissociation scale, and PTSD/Dissociation scale) in a sample of 239 neglected children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years using the latest version of CBCL (CBCL 6-18). Evidence of convergent validity of these scales was also examined for participants aged 12 and under using two well-validated measures of PTSD and Dissociation: the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Young Children and the Child Dissociation Checklist. Findings suggest that CBCL-derived measures of trauma symptoms, especially PTSD and Dissociations scales, may be of heuristic value in the study of trauma symptomatology in neglected samples. Factor structure and evidence of convergent validity were supported for these two scales. Results also provide further support to the well-established assumption that PTSD and dissociation are two related but different constructs.

  1. Energy distribution in dissociations of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernig, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis studies are reported of fragmentation processes in polyatomic molecules. In order to find out which dessocaciation reactions take place, how they are brought about by the internal energy of the reactant, and to investigate the structure of the dissociating 'transition state', the fragment mass and the corresponding kinetic energy release (KER) are determined by differential translational spectroscopy using a position and time sensitive two-particle coincidence detector. The results are interpreted using the statistical theory of unimolecular dissociation. It turns out that the standard assumptions of the theory, especially in calculating KER-distributions, are not realistic in all molecules considered. Dissociation is induced by the neutralization with alkali metal vapour. In ch. 2 the experimental method and the analysis of the data (dissociation pathways, branching ratios and ε-d-distributions) are introduced and exemplified by measurements of cyclohexane, which represents the upper limit in precursor and fragment mass accessible in the apparatus. In ch. 3 a study is reported of the molecules methylchloride (CH 3 Cl) and the acetylradical (CH 3 CO). In spite of their similar geometric structures, completely different dissociation mechanisms have been found. Methylchloride dissociates via a repulsive state; acetyl radicals show energy scrambling. The energy distribution from dissociating acetyl exemplifies dynamical effects in the dissociation. In ch. 4 an investigation of a number of prototype hydrocarbons is presented. The dissociation pathways of several small linear alkanes indicate that neutralization takes place to unknown repulsive potentials, of which the position and steepness are determined from the kinetic energy release. (author). 118 refs.; 40 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. On low temperature glide of dissociated 〈1 1 0〉 dislocations in strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbex, Sebastian; Hirel, Pierre; Carrez, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    An elastic interaction model is presented to quantify low temperature plasticity of SrTiO3 via glide of dissociated 〈1 1 0〉{1 1 0} screw dislocations. Because 〈1 1 0〉 dislocations are dissociated, their glide, controlled by the kink-pair mechanism at T good quantitative agreement with the observed non-monotonic mechanical behaviour of SrTiO3. This agreement allows to explain the experimental results in terms of a (progressive) change in 〈1 1 0〉{1 1 0} glide mechanism, from simultaneous nucleation of two kink-pairs along both partials at low stress, towards nucleation of single kink-pairs on individual partials if resolved shear stress exceeds a critical value of 95 MPa. High resolved shear stress allows thus for the activation of extra nucleation mechanisms on dissociated dislocations impossible to occur under the sole action of thermal activation. We suggest that stress condition in conjunction with core dissociation is key to the origin of non-monotonic plastic behaviour of SrTiO3 at low temperatures.

  3. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  4. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarenov, A.V.; Marchenko, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The total cross sections of dissociation and dissociative recombination of slow electrons and molecular ions H 2 + have been calculated in terms of the quasiclassical and dipole approximations. In the calculations allowance was made for the quantum nature of vibrational motion of heavy particles and presence of autoionization of divergence states of the H 2 (Σ u , nl) molecules. It is shown that the H 2 + ion dissociation cross sections are dominant in increase of the electron energy in the ε >or approx. 2-3 eV region for H 2 + (v) ion distribution over the vibrational levels characteristic for the beam experiments. 15 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulander, K.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H 2 system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process

  6. A study of the stressor, family environment and family burden in dissociative (conversion disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociative disorder is a stress-related disorder usually present in adolescent and younger age group. It is also accompanied with significant impairment in activity of daily living and family relationship. Family environment plays important role in initiation and maintenance of symptoms and this put significant burden on family. Aim and Objective: To study presence of stressor, family environment, and assessment of family burden in dissociative disorder patients. Material and Method: This was a cross-sectional observational study in which 100 dissociatives disorder patients were included after fulfilling inclusion criteria from both inpatients and outpatient department of psychiatry. Results: In our study major part of the sample were women 60 (60%, among them most of were housewife and educated up to primary school. According to a stressor, 63 (63% patients had family stress/problem and out of them, 35 (58.4 were women. Seventy-four (74% patients had dissociative convulsion and out of them, 45 (75% were women. The dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in both men and women. There is a significant difference found in the family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension in both men and women. Conclusion: Present study concludes that dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in term of leisure, physical, mental, financial, and routines family interrelationship domains. The family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension has a casual effect on symptoms of dissociative disorder patients.

  7. A pilot study on peritraumatic dissociation and coping styles as risk factors for posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents after their child's unexpected admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To study the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression in parents three months after pediatric intensive care treatment of their child and examine if peritraumatic dissocation and coping styles are related to these mental health problems. Methods This is a prospective cohort study and included parents of children unexpectedly admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU from January 2006 to March 2007. At three months follow-up parents completed PTSD (n = 115, anxiety and depression (n = 128 questionnaires. Immediately after discharge, parents completed peritraumatic dissocation and coping questionnaires. Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations examined risk factors for mental health problems. Results Over 10% of the parents were likely to meet criteria for PTSD and almost one quarter for subclinical PTSD. Respectively 15% to 23% of the parents reported clinically significant levels of depression and anxiety. Peritraumatic dissocation was most strongly associated with PTSD, anxiety as well as depression. Avoidance coping was primarily associated with PTSD. Conclusion A significant number of parents have mental health problems three months after unexpected PICU treatment of their child. Improving detection and raise awareness of mental health problems is important to minimize the negative effect of these problems on parents' well-being.

  8. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  9. Dissociation of eIF4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2 from eIF4E independent of Thr37/Thr46 phosphorylation in the ischemic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Ayuso

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs are translational repressors that bind specifically to eIF4E and are critical in the control of protein translation. 4E-BP2 is the predominant 4E-BP expressed in the brain, but their role is not well known. Here, we characterized four forms of 4E-BP2 detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE in brain. The form with highest electrophoretic mobility was the main form susceptible to phosphorylation at Thr37/Thr46 sites, phosphorylation that was detected in acidic spots. Cerebral ischemia and subsequent reperfusion induced dephosphorylation and phosphorylation of 4E-BP2 at Thr37/Thr46, respectively. The induced phosphorylation was in parallel with the release of 4E-BP2 from eIF4E, although two of the phosphorylated 4E-BP2 forms were bound to eIF4E. Upon long-term reperfusion, there was a decrease in the binding of 4E-BP2 to eIF4E in cerebral cortex, demonstrated by cap binding assays and 4E-BP2-immunoprecipitation experiments. The release of 4E-BP2 from eIF4E was without changes in 4E-BP2 phosphorylation or other post-translational modification recognized by 2-DGE. These findings demonstrated specific changes in 4E-BP2/eIF4E association dependent and independent of 4E-BP2 phosphorylation. The last result supports the notion that phosphorylation may not be the uniquely regulation for the binding of 4E-BP2 to eIF4E under ischemic stress.

  10. Dissociation of NF3 in shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, W.D.; Bird, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal dissociation rate of NF 3 in mixtures of 5% and 10%NF 3 in Ar has been measured behind incident shock waves over the temperature range 1330-2000 K. Dissociation rates were determined from postshock density gradients measured by laser beam deflection. The second order rate coefficient determined for NF 3 -Ar collisions is k/sub d/=2.31 x 10 15 exp(-20500/T) cm 3 mole sec

  11. Dissociation and decay of ultracold sodium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Abo-Shaeer, J.R.; Xu, K.; Chin, J.K.; Ketterle, W.

    2004-01-01

    The dissociation of ultracold molecules was studied by ramping an external magnetic field through a Feshbach resonance. The observed dissociation energies directly yielded the strength of the atom-molecule coupling. They showed nonlinear dependence on the ramp speed. This was explained by a Wigner threshold law which predicts that the decay rate of the molecules above threshold increases with the density of states. In addition, inelastic molecule-molecule and molecule-atom collisions were characterized

  12. Schizophrenia masquerading as Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jegan Yogaratnam; Rajesh Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms can dominate the clinical picture in many psychiatric conditions and possess a huge challenge to the clinicians in management. We present a case report of a female with a strong family history of schizophrenia who initially presented with features suggestive of dissociative identity disorder, which is itself a rare clinical entity, was later diagnosed to have schizophrenia. Authors would like to emphasise that clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for schizoph...

  13. [Screening for major dissociative disorders with the FDS, the German version of the Dissociative Experience Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Frauke; Gast, Ursula; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of major dissociative disorders (dissociative identity disorder, DID and similar forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, DDNOS) in clinical samples is about 5 %. Despite their frequency, major dissociative disorders are often overseen for a long time. Screening-scales have proved to be effective to support clinical diagnosis. The aim of this study was to test, whether the Fragebogen für dissoziative Symptome (FDS), the German version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), differentiates between patients with dissociative disorders, non-dissociative disorders and non-clinical controls. Additionally, an optimal FDS-cutoff for a more detailed differential-diagnostic evaluation of the dissociative symptomatology should be identified. 150 participants with DID (group DID: n = 44), DDNOS (DDNOS: n = 22), posttraumatic disorders (TRAUMA: n = 20), other non-dissociative disorders (non-TRAUMA: n = 34) and non-clinical controls (KG: n = 30) completed the FDS. In the five diagnostic groups, mean values were calculated and compared for the FDS, DES and FDS-20. Via receiver-operating-curves the cutoff-scores, which differentiated best between participants with and without major dissociative disorders, were identified. FDS, DES and FDS-20 differentiate significantly between patients with and without major dissociative disorders. For all scales, there were significant differences between the diagnostic groups, with mean-scores decreasing continuously from the groups DID to DDNOS and TRAUMA. Between the groups non-TRAUMA and KG tendencies were found in the predicted direction. The optimal cutoff-scores to differentiate between participants with and without major dissociative disorders were 13 (FDS/FDS-20) and 15 (DES). Using these cutoff-scores, at least 90 % of the patients with major dissociative disorders could be identified correctly (sensitivity). The specifity of the scales was 0.89 to 0.90. Screening for major dissociative disorders

  14. Fast kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANELA BELTRÁN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the kinetics of calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in solution or forming part of isolated junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by mixing calsequestrin equilibrated with calcium with calcium-free solutions in a stopped-flow system. In parallel, we measured the kinetics of the intrinsic fluorescence changes that take place following calcium dissociation from calsequestrin. We found that at 25ºC calcium dissociation was 10-fold faster for calsequestrin attached to junctional membranes (k = 109 s-1 than in solution. These results imply that calcium dissociation from calsequestrin in vivo is not rate limiting during excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we found that the intrinsic fluorescence decrease for calsequestrin in solution or forming part of junctional membranes was significantly slower than the rates of calcium dissociation. The kinetics of intrinsic fluorescence changes had two components for calsequestrin associated to junctional membranes and only one for calsequestrin in solution; the faster component was 8-fold faster (k = 54.1 s-1 than the slower component (k = 6.9 s-1, which had the same k value as for calsequestrin in solution. These combined results suggest that the presence of calsequestrin at high concentrations in a restricted space, such as when bound to the junctional membrane, accelerates calcium dissociation and the resulting structural changes, presumably as a result of cooperative molecular interactions.

  15. Four-Month-Old Infants? Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    OpenAIRE

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...

  16. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  17. Reduced amygdala reactivity and impaired working memory during dissociation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Winter, Dorina; Schriner, Friederike; Chiu, Chui-De; Lis, Stefanie; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2017-05-19

    Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Using script-driven imagery, dissociation was induced in 17 patients ('BPD_D'), while 12 patients ('BPD_N') and 18 HC were exposed to neutral scripts during fMRI. Afterwards, participants performed the EWMT with neutral vs. negative IAPS pictures vs. no distractors. Main outcome measures were behavioral performance (reaction times, errors) and whole-brain activity during the EWMT. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine amygdala connectivity during emotional distraction. BPD patients after dissociation induction showed overall WM impairments, a deactivation in bilateral amygdala, and lower activity in left cuneus, lingual gyrus, and posterior cingulate than BPD_N, along with stronger left inferior frontal gyrus activity than HC. Furthermore, reduced amygdala FC with fusiform gyrus and stronger amygdala FC with right middle/superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule was observed in BPD_D. Findings suggest that dissociation affects reactivity to emotionally salient material and WM. Altered activity in areas associated with emotion processing, memory, and self-referential processes may contribute to dissociative states in BPD.

  18. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  19. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  20. Type and timing of childhood maltreatment and severity of shutdown dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46 M/29 F, M = 31 ± 10 years old with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003 in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that "life-threatening" events are a critical determinant.

  1. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule is described. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, 235 UF 6 is separated from a UF 6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into 235 UF 5 - and F

  2. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA.

  3. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan.

  4. Reconsidering the autohypnotic model of the dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F

    2018-03-22

    The dissociative disorders field and the hypnosis field currently reject the autohypnotic model of the dissociative disorders, largely because many correlational studies have shown hypnotizability and dissociation to be minimally related (r = .12). Curiously, it is also widely accepted that dissociative patients are highly hypnotizable. If dissociative patients are highly hypnotizable because only highly hypnotizable individuals can develop a dissociative disorder - as the author proposes - then the methodology of correlational studies of hypnotizability and dissociation in random clinical and community samples would necessarily be constitutively unable to detect, and statistically unable to reflect, that fact. That is, the autohypnotic, dissociative distancing of that small subset of highly hypnotizable individuals who repeatedly encountered intolerable circumstances is statistically lost among the data of (1) the highly hypnotizable subjects who do not dissociate and (2) subjects (of all levels of hypnotizability) who manifest other kinds of dissociation. The author proposes that, when highly hypnotizable individuals repeatedly engage in autohypnotic distancing from intolerable circumstances, they develop an overlearned, highly-motivated, automatized pattern of dissociative self-protection (i.e., a dissociative disorder). The author urges that theorists of hypnosis and the dissociative disorders explicitly include in their theories (a) the trait of high hypnotizability, (b) the phenomena of autohypnosis, and (c) the manifestations of systematized, autohypnotic pathology. Said differently, the author is suggesting that autohypnosis and autohypnotic pathology are unacknowledged nodes in the nomothetic networks of both hypnosis and dissociation.

  5. Cortisol responses to naturalistic and laboratory stress in student teachers: comparison with a non-stress control day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-04-01

    Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dissociable roles of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activation on social discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Joëls, Marian; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that CORT and NA exert dissociable, opposing effects on prosocial behaviour based on prior findings implicating CORT in social affiliation, and NA in aggressive and antagonistic tendencies. We pharmacologically manipulated CORT and NA levels in a sample of men (N = 150) and found that isolated hydrocortisone administration promoted prosocial tendencies towards close others, reflected in an altered social discount function, but this effect was offset by concurrent noradrenergic activation brought about by simultaneous yohimbine administration. These results provide inceptive evidence for causal, opposing roles of these two important stress neuromodulators on prosocial behaviour, and give rise to the possibility that, depending on the neuroendocrine response profile, stress neuromodulator action can foster both tend-and-befriend and fight-or-flight tendencies at the same time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies of neutron dissociation at Fermilab energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1975-01-01

    The latest results obtained in a continuing investigation of neutron dissociation in (pπ - ) systems in neutron--nucleus collisions between 50 and 300 GeV/c are summarized. The nuclear coherent dissociation data are discussed first; then new measurements of total cross sections of neutrons on nuclei in the Fermilab momentum range are presented; finally, neutron dissociation using a hydrogen target is considered, and the hydrogen data are compared with expectations from simple Deck models. A substantial correlation was observed between the mass and the t of the system produced. The spin structure of the pπ - amplitudes at low mass was described surprisingly well by the simple Deck mechanism. The t-channel helicity amplitudes contained comparable contributions from flip and nonflip terms, and the states produced were not restricted to those expected on the basis of the Morrison rule. (19 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  8. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  9. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Dissociative amnesia: a case with management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of dissociative amnesia with regressed behaviour was diagnosed applying the existing criteria for dissociative disorder in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. Though there are number of cases of such condition, but when coupled with regressed behaviour it adds to new dimension in the management. An applied strategy in lines with both pharmacological and non pharmacological was used, and we found that it helped our patient to gradually improve her behaviour. This is one of the few cases reported and we hope more such cases should be reported in understanding the psychopathology.

  11. Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21

    OpenAIRE

    Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,γ)N20 and N20(n,γ)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,γ)N20 rate is...

  12. Revisiting the etiological aspects of dissociative identity disorder: a biopsychosocial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vedat Şar,1 Martin J Dorahy,2 Christa Krüger3 1Department of Psychiatry, Koç University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Dissociative identity disorder (DID is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology. Enduring decoupling of psychological modes may create separate senses of self, and metamemory processes may be involved in interidentity amnesia. Neurobiological differences have been demonstrated between dissociative identities within patients with DID and between patients with DID and controls. Given the current evidence, DID as a diagnostic entity cannot be explained as a phenomenon created by iatrogenic influences, suggestibility, malingering, or social role-taking. On the contrary, DID is an empirically robust chronic psychiatric disorder based on neurobiological, cognitive, and interpersonal non-integration as a response to unbearable stress. While current evidence is sufficient to firmly establish this etiological stance, given the wide opportunities for innovative research, the disorder is still understudied. Comparison of well-selected samples of DID patients with non-dissociative subjects who have other psychiatric disorders would further delineate the neurobiological and cognitive features of the disorder, whereas genetic research on DID would further illuminate the interaction of the individual with environmental stress. As such

  13. Objective documentation of child abuse and dissociation in 12 murderers with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D O; Yeager, C A; Swica, Y; Pincus, J H; Lewis, M

    1997-12-01

    The skepticism regarding the existence of dissociative identity disorder as well as the abuse that engenders it persists for lack of objective documentation. This is doubly so for the disorder in murderers because of issues of suspected malingering. This article presents objective verification of both dissociative symptoms and severe abuse during childhood in a series of adult murderers with dissociative identity disorder. This study consisted of a review of the clinical records of 11 men and one woman with DSM-IV-defined dissociative identity disorder who had committed murder. Data were gathered from medical, psychiatric, social service, school, military, and prison records and from records of interviews with subjects' family members and others. Handwriting samples were also examined. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder in childhood and adulthood were corroborated independently and from several sources in all 12 cases; objective evidence of severe abuse was obtained in 11 cases. The subjects had amnesia for most of the abuse and underreported it. Marked changes in writing style and/or signatures were documented in 10 cases. This study establishes, once and for all, the linkage between early severe abuse and dissociative identity disorder. Further, the data demonstrate that the disorder can be distinguished from malingering and from other disorders. The study shows that it is possible, with great effort, to obtain objective evidence of both the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder and the abuse that engenders it.

  14. Blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis response to predator odor predicts high stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with trauma- and stress-related disorders exhibit increases in avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, heightened anxiety and altered neuroendocrine stress responses. Our laboratory uses a rodent model of stress that mimics the avoidance symptom cluster associated with stress-related disorders. Animals are classified as 'Avoiders' or 'Non-Avoiders' post-stress based on avoidance of predator-odor paired context. Utilizing this model, we are able to examine subpopulation differences in stress reactivity. Here, we used this predator odor model of stress to examine differences in anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function in animals that avoid a predator-paired context relative to those that do not. Rats were exposed to predator odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance (24h and 11days), anxiety-like behavior (48h and 5days) and HPA activation following stress. Control animals were exposed to room air. Predator odor stress produced avoidance in approximately 65% of the animals at 24h that persisted 11days post-stress. Both Avoiders and Non-Avoiders exhibited a heightened anxiety-like behavior at 48h and 5days post-stress when compared to unstressed Controls. Non-Avoiders exhibited significant increases in circulating adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations immediately following predator odor stress compared to Controls and this response was significantly attenuated in Avoiders. There was an inverse correlation between circulating ACTH/CORT concentrations and avoidance, indicating that lower levels of ACTH/CORT predicted higher levels of avoidance. These results suggest that stress effects on HPA stress axis activation predict long-term avoidance of stress-paired stimuli, and build on previous data showing the utility of this model for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms of trauma- and stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubester, K A; Braun, B G

    1995-04-01

    The test-retest reliability of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW [1986] Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174:727-735) in a clinical sample was found to be .93 for the total DES score and .95, .89, and .82 for the three subscale scores of amnesia, depersonalization-derealization, and absorption (dissociative identity disorder [DID], DSM-IV), respectively. Test-retest reliabilities within diagnostic groups of multiple personality disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and a general other category of psychiatric diagnoses were obtained for total and subscale scores on the DES. These ranged from .78 to .96. Tests of mean scores across the two test sessions showed the total and subscale scores to be temporally stable. The DES was also found to be highly internally consistent: Cronbach's alphas of .96 and .97 were observed for the total DES scores taken at times 1 and 2, respectively. Construct validity of the DES was demonstrated by differentiation among the subscale scores in a repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[2,154] = 32.03, p < or = .001). Normality and general distribution issues were also addressed and provided a rationale for using the DES with parametric statistics. Reasons why the DES (as it was originally designed) is not appropriate as a dependent measure in outcome research are discussed, along with needed future research. Implications of the findings for the clinical usefulness of the DES as a diagnostic instrument are noted.

  16. Process Dissociation and Mixture Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2008-01-01

    The process dissociation procedure was developed in an attempt to separate different processes involved in memory tasks. The procedure naturally lends itself to a formulation within a class of mixture signal detection models. The dual process model is shown to be a special case. The mixture signal detection model is applied to data from a widely…

  17. From dissociated hegemony towards embedded hegemony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de; Dhanrajgir, Nikhil

    2005-01-01

    An earlier paper by the second author, entitled ‘Bella Americana: Some Consequences for the International Community’ [1], dealt with the background and consequences of the American dissociation from the international legal and political order created after World War II. The current article

  18. Theory of the dissociation process, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, N.P.F.B. van

    1976-01-01

    The formalism of Moeller operators and channel Hamiltonians, originating from scattering theory, is used for the description of the dissociation process. The proper choice of the initial state wave function is discussed. A method is given which accounts for the symmetry requirements which appear in the case of a homonuclear molecule where identical particles are present

  19. Dissociative charge exchange of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruijn, D. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to molecular dissociation, in particular the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule H 2 arising from electron capture of its ion H 2 + in a collision. Thereby the important practical question how a chemical bond can be broken is implicitly addressed. This thesis opens (chapter I) with an overview of the available experimental approaches in molecular physics. Further the simple Demkov model for NRCE is described. In chapter II a novel experimental technique for measurements on dissociative processes is introduced which combines a high efficiency with a high energy resolution. A detailed description of the techniques applied in the detector, which has a high spatial and timing resolution with 30 μm and 350 psec FWHM respectively for the detection of one particle, is given in chapter III. A semi-classical theory for NRCE in the medium energy range between a diatomic molecular ion and an atom is developed in chapter IV. The experiments on dissociative charge exchange of H 2 + with Ar, Mg, Na and Cs targets at keV energies are described in Chapter V. The predissociation of the c 3 PIsub(u)-state of H 2 populated after charge exchange of H 2 with several targets at keV energies; is the subject of chapter VI. In chapter VII, orientational oscillations in the cross section for charge exchange of H 2 + with alkali targets are discussed. The last chapter deals with predissociation of highly excited states in H 2 . (Auth.)

  20. CO dissociation on magnetic Fen clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem; Markovits, Alexis; Minot, Christian; Abderrabba, Manef Ben; Van Hove, Michel A.

    2014-01-01

    triangular facet of the nanoparticle. Dissociation becomes easier when the cluster size increases. Then, the C atom is bonded to a square facet that is generated as a result of the adsorption if it does not yet exist in the bare cluster, while the O atom

  1. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  2. Dissociative electron attachment to ozone: rate constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J.D.; Cicman, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    The rate constant for dissociative electron attachment to ozone has been derived over the energy range of 0-10 eV by using previously measured cross section data revisited here in regards to discrimination effect occurring during the extraction of ions. The obtained data for both possible channels exhibit the maximum at mean electron energies close to 1 eV. (author)

  3. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in

  4. Resonances in dissociative recombination: Trends and patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, A E; Ngassam, V; Royal, J [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Roos, J B; Larson, A, E-mail: aeorel@ucdavis.ed [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    In dissociative recombination, the kinetic energy of the incident electron is transferred into excitation of the electrons of the target ion and then into kinetic energy of the fragments. In general, this proceeds via a resonance where the electron is temporarily trapped by the ion, leading to efficient energy transfer. The study of dissociative recombination is the study of these resonances, Rydberg states converging to the ground and excited states of the ion. For a number of systems, we have studied the electronic states involved in dissociative recombination, including the ground and excited states of the ion, the resonant states and the bound Rydberg states of the system, by combining electron scattering calculations with multi-reference configuration interaction quantum chemistry calculations. We will report on trends and patterns in these resonance states. We will discuss studies of dissociative recombination of the rare-gas ions, moving down the periodic table from He{sup +}{sub 2} to Ne{sup +}{sub 2} to Ar{sup +}{sub 2}, where the ground electronic state of the ion is constant, but its polarizability increases. We will also present results on isoelectronic polyatomic systems, such as HCO{sup +} and HCNH{sup +}, as well as the effects of changing the electronic structure slightly such as HCN{sup +}/HNC{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO{sup +}.

  5. Dissociation in undergraduate students: disruptions in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; Geraerts, Elke; Smeets, Ellen

    2004-08-01

    The concept of dissociation refers to disruptions in attentional control. Attentional control is an executive function. Few studies have addressed the link between dissociation and executive functioning. Our study investigated this relationship in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 185) who completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Random Number Generation Task. We found that minor disruptions in executive functioning were related to a subclass of dissociative experiences, notably dissociative amnesia and the Dissociative Experiences Scale Taxon. However, the two other subscales of the Dissociative Experiences Scale, measuring depersonalization and absorption, were unrelated to executive functioning. Our findings suggest that a failure to inhibit previous responses might contribute to the pathological memory manifestations of dissociation.

  6. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  7. Dissociative sensibility disorders - A retrospective case series and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter; Erlacher, Rahel

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative disorders present a huge challenge in clinical settings. In contrast to other dissociative symptoms, dissociative sensibility disorders are rarely focused on. To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of dissociative sensibility disorders in children and adolescents, and to review the use of diagnostic procedures. For the review, a literature search used Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubPsych (to 02/2015) and the reference lists of the studies identified. Screening of titles and abstracts; full-text assessment by two reviewers. The original case series was identified by using the local data register. Two reviewers independently reviewed the data and, if they agreed on the relevance, extracted the data. In the original case series, data were extracted retrospectively from the records. Sixteen studies and seven case reports were identified, including 931 cases with dissociative disorders. In 210 cases the patient suffered either from a single sensibility disorder or predominantly from sensibility disorders. We identified thirteen further cases in our cohort. In both groups there was female predominance; the mean age of manifestation was early adolescence. The timing of admissions was variable. In approximately 50% of cases a premorbid stressful life event could be identified. Over 75% of cases had a good prognosis with complete resolution. Retrospective character of our own data collection, partially missing differentiation between the subgroups of dissociative disorders in the reviewed studies. There is no uniform procedure for diagnostic work-up. The overall short-term prognosis is good. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of complex dissociative disorder patients and simulated dissociation in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Webermann, Aliya R; Frankel, A Steven

    Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings. In this paper, we first review the testing profiles of individuals with complex DDs and contrast them with DD simulators on assessment measures used in forensic contexts, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Structured Inventory of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), as well as dissociation-specific measures such as the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R). We then provide recommendations for assessing complex trauma and dissociation through the aforementioned assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does phasic trauma treatment make patients with dissociative identity disorder treatment more dissociative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of the iatrogenic model of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have expressed concern that treatment focused on direct engagement and interaction with dissociated self-states harms DID patients. However, empirical data have shown that this type of DID treatment is beneficial. Analyzing data from the prospective Treatment of Patients With Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) Study, we test empirically whether DID treatment is associated with clinically adverse manifestations of dissociated self-states: acting so differently that one feels like different people, hearing voices, and dissociative amnesia. We show that, over the course of the study, there were significant decreases in feeling like different people and hearing voices. These results indicate that this form of DID treatment does not lead to symptomatic worsening in these dimensions, as predicted by the iatrogenic model. Indeed, treatment provided by TOP DD therapists reduced, rather than increased, the extent to which patients experienced manifestations of pathological dissociation. Because severe symptomatology and impairment are associated with DID, iatrogenic harm may come from depriving DID patients of treatment that targets DID symptomatology.

  10. Dissociation of acetaldehyde in intense laser field: Coulomb explosion or field-assisted dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshakre, Mohamed E.; Gao, Lirong; Tang, Xiaoping; Wang, Sufan; Shu, Yafei; Kong, Fanao

    2003-09-01

    Dissociation of acetaldehyde in moderate strong laser field of 1013-1014W/cm2 was investigated. Singly charged parent ion CH3CHO+ and fragmental ions CH3+, CHO+, C2H4+, O+, CH2CHO+, and H+ were produced by 800 nm laser of 100 fs pulse duration and recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CH3+ fragment further dissociated to CH2+, CH+, and C+ ions at higher intensity. Ab initio calculated results show that the singly-, doubly-, and triply charged parent ions are stable. So, the dissociation mechanism was not due to Coulomb explosion of multicharged ion. A field-assisted dissociation (FAD) theory, which assumes that only one bond undergoes dissociation while the rest of the molecular geometry stays unchanged, was employed to treat the dissociation dynamics. Accordingly, the dressed potential energy surfaces of the ground state for the parent and the fragment ions were calculated. Corresponding quasiclassical trajectory calculations show that the bond ruptures take place in the order of C-C, C-O, and C-H, agreeing with the observation. The observed angular dependence and charge distribution of the product ions can also be interpreted by the FAD theory.

  11. The Contribution of Art Therapy to the Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored concepts of brain hemispheric lateralization and distinct right brain functioning in extensive dissociation by administering Dissociative Experiences Scale to 114 engineering students and 92 university drawing students. Chi-square calculation found differences in dissociative scoring levels between groups that approached significance at…

  12. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  13. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  14. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  15. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  16. Revisiting the etiological aspects of dissociative identity disorder: a biopsychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şar, Vedat; Dorahy, Martin J; Krüger, Christa

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology. Enduring decoupling of psychological modes may create separate senses of self, and metamemory processes may be involved in interidentity amnesia. Neurobiological differences have been demonstrated between dissociative identities within patients with DID and between patients with DID and controls. Given the current evidence, DID as a diagnostic entity cannot be explained as a phenomenon created by iatrogenic influences, suggestibility, malingering, or social role-taking. On the contrary, DID is an empirically robust chronic psychiatric disorder based on neurobiological, cognitive, and interpersonal non-integration as a response to unbearable stress. While current evidence is sufficient to firmly establish this etiological stance, given the wide opportunities for innovative research, the disorder is still understudied. Comparison of well-selected samples of DID patients with non-dissociative subjects who have other psychiatric disorders would further delineate the neurobiological and cognitive features of the disorder, whereas genetic research on DID would further illuminate the interaction of the individual with environmental stress. As such, DID may be seen as an exemplary disease model of the biopsychosocial paradigm in psychiatry.

  17. Peritraumatic startle response predicts the vulnerability to develop PTSD-like behaviors in rats: a model for peritraumatic dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen eDong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritraumatic dissociation, a state characterized by alteration in perception and reduced awareness of surroundings, is considered to be a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the predictive ability of peritraumatic dissociation is questioned for the inconsistent results in different time points of assessment. The startle reflex is an objective behavioral measurement of defensive response to abrupt and intense sensory stimulus of surroundings, with potential to be used as an assessment on the dissociative status in both humans and rodents. The present study examined the predictive effect of acoustic startle response (ASR in different time points around the traumatic event in an animal model of PTSD. The PTSD-like symptoms, including hyperarousal, avoidance, and contextual fear, were assessed 2-3 weeks post-trauma. The results showed that 1 the startle amplitude attenuated immediate after intense footshock in almost half of the stress animals, 2 the attenuated startle responses at 1 hour but not 24 hours after stress predicted the development of severe PTSD-like symptoms. These data indicate that the startle alteration at the immediate period after trauma, including 1 hour, is more important in PTSD prediction than 24 hours after trauma. Our study also suggests that the startle attenuation immediate after intense stress may serve as an objective measurement of peritraumatic dissociation in rats.

  18. The elastic properties, generalized stacking fault energy and dissociated dislocations in MgB2 under different pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Huifang

    2013-05-31

    The 〈112̄0〉 perfect dislocation in MgB2 is suggested to dissociate into two partial dislocations in an energy favorable way 〈112̄0〉 → 1/2 〈112̄0〉 + SF + 1/2 〈112̄0〉. This dissociation style is a correction of the previous dissociation 〈1000〉 → 1/3 〈11̄00〉 SF + 1/3 〈 2100〉proposed by Zhu et al. to model the partial dislocations and stacking fault observed by transmission electron microscopy. The latter dissociation results in a maximal stacking fault energy rather than a minimal one according to the generalized stacking fault energy calculated from first-principles methods. Furthermore, the elastic constants and anisotropy of MgB2 under different pressure are investigated. The core structures and mobilities of the 〈112̄0〉 dissociated dislocations are studied within the modified Peierls-Nabarro (P-N) dislocation theory. The variational method is used to solve the modified P-N dislocation equation and the Peierls stress is also determined under different pressure. High pressure effects on elastic anisotropy, core structure and Peierls stress are also presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Short- and long-term effects of dietary l-tryptophan supplementation on the neuroendocrine stress response in seawater-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Krogdahl, T.; Scholden, J.

    2013-01-01

    . Basal plasma cortisol levels were lower among non-stressed fish at 1 and 10. days post dietary Trp supplementation. By comparison, stressed fish displayed stimulatory post-stress plasma cortisol responses at 1 and 2. days after the Trp regimen was terminated. However, a reversed pattern was observed...... as well as habituation to seawater involves the neuroendocrine stress response, suggesting that such environmental factors may modulate the stress-reducing effects of Trp. To date, studies that have investigated the neuroendocrine effects of dietary Trp have only been conducted in rainbow trout...... (. Oncorhynchus mykiss), a salmonid species, under conditions featuring social isolation in the freshwater environment. Here, we address the effects of dietary Trp on post-stress plasma cortisol and hypothalamic monoamines in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (. Salmo salar), reared at densities relevant...

  20. Dissociation fully mediates the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and DSM-5 PTSD in a sample of treatment-seeking adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Maria Louison; Shevlin, Mark; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-01-01

    emotional abuse on post-traumatic stress severity. The indirect effect model fit the data best. Conclusion: Dissociation fully mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and post-traumatic stress severity. The results are limited by the use of retrospective self-report measures...

  1. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  2. P300 is attenuated during dissociative episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the pathophysiology of dissociative phenomena using the P300 component of event-related potentials, quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), and morphology measures of computed tomography scan. Event-related potentials during an auditory oddball paradigm and QEEG in resting state were recorded. Patients exhibited attenuation of P300 amplitudes compared with controls during dissociative episodes, but exhibited recovery to control levels in remission. Patients had a larger Sylvian fissure-brain ratio than did controls. QEEG findings revealed no significant differences between the patients and controls or between episodes and remission in the patient group. Attenuation of the P300 can be interpreted as the result of a negative feedback loop from the medial temporal lobe to the cortex, which decreases the amount of information flow, allocation of attentional resources, and updating of working memory to avoid both excessive long-term memory system activity in medial temporal lobe and resurgence of affect-laden memories.

  3. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillé, C.; Moeglin, C.; Sentissi, O.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. PMID:25405051

  4. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devillé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.

  5. Critical superheats upon boiling of dissociating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolykhan, L.I.; Solov'ev, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on critical superheats of dissociating liquids, i.e. nitrogen tetroxide and nitrine are presented (nitrine is the solution of nitrogen oxide in nitrogen tetroxide). The experiments with boiling N 2 O 4 have been carried out in the pressure range 0.1-3.0 MPa and with boiling nitrine within the pressure range 0.2-9.0 MPa. The experiments have revealed an anomalous dependence of critical superheats on pressure P, thus at P>=2.5 MPa the critical superheat values exceed the limiting ones, and at P=4.5 MPa this excess amounts to more than 16 K, essentially exceeding the errors of the experiments. The results for N 2 O 4 critical superheats agree with experimental data of other authors. Complex phenomena observed upon boiling of dissociating liquids require further theoretical and experimental studies

  6. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  7. Dissociative Excitation of Thymine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, William; Tiessen, Collin; Hein, Jeffrey; Trocchi, Joshuah; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2014-05-01

    A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of thymine (C5H6N2O2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. A special stainless steel oven is used to vaporize the thymine and form it into a beam where it is intersected by a magnetically collimated electron beam, typical current 50 μA. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The probability of extracting excited C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. In addition to spectral data, excitation probability curves as a function of electron energy will be presented for the main emission features. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.

  8. Dissociative Disorders Among Chinese Inpatients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Li, Ying; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study consisted of 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Disorders, Version 3 (CCMD-3). All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Ninety-six randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or on the self-report measure dissociation. A total of 28 (15.3%, after weighting of the data) patients received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 (0.53%, after weighting) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% versus 22.1%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China. PMID:20603768

  9. Malingering dissociative identity disorder: objective and projective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labott, Susan M; Wallach, Heather R

    2002-04-01

    Verification of dissociative identity disorder presents challenges given the complex nature of the illness. This study addressed the concern that this disorder can be successfully malingered on objective and projective psychological tests. 50 undergraduate women were assigned to a Malingering or a Control condition, then completed the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. The Malingering group were asked to simulate dissociative identity disorder; controls received instructions to answer all materials honestly. Analysis indicated that malingerers were significantly more likely to endorse dissociative experiences on the Dissociative Experiences Scale II in the range common to patients with diagnosed dissociative identity disorder. However, on the Rorschach there were no significant differences between the two groups. Results suggest that the assessment of dissociative identity disorder requires a multifaceted approach with both objective and projective assessment tools. Research is needed to assess these issues in clinical populations.

  10. Teaching Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qing; Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Xiao, Zeping

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of an educational effort by two North American experts in dissociative disorders to teach Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses. In the final phase of the educational effort, 569 patients at Shanghai Mental Health Center completed the Chinese version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Patients were then randomly selected in different proportions according to their DES scores: 96 selected patients were then assessed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and clinical diagnostic interviews based on DSM-IV criteria. According to the clinical diagnostic interviews, 28 (4.9%) patients were diagnosed as having dissociative disorders. Agreement between the American experts and Chinese psychiatrists for presence or absence of a dissociative disorder was 0.75 using Cohen's kappa. Dissociative disorders can be diagnosed in China with good inter-rater reliability. The authors describe the steps taken to achieve this outcome.

  11. Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-10-01

    Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.

  12. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, T [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Dressing effect in multiphoton unimolecular dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of a quantum-statistical model recently discussed, we deal in this paper with the perturbations induced by the intense field of a CO/sub 2/ laser on the levels of the vibrational pattern of a molecule undergoing multiphoton unimolecular dissociation. This perturbational correction is investigated by using a displacement operator technique and the results are interpreted according to the statistical model.

  14. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  15. Laser ionization and dissociation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments undertaken to further characterize the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of some important excited singlet states of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium isotopes are described. Attention was centered on high vibrational levels of the B, C, and B' states within about 1000 cm -1 of the second dissociation limit. A double-resonance excitation scheme was needed to access levels with a large average bond distance from the ground state. Two-photon absorption of tunable uv-laser radiation-pumped ground-state hydrogen molecules into selected rovibronic levels of the metastable EF double-minimum electronic state. A second tunable near-IR probe laser was scanned to generate ions by resonant multiphoton ionization, where the resonant levels were provided by B, C, B', and other levels near the dissociation limit. New information was obtained regarding line shapes and intensities. Time-of-flight ion mass selection permitted observation of additional excitation channels with dissociation superimposed on the ionization process to produce protons

  16. How thioredoxin dissociates its mixed disulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Roos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The dissociation mechanism of the thioredoxin (Trx mixed disulfide complexes is unknown and has been debated for more than twenty years. Specifically, opposing arguments for the activation of the nucleophilic cysteine as a thiolate during the dissociation of the complex have been put forward. As a key model, the complex between Trx and its endogenous substrate, arsenate reductase (ArsC, was used. In this structure, a Cys29(Trx-Cys89(ArsC intermediate disulfide is formed by the nucleophilic attack of Cys29(Trx on the exposed Cys82(ArsC-Cys89(ArsC in oxidized ArsC. With theoretical reactivity analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical complex formation experiments with Cys-mutants, Trx mixed disulfide dissociation was studied. We observed that the conformational changes around the intermediate disulfide bring Cys32(Trx in contact with Cys29(Trx. Cys32(Trx is activated for its nucleophilic attack by hydrogen bonds, and Cys32(Trx is found to be more reactive than Cys82(ArsC. Additionally, Cys32(Trx directs its nucleophilic attack on the more susceptible Cys29(Trx and not on Cys89(ArsC. This multidisciplinary approach provides fresh insights into a universal thiol/disulfide exchange reaction mechanism that results in reduced substrate and oxidized Trx.

  17. Dissociative recombination of small molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mul, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis is given of merged electron-ion beam experiment and work on dissociative recombination of molecular ions and electrons is described. Chapter II covers a brief introduction of the theory of dissociative recombination. In chapter III, a description is given of the merged electron-ion beam experiment and a method is described which allows the determination of the mean angle between the electron and ion trajectories in a merged electron-ion beam experiment. In chapter IV a paper on the three dominant atmospheric diatomic ions NO + , O 2 + and N 2 + is presented and in chapter V the dissociative recombination for N 2 H + and N 2 D + is discussed. In chapter VI two papers on the polyatomic ions of the carbon-containing molecular ions are presented, and in chapter VII a letter with some results of the work presented in more detail in the chapters IV, V and VI is presented. The magnitude and the energy dependence of the cross-section measured by the merged beam technique and by other techniques is compared and discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Dissociated cultures of newborn mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, U.N.; Hofmann, K.; Burkhart, T.; Herschkowitz, N.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolism of 35 SO 4 -sulfated lipids and mucopolysaccharides was studied in dissociated brain cell cultures from newborn albino mouse brains. The cultures were maintained under an atmosphere of 40% O 2 and 5% CO 2 in apparent good health up to 30 days. Early morphological examination of the dissociated cells demonstrated an initial partial reaggregation of the cells, which later settled and became confluent bilayered cultures. Cell proliferation measured by DNA and protein determination, morphological differentiation and biochemical differentiation took place in the dissociated brain cell cultures analogous in some respects to the in vivo situation. A timed increase in the synthesis of a myelin precursor, cerebroside 35 SO 4 , was observed after 6 to 8 days in culture (DIC). A peak of cerebroside sulfate was evident at 17 DIC. No stable sulfatide was observed at any time. Protein-bound macromolecular 35 SO 4 -MPS was synthetized and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Maximal synthesis and secretion occurred at 8 DIC. This culture system proves to be a useful model for studying some aspects of differentiation of brain cells under external conditions. (author)

  19. Sex-specific impairment and recovery of spatial learning following the end of chronic unpredictable restraint stress: potential relevance of limbic GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J Bryce; Taylor, Sara B; Hoffman, Ann N; Campbell, Alyssa N; Lucas, Louis R; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2015-04-01

    Chronic restraint stress alters hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a sex-dependent manner, impairing spatial performance in male rats and leaving intact or facilitating performance in female rats. Moreover, these stress-induced spatial memory deficits improve following post-stress recovery in males. The current study examined whether restraint administered in an unpredictable manner would eliminate these sex differences and impact a post-stress period on spatial ability and limbic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) expression. Male (n=30) and female (n=30) adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to non-stressed control (Con), chronic stress (Str-Imm), or chronic stress given a post-stress recovery period (Str-Rec). Stressed rats were unpredictably restrained for 21 days using daily non-repeated combinations of physical context, duration, and time of day. Then, all rats were tested on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for 2 days and given one retention trial on the third day, with brains removed 30min later to assess GAD65 mRNA. In Str-Imm males, deficits occurred on day 1 of RAWM acquisition, an impairment that was not evident in the Str-Rec group. In contrast, females did not show significant outcomes following chronic stress or post-stress recovery. In males, amygdalar GAD65 expression negatively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. In females, hippocampal CA1 GAD65 positively correlated with RAWM performance on day 1. These results demonstrate that GABAergic function may contribute to the sex differences observed following chronic stress. Furthermore, unpredictable restraint and a recovery period failed to eliminate the sex differences on spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Questionnaire on dissociative symptoms. German adaptation, reliability and validity of the American Dissociative Experience Scale (DES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E

    1998-06-01

    The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.

  1. Zero-Point Energy Constraint for Unimolecular Dissociation Reactions. Giving Trajectories Multiple Chances To Dissociate Correctly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amit K; Hase, William L

    2016-01-28

    A zero-point energy (ZPE) constraint model is proposed for classical trajectory simulations of unimolecular decomposition and applied to CH4* → H + CH3 decomposition. With this model trajectories are not allowed to dissociate unless they have ZPE in the CH3 product. If not, they are returned to the CH4* region of phase space and, if necessary, given additional opportunities to dissociate with ZPE. The lifetime for dissociation of an individual trajectory is the time it takes to dissociate with ZPE in CH3, including multiple possible returns to CH4*. With this ZPE constraint the dissociation of CH4* is exponential in time as expected for intrinsic RRKM dynamics and the resulting rate constant is in good agreement with the harmonic quantum value of RRKM theory. In contrast, a model that discards trajectories without ZPE in the reaction products gives a CH4* → H + CH3 rate constant that agrees with the classical and not quantum RRKM value. The rate constant for the purely classical simulation indicates that anharmonicity may be important and the rate constant from the ZPE constrained classical trajectory simulation may not represent the complete anharmonicity of the RRKM quantum dynamics. The ZPE constraint model proposed here is compared with previous models for restricting ZPE flow in intramolecular dynamics, and connecting product and reactant/product quantum energy levels in chemical dynamics simulations.

  2. Early life stress induces long-term changes in limbic areas of a teleost fish: the role of catecholamine systems in stress coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Fokos, Stefanos; Pavlidis, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) shapes the way individuals cope with future situations. Animals use cognitive flexibility to cope with their ever-changing environment and this is mainly processed in forebrain areas. We investigated the performance of juvenile gilthead seabream, previously subjected...... of post-stress response in the β2 adrenergic receptor expression and a downregulation in bdnf in the Dm3 of ELS fish, which together indicate an allostatic overload in their stress coping ability. ELS fish showed higher neuronal activity (cfos) post-acute stress in the hippocampus homologue (Dlv...

  3. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  4. Chronic social stress leads to altered sleep homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto

    2017-06-01

    Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization/derealization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples of undergraduate students (N = 58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol responses, while individuals high on the absorption subscale showed attenuated responses. Interestingly, subjective stress experiences, as indicated by the Tension-Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, were positively related to trait dissociation. The present findings illustrate how various types of dissociation (i.e., depersonalization/derealization, absorption) are differentially related to cortisol stress responses.

  6. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  8. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  9. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  10. Data on ionization, excitation, dissociation and dissociative ionization of targets by helium ion bombardments, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Nobuo; Urakawa, Junji

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a compilation of the experimental data on cross sections for the ionization, excitation, dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of targets in helium ion impacts on atoms and molecules under a single collision condition. These measurements were carried out in the energy range from several keV to 3.5 MeV. A systematic survey has been made on the literatures from 1975 to the end of 1982. A list of references is also given, including relevant papers published before 1975. (author)

  11. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program - Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients' mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher

  12. A study of laughter and dissociation: distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Bonanno, G A

    1997-10-01

    Laughter facilitates the adaptive response to stress by increasing the psychological distance from distress and by enhancing social relations. To test these hypotheses, the authors related measures of bereaved adults' laughter and smiling 6 months postloss to measures of their (a) subjective emotion and dissociation from distress, (b) social relations, and (c) responses they evoked in others. Duchenne laughter, which involves orbicularis oculi muscle action, related to self-reports of reduced anger and increased enjoyment, the dissociation of distress, better social relations, and positive responses from strangers, whereas non-Duchenne laughter did not. Lending credence to speculations in the ethological literature, Duchenne laughter correlated with different intrapersonal and interpersonal responses than Duchenne smiles. Discussion focuses on the relevance of these findings to theories of positive emotion.

  13. The responses of dissociative patients on the thematic apperception test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, M; Beere, D; Lovinger, S; Dush, D

    2001-07-01

    This study compared the responses of dissociative inpatients and general inpatient psychiatric controls on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943). We found the stories of dissociative participants to be characterized by a greater interpersonal distance and more trauma and dissociation responses than those of the controls. No significant differences were found regarding total number of emotional references, although references to positive emotions were almost nonexistent for the dissociative group. A post hoc analysis of the data found the testing behaviors of dissociative participants to be characterized by switching, trance states, intrainterview amnesias, and affectively loaded card rejections. Questions were raised regarding the relevancy of the findings to clinical practice and how they might explain some of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v '' ≤21 and 1≤J '' ≤14 were assigned to the X 1 Σ + state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm -1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation v D from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy D e =15 815±5 cm -1 . Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  15. Dissociative Photoionization of the Elusive Vinoxy Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan D; Scrape, Preston G; Lee, Shih-Huang; Butler, Laurie J

    2017-08-24

    These experiments report the dissociative photoionization of vinoxy radicals to m/z = 15 and 29. In a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, we induce C-Cl bond fission in 2-chloroacetaldehyde by photoexcitation at 157 nm. Our velocity measurements, combined with conservation of angular momentum, show that 21% of the C-Cl photofission events form vinoxy radicals that are stable to subsequent dissociation to CH 3 + CO or H + ketene. Photoionization of these stable vinoxy radicals, identified by their velocities, which are momentum-matched with the higher-kinetic-energy Cl atom photofragments, shows that the vinoxy radicals dissociatively photoionize to give signal at m/z = 15 and 29. We calibrated the partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to CH 3 + relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross section of the Cl atom at 13.68 eV to put the partial photoionization cross sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged partial cross sections are 0.63 and 1.3 Mb at 10.5 and 11.44 eV, respectively. These values are consistent with the upper limit to the cross section estimated from a study by Savee et al. on the O( 3 P) + propene bimolecular reaction. We note that the uncertainty in these values is primarily dependent on the signal attributed to C-Cl primary photofission in the m/z = 35 (Cl + ) time-of-flight data. While the value is a rough estimate, the bandwidth-averaged partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to HCO + calculated from the signal at m/z = 29 at 11.53 eV is approximately half that of vinoxy to CH 3 + . We also present critical points on the potential energy surface of the vinoxy cation calculated at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory to support the observation of dissociative ionization of vinoxy to both CH 3 + and HCO + .

  16. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  17. Dissociative Excitation of Adenine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, J. William; Trocchi, Joshuah; Dech, Jeffery; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative excitation of adenine (C6H5NH2) into excited atomic fragments has been studied in the electron impact energy range from threshold to 300 eV. A crossed beam system coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator is used to study emissions in the wavelength range from 110 to 200 nm. The beam of adenine vapor from a stainless steel oven is crossed at right angles by the electron beam and the resultant UV radiation is detected in a mutually orthogonal direction. The strongest feature in the spectrum is H Lyman- α. Financial support from NSERC and CFI, Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  19. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote th...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  20. The Association Between Peritraumatic Dissociation and PTSD Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Negative Beliefs About the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Jun, Janie J; Sloan, Denise M

    2017-04-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation, a term used to describe a complex array of reactions to trauma, including depersonalization, derealization, and emotional numbness, has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a number of studies. Cognitive theory suggests that interpretations of traumatic events and reactions underlie the persistence of PTSD. The present study examined the associations among peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD symptoms in a group of trauma-exposed adults (N = 169). Results indicated that, after accounting for overall symptom severity and current dissociative tendencies, peritraumatic dissociation was significantly predictive of negative beliefs about the self (R 2 = .06, p < .001). Other categories of maladaptive posttraumatic cognitions did not show a similar relationship (R 2 = .01 to .02, nonsignificant). Negative thoughts about the self partially mediated the association between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD severity (completely standardized indirect effect = .25). These findings lend support to cognitive theories of PTSD and point to an important area for clinical intervention. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissociation: Defining the Concept in Criminal Forensic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre; Wood, Stephen Floyd

    2017-06-01

    Claims of amnesia and dissociative experiences in association with a violent crime are not uncommon. Research has shown that dissociation is a risk factor for violence and is seen most often in crimes of extreme violence. The subject matter is most relevant to forensic psychiatry. Peritraumatic dissociation for instance, with or without a history of dissociative disorder, is quite frequently reported by offenders presenting for a forensic psychiatric examination. Dissociation or dissociative amnesia for serious offenses can have legal repercussions stemming from their relevance to the legal constructs of fitness to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and diminished capacity. The complexity in forensic psychiatric assessments often lies in the difficulty of connecting clinical symptomatology reported by violent offenders to a specific condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This article provides a review of diagnostic considerations with regard to dissociation across the DSM nomenclature, with a focus on the main clinical constructs related to dissociation. Forensic implications are discussed, along with some guides for the forensic evaluator of offenders presenting with dissociation. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  4. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  5. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  6. Photo-dissociation of hydrogen passivated dopants in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, L.; Larsson, J.A.; Nolan, M.; Murtagh, M.; Greer, J.C.; Barbe, M.; Bailly, F.; Chevallier, J.; Silvestre, F.S.; Loridant-Bernard, D.; Constant, E.; Constant, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the photo-dissociation mechanisms of hydrogen passivated n- and p-type dopants in gallium arsenide is presented. The photo-induced dissociation of the Si Ga -H complex has been observed for relatively low photon energies (3.48 eV), whereas the photo-dissociation of C As -H is not observed for photon energies up to 5.58 eV. This fundamental difference in the photo-dissociation behavior between the two dopants is explained in terms of the localized excitation energies about the Si-H and C-H bonds

  7. CO dissociation on magnetic Fen clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem

    2014-01-01

    This work theoretically investigates the CO dissociation on Fen nanoparticles, for n in the range of 1-65, focusing on size dependence in the context of the initial step of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. CO adsorbs molecularly through its C-end on a triangular facet of the nanoparticle. Dissociation becomes easier when the cluster size increases. Then, the C atom is bonded to a square facet that is generated as a result of the adsorption if it does not yet exist in the bare cluster, while the O atom is adsorbed on a triangular facet. In the most stable situation, the two adsorbed atoms remain close together, both having in common one shared first-neighbor iron atom. There is a partial spin quenching of the neighboring Fe atoms, which become more positively charged than the other Fe atoms. The shared surface iron atom resembles a metal-cation from a complex. Despite the small size of the iron cluster considered, fluctuations due to specific configurations do not influence properties for n > 25 and global trends seem significant.

  8. Fracture-dissociation of ceramic liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Kwan; Oh, Jin-Rok; Her, Man Seung; Shim, Young Jun; Cho, Tae Yeun; Kwon, Sung Min

    2008-08-01

    The use of BIOLOX delta ceramic (CeramTec AG, Plochingen, Germany) has been increasing. This ceramic prevents cracking by restraining the phase transformation due to the insertion of nano-sized, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia into the alumina matrix. This restrains the progress of cracking through the formation of platelet-like crystal or whiskers due to the addition of an oxide additive. We observed a case of BIOLOX delta ceramic liner (CeramTec AG) rim fracture 4 months postoperatively. Radiographs showed that the ceramic liner was subluxated from the acetabular cup. Scratches on the acetabular cup and femoral neck were seen, and the fracture was visible on the rim of the liner. Under electron microscope, metal particle coatings from the ceramic liner were identified. The ceramic liner, fracture fragments, and adjacent tissues were removed and replaced with a ceramic liner and femoral head of the same size and design. We believe the mechanism of the fracture-dissociation of the ceramic liner in this case is similar to a case of separation of the ceramic liner from the polyethylene shell in a sandwich-type ceramic-ceramic joint. To prevent ceramic liner fracture-dissociation, the diameter of the femoral neck needs to be decreased in a new design, while the diameter of the femoral head needs to be increased to ensure an increase in range of motion.

  9. Mechanical Dissociation of Retinal Neurons with Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Tamami; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    The neuromorphic device, which implements the functions of biological neural circuits by means of VLSI technology, has been collecting much attention in the engineering fields in the last decade. Concurrently, progress in neuroscience research has revealed the nonlinear computation in single neuron levels, suggesting that individual neurons are not merely the circuit elements but computational units. Thus, elucidating the properties of neuronal signal processing is thought to be an essential step for developing the next generation of neuromorphic devices. In the present study, we developed a method for dissociating single neurons from specific sublayers of mammalian retinas with using no proteolytic enzymes but rather combining tissue incubation in a low-Ca2+ medium and the vibro-dissociation technique developed for the slices of brains and spinal cords previously. Our method took shorter time of the procedure, and required less elaborated skill, than the conventional enzymatic method did; nevertheless it yielded enough number of the cells available for acute electrophysiological experiments. The isolated retinal neurons were useful for measuring the nonlinear membrane conductances as well as the spike firing properties under the perforated-patch whole-cell configuration. These neurons also enabled us to examine the effects of proteolytic enzymes on the membrane excitability in those cells.

  10. Dissociative identity disorder and pseudo-hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, B

    1999-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder (DID) continues to inspire controversy, with some commentators claiming that DID is a modern variant of "hysteria"; that is, attention-seeking behavior. The author asserts that DID is indeed a valid psychiatric disorder, and believes that this skeptical reaction can largely be attributed to a specific set of transference/countertransference interactions that these patients tend to inspire. The paper delineates several clinical features of DID that can easily be mistaken for hysterical phenomena, and attempts to find the roots of this confusion in the DID patients' experience of interpersonal powerlessness, which leads them to present their symptoms in an unconvincing, "hysterical" manner. Confusion between the vertical split seen in the dissociative disorders and the horizontal split characteristic of the classic hysterical personality is discussed, as is the powerful effect of observer bias in creating hysterical-appearing phenomena. The term "pseudo-hysteria" is used to denote a situation in which a genuine psychiatric disorder, DID, is perceived as an hysterical production.

  11. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Methods: Arterial ...

  12. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  13. Anger, anxiety, and depressive affect as predictors of stress-induced cortisol production in khat and tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M; Nakajima, Motohiro; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dokam, Anisa; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-07-01

    Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study. Depressive affect, anxiety, anger, substance use patterns, and saliva samples were collected following a standardized laboratory stress manipulation. Regression analysis showed that high depression and low anxiety was associated with high post-stress cortisol, but only in co-users of tobacco and khat. Males, but not females, showed a significant association between co-use of khat and tobacco and cortisol, which appears to be mediated by frequency of use. The link between anxiety and post-stress cortisol in the co-users remained significant after controlling for nicotine dependence and substance use frequency. Anxiety predicted the neuroendocrine consequences of concurrent use of tobacco and khat above and beyond sex, nicotine dependence, anger, and substance use frequency. Sex differences, however, are related to differences in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dissociative style and individual differences in verbal working memory span.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Phaf, R.H.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Dyck, R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociative style is mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology, but it may also reflect a fundamental characteristic of healthy information processing. Due to the close link between attention and working memory and the previous finding of enhanced attentional abilities with a high

  15. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  16. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  17. Errors of Logic and Scholarship Concerning Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed a two-part critique of dissociative identity disorder published in the "Canadian Journal of Psychiatry". The two papers contain errors of logic and scholarship. Contrary to the conclusions in the critique, dissociative identity disorder has established diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity, the trauma histories of…

  18. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  19. Multiple Personality and the Pathological Dissociation of Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Reese E.

    This paper considers the condition of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is defined as a separation of alternating personalities by rigid boundaries and amnestic barriers. It is proposed that MPD represents the end of a continuum of a defensive dissociation of the self that can result when a child employs a dissociative splitting of self…

  20. The rise and fall of dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2012-12-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID), once considered rare, was frequently diagnosed during the 1980s and 1990s, after which interest declined. This is the trajectory of a medical fad. DID was based on poorly conceived theories and used potentially damaging treatment methods. The problem continues, given that the DSM-5 includes DID and accords dissociative disorders a separate chapter in its manual.

  1. Grammatical dissociation during acquired childhood aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Ramos, Sara; Moreno, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old female who suffered a left hemisphere stroke attributed to a genetically determined prothrombotic state. She presented a fluent speech pattern with selective difficulty in retrieving names but not verbs. An evaluation was designed to clarify whether her symptoms represented a specific impairment of name retrieval. The child undertook an experimental battery of visual naming tasks requiring the production of 52 nouns (belonging to nine different semantic categories) and 44 verbs. Her performance was compared with that of 12 healthy children, matched for age and IQ, attending a local kindergarten. The child retrieved significantly more verbs than nouns (chi(2)=16.27, pgrammatical dissociation in a child. It suggests that nouns and verbs are subject to different processing early in development, at least before the formal acquisition of grammar. It contradicts theories that postulate a common processing of different grammatical categories early in life.

  2. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H − is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O − and OH − with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H − and O − fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance

  3. Multiphoton ionization/dissociation of osmium tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, D.; Puretzky, A.A.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to laser multiphoton ionization and dissociation (MPI/MPD) of osmium tetroxide (OsO 4 ) have been investigated from measurements of the kinetic energies of product ions (Os + , Os 2+ , OsO + , O 2 + , O + ) and photoelectrons as a function of the laser wavelength. Neutral channels, intermediate to the dominant Os + ionization channel, such as OsO 4 →OsO 4-n +nO are examined using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of the fast O atoms. Equipartition of the available photon energy among the fragments is observed. The wavelength dependence of the Os + ion signal suggests that one or more of the steps leading to Os + ions involve molecular ions and/or excited neutral atoms. The observed preponderance of very slow ( 2+ is shown to result primarily from REMPI of Os +

  4. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  5. Velocity slice imaging for dissociative electron attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Dhananjay; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.; Chatterjee, A.

    2005-05-01

    A velocity slice imaging method is developed for measuring the angular distribution of fragment negative ions arising from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules. A low energy pulsed electron gun, a pulsed field ion extraction, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector consisting of microchannel plates and a wedge-and-strip anode are used for this purpose. Detection and storage of each ion separately for its position and flight time allows analysis of the data offline for any given time slice, without resorting to pulsing the detector bias. The performance of the system is evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of O- from O2 and comparing it with existing data obtained using conventional technique. The capability of this technique in obtaining forward and backward angular distribution data is shown to have helped in resolving one of the existing problems in the electron scattering on O2.

  6. Diffraction dissociation: thirty five years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, N.P.; Tsarev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of the basic results and stages of studying one of the most interesting phenomena in high energy physics-diffraction dissociation (DD) of hadrons is presented. The review contains complete information concerning the basic experimental results and the most ''set'' DD theoretical models. Though the discussion focuses primarily on considering a single nucleon DD, this still allows one to fully describe the basic features of the phenomenon under investigation. The last part of the review is devoted to the most notable results obtained during DD experimental investigation in the last five years, which have not been reflected in the earlier published reviews. Signs of excited system parton structure and pomeron are clearly found in the new experimental data. It is underlined that DD mechanism understanding is closely connected with the solution of the confinement problem in the strong interaction theory and requires further experimental and theoretical investigations

  7. Thermal dissociation and unfolding of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stability of human insulin was studied by differential scanning microcalorimetry and near-UV circular dichroism as a function of zinc/protein ratio, to elucidate the dissociation and unfolding processes of insulin in different association states. Zinc-free insulin, which is primarily...... dimeric at room temperature, unfolded at approximately 70 degrees C. The two monomeric insulin mutants Asp(B28) and Asp(B9),Glu(B27) unfolded at higher temperatures, but with enthalpies of unfolding that were approximately 30% smaller. Small amounts of zinc caused a biphasic thermal denaturation pattern...... of insulin. The biphasic denaturation is caused by a redistribution of zinc ions during the heating process and results in two distinct transitions with T(m)'s of approximately 70 and approximately 87 degrees C corresponding to monomer/dimer and hexamer, respectively. At high zinc concentrations (>or=5 Zn(2...

  8. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Coutinho, L.H.; Homem, M.G.P.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O + /O + ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O T ) or O central (O C ) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O T 1s -1 7a 1 1 core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation

  9. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocellin, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)], E-mail: mocellin@fis.unb.br; Mundim, M.S.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Box 68563, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O{sup +}/O{sup +} ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O{sub T}) or O central (O{sub C}) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O{sub T} 1s{sup -1}7a{sub 1}{sup 1} core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation.

  10. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  11. Dissociation behavior of methane gas hydrate in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, C.; Yu-gang, Y.; Chang-ling, L. [Ministry of Land and Resources, Quindao (China). Qingdao Inst. of Marine Geology; Qing-guo, M. [Qingdao Univ. College of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Shandong, Qingdao (China)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like compounds that form by natural gas and water and are considered to be a new energy resource. In order to make good use of this resource, it is important to know the hydrate dissociation process. This paper discussed an investigation of methane hydrate dissociation through a simulation experiment. The paper discussed the gas hydrates dissociation experiment including the apparatus and experiment equipment, including methane gas supply; reaction cell; temperature controller; pressure maintainer; and gas flow meter. The paper also presented the method and material including iso-volumetric dissociation and normal pressure dissociation. Last, results and discussion of the results were presented. A comparison of five different particle sizes did not reveal any obvious effects that were related to the porous media, mostly likely because the particle size was too large. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Symmetry Breakdown in Ground State Dissociation of HD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Carnes, K. D.; Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Weaver, O. L.; Esry, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of the dissociation of the electronic ground state of HD + following ionization of HD by fast proton impact indicate that the H + +D 1s dissociation channel is more likely than the H1s+D + dissociation channel by about 7% . This isotopic symmetry breakdown is due to the finite nuclear mass correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which makes the 1sσ state 3.7 meV lower than the 2pσ state at the dissociation limit. The measured fractions of the two dissociation channels are in agreement with coupled-channels calculations of 1sσ to 2pσ transitions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Brand, Bethany L; Sar, Vedat; Krüger, Christa; Stavropoulos, Pam; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Middleton, Warwick

    2014-05-01

    Despite its long and auspicious place in the history of psychiatry, dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been associated with controversy. This paper aims to examine the empirical data related to DID and outline the contextual challenges to its scientific investigation. The overview is limited to DID-specific research in which one or more of the following conditions are met: (i) a sample of participants with DID was systematically investigated, (ii) psychometrically-sound measures were utilised, (iii) comparisons were made with other samples, (iv) DID was differentiated from other disorders, including other dissociative disorders, (v) extraneous variables were controlled or (vi) DID diagnosis was confirmed. Following an examination of challenges to research, data are organised around the validity and phenomenology of DID, its aetiology and epidemiology, the neurobiological and cognitive correlates of the disorder, and finally its treatment. DID was found to be a complex yet valid disorder across a range of markers. It can be accurately discriminated from other disorders, especially when structured diagnostic interviews assess identity alterations and amnesia. DID is aetiologically associated with a complex combination of developmental and cultural factors, including severe childhood relational trauma. The prevalence of DID appears highest in emergency psychiatric settings and affects approximately 1% of the general population. Psychobiological studies are beginning to identify clear correlates of DID associated with diverse brain areas and cognitive functions. They are also providing an understanding of the potential metacognitive origins of amnesia. Phase-oriented empirically-guided treatments are emerging for DID. The empirical literature on DID is accumulating, although some areas remain under-investigated. Existing data show DID as a complex, valid and not uncommon disorder, associated with developmental and cultural variables, that is amenable to

  14. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1995-09-01

    The cross section of the Photon Diffractive Dissociation in Deep Inelastic Scattering is calculated in the frame work of perturbative QCD. In the triple Regge region the BFKL-approximation is used to evaluate the leading contributions of the corresponding Feynman diagrams with a subsequent resummation in terms of integral equations. These equations are partly solved leading to an effective two to four gluons transition vertex. This exhibits remarkable properties like the total symmetry under the interchange of gluons, the conformal invariance and a simple colour structure. The presence of four interacting gluons in the t-channel does not support the simple triple Pomeron picture with solely a local vertex. A dimensional conservation law is found for zero momentum transfer with the consequence that a direct coupling of the three BFKL-singularities is absent. Another consequence is the dominance of small transverse momenta at the triple Pomeron vertex. Beyond the triple Regge limit a slightly different approach is used in which the diagrams are calculated with leading log(Q 2 ) accuracy. Higher twist contributions are neglected except for the longitudinal part of the cross section which dominates at small invariant masses M in accordance with QCD-predictions and measurements for the exclusive production of vector mesons. For the comparison with the recently measured Photon Diffractive Dissociation-data from H1 and ZEUS a model for the Pomeron is introduced based on the F 2 -data. In the spirit of the k t -factorization theorem this model is inserted in place of the BFKL-Pomeron. Considering the fact that this approach does not contain free parameters the agreement between the theoretical prediction and the data is found to be good. (orig.)

  15. Attention as a characteristic of nonclinical dissociation: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Phaf, R. Hans; Veltman, Dick J.; Kok, Albert; van Dyck, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Individual differences in dissociative style (which is generally considered a risk factor for dissociative pathology) were studied in a nonclinical sample. It was hypothesized that high-dissociative participants would show enhanced attentional abilities toward both relevant and irrelevant stimulus

  16. Relationship between general intelligence, emotional intelligence, stress levels and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna

    2012-07-01

    Stressful life events and daily life stresses have both deleterious and cumulative effects on human body. In several studies, stress has been shown to affect various parameter of higher mental function like attention, concentration, learning and memory. Present study was designed to explore the relationship among GI level, EI level, psychological stress levels and acute stress reactivity in young normal healthy subjects. The study was conducted on thirty four healthy male student volunteers to study a) acute stress reactivity in subjects with varying levels of General Intelligence (GI) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) and b) correlation between GI, EI, acute stress and perceived stress. Baseline GI and EI and acute stress and perceived stress scores were measured by standard assessment scales. Using median value of GI and EI scores as cutoff values, subjects were categorized into four groups. Among different GI-EI groups, acute stress reactivity was similar but salivary Cortisol (especially post stressor level) and perceived stress level was a differentiating factor. High level of EI was associated inversely with acute and chronic perceived stress level. Significant correlation was found between acute and chronic perceived stress levels. Level of general intelligence showed no relation to acute or chronic stress levels as well as acute stress reactivity. The differences in various groups of GI and EI had no effect on the baseline and post stress performance on Sternberg memory test and all the three conditions of Stroop test. In conclusion emotional intelligence as an attribute is better suited to handle day to day acute stress and chronic perceived stress.

  17. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in Brazilian police officers: the synergy of negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Deborah B.; Marmar, Charles R.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Nóbrega, Augusta; Fiszman, Adriana; Marques-Portella, Carla; Mendlowicz, Mauro V.; Coutinho, Evandro S.F.; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traumatic events is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma, peritrauma and posttrauma factors interact to impact on symptom severity. The aim of the present study is to determine risk factors for PTSD symptoms in Brazilian police officers. Method In a cross-sectional sample of active duty officers (n = 212), participants were asked to complete a socio-demographic questionnaire and self-report scales on affective traits, cumulative critical incident exposure, peritraumatic distress and dissociation, PTSD symptoms, and social support. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of PTSD symptoms. Results Variables related to negative affect, job duration, frequency of critical incident exposure, peritraumatic dissociation, and lack of social support remained significant in the final model and explained 55% of the variance in PTSD symptoms. When interaction terms were evaluated, a synergistic effect between negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation was found. Conclusions The risk factors found in this study provide clues on how to elaborate primary prevention strategies regarding PTSD symptoms in police officers. Such initiatives may lessen the impact of repeated exposure to traumatic events on police officers over the course of their careers. PMID:22189925

  18. A case of dissociative fugue and general amnesia with an 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, Edward; Brown, Julie-May; Elliott, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue refers to loss of personal identity, often with the associated loss of memories of events (general amnesia). Here we report on the psychological assessment of a 54-year-old woman with loss of identity and memories of 33 years of her life attributed to dissociative fugue, along with a follow-up 11 years later. Significant levels of personal injury and stress preceded the onset of the amnesia. A detailed neuropsychological assessment was completed at a university psychology clinic, with a follow-up assessment there about 11 years later with an intent to determine whether changes in her cognitive status were associated with better recall of her life and with her emotional state. Psychomotor slowing and low scores on measures of attention and both verbal and visual memory were present initially, along with significant psychological distress associated with the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although memories of her life had not returned by follow-up, distress had abated and memory test scores had improved. The passage of time and a better emotional state did not lead to recovery of lost memories. Contrary to expectations, performance on tests of executive functions was good on both occasions. Multiple stressful events are attributed as having a role in maintaining the loss of memories.

  19. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Underivatized Metallated Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Duke, Ranelle M.; Bogala, Mallikharjuna R.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2018-02-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides. ESI generated [M + Met]+, [M + 2Met]2+, [M + Met]2+, [M + Met - H]+, and [M + Met - 2H]+ most intensely along with low intensity nitrate adducts, depending on the metal and sugar ionized. The ability of these metal ions to produce oligosaccharide adduct ions by ESI had the general trend: Ca(II) > Mg(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Na(I) > K(I) > Al(III) ≈ Fe(III) ≈ Cr(III). Although trivalent metals were utilized, no triply charged ions were formed. Metal cations allowed for high ESI signal intensity without permethylation. ETD and CID on [M + Met]2+ produced various glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, with ETD producing more cross-ring and internal ions, which are useful for structural analysis. Product ion intensities varied based on glycosidic-bond linkage and identity of monosaccharide sub-unit, and metal adducts. ETD and CID showed high fragmentation efficiency, often with complete precursor dissociation, depending on the identity of the adducted metal ion. Loss of water was occasionally observed, but elimination of small neutral molecules was not prevalent. For both ETD and CID, [M + Co]2+ produced the most uniform structurally informative dissociation with all oligosaccharides studied. The ETD and CID spectra were complementary. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Parents' descriptions of young children's dissociative reactions after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Gabriela; Salloum, Alison; Blair-Andrews, Zoe; Storch, Eric A

    2017-10-09

    There is limited research on the phenomenology of how young children who have been exposed to trauma express the intrusive symptom of dissociative reactions. The current qualitative study utilized interviews from a semi-structured diagnostic clinical interview with 74 caregivers of young children (ages 3 to 7) who were exposed to trauma to identify parents' descriptions of their children's dissociative reactions during a clinical interview. Based on results from the interview, 45.9% of the children had dissociative reactions (8.5% had flashbacks and 41.9% had dissociative episodes). Interviews were transcribed to identify themes of dissociative reactions in young children. Common themes to flashbacks and dissociative episodes included being triggered, being psychologically in their own world (e.g., spaced out and shut down), and displaying visible signs (e.g., crying and screaming). For flashbacks, caregivers reported that it seemed as if the child was re-experiencing the trauma (e.g., yelling specific words and having body responses). For dissociative episodes, caregivers noted that the child not only seemed psychologically somewhere else (e.g., distant and not there) but also would be physically positioned somewhere else (e.g., sitting and not responding). Caregivers also expressed their own reactions to the child's dissociative episode due to not understanding what was occurring, and trying to interrupt the occurrences (e.g., calling out to the child). Themes, descriptions, and phrases to describe dissociative reactions in young children after trauma can be used to help parents and professionals more accurately identify occurrences of dissociative reactions.

  2. Photoleucine Survives Backbone Cleavage by Electron Transfer Dissociation. A Near-UV Photodissociation and Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Action Spectroscopy Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaffer, C. J.; Martens, J.; Marek, Aleš; Oomens, J.; Tureček, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2016), s. 1176-1185 ISSN 1044-0305 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : peptide ions * electron transfer dissociation * photoleucine label * near-UV photodissociation * infrared multiphoton dissociation action spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.786, year: 2016

  3. The combined influence of irradiation and stress on antibody formation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surinov, B.P.; Karpova, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Disturbances in humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes after separate and combined effect of ionizing radiation (2 and 4 Gy) and stress (swimming for 10 of 60 min) was studied in mice. The increase in sensitivity to stress was found in irradiated mice. Superposition of undulating dynamics of post-stress immunosuppression on dynamics of post-radiation disorder was revealed. This is due to the different mechanisms of disturbances: redistribution of precursors of immunocompetent cells between immune organs in the first case and destruction of cells in the second case. 17 refs., 2 figs

  4. Validation of the factor structure of the adolescent dissociative experiences scale in a sample of trauma-exposed detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerig, Patricia K; Charak, Ruby; Chaplo, Shannon D; Bennett, Diana C; Armour, Cherie; Modrowski, Crosby A; McGee, Andrew B

    2016-09-01

    The inclusion of a dissociative subtype in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5 ) criteria for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has highlighted the need for valid and reliable measures of dissociative symptoms across developmental periods. The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) is 1 of the few measures validated for young persons, but previous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Further, research to date on the A-DES has been based upon nonclinical samples of youth or those without a known history of trauma. To address these gaps in the literature, the present study investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the A-DES in a sample of highly trauma-exposed youth involved in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 784 youth (73.7% boys) recruited from a detention center completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and the A-DES, a subset of whom (n = 212) also completed a measure of PTSD symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a best fitting 3-factor structure comprised of depersonalization or derealization, amnesia, and loss of conscious control, with configural and metric invariance across gender. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the depersonalization or derealization factor effectively distinguished between those youth who did and did not likely meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD as well as those with PTSD who did and did not likely meet criteria for the dissociative subtype. These results provide support for the multidimensionality of the construct of posttraumatic dissociation and contribute to the understanding of the dissociative subtype of PTSD among adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Normal stress Sestamibi study: why re inject?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.A.; Hughes, T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used for risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A normal MPI study predicts an annual cardiac event rate of 99 Tc m -Sestamibi (MIBI), omitting the rest study when the post-stress study is interpreted as normal. The safety of this approach has not been validated, all published reports utilising both rest and stress images to interpret a study as 'normal'. Between 1/1/98 and 30/8/98, 489 patients (patients) were referred to our department for stress MPI. Of these, 237 were interpreted as normal on the basis of their post-stress study, and did not undergo a rest study. 12 month clinical follow-up was available in 184 (78%) of these patients, representing the study group (82 males, 102 females; mean age 61±12 years). 156 of these patients were referred for assessment of chest pain, three for dyspnoea, six for abnormal ECGs, and 19 for pre-operative evaluation. At one year of follow-up, there were no myocardial infarcts or admissions for unstable angina, and no cardiac deaths. Three patients died of non-cardiac causes. Seven patients underwent coronary angiography: five were normal, one had a single 50% stenosis, and one had an 80% vein graft stenosis which was subsequently angioplastied. In conclusion, a normal stress MIBI image predicts an excellent prognosis and negates the need for a rest reinjection study, thus reducing patient camera time and radiation exposure, improving departmental throughput, and minimising public health expenditure. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Different dynamic behaviors of the dissociation and recombination reactions in a model calculation of polyethylene by first-principles steered molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Ozawa, Nobuki; Chazeau, Laurent; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Kubo, Momoji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the different dynamics of dissociation and recombination processes. • Hydrogen at the chain ends collides each other in the recombination process. • Dissociation and recombination processes take different pathway. - Abstract: We investigate the different dynamics of the stress-induced dissociation and recombination reactions in a model of polyethylene by a first-principles molecular dynamics simulation at the B3LYP/6-31g(d) level. The dissociation under external forces acting on the chemical reaction site at 300 K follows the same pathway as the one calculated by the static first-principles method because it has a similar activation barrier to that of the static first-principles calculation. On the other hand, in the recombination process, thermal fluctuations causes collisions between hydrogen atoms at the chain ends. Furthermore, when external forces do not directly act on the chemical reaction site, two different dissociation processes are observed. On the other hand, recombination process is not observed due to rarely contact of the radical carbon. These results indicate that dissociation and recombination dynamics are very different, showing the importance of the dynamic calculation.

  7. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  8. Stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed. Stress did not affect poured and consumed calories differently between groups. Across all subjects, calories poured and consumed were positively correlated with post-stress hunger, but calories poured was positively correlated with post-stress anxiety and negative affect. These results indicate that stress-related psychological factors may be more strongly associated with the motivational drive to eat (i.e. amount poured) rather than the hedonic aspects of eating (i.e. amount consumed) for women in general. Exploratory correlation analyses per subgroup suggest that post-stress hunger was positively associated with calories poured and consumed in both non-BED groups. In the obese BED group, calories consumed was negatively associated with dietary restraint and, although not significantly, positively associated with stress-induced changes in anxiety.These findings suggest that stress-induced snacking in obese BED women may be influenced by psychological factors more so than homeostatic hunger mechanisms. After controlling for dietary restraint and negative affect, the NW non-BED women ate a greater percentage of the food they poured than both obese groups, suggesting that obesity may be associated with a heightened motivational drive to eat coupled with a reduction in hedonic pleasure from eating post-stress. Further studies that incorporate novel approaches to

  9. Dynamics of dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Ni(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, A.V.; Madix, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nearly monoenergetic beams of hydrogen and deuterium were used to determine dissociative sticking probabilities for H 2 and D 2 on Ni(100) at various energies. Variation of the surface temperature between 90 and 300 K had no effect on the dissociative sticking probability of H 2 at 3.6 and 5.8 kJ/mol incident beam energy, indicating a direct mechanism of dissociation. A four fold increase in the initial dissociative sticking probability for H 2 from 0.2 to 0.8 was observed by increasing the translational kinetic energy from 0.7 to 7.0 kJ/mol. The initial dissociative sticking probability for D 2 was slightly lower, increasing from 0.15 to 0.75 with increasing translational kinetic energy from 1.3 to 10.5 kJ/mol. The form of the increase with kinetic energy was explained by tunnelling through a low activation barrier, accounting as well for the high dissociation probability at low kinetic energies. The dissociative sticking probability decreased with hydrogen or deuterium adatom coverage at all energies. The decline in sticking probability with hydrogen coverage was fit to a s(theta) = s 0 (1 - a theta)/sup n/ functional form. From this relationship it was deduced that hydrogen adatoms block only single sites and that four vacant sites are needed for dissociation. The dissociative sticking probability for H 2 declined precipitously from 0.77 to 0.16 with oxygen adatom coverage from 0 to 5% of a monolayer at a translational energy of 9.6 kJ.mol. 36 references, 8 figures

  10. Structure sensitivity of CO dissociation on Rh surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Baumer, M.; Freund, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    than the flat surface, but the effect is considerably weaker than the effect of surface structure on the dissociation barrier. Our findings are compared with available experimental data, and the consequences for CO activation in methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions are discussed.......Using periodic self-consistent density functional calculations it is shown that the barrier for CO dissociation is similar to120 kJ/mol lower on the stepped Rh(211) surface than on the close-packed Rh(111) surface. The stepped surface binds molecular CO and the dissociation products more strongly...

  11. Scapulothoracic Dissociation: A Rare Variant: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Jangir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare injury involving separation of scapula from the thorax along with the upper extremity. Majority of the patients have concomitant neurovascular injury and the prognosis is uniformly poor in such cases. We present a case of scapulothoracic dissociation with comminuted fracture of scapula and acromioclavicular joint disruption without neurovascular deficit. There were associated avulsion fractures of the spinous processes of vertebrae (T3-T5. Such presentation is rare in an already rare scapulothoracic dissociation injury. A discussion regarding the probable mechanism of injury, management and prognosis is presented.

  12. Errors of logic and scholarship concerning dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed a two-part critique of dissociative identity disorder published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. The two papers contain errors of logic and scholarship. Contrary to the conclusions in the critique, dissociative identity disorder has established diagnostic reliability and concurrent validity, the trauma histories of affected individuals can be corroborated, and the existing prospective treatment outcome literature demonstrates improvement in individuals receiving psychotherapy for the disorder. The available evidence supports the inclusion of dissociative identity disorder in future editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  13. Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A

    2002-01-01

    as well as specific complexes of modified glycopeptide antibiotics with their target peptide. The weak nature of bonding is substantiated by blackbody infrared dissociation, low-energy collisional excitation and force-field simulations. The results are consistent with a non-ergodic ECD cleavage mechanism.......We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...

  14. Dissociating emotion-induced blindness and hypervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-12-01

    Previous findings suggest that emotional stimuli sometimes improve (emotion-induced hypervision) and sometimes impair (emotion-induced blindness) the visual perception of subsequent neutral stimuli. We hypothesized that these differential carryover effects might be due to 2 distinct emotional influences in visual processing. On the one hand, emotional stimuli trigger a general enhancement in the efficiency of visual processing that can carry over onto other stimuli. On the other hand, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific enhancement in later attentional processing at the expense of competing visual stimuli. We investigated whether detrimental (blindness) and beneficial (hypervision) carryover effects of emotion in perception can be dissociated within a single experimental paradigm. In 2 experiments, we manipulated the temporal competition for attention between an emotional cue word and a subsequent neutral target word by varying cue-target interstimulus interval (ISI) and cue visibility. Interestingly, emotional cues impaired target identification at short ISIs but improved target identification when competition was diminished by either increasing ISI or reducing cue visibility, suggesting that emotional significance of stimuli can improve and impair visual performance through distinct perceptual mechanisms.

  15. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  16. [Introducing treatment for dissociative identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a case presentation and study of the introduction of treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Since one manifestation of the pathology of DID is that sufferers avoid relying on others, at the start of treatment we try to stabilise the relationship between clinicians and patients; that is to say, we aim to build a treatment relationship which will be able to gradually overcome the patients' dread of relying on clinicians. In parallel with this we undertake a thorough psychiatric assessment of their condition. This is a standard treatment plan, which follows the general principles of clinical psychiatry. On the other hand, the specialist aspect of DID treatment calls for handling the unique behaviours of a group of mutually opposed alternating personalities appropriately, while always paying consistent attention to the traumatic memories which are connected to the formation and maintenance of the condition. This paper presents the first DID case which the author has taken charge of. There were some difficulties in the early stages of treatment, but after modifying some parts to acknowledge the alternating personalities as independent personalities in face-to-face interviews and psychological education for families, the stabilisation of the treatment structure progressed gradually and the stability of the relationship between clinicians and patients itself has become the focus.

  17. Interidentity amnesia in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John

    2017-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID) usually present with alternative personality states (alters) who take separate control of consciousness. Commonly, one alter will claim they have no awareness of events which took place when another alter was in control. However, some kinds of material are transferred across the alter boundary. Huntjens et al. devised an objective method of demonstrating such transfer. In the main study, following Huntjens et al., for three patients, two alters were taught different sets of nouns. The following week, one of the alters was given a recognition memory test including both sets plus distractor words. The patients in the Huntjens experiment responded in the same way to words in both sets. In the present experiemnt, two of the patients tested had pairs of alters where there was no interference from the material which was presented to the other alter. In one of these cases, there was breakthrough with one pairing of alters, a pattern matched in a subsidiary experiment. The population of individuals with DID are not homogeneous with respect to the depth of the blocking of episodic material from one alter to another.

  18. Interidentity memory transfer in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lauren L; Allen, John J B; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2008-08-01

    Controversy surrounding dissociative identity disorder (DID) has focused on conflicting findings regarding the validity and nature of interidentity amnesia, illustrating the need for objective methods of examining amnesia that can discriminate between explicit and implicit memory transfer. In the present study, the authors used a cross-modal manipulation designed to mitigate implicit memory effects. Explicit memory transfer between identities was examined in 7 DID participants and 34 matched control participants. After words were presented to one identity auditorily, the authors tested another identity for memory of those words in the visual modality using an exclusion paradigm. Despite self-reported interidentity amnesia, memory for experimental stimuli transferred between identities. DID patients showed no superior ability to compartmentalize information, as would be expected with interidentity amnesia. The cross-modal nature of the test makes it unlikely that memory transfer was implicit. These findings demonstrate that subjective reports of interidentity amnesia are not necessarily corroborated by objective tests of explicit memory transfer. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; de Jong, Bauke M

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  20. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan R E Potgieser

    Full Text Available Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity. These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8 revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  1. Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Karabulut, Sercan

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative amnesia (DA) among subjects with a dissociative disorder and/or borderline personality disorder (BPD) recruited from a nonclinical population was examined. The Steinberg Dissociative Amnesia Questionnaire (SDAQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 college students. A total of 80 participants who were diagnosed with BPD according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 nonborderline controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) by a psychiatrist blind to diagnosis and scale scores. Internal consistency analyses and test-retest evaluations suggested that the SDAQ is a reliable instrument for the population studied. Of the participants, 20.6% reported an SDAQ score of 20 or above and impairment by DA. Those who had both dissociative disorder and BPD (n = 78) had the highest SDAQ scores. Both disorders had significant effects on the SCID-D total and amnesia scores in the variance analysis. On SDAQ scores, however, only BPD had this effect. There was a significant interaction between the 2 disorders for the SCID-D total but not for the SDAQ or SCID-D amnesia scores. BPD represented the severity of dissociation and childhood trauma in this study group. However, in contrast to the dissociative disorders, BPD was characterized by better awareness of DA in self-report. The discrepancies between self-report and clinical interview associated with BPD and dissociative disorders are discussed in the context of betrayal theory (J. J. Freyd, 1994) of BPD and perceptual theory (D. B. Beere, 2009) of dissociative disorders.

  2. Dissociations and dissociation theory in hypnosis: comment on Kirsch and Lynn (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1998-03-01

    I. Kirsch and S. J. Lynn's (1998) critique of the neodissociation theory of divided consciousness fails to consider evidence of dissociations between explicit and implicit memory and perception in hypnosis. Contrary to their conclusions, evidence that the rate of hidden observer response (like other hypnotic responses) varies with the wording of instructions does not contradict neodissociation theory; rather, it underscores the fact that hypnosis entails social interaction as well as alterations in conscious awareness. Neodissociation and sociocognitive theories of hypnosis complement each other. Each draws attention to aspects of the experience of hypnosis that the other neglects.

  3. Dissociative electron attachment to the radiosensitizing chemotherapeutic agent hydroxyurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S. E.; Śmiałek, M. A.; Tanzer, K.; Denifl, S.

    2016-06-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to hydroxyurea was studied in the gas phase for electron energies ranging from zero to 9 eV in order to probe its radiosensitizing capabilities. The experiments were carried out using a hemispherical electron monochromator coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Diversified fragmentation of hydroxyurea was observed upon low energy electron attachment and here we highlight the major dissociation channels. Moreover, thermodynamic thresholds for various fragmentation reactions are reported to support the discussion of the experimental findings. The dominant dissociation channel, which was observed over a broad range of energies, is associated with formation of NCO-, water, and the amidogen (NH2) radical. The second and third most dominant dissociation channels are associated with formation of NCNH- and NHCONH2-, respectively, which are both directly related to formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Other ions observed with significant abundance in the mass spectra were NH2-/O-, OH-, CN-, HNOH-, NCONH2-, and ONHCONH2-.

  4. Model-independent determination of dissociation energies: method and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Manuel; Hansen, Klavs; Herlert, Alexander; Schweikhard, Lutz

    2003-01-01

    A number of methods are available for the purpose of extracting dissociation energies of polyatomic particles. Many of these techniques relate the rate of disintegration at a known excitation energy to the value of the dissociation energy. However, such a determination is susceptible to systematic uncertainties, mainly due to the unknown thermal properties of the particles and the potential existence of 'dark' channels, such as radiative cooling. These problems can be avoided with a recently developed procedure, which applies energy-dependent reactions of the decay products as an uncalibrated thermometer. Thus, it allows a direct measurement of dissociation energies, without any assumption on properties of the system or on details of the disintegration process. The experiments have been performed in a Penning trap, where both rate constants and branching ratios have been measured. The dissociation energies determined with different versions of the method yield identical values, within a small uncertainty

  5. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  6. A double dissociation between somatosensory processing for perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, H.A.; van Zandvoort, M.J.E.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Kappelle, L.J.; de Kort, P.L.M.; Jansen, B.P.W.; Dijkerman, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Human neuropsychology suggests that there are two distinct body representations. Body image and body schema are, respectively, thought to be involved in conscious perceptual judgments and unconscious sensorimotor guidance. The evidence is based on the double dissociation between disorders of

  7. A double dissociation between somatosensory processing for perception and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, Helen A.; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; de Haan, Edward H. F.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Kort, Paul. L. M.; Jansen, Ben P. W.; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    Human neuropsychology suggests that there are two distinct body representations. Body image and body schema are, respectively, thought to be involved in conscious perceptual judgments and unconscious sensorimotor guidance. The evidence is based on the double dissociation between disorders of

  8. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  9. Quark-antiquark production in DIS diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Lotter, H.; Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of two jets with large transverse momenta k 2 in DIS diffractive dissociation for both transverse and longitudinally polarized photons. The scale which defines the hardness of the Pomeron is found to be k 2 (Q 2 +M 2 )/M 2 . We present analytic expressions and discuss numerical results relevant for the diffractive dissociation at HERA. (orig.)

  10. [Persistent Perpetrator Contact in a Patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, Stefan; Eisele, Frank; Steinert, Tilman

    2016-05-01

    The case of a young woman with still ongoing incest and forced prostitution is presented. The criteria for a dissociative identity disorder (DID) were met. Due to persistent contact to the perpetrator she was repeatedly revictimized. Based on the model of trauma-related dissociation we discuss to what extent she was capable of self-determined decision making as well as therapeutic consequences resulting therefrom. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a funct...

  12. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of disorder on exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuwen; Zhao Hui; Chen Yuguang; Yan Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    By using a multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree–Fock (MCTDHF) method for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and a Newtonian equation of motion for lattice, we investigate the disorder effects on the dissociation process of excitons in conjugated polymer chains. The simulations are performed within the framework of an extended version of the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model modified to include on-site disorder, off-diagonal, electron–electron interaction, and an external electric field. Our results show that Coulomb correlation effects play an important role in determining the exciton dissociation process. The electric field required to dissociate an exciton can practically impossibly occur in a pure polymer chain, especially in the case of triplet exciton. However, when the on-site disorder effects are taken into account, this leads to a reduction in mean dissociation electric fields. As the disorder strength increases, the dissociation field decreases effectively. On the contrary, the effects of off-diagonal disorder are negative in most cases. Moreover, the dependence of exciton dissociation on the conjugated length is also discussed. (paper)

  14. Sensory dissociation in chronic low back pain: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Wacław M; Luedtke, Kerstin; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2018-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain often report that they do not perceive their painful back accurately. Previous studies confirmed that sensory dissociation and/or discrepancy between perceived body image and actual size is one of the specific traits of patients with chronic pain. Current approaches for measuring sensory dissociation are limited to two-point-discrimination or rely on pain drawings not allowing for quantitative analysis. This case study reports the sensory dissociation of two cases with chronic low back pain using a recently published test (point-to-point-test (PTP)) and a newly developed test (two-point-estimation (TPE)). Both patients mislocalized tactile stimuli delivered to the painful location compared to non-painful locations (PTP test). In addition, both patients perceived their painful lumbar region differently from non-painful sites above and below and contralateral to the painful site. TPE data showed two distinct clinical patterns of sensory dissociation: one patient perceived the two-point distance in the painful area as expanded, while the other patient perceived it as shrunk. The latter pattern of sensory dissociation (i.e., pattern shrunk) is likely to respond to sensory training. Whether enlarged patterns of sensory dissociation are more resistant to treatment remains unknown but would explain the low effectiveness of previous studies using sensory training in chronic low back pain populations. Subgrouping patients according to their sensory discrimination pattern could contribute to the choice and effectiveness of the treatment approach.

  15. Dissociable Learning Processes Underlie Human Pain Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Robbins, Trevor; Seymour, Ben

    2016-01-11

    Pavlovian conditioning underlies many aspects of pain behavior, including fear and threat detection [1], escape and avoidance learning [2], and endogenous analgesia [3]. Although a central role for the amygdala is well established [4], both human and animal studies implicate other brain regions in learning, notably ventral striatum and cerebellum [5]. It remains unclear whether these regions make different contributions to a single aversive learning process or represent independent learning mechanisms that interact to generate the expression of pain-related behavior. We designed a human parallel aversive conditioning paradigm in which different Pavlovian visual cues probabilistically predicted thermal pain primarily to either the left or right arm and studied the acquisition of conditioned Pavlovian responses using combined physiological recordings and fMRI. Using computational modeling based on reinforcement learning theory, we found that conditioning involves two distinct types of learning process. First, a non-specific "preparatory" system learns aversive facial expressions and autonomic responses such as skin conductance. The associated learning signals-the learned associability and prediction error-were correlated with fMRI brain responses in amygdala-striatal regions, corresponding to the classic aversive (fear) learning circuit. Second, a specific lateralized system learns "consummatory" limb-withdrawal responses, detectable with electromyography of the arm to which pain is predicted. Its related learned associability was correlated with responses in ipsilateral cerebellar cortex, suggesting a novel computational role for the cerebellum in pain. In conclusion, our results show that the overall phenotype of conditioned pain behavior depends on two dissociable reinforcement learning circuits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  17. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    2016-01-01

    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  18. Collision-induced dissociation of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Katalin; Nagy, Lajos; Mándi, Attila; Kuki, Ákos; Mézes, Miklós; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2013-02-28

    The aflatoxin mycotoxins are particularly hazardous to health when present in food. Therefore, from an analytical point of view, knowledge of their mass spectrometric properties is essential. The aim of the present study was to describe the collision-induced dissociation behavior of the four most common aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. Protonated aflatoxins were produced using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments nitrogen was used as the collision gas and the collision energies were varied in the range of 9-44 eV (in the laboratory frame). The major APCI-MS/MS fragmentations of protonated aflatoxins occurred at 30 eV collision energy. The main fragmentation channels were found to be the losses of a series of carbon monoxide molecules and loss of a methyl radical, leading to the formation of radical-type product ions. In addition, if the aflatoxin molecule contained an ether- or lactone-oxygen atom linked to a saturated carbon atom, loss of a water molecule was observed from the [M + H](+) ion, especially in the case of aflatoxins G1 and G2. A relatively small modification in the structure of aflatoxins dramatically altered the fragmentation pathways and this was particularly true for aflatoxins B1 and B2. Due to the presence of a C = C double bond connected to the ether group in aflatoxin B1 no elimination of water was observed but, instead, formation of radical-type product ions occurred. Fragmentation of protonated aflatoxin B1 yielded the most abundant radical-type cations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2010-07-01

    In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid replication. Moreover, given the constructive nature of memories, the intact recollection of the fear association could eventually 'rebuild' the fear memory, resulting in the spontaneous recovery of the fear response. Yet, perseverance of the amnesic effects would have substantial clinical implications, as even the most effective treatments for psychiatric disorders display high percentages of relapse. Using a differential fear conditioning procedure in humans, we replicated our previous findings by showing that administering propranolol (40mg) prior to memory reactivation eliminated the startle fear response 24h later. But most importantly, this effect persisted at one month follow-up. Notably, the propranolol manipulation not only left the declarative memory for the acquired contingency untouched, but also skin conductance discrimination. In addition, a close association between declarative knowledge and skin conductance responses was found. These findings are in line with the supposed double dissociation of fear conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the amygdala and hippocampus in humans. They support the view that skin conductance conditioning primarily reflects contingency learning, whereas the startle response is a rather specific measure of fear. Furthermore, the results indicate the absence of a causal link between the actual knowledge of a fear association and its fear response, even though they often operate in parallel. Interventions targeting the amygdalar fear memory may be essential in specifically and persistently dampening the emotional impact of fear. From a clinical and ethical perspective, disrupting reconsolidation points to promising

  20. Hemodynamic changes induced by preventive exposure to terahertz radiation at a frequency range corresponding to molecular emission and absorption spectrum of nitric oxide in animals under conditions of acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuck, V F; Velikanova, T S; Ivanov, A N

    2011-06-01

    We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in the absence of post-stress changes in the linear, systolic, and diastolic blood flow velocities and pressure gradient in various blood vessels of experimental animals.

  1. Subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder in two tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M S; Mullick, S I; Sobhan, M A; Khanam, M; Nahar, J S; Salam, M A; Ali, R; Islam, M; Kabir, M S

    2010-01-01

    Dissociative (conversion) disorders are common among the patients attending in and out patients of Psychiatry Department of tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh. This study was done to see the subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). This is a descriptive, cross sectional study done on 100 consecutive patients from the Departments of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH). Study period was July 2005 to June 2006. Among the patients of dissociative (conversion) disorder, mixed dissociative (conversion) disorder was found highest 34%, followed by dissociative convulsion 33%, dissociative motor disorders 19%, dissociative anaesthesia and sensory loss 5%, dissociative amnesia 4%, dissociative fugue 3%. However, the researcher did not find any multiple personality disorder which is relatively common in North America. This finding reflected that there are differences in prevalence of sub types of dissociative disorders in Bangladesh and Western countries.

  2. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Deng, Banglin; Liu, Jingping; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Zhengxin; Yang, Jing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  3. [Role of sialic acid loss in the myocardium in depressing the contractile function of the heart muscle during stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, F Z; Saulia, A I; Gudumak, V S

    1985-01-01

    Under conditions of stress a time-dependent decrease in content of sialic acids was found in adult rats; within 9 hrs of the animal immobilization the sialic acid content was decreased by 40% as compared with controls. At the same time, activities of trypsin and LDHI were increased in blood serum. The data obtained suggest that activation of proteases occurring during the stress led to increased hydrolysis of base components of glycocalyx and to impairment of the cardiomyocyte sarcolemma. These phenomena appear to be responsible for the post-stress deterioration of heart muscle contractile functions.

  4. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Trauma, stress, and preconscious threat processing in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakvis, P.; Roelofs, K.; Kuyk, J.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Swinkels, W.A.M.; Spinhoven, P.

    2009-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have long been considered as paroxysmal dissociative symptoms characterized by an alteration of attentional functions caused by severe stress or trauma. Although interpersonal trauma is common in PNES, the proposed relation between trauma and attentional

  6. An outpatient clinical study of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanartaş, Ömer; Özmen, Hülya Akar; Citak, Serhat; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Sünbül, Esra Aydin

    2014-05-01

    The relatively high prevalence of the diagnosis of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified is frequently considered to be disproportionate. The disproportionate rate of this diagnosis is thought to be related to nosologic and/or diagnostic issues in dissociative identity disorder. We sought to investigate and compare the symptom patterns of these two clinical entities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1314 participants who were screened with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Of the participants, 272 who scored above the cut-off points for the screening questionnaires (DES score>30 and/or SDQ score>40 points) were invited to complete a structured interview using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS); of this subsample, only 190 participants agreed to participate in the second phase of the study. The mean score for the DES was 18.55±17.23, and the mean score for the SDQ was 30.19±13.32. Of the 190 participants, 167 patients were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder (87.8%). We found that DD-NOS was the most prevalent category of dissociative disorder. There was a significantly larger percentage of patients in the DID group than in the DD-NOS group according to secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms. The secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms appeared to be more specific for DID, while no differences were detected between DID and DD-NOS based on most of the items on the SCL 90R. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the features that are similar and dissimilar between DD-NOS and DID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coulomb dissociation in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    Targets of 12 C, 59 Co, 89 Y, 197 Au and 238 U were bombarded by 2.1 GeV/A 1 H, 12 C and 20 Ne projectiles using the SuperHILAC and BEVATRON facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The beam flux was calculated by monitoring the decay of 11 C produced from the 12 C(projectile,projectile n) 11 C reaction. Residual gamma-ray activity from the Co, Y, Au and U targets was collected in order to trace the decay of several reaction products. The experiment focused on the calculation of cross sections for the formation of products with one neutron removed from the various target nuclei. Corrections to the saturation activity of each product were made for detector efficiency, gamma-ray absorption in the target, gamma-ray branching, beam geometry and secondary reactions. These date are shown to be inconsistent with a geometrical form given by sigma varies as (A/sub p/sup 1/3/ + A/sub t/sup 1/3/ - b) where b is a universal constant. In fact the data indicates the b = A/sub t/sup 1/3/. Instead the data can be fit quite well by a simple empirical relation, sigma/sub emp/ = 12.0 mb A/sub p/sup 1/3/ A/sub t/sup 1/3/. It is demonstrated that an empirical fit which varies as A/sub t/sup 1/3/ is also consistent with projectile fragmentation data measured by a group at LBL. In addition these data are compared to a theoretical prediction which is the sum of a renormalized Glauber term and a term which represents the contribution due to Coulomb or electromagnetic dissociation (ED). The theoretical predictions are quite low for the 12 C projectile data and high for the 20 Ne projectile data. The systematic trends from the comparison seem to indicate that theoretical prediction for the ED contribution is rising too fast as a function of projectile for a given target

  8. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasko J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jan Prasko,1 Ales Grambal,1 Petra Kasalova,1 Dana Kamardova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Zuzana Sigmundova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Psychiatric Department, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders.Methods: The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale.Results: A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86% patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the

  9. Strategic use of dissociation in ethical argumentation on abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dialectical and rhetorical consequences of the use of dissociation in ethical argumentation on abortion. Disputants make strategic use of dissociation to advance their standpoints, to establish the starting points of the discussion and to argue in favor or against abortion as well. From the pragma-dialectical perspective (van Rees 2002, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006, dissociation is defined as an argumentative technique by which a unitary concept is divided into two different concepts of which one is intended as positive while the other one as negative. The analysis of a religious text on abortion shows that by means of dissociation abortion can be conceived of as “an unspeakable crime” or “the deliberate killing of an innocent human being” as opposed to “interruption of pregnancy”, the term preferred by pro-choice supporters. I claim that the protagonist uses dissociation as a rhetorical strategy aimed at persuading both the interlocutor and the audience.

  10. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaf, Nader Al [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Melhem, Racha Abi [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M. [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Patra, Digambara, E-mail: dp03@aub.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-07-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E{sub T}30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  11. Dissociation of the Phenylarsane Molecular Ion: A Theoretical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Choe, Joong Chul [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the primary and secondary dissociations of the phenylarsane molecular ion (1a) were determined from the quantum chemical calculations using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP method. Several pathways for the loss of H· were determined and occurred though rearrangements as well as through direct bond cleavages. The kinetic analysis based on the PES for the primary dissociation showed that the loss of H{sub 2} was more favored than the loss of H·, but the H· loss competed with the H{sub 2} loss at high energies. The bicyclic isomer, 7-arsa-norcaradiene radical cation, was formed through the 1,2 shift of an α-H of 1a and played an important role as an intermediate for the further rearrangements in the loss of H· and the losses of As· and AsH. The reaction pathways for the formation of the major products in the secondary dissociations of [M-H]{sup +} and [M-H{sub 2}]{sup +·} were examined. The theoretical prediction explained the previous experimental results for the dissociation at high energies but not the dissociation at low energies.

  12. THERMODYNAMICS OF ETHANOLAMMONIUM CATIONES DISSOCIATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the thermodynamics of ethanolamines onium cations dissociation have been systematized and generalized. The correlation between these cations dissociation thermodynamic functions (DH and DS and physicochemical properties (Tmp., Tbp, Pp, lgPow et al. has been revealed. There was a correlation between lipophilicity determined experimentally and calculated by QSAR. For monoethanolammonium, diethanolammonium, and their N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives it was found dissociation thermodynamic functions to depend on bases lgPow. Acid-base dissociation of TRIS and triethanolamine onium cations does not correspond to said relationship because TRIS (primary amine, TEA (tertiary amine act differently on aqueous solutions of SO2. TEA, unlike MEA, DEA and MMEA, has a salting out effect towards sulfur dioxide because of competing hydration that promotes sulfite «onium» salts hydrolysis. TRIS promotes S(IV → S(VI sulphooxidation, in contrast to another ethanolamines. Enthalpy–enthropy compensation with isothermodynamic temperature 303 K has been recorded. The revealed correlations may be useful in developing of procedures for air sanitary cleaning from acidic gases; chemisorbents immobilized for gas and ion exchange chromatography; potentiometric methods for fluorocomplex acids determinations. The use of monoethanolamine is most promising to obtain chemisorbents because the thermodynamic functions of its onium cation acid-base dissociation are least dependent on temperature compared to other etanolammonium cations.

  13. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danaf, Nader Al; Melhem, Racha Abi; Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E T 30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  14. Heterolytic dissociative adsorption state of dihydrogen favored by interfacial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenjun; Hu, Hanshi; Xu, Hu; Li, Yong; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The atomic-scale insight into dihydrogen on MgO(001) surface deposited on molybdenum substrate with interfacial defects was investigated in detail by employing density functional methods Here we report novel dissociative adsorption behaviors of single hydrogen molecule on the usually inert oxide surfaces, with consideration of two types of dissociation schemes. The heterolytic dissociation state -Mg(H)-O(H)- of dihydrogen is impossible to obtain on neighboring O-Mg sites of perfect bulk MgO(001) terraces. Unusually, the hydrogen molecule can form heterolytic fragmentation states on metal supported MgO(001) films with very low activation barrier (0.398 eV), and the heterolytic dissociation state is much more favorable than homolytic dissociation state both energetically and kinetically in all cases. Electronic properties and bonding attribution of adsorbates and the oxide-metal hybrid structure are revealed by analyzing density of states, differential charge densities, orbital interaction and electron localization function. The characteristic changes to the property and activity of magnesia (001) can have potential application in catalytic reactions.

  15. Dynamics of dissociation versus ionization in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results are presented which clearly demonstrate the effectiveness that an external field has in altering the dissociation dynamics. The experiment examines the strong-field dissociation dynamics of molecular hydrogen ions and its deuterated isotopes. These studies involve multiphoton excitation in the intensity regime of 10 11-14 W/cm 2 with the fundamental and second harmonic of a ND:YAG or ND:YLF laser system. Measurements include energy resolved electron and mass spectroscopy which provide useful probes in elucidating the interaction dynamics predicted by existing models. The example this in this paper, examines the strong-field dissociation of H 2 + , HD + , and D 2 + at green (0.5 μm) and (1μm) frequencies. The diatomic ions are formed via multiphonon ionization of the neutral precursor which is physically separable from the dissociation process. This study provides the first observation of the dynamics associated with the above threshold dissociation (ATD) process and analogies will be made with the more familiar above threshold ionization (ATI) phenomenon

  16. Childhood emotional abuse, dissociation, and suicidality among patients with drug dependency in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar-Gurol, Defne; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Evren, Cuneyt; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among patients with drug dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was used to screen 104 consecutive patients at an addiction treatment center. Thirty-seven patients who had scores >or=30 were compared with 21 patients who scored suicide attempt and/or childhood emotional abuse was significant predictors of a dissociative disorder. The majority (59.3%) of dissociative drug users reported that dissociative experiences had existed prior to substance use. More patients in the dissociative disorder than in the non-dissociative group stopped their treatment prematurely. A considerable proportion of drug users have a dissociative disorder, which may also interfere with treatment process. The relatively young age of this subgroup of patients and frequent reports of childhood emotional abuse underline potential preventive benefits of early intervention among adolescents with developmental trauma history and dissociative psychopathology.

  17. Dissociation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications of Studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldi, Everton de Oliveira; Krippner, Stanley; Barros, Maria Cristina Monteiro; Cunha, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    A major issue in the study of dissociation concerns the cross-cultural validity of definitions and measurements used to identify and classify dissociative disorders. There is also extensive debate on the etiological factors underlying dissociative experiences. Cross-cultural research is essential to elucidate these issues, particularly regarding evidence obtained from countries in which the study of dissociation is still in its infancy. The aim of this article was to discuss Brazilian research on the topic of dissociation, highlighting its contributions for the understanding of dissociative experiences in nonclinical populations and for the validity and relevance of dissociative disorders in the contexts of psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. We also consider the ways in which dissociative experiences are assimilated by Brazilian culture and religious expressions, and the implications of Brazilian studies for the sociocultural investigation of dissociation. We conclude by addressing the limitations of these studies and potential areas for future research.

  18. Dissociation: adjustment or distress? Dissociative phenomena, absorption and quality of life among Israeli women who practice channeling compared to women with similar traumatic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolovy, Tali; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Witztum, Eliezer

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between traumatic history, dissociative phenomena, absorption and quality of life among a population of channelers, in comparison with a population of non-channelers with similar traumatic history. The study sample included 150 women. The measures included Traumatic Experiences Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale, Absorption Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment. Channelers presented significantly higher levels of dissociation, absorption and psychological health compared to the other group. Dissociation and absorption were trauma-related only among the comparison group. Hence, dissociation has different qualities among different people, and spiritual practice contributes to QOL.

  19. Cognitive benefit and cost of acute stress is differentially modulated by individual brain state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohn, N.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated

  20. New-onset dissociative disorder after electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidner, Eduardo; Sewell, R Andrew; Murray, Evan; Schiller, Allen; Price, Bruce H; Cunningham, Miles G

    2010-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an exceptionally effective treatment for a number of psychiatric conditions; however, a common adverse effect is temporary cognitive impairment, especially memory loss. The dissociative disorders also involve disturbances of memory, as well as consciousness and personal identity, but are rarely iatrogenic. We report a case in which dissociative symptoms developed after ECT. A 51-year-old woman with hypothyroidism, migraine headaches, bipolar disorder, and anorexia by history was admitted for worsening depression with suicidal ideation. After a course of 7 right-sided ECT treatments, she experienced remarkable personality change, claiming that it was 1976 and behaving as though she was 30 years younger. Neuropsychological tests were normal, and her memory and former personality spontaneously returned 2 weeks later. This case illustrates that such events may be seen in patients with certain psychiatric profiles, and further studies are needed to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of dissociative episodes after ECT.

  1. J/ψ dissociation in parity-odd bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the quarkonium dissociation rate in the P and CP-odd domains (bubbles) that were possibly created in heavy-ion collisions. In the presence of the magnetic field produced by the valence quarks of colliding ions, parity-odd domains generate electric field. Quarkonium dissociation is the result of quantum tunneling of quark or antiquark through the potential barrier in this electric field. The strength of the electric field in the quarkonium comoving frame depends on the quarkonium velocity with respect to the background magnetic field. We investigate momentum, electric field strength and azimuthal dependence of the dissociation rate. Azimuthal distribution of quarkonia surviving in the electromagnetic field is strongly anisotropic; the form of anisotropy depends on the relation between the electric and magnetic fields and quarkonium momentum P ⊥ . These features can be used to explore the properties of the electromagnetic field created in heavy ion collisions.

  2. Hopping approach towards exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianova, E. V.; Auweraer, M. van der; Baessler, H.

    2008-01-01

    By employing random walk an analytic theory for the dissociation of singlet excitons in a random organic solid, for instance, a conjugated polymer, has been developed. At variance of conventional three-dimensional Onsager theory, it is assumed that an exciton with finite lifetime can first transfer endothermically an electron to an adjacent site, thereby generating a charge transfer state whose energy is above the energy of that of the initial exciton. In a second step the latter can fully dissociate in accordance with Onsager's concept Brownian motion. The results indicate that, depending of the energy required for the first jump, the first jump contributes significantly to the field dependence of the dissociation yield. Disorder weakens the temperature dependence of the yield dramatically and precludes extracting information on the exciton binding energy from it

  3. Investigating the thermal dissociation of viral capsid by lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingzhi; Chevreuil, Maelenn; Combet, Sophie; Lansac, Yves; Tresset, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    The dissociation of icosahedral viral capsids was investigated by a homogeneous and a heterogeneous lattice model. In thermal dissociation experiments with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and probed by small-angle neutron scattering, we observed a slight shrinkage of viral capsids, which can be related to the strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between subunits at increasing temperature. By considering the temperature dependence of hydrophobic interaction in the homogeneous lattice model, we were able to give a better estimate of the effective charge. In the heterogeneous lattice model, two sets of lattice sites represented different capsid subunits with asymmetric interaction strengths. In that case, the dissociation of capsids was found to shift from a sharp one-step transition to a gradual two-step transition by weakening the hydrophobic interaction between AB and CC subunits. We anticipate that such lattice models will shed further light on the statistical mechanics underlying virus assembly and disassembly.

  4. Dissociative Identity Disorders in Korea: Two Recent Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilbin; Kim, Daeho; Jung, Hyun-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Although dissociative identity disorder (DID), the most severe of the dissociative disorders, has retained its own diagnostic entity since its introduction in the DSM-III, cases of DID are rarely seen in South and East Asia, likely due to the higher prevalence of possession disorder. We report two patients with DID who were recently admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit and demonstrated distinct transitions to several identities. Their diagnoses were confirmed through a structured interview for dissociative disorders and possible differential diagnoses were ruled out by psychological, neuroimaging, and laboratory tests. The rapid transition to a Westernized, individualized society along with an increase in child abuse, might contribute to an increase in DID, previously under-diagnosed in this region.

  5. Electron-impact dissociation of molecular hydrogen into neutral fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Liam H.; Tapley, Jonathan K.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2018-02-01

    We present convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-impact dissociation of the ground state of molecular hydrogen into neutral fragments over the range of impact energies from 6 to 300 eV. The calculations account for dissociative excitation, excitation radiative decay dissociation, and predissociation through all bound electronic triplet states, and singlet states up to the D' 1 Π u state. An estimate is given for the contribution from the remaining bound electronic singlet states. Our results are in agreement with the recommended data of Yoon et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 37, 913 (2008)] in the low (6-12 eV) and high (60-70 eV) energy regions, but somewhat lower at the intermediate energies.

  6. Reaction paths of phosphine dissociation on silicon (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warschkow, O.; McKenzie, D. R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Curson, N. J. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Schofield, S. R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Marks, N. A. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Discipline of Physics & Astronomy, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia); Wilson, H. F. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); CSIRO Virtual Nanoscience Laboratory, Parkville, VIC 3052 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000 (Australia); Radny, M. W.; Smith, P. V. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Reusch, T. C. G.; Simmons, M. Y. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-07

    Using density functional theory and guided by extensive scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image data, we formulate a detailed mechanism for the dissociation of phosphine (PH{sub 3}) molecules on the Si(001) surface at room temperature. We distinguish between a main sequence of dissociation that involves PH{sub 2}+H, PH+2H, and P+3H as observable intermediates, and a secondary sequence that gives rise to PH+H, P+2H, and isolated phosphorus adatoms. The latter sequence arises because PH{sub 2} fragments are surprisingly mobile on Si(001) and can diffuse away from the third hydrogen atom that makes up the PH{sub 3} stoichiometry. Our calculated activation energies describe the competition between diffusion and dissociation pathways and hence provide a comprehensive model for the numerous adsorbate species observed in STM experiments.

  7. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment.

  8. Reaction paths of phosphine dissociation on silicon (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warschkow, O.; McKenzie, D. R.; Curson, N. J.; Schofield, S. R.; Marks, N. A.; Wilson, H. F.; Radny, M. W.; Smith, P. V.; Reusch, T. C. G.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and guided by extensive scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image data, we formulate a detailed mechanism for the dissociation of phosphine (PH 3 ) molecules on the Si(001) surface at room temperature. We distinguish between a main sequence of dissociation that involves PH 2 +H, PH+2H, and P+3H as observable intermediates, and a secondary sequence that gives rise to PH+H, P+2H, and isolated phosphorus adatoms. The latter sequence arises because PH 2 fragments are surprisingly mobile on Si(001) and can diffuse away from the third hydrogen atom that makes up the PH 3 stoichiometry. Our calculated activation energies describe the competition between diffusion and dissociation pathways and hence provide a comprehensive model for the numerous adsorbate species observed in STM experiments

  9. Ultrafast dissociation: An unexpected tool for probing molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Paul; Miron, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrafast dissociation has been investigated by means of XPS and mass spectrometry. ► The interplay between electron relaxation and molecular dynamics is evidenced. ► Extension toward polyatomics, clusters, adsorbed molecules is considered. ► Quantum effects (spectral hole, angular effects) evidence the molecular field anisotropy. -- Abstract: Ultrafast dissociation following core–shell excitation into an antibonding orbital led to the early observation in HBr of atomic Auger lines associated to the decay of dissociated excited atoms. The purpose of this article is to review the very large variety of systems where such a situation has been encountered, extending from simple diatomic molecules toward more complex systems like polyatomics, clusters, or adsorbed molecules. Interestingly, this phenomenon has revealed an extremely rich and powerful tool for probing nuclear dynamics and its subtle interplay with electron relaxation occurring on a comparable time scale. Consequently this review covers a surprisingly large period, starting in 1986 and still ongoing.

  10. Correlations between channel probabilities in collisional dissociation of D3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, S.; Nir, D.; Rosner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the dissociation of D 3 + ions at 300--600 keV under single- and multiple-collision conditions in Ar- and H 2 -gas targets have been performed. A complete separation of all dissociation channels was achieved, including the neutral channels, which were resolved using a fine-mesh technique. Data analysis in the multiple-collision regime confirms the validity of the rate equations governing the charge exchange processes. In the single-collision region the analysis yields constant relations between channel probabilities. Data rearrangement shows probability factorization and suggests that collisional dissociation is a two-stage process, a fast electron exchange followed by rearrangement and branching to the exit channels

  11. Conformational lock and dissociative thermal inactivation of lentil seedling amine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi-Nejad, S Zahra; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali-Akbar; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2003-03-31

    The kinetics of thermal inactivation of copper-containing amine oxidase from lentil seedlings were studied in a 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7, using putrescine as the substrate. The temperature range was between 47-60 degrees C. The thermal inactivation curves were not linear at 52 and 57 degrees C; three linear phases were shown. The first phase gave some information about the number of dimeric forms of the enzyme that were induced by the higher temperatures using the "conformational lock" pertaining theory to oligomeric enzyme. The "conformational lock" caused two additional dimeric forms of the enzyme when the temperature increased to 57 degrees C. The second and third phases were interpreted according to a dissociative thermal inactivation model. These phases showed that lentil amine oxidase was reversibly-dissociated before the irreversible thermal inactivation. Although lentil amine oxidase is not a thermostable enzyme, its dimeric structure can form "conformational lock," conferring a structural tolerance to the enzyme against heat stress.

  12. "That part of the body is just gone": understanding and responding to dissociation and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Terri J

    2009-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought a significant surge in interest and research regarding the ways in which psychological trauma relates to the physical body. Researchers now understand a great deal about how the brain and the body process traumatic experiences, as well as the increased likelihood of an array of physical health consequences associated with both childhood and adult trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Experts are increasingly challenging mind-body dualism through solid theoretical and clinical bases for the central importance of listening to and communicating with trauma clients' bodies as part of reducing the suffering and long-lasting consequences of trauma. This article integrates this growing body of knowledge through a particular focus on trauma-induced dissociation and the implications of the physical and neurological processes and consequences of dissociation on clients' ability to participate in caring for their own bodies. The author utilizes an in-depth clinical example of expanding relational trauma psychotherapy to include a focus on working directly with trauma-related sensorimotor and physiological sensations and patterns.

  13. Dissociative disorder manifesting for underlying adolescent hemi-parkinsonism: New chronology for old mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit; Khanna, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Dissociative symptoms can be induced by a variety of conditions that can either coexist or mimic each other in clinical presentation. In coexisting dissociative disorder with medical illness, the causality remains uncertain, but sometime its role as nidus for dissociative symptoms just cannot be ruled out. The origin of "organic dissociative disorder" is undoubtedly found by various authors who demonstrated that a high percentage of patients with dissociative symptoms present with some form of neurological insult before developing the symptom. Herein we report on a case of adolescent onset hemi-parkinsonism with coexisting dissociative disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Luria, Justin; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C.; Sun, Liangfeng; Lim, Yee-Fun; Marohn, John A.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Reaction pathways of the dissociation of methylal: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H -M; Beaud, P; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P; Tzannis, A -P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Schemata for modelling combustion processes do not yet include reaction rates for oxygenated fuels like methylal (DMM) which is considered as an additive or replacement for diesel due to its low sooting propensity. Density functional theory (DFT) studies of the possible reaction pathways for different dissociation steps of methylal are presented. Cleavage of a hydrogen bond to the methoxy group or the central carbon atom were simulated at the BLYP/6-311++G{sup **} level of theory. The results are compared to the experiment when dissociating and/or ionising DMM with femtosecond pulses. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  16. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fucheng; Dong Lifang; He Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. (paper)

  17. Dissociative disorder due to Graves' hyperthyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kaoru; Nishimura, Katsuji; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old Japanese woman with no psychiatric history with apparent dissociative symptoms. These consisted of amnesia for episodes of shoplifting behaviors and a suicide attempt, developing together with an exacerbation of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease frequently manifest various psychiatric disorders; however, very few reports have described dissociative disorder due to this disease. Along with other possible causes, for example, encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, clinicians should be aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic challenges leading to underdiagnosis of dissociative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Aadil,1 Maria Shoaib2 1Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of medicine, Dow Medical College, Karachi, PakistanWe read the article “Is the Dissociative Experiences Scale able to identify detachment and compartmentalization symptoms? Factor structure of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a large sample of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric subjects” by Mazzotti et al with great interest and would like to add our views in its support.1View the original paper by Mazzotti and colleagues.

  19. Dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: differential diagnosis and theoretical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Park, Jane

    2008-06-01

    Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) are typically thought of as unrelated syndromes--a genetically based psychotic disorder versus a trauma-based dissociative disorder--and are categorized as such by the DSM-IV. However, substantial data exist to document the elevated occurrence of psychotic symptoms in DID; awareness of these features is necessary to prevent diagnostic confusion. Recent research has also pointed out that schizophrenia and DID overlap not only in psychotic symptoms but also in terms of traumatic antecedents, leading to a number of suggestions for revision of our clinical, theoretical, and nosologic understanding of the relationship between these two disorders.

  20. Thermogravimetric analysis and dissociation pressure of caesium trihalides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.S.; McKechnie, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    We have carried out a thermogravimetric study of caesium trihalides to obtain, from the procedural decomposition temperatures, an order of apparent thermal stability which could be compared with the order of thermodynamic stability obtained from vapour pressure measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis could also prove to be a useful method for rapid analysis of metal polyhalides. The thermograms indicated a one-step decomposition for each compound; the procedural decomposition temperatures and percentage weight losses obtained are given. Dissociation pressures were measured and values of equilibrium constant and enthalpy of dissociation were calculated. The results are given. The 'stability' order obtained is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Optical observations of molecular dissociation in thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Gay, T.J.; Brooks, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions. Using HeH + projectiles, we have observed factors of 1-5 enhancements of the light from n=3, sup(1,3)P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions. Observations of Lyman alpha emission after dissociation of H 2 + and H 3 + show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface. (author)

  2. Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, H.

    1994-06-01

    We study the effect of higher-order processes in Coulomb dissociation of 11 Li by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the relative motion of a di-neutron and the 9 Li core. Comparisons are made to first-order perturbation theory and to measurements. The calculated Coulomb reacceleration effects improve the agreement with experiment, but some discrepancy remains. The effects are much smaller in the dissociation of 11 Be, and they decrease with increasing beam energy. (orig.)

  3. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. The Selfish Brain: Stress and Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim ePeters

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental data which allow to assess the supply, demand and need of the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress. The experimental results show that the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress actively demands energy from the body, in order to cover its increased energy needs. The data demonstrate that the stressed brain uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" to limit glucose fluxes into peripheral tissue (muscle, fat and to enhance cerebral glucose supply. Furthermore psychosocial stress elicits a marked increase in eating behavior in the post-stress phase. Subjects ingested more carbohydrates without any preference for sweet ingredients. These experimentally observed changes of cerebral demand, supply and need are integrated into a logistic framework describing the supply chain of the selfish brain.

  5. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  6. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  7. Dissociation behavior of Np(IV) from humic acid colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Tobitsuka, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Kohara, Y. [Inspection Development Corporation, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1112 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Dissociation behavior of Np(IV) from humic colloid, which was prepared with purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) was investigated. The complexation experiments were carried out in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} - 0.05 M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at pH 8 with PAHA concentration between 0 and 500 mg L-1 under anaerobic condition. Np-237 was added as Np(V) solution so that its concentration becomes 1.1 x 10-5 mol L-1. After shaking from 1 to 156 days, aliquots of experimental solution were filtered through the membranes with 50, 10 and 3 kD of MWCO to obtain the size distribution of colloid, followed by adding the filtrate into the 6 M HCl for dissociation. At the end of experiments for 596 days, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} was used for dissociation solution. The concentration of Np released into this solution was evaluated by measuring a activity of Np-237. The concentration of Np becomes constant by 112 days. Since Eh of the solution has been kept between -300 and -100 mV vs. SHE during experimental duration, Np is presumed to be reduced into tetravalent. In the case of higher PAHA concentration than 50 mg L{sup -1}, the Np concentration is close to that of initially added Np. Since the size of the dissolved species of Np during complexation experiments varies from 3 to 50 kD, the Np is sorbed on humic acid colloid. In the dissociation experiments, the Np dissociated by 6 M HCl decreases with increasing complexation time and PAHA concentration. After 156 days complexation with 500 mg L{sup -1} of PAHA, 35% of Np can be dissociated from the colloid. Such a tendency, however, is not observed in case of the lowest PAHA concentration, 5 mg L{sup -1}. After 596 days complexation, the dissociation experiments were carried out by adding 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution to avoid the precipitation which might hinder the dissociation of Np in the aforementioned experiments with HCl. As a result, 50% of Np is dissociated in the presence of 50 and 100 mg L-1 of

  8. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  9. Isomerization and dissociation in competition: the two-component dissociation rates of methyl acetate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazyar, Oleg A.; Mayer, Paul M.; Baer, Tomas

    1997-11-01

    Threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the unimolecular chemistry of metastable methyl acetate ions, CH3COOCH3.+. The rate of molecular ion fragmentation with the loss of CH3O. and CH2OH radicals as a function of ion internal energy was obtained from the coincidence data and used in conjunction with Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus and ab initio molecular orbital calculations to model the dissociation/isomerization mechanism of the methyl acetate ion (A). The data were found to be consistent with the mechanism involving a hydrogen-bridged complex CH3CO[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]H[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]OCH2.+(E) as the direct precursor of the observed fragments CH3CO+ and CH2OH.. The two-component decay rates were modeled with a three-well-two-product potential energy surface including the distonic ion CH3C(OH)OCH2.+(B) and enol isomer CH2C(OH)OCH3.+(C), which are formed from the methyl acetate ion by two consecutive [1,4]-hydrogen shifts. The 0 K heats of formation of isomers B and C as well as transition states TSAB, TSBC, and TSBE (relative to isomer A) were calculated from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory.

  10. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered...... and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains...

  11. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  12. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: a PET study and neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Antje A T S; Willemsen, Antoon T M; den Boer, Johan A; Vos, Herry P J; Veltman, Dick J; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-09-30

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n=11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n=16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state. Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively. Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the parahippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus. Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and parahippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby undermodulating emotion regulation. This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apparent Amnesia : interidentity memory functioning in dissociative identity disdorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the individual s behavior. Between 95 and 100 % of DID patients report experiences of blank spells for periods of time when other identities

  14. Development of a collision induced dissociation ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.N.

    1982-01-01

    A transient analysis ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is developed to investigate the phenomena of collision induced dissociation. The Fourier transform method and the modified maximum entropy spectral analysis or covariance least square method are implemented in measuring the mass spectrum of the ion ensemble. The Fourier transform method can be used in quantitative analysis while the maximum entropy method as developed here is useful for qualitative analysis only. The cyclotron resonance frequency, relaxation time constant, and the relative ion population are observable from the Fourier transform spectrum. These parameters are very important in investigating collision induced dissociation process and other topics in gas phase chemistry. The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is not only developed to study fragments and their abundance from a parent ion, but also to determine the threshold energy and reaction cross section in the collision induced dissociation process. When hard sphere model is used in the ion-molecule collision, the radius of acetone ion measured from the reactive cross section is 2.2 angstrom which is very close to the physical dimension of acetone. The threshold energy for acetone ion in collision induced dissociation process is 1.8 eV which is similar to the result obtained by the angle-resolved mass spectrometer

  15. Dissociative Identity Disorder in Felonious Offenders: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culiner, Ty

    1997-01-01

    Describes the case studies of two inmates detained in a maximum security prison having been diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder and receiving individual therapy. Although treatment is ongoing, mid-treatment progress indicates the treatment is successful and the prognosis is excellent. Accentuates the practicality and rewards of working…

  16. Dissociative electron attachment to the radiosensitizing chemotherapeutic agent hydroxyurea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, S. E.; Tanzer, K.; Denifl, S. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics and Center of Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold Franzens University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Śmiałek, M. A., E-mail: smialek@pg.gda.pl [Department of Control and Power Engineering, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-06-14

    Dissociative electron attachment to hydroxyurea was studied in the gas phase for electron energies ranging from zero to 9 eV in order to probe its radiosensitizing capabilities. The experiments were carried out using a hemispherical electron monochromator coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Diversified fragmentation of hydroxyurea was observed upon low energy electron attachment and here we highlight the major dissociation channels. Moreover, thermodynamic thresholds for various fragmentation reactions are reported to support the discussion of the experimental findings. The dominant dissociation channel, which was observed over a broad range of energies, is associated with formation of NCO{sup −}, water, and the amidogen (NH{sub 2}) radical. The second and third most dominant dissociation channels are associated with formation of NCNH{sup −} and NHCONH{sub 2}{sup −}, respectively, which are both directly related to formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Other ions observed with significant abundance in the mass spectra were NH{sub 2}{sup −}/O{sup −}, OH{sup −}, CN{sup −}, HNOH{sup −}, NCONH{sub 2}{sup −}, and ONHCONH{sub 2}{sup −}.

  17. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungshan Chou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  18. Dissociative experiences and their relationship to mood problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To examine the presence of dissociation among Arab mothers with disabled children in Saudi Arabia, and to explore if this is linked to their mood difficulties, in addition to certain other demographic variables. Methods: We conducted a prospective study during the period of June 2011 to February 2012, on 86 ...

  19. Trauma and dissociation in conversion disorder and chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Roelofs, K.; Moene, F.C.; Kuyk, J.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Dyck, R. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to: a) assess the link between sexual and/or physical abuse and dissociation in conversion disorder and chronic pelvic pain patients; and b) assess whether this effect is independent of level of general psychopathology. Method: This report examines data from

  20. Lifetime and kinetic energy release of metastable dications dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagia, M.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Mundim, K.C.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Pirani, F.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A statistical method is proposed for extracting dynamics information from coincidence data in double photoionization of molecules. Highlights: ► When a photon, with sufficient energy, hits a molecule, a doubly charged ion can be formed. This dication has often a large probability of dissociate in two positive singly charged ions. ► Experiments of photoelectron–photoion–photoion coincidence can provide valuable information about the dynamics of such dissociation processes. ► A statistical method is proposed for extracting such information from the coincidence data. - Abstract: A new method for the determination of dynamical features of the molecular dication dissociation processes, following the single photon double ionization, investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been developed. The method is based on an extension of the generalized simulated annealing statistical methodology, previously applied in other fields. Here it is described and applied, as an example, to the case of the dissociation of the CO 2 2+ dication giving CO + + O + ion fragments. The results are consistent with previous determination of the metastable lifetime of the dication, but the analysis also provides additional information about the dynamics of the reaction.

  1. Perception, action, and Roelofs effect: a mere illusion of dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dassonville

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A prominent and influential hypothesis of vision suggests the existence of two separate visual systems within the brain, one creating our perception of the world and another guiding our actions within it. The induced Roelofs effect has been described as providing strong evidence for this perception/action dissociation: When a small visual target is surrounded by a large frame positioned so that the frame's center is offset from the observer's midline, the perceived location of the target is shifted in the direction opposite the frame's offset. In spite of this perceptual mislocalization, however, the observer can accurately guide movements to the target location. Thus, perception is prone to the illusion while actions seem immune. Here we demonstrate that the Roelofs illusion is caused by a frame-induced transient distortion of the observer's apparent midline. We further demonstrate that actions guided to targets within this same distorted egocentric reference frame are fully expected to be accurate, since the errors of target localization will exactly cancel the errors of motor guidance. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the various perceptual and motor effects of the induced Roelofs illusion without requiring the existence of separate neural systems for perception and action. Given this, the behavioral dissociation that accompanies the Roelofs effect cannot be considered evidence of a dissociation of perception and action. This indicates a general need to re-evaluate the broad class of evidence purported to support this hypothesized dissociation.

  2. Perseveration induces dissociative uncertainty in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giele, Catharina L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Dek, Eliane C P; Toffolo, Marieke B J; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive compulsive (OC)-like perseveration paradoxically increases feelings of uncertainty. We studied whether the underlying mechanism between perseveration and uncertainty is a reduced accessibility of meaning ('semantic satiation'). OCD patients (n = 24) and matched non-clinical controls (n = 24) repeated words 2 (non-perseveration) or 20 times (perseveration). They decided whether this word was related to another target word. Speed of relatedness judgments and feelings of dissociative uncertainty were measured. The effects of real-life perseveration on dissociative uncertainty were tested in a smaller subsample of the OCD group (n = 9). Speed of relatedness judgments was not affected by perseveration. However, both groups reported more dissociative uncertainty after perseveration compared to non-perseveration, which was higher in OCD patients. Patients reported more dissociative uncertainty after 'clinical' perseveration compared to non-perseveration.. Both parts of this study are limited by some methodological issues and a small sample size. Although the mechanism behind 'perseveration → uncertainty' is still unclear, results suggest that the effects of perseveration are counterproductive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dipole-bound states as doorways in (dissociative) electron attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This communication starts with a comparison of dissociative recombination and dissociative attachment placing emphasis on the role of resonances as reactive intermediates. The main focus is then the mechanism of electron attachment to polar molecules at very low energies (100 meV). The scheme considered consists of two steps: First, an electron is captured in a diffuse dipole-bound state depositing its energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom, in other words, a vibrational Feshbach resonance is formed. Then, owing to the coupling with a valence state, the electron is transferred into a compact valence orbital, and depending on the electron affinities of the valence state and possible dissociation products, as well as on the details of the intramolecular redistribution of vibrational energy, long-lived anions can be generated or dissociation reactions can be initiated. The key property in this context is the electronic coupling strength between the diffuse dipole-bound and the compact valence states. We describe how the coupling strength can be extracted from ab initio data, and present results for Nitromethane, Uracil and Cyanoacetylene

  4. Clinical Assessment of Dissociative Identity Disorder among College Counseling Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin; Swanson, Janine E.

    2008-01-01

    College counseling professionals address a wide range of complex student mental health concerns. Among these, accurately identifying client presentations of dissociative identity disorder (DID) can be especially challenging because students with DID sometimes present as if they are experiencing another problem, such as a mood, anxiety, or…

  5. Self Blocking of CO Dissociation on a Stepped Ruthenium Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm; Johansson, Martin; Mowbray, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The influence of steps on CO reactions has been studied on a Ru(0 1 (1) over bar 5 4) single crystal with a step density of 4%. Based on temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxygen titration experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the CO dissociation...

  6. Carbon dioxide dissociation and buffering in chicken blood during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, H; Piiper, J

    1984-07-01

    Carbon dioxide dissociation curves of oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods, the Haldane effect, the buffer value and other blood and true plasma buffering indices, O2 capacity and hematocrit were determined in bloods withdrawn from chicks before, during and after hatching and 8-month-old hens. Blood CO2 dissociation curves shifted upwards in the developing embryo till pipping, and moved downwards after pipping and hatching. In accordance with the position of the CO2 dissociation curves, the true plasma bicarbonate and red cell CO2 standardized to PCO2 = 40 torr changed. The Haldane factor at standard PCO2 increased from 0.12-0.13 on days 10-14 of incubation to 0.34 in young hens. The buffering power changed in parallel with O2 capacity and hematocrit, increasing steadily during incubation, dropping at hatching and then increasing again to the adult value. The observed changes in the CO2 dissociation curves and buffering variables during the development enable the chick to minimize the changes in the acid-base status and are favorable for coping with the increasing demand for CO2 transport and buffering of the developing bird.

  7. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  8. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  9. Shock wave structure in an ideal dissociating gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    Composition changes within the shock layer due to chemical reactions are considered. The Lighthill ideal dissociating gas model was used in an effort to describe the oxygen type molecule. First, the two limiting cases, when the chemical reaction rates are very slow and very fast in comparison to local convective rates, are investigated. Then, the problem is solved for arbitrary chemical reaction rates.

  10. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  11. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  12. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.; Kok, P.; Lange, F.P. de

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying

  13. Post-mortem CT evaluation of atlanto-occipital dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Samaranayake, Ravindra Priyalal; O'Donnell, Chris; Cordner, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Atlanto-occipital dissociation injury is an important injury in forensic pathology practice. Radiological diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation clinically is assessed by direct measurement of occipito-vertebral skeletal relationships. Different measurements may be used to diagnose atlanto-occipital dissociation, including the basion-dens interval (BDI) and basion-axial interval (BAI). It is not known whether the normal ante-mortem measurements of BDI and BAI described in the literature are applicable to post-mortem CT images of the occipito-cervical junction (OCJ) or whether these measurements could be affected by early post-mortem changes. This study aims to compare post-mortem BDI and BAI measurements with ante-mortem values. Post-mortem CT scans of the cervical spines of 100 deceased adults were reviewed, and the BDI and BAI were measured. Different parameters were recorded in each case. The results from this study suggest that there are no effects of post-mortem changes on the measurement of BAI as relied upon clinically. There appear to be some effects of fully established rigor mortis on BDI measurement, shortening it. This may have consequences for the post mortem diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Models for calculation of dissociation energies of homonuclear diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, L.; Winn, J.S.

    1979-08-01

    The variation of known dissociation energies of the transition metal diatomics across the Periodic Table is rather irregular like the bulk sublimation enthalpy, suggesting that the valence-bond model for bulk metallic systems might be applicable to the gaseous diatomic molecules and the various intermediate clusters. Available dissociation energies were converted to valence-state bonding energies considering various degrees of promotion to optimize the bonding. The degree of promotion of electrons to increase the number of bonding electrons is smaller than for the bulk, but the trends in bonding energy parallel the behavior found for the bulk metals. Thus using the established trends in bonding energies for the bulk elements, it was possible to calculate all unknown dissociation energies to provide a complete table of dissociation energies for all M 2 molecules from H 2 to Lr 2 . For solids such as Mg, Al, Si and most of the transition metals, large promotion energies are offset by strong bonding between the valence state atoms. The main question is whether bonding in the diatomics is adequate to sustain extensive promotion. The most extreme example for which a considerable difference would be expected between the bulk and the diatomics would be that of the Group IIA and IIB metals. The first section of this paper which deals with the alkaline earths Mg and Ca demonstrates a significant influence of the excited valence state even for these elements. The next section then expands the treatment to transition metals

  15. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  16. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  17. Conversion (dissociative) symptoms as a presenting feature in early onset bipolar disorder: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Guha, Prathama; Sinha, Mausumi; Majumdar, Debabrata; Sengupta, Payel

    2009-01-01

    We present three cases of early onset bipolar disorder where dissociative (conversion) symptoms preceded the onset of mania. This case series underscores the significance of dissociative/conversion symptoms as an early atypical presentation in juvenile bipolar disorder.

  18. Inter-identity autobiographical amnesia in patients with dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  19. Inter-Identity Autobiographical Amnesia in Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive

  20. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT

  1. Multiphoton dissociation and thermal unimolecular reactions induced by infrared lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    Multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of ethyl chloride was studied using a tunable 3.3 μm laser to excite CH stretches. The absorbed energy increases almost linearly with fluence, while for 10 μm excitation there is substantial saturation. Much higher dissociation yields were observed for 3.3 μm excitation than for 10 μm excitation, reflecting bottlenecking in the discrete region of 10 μm excitation. The resonant nature of the excitation allows the rate equations description for transitions in the quasicontinuum and continuum to be extended to the discrete levels. Absorption cross sections are estimated from ordinary ir spectra. A set of cross sections which is constant or slowly decreasing with increasing vibrational excitation gives good fits to both absorption and dissociation yield data. The rate equations model was also used to quantitatively calculate the pressure dependence of the MPD yield of SF 6 caused by vibrational self-quenching. Between 1000-3000 cm -1 of energy is removed from SF 6 excited to approx. > 60 kcal/mole by collision with a cold SF 6 molecule at gas kinetic rate. Calculation showed the fluence dependence of dissociation varies strongly with the gas pressure. Infrared multiphoton excitation was applied to study thermal unimolecular reactions. With SiF 4 as absorbing gas for the CO 2 laser pulse, transient high temperature pulses were generated in a gas mixture. IR fluorescence from the medium reflected the decay of the temperature. The activation energy and the preexponential factor of the reactant dissociation were obtained from a phenomenological model calculation. Results are presented in detail

  2. Photofragment translational spectroscopy of three body dissociations and free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Simon William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This dissertation describes several three-body dissociations and the photodissociation of methyl radicals studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. The first chapter provides an introduction to three body dissociation, examines current experimental methodology, and includes a discussion on the treatment of photofragment translational spectroscopy data arising from three-body fragmentation. The ultraviolet photodissociation of azomethane into two methyl radicals and nitrogen is discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the photodissociation of acetone at 248 nm and 193 nm. At 248 nm the translational energy release from the initial C-C bond cleavage matches the exit barrier height and a comparison with results at 266 nm suggests that T> is invariant to the available energy. A fraction of the nascent CH3CO radicals spontaneously dissociate following rotational averaging. The T> for the second C-C bond cleavage also matches the exit barrier height. At 193 nm the experimental data can be successfully fit assuming that the dynamics are analogous to those at 248 nm. A simplified model of energy partitioning which adequately describes the experimental results is discussed. Experiments on acetyl halides provide additional evidence to support the proposed acetone dissociation mechanism. A value of 17.0±1.0 kcal/mole for the barrier height, CH3CO decomposition has been determined. The photodissociation of methyl radical at 193 nm and 212.8 nm is discussed in the chapter 5. The formation of CH2(1Al) and H (2S) was the only single photon dissociation pathway observed at both wavelengths.

  3. Out of mind - out of sight : studies on clinical and psychophysiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Karl Yngvar

    2008-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID; APA, 1994), previously labeled Multiple personality (APA, 1980) and Multiple Personality Disorder (APA, 1987), has good diagnostic validity (Gleaves, May, & Cardeña, 2001) and is supported by taxometric research, whereby two types of dissociation have been identified: Pathological dissociation, whose features are consistent with DID, and nonpathological dissociation (Waller, Putnam, & Carlson, 1996). On these grounds, we aimed to contribute to a further...

  4. Return to work: a case of PTSD, dissociative identity disorder, and satanic ritual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated an intervention that enabled an individual with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), and satanic ritual abuse to return to work after discharge from psychiatric inpatient treatment. The Occupational Questionnaire [88] revealed past difficulties in organization, awareness of time, communication, cooperation, frustration tolerance, competition, stress management, goal setting, and amnesia resulting in incomplete tasks and sporadic attendance at work. The Role Checklist [72] identified alters valuing work and employed in the past. The Modified Interest Checklist [70] identified running as an interest that 24 alters shared. Based on the initial evaluations, three times a week treadmill running was used as an intervention that built work skills (as measured by the Clerical Work Sample of the Valpar Component Work Sample Series [97]) necessary to sustain gainful employment upon discharge. After intervention, this individual improved in awareness of time, stress management, and goal setting abilities and was less amnestic as per the Occupational Questionnaire [88] and four additional alters expressed an interest in work according to the Modified Interest Checklist [70].

  5. Association of trauma-related disorders and dissociation with four idioms of distress among Latino psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Raggio, Greer A; Peláez, Clara; Chen, Henian; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Past research on idioms of distress among U.S. Latinos has revealed that ataque de nervios and altered perceptions, such as hearing and seeing things when alone, are independent markers of higher morbidity and mental health utilization despite having no one-to-one relationships with any single psychiatric diagnosis. It has been proposed that the idioms exert this effect because they are signs of distressing dissociative capacity associated with traumatic exposure. This study examines the relationships in an ethnically diverse Latino psychiatric outpatient sample (N = 230) among interpersonal trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dissociative capacity and four cultural idioms of distress associated with the popular overall category of nervios. We particularly explore how these relationships change with varied measures of traumatic exposure, including trauma severity and timing or persistence of trauma. A series of adjusted bivariate regressions assessed the matrix of associations between the idioms and the clinical variables. In this highly traumatized population, we identified a strong 'nexus' of associations between dissociation and three of the idioms: currently being ill with nerves, ataque de nervios and altered perceptions. These idioms were largely independent from PTSD and depression and were associated with trauma persistence and severity. A fourth idiom, being nervous since childhood, was not associated with any other variable and may represent a personality trait rather than a diagnosable condition. Our results validate the clinical utility of the construct of nervios as a set of specific idioms associated with dissociation that are useful markers of mental health need among Latinos independently of their association with clinical diagnoses.

  6. Assessing therapeutic change in patients with severe dissociative disorders: the progress in treatment questionnaire, therapist and patient measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, Hugo; Brand, Bethany; Marsic, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Background : Treatment research for dissociative identity disorder (DID) and closely related severe dissociative disorders (DD) is rare, and has been made more difficult by the lack of a reliable, valid measure for assessing treatment progress in these populations. Objective : This paper presents psychometric data for therapist and patient report measures developed to evaluate therapeutic progress and outcomes for individuals with DID and other DD: the Progress in Treatment Questionnaire - Therapist (PITQ-t; a therapist report measure) and the Progress in Treatment Questionnaire - Patient (PITQ-p; a patient self-report measure). Method : We examined the data of 177 patient-therapist pairs (total N  = 354) participating in the TOP DD Network Study, an online psychoeducation programme aimed at helping patients with DD establish safety, regulate emotions, and manage dissociative and posttraumatic symptoms. Results : The PITQ-t and PITQ-p demonstrated good internal consistency and evidence of moderate convergent validity in relation to established measures of emotional dysregulation, dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological quality of life, which are characteristic difficulties for DD patients. The measures also demonstrated significant relationships in the hypothesized directions with positive emotions, social relations, and self-harm and dangerous behaviours. The patient-completed PITQ-p, which may be used as an ongoing assessment measure to guide treatment planning, demonstrated evidence of stronger relationships with established symptom measures than the PITQ-t. Conclusions : The PITQ-t and PITQ-p merit use, additional research, and refinement in relation to the assessment of therapeutic progress with patients with DD.

  7. Multidimensional Potential Energy Surface for H2 Dissociation over Cu(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Scheffler, Matthias; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1994-01-01

    We present ab initio density functional calculations within the generalized gradient approximation for H-2 dissociating over Cu(111). The minimum barrier for dissociation is 0.5 eV and shows large corrugation within the unit cell and a strong dependence on the molecular orientation. Dissociation...

  8. Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation; Correlacoes na dupla dissociacao difrativa hadronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldegol, Alexandre

    1991-05-01

    A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs.

  9. Competition between dissociation paths of I2+ NO+ using fast laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, U; Prabhudesai, V S; Natan, A; Schwalm, D; Bruner, B D; Silberberg, Y; Heber, O; Zajfman, D; Zohrabi, M; Gaire, B; Carnes, K D; Ben-Itzhak, I; Strasser, D

    2012-01-01

    The competition between dissociation paths of I 2 + and NO + molecules was studied using femtosecond laser pulses with different intensities. It was found, both for moderate fields and for strong fields, that the dissociation path strongly prefers the higher energy dissociation path with smaller kinetic energy rather than the lower energy path with higher kinetic energy.

  10. CO dissociation on Ni: The effect of steps and of nickel carbonyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Lytken, Ole; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2008-01-01

    The dissociation of CO was investigated on a stepped Ni(141313) crystal. The experiments show that the monoatomic steps completely dominate the dissociation of CO on the nickel surface. The activation energy for dissociation of CO along the steps is measured at 500 K to be 150 kJ/mol in the press...... and in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis....

  11. Assessing the structure and meaningfulness of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jana; Baník, Gabriel; Dědová, Mária; Mikulášková, Gabriela; Armour, Cherie

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted in the USA, Canada and Denmark have supported the existence of the dissociative PTSD subtype, characterized primarily by symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. The current study aimed to examine the dissociative PTSD subtype in an Eastern European, predominantly female (83.16%) sample, using an extended set of dissociative symptoms. A latent profile analysis was applied to the PTSD and dissociation data from 689 trauma-exposed university students from Slovakia. Four latent profiles of varying PTSD and dissociation symptomatology were uncovered. They were named non-symptomatic, moderate PTSD, high PTSD and dissociative PTSD. The dissociative PTSD profile showed elevations on depersonalization and derealization, but also the alternative dissociative indicators of gaps in awareness and memory, sensory misperceptions and cognitive and behavioural re-experiencing. The core PTSD symptoms of 'memory impairment' and 'reckless or self-destructive behaviour' were also significantly elevated in the dissociative PTSD profile. Moreover, anxiety and anger predicted membership in the dissociative PTSD profile. The results provide support for the proposal that the dissociative PTSD subtype can be characterized by a variety of dissociative symptoms.

  12. Neural Dissociation of Number from Letter Recognition and Its Relationship to Parietal Numerical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic…

  13. Dipole and Coulomb forces in electron capture dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2012-02-23

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations were performed on a doubly charged polypeptide model H(+)-Lys(Ala)(19)-CO-CH(NH(2))-CH(2)-SS-CH(2)-(NH(2))CH-CO-(Ala)(19)-Lys-H(+) consisting of a C-terminal protonated Lys followed by a 19-Ala α-helix with a 20th Ala-like unit whose side chain is linked by a disulfide bond to a corresponding Ala-like unit connected to a second 19-Ala α-helix terminated by a second C-terminal-protonated Lys. The Coulomb potentials arising from the two charged Lys residues and dipole potentials arising from the two oppositely directed 72 D dipoles of the α-helices act to stabilize the SS bond's σ* orbital. The Coulomb potentials provide stabilization of 1 eV, while the two large dipoles generate an additional 4 eV. Such stabilization allows the SS σ* orbital to attach an electron and thereby generate disulfide bond cleavage products. Although calculations are performed only on SS bond cleavage, discussion of N-C(α) bond cleavage caused by electron attachment to amide π* orbitals is also presented. The magnitudes of the stabilization energies as well as the fact that they arise from Coulomb and dipole potentials are supported by results on a small model system consisting of a H(3)C-SS-CH(3) molecule with positive and negative fractional point charges to its left and right designed to represent (i) two positive charges ca. 32 Å distant (i.e., the two charged Lys sites of the peptide model) and (ii) two 72 D dipoles (i.e., the two α-helices). Earlier workers suggested that internal dipole forces in polypeptides could act to guide incoming free electrons (i.e., in electron capture dissociation (ECD)) toward the positive end of the dipole and thus affect the branching ratios for cleaving various bonds. Those workers argued that, because of the huge mass difference between an anion donor and a free electron, internal dipole forces would have a far smaller influence over the trajectory of a donor (i.e., in electron transfer dissociation

  14. Corticosterone mitigates the stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Smerin, Stanley E; Zhang, Lei; Xing, Guoqiang; Li, Xiaoxia; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    Activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the stress response to traumatic events has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elevated startle response and hyperarousal are hallmarks of PTSD, and are generally considered to evince fear (DSM V). To further examine the efficacy of corticosterone in treating hyperarousal and elevated fear, the present study utilized a learned helplessness stress model in which rats are restrained and subjected to tail shock for three days. These stressed rats develop a delayed long-lasting exaggeration of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and retarded body weight growth, similar to symptoms of PTSD patients (Myers et al., 2005; Speed et al., 1989). We demonstrate that both pre-stress and post-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) mitigates a subsequent exaggeration of the ASR measured 14 days after cessation of the stress protocol. Furthermore, the mitigating efficacy of pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) appeared to last significantly longer, up to 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol, in comparison to that of post-stress administration of corticosterone. However, pre-stress administration of corticosterone at 0.3 mg/kg/day for three days did not mitigate stress-induced exaggeration of the ASR measured at both 14 and 21 days after the cessation of the stress protocol. In addition, pre-stress administration of corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day for three days) mitigates the retardation of body weight growth otherwise resulting from the stress protocol. Congruently, co-administration of the corticosterone antagonist RU486 (40 mg/kg/day for three days) with corticosterone (3 mg/kg/day) prior to stress diminished the mitigating efficacy of the exogenous corticosterone on exaggerated ASR and stress-retarded body weight. The relative efficacy of pre versus post administration of

  15. A combination of high stress-induced tense and energetic arousal compensates for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Andreas; Schwabe, Lars; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    Stress can both impair and enhance memory retrieval. Glucocorticoids mediate impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. Little is known, however, about factors that facilitate post-stress memory performance. Here, we asked whether stress-induced arousal mediates facilitative stress effects on memory retrieval. Two arousal dimensions were separated: tense arousal, which is characterized by feelings ranging from tension and anxiety to calmness and quietness, and energetic arousal, which is associated with feelings ranging from energy and vigor to states of fatigue and tiredness. Fifty-one men (mean age +/- SEM: 24.57 +/- 0.61 years) learned emotional and neutral words. Memory for these words was tested 165 min later, after participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress or a non-arousing control condition. Changes in heart rate, self-reported (energetic and tense) arousal, and saliva cortisol in response to the stress/control condition were measured. Overall, stress impaired memory retrieval. However, stressed participants with large increases in both tense and energetic arousal performed comparably to controls. Neither salivary cortisol level nor autonomic arousal predicted memory performance after controlling for changes in energetic and tense arousal. The present data indicate that stress-induced concurrent changes in tense and energetic arousal can compensate for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. This finding could help to explain some of the discrepancies in the literature on stress and memory.

  16. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  17. Vasodilator stress impairs the left ventricular function obtained with gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Keiichi; Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori

    2010-01-01

    Transient ischemic dilatation (TID) and post-stress dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) are important markers of severe coronary artery disease (CAD). To clarify the effects of stressor type on TID and post-stress LV dysfunction, changes in LV measurements were compared between patients with exercise- or vasodilator-induced stress. The 689 patients referred for technetium-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging were included. Patients were stressed with either a vasodilator (n=236) or exercise (n=453). LV measurements were obtained with electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes (LVEDVI, LVESVI) increased and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased after stress in the vasodilator-stress group. Vasodilator-stress and the summed difference score (SDS) were independent variables that decreased LVEF after stress. Even in patients without reversible defects, vasodilator-stress impaired LV function. There were no differences in the stress-to-rest ratios of LVEDVI (rEDV) and LVESVI (rESV) among patients with normal myocardial perfusion, fixed defects and reversible defects in the vasodilator-stress group, whereas in the exercise-stress group, rESV was significantly higher in the patients with reversible defects than in those without reversible defects. Within the vasodilator-stress group, neither rEDV nor rESV correlated with the SDS. Vasodilator-stress by itself decreases LVEF after stress. TID should be carefully interpreted when vasodilator-stress is used to detect severe CAD. (author)

  18. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  19. The Phenomenon of Pathological Dissociation in the Ancient Chinese Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Hong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms and disorders have been reported in many different cultures. If pathological dissociation is naturally occurring and related to adverse experiences, such phenomena should have been witnessed and portrayed before the modern age. To investigate whether this is the case, the author made use of the rich ancient Chinese medicine literature and looked for descriptions of pathological dissociation in medical documents written by ancient Chinese medical practitioners. In this paper, the author presents six cases selected from the ancient Chinese medicine literature. The phenomenon of pathological dissociation is observed in these cases. This is the first report of case descriptions of pathological dissociation documented in Chinese cultures before 1900.

  20. Dissociative stupor mimicking consciousness disorder in an advanced lung cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yukio; Okano, Tetsuya; Kaga, Akiko; Yamazaki, Susumu; Kawada, Satoshi; Ishida, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Onishi, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Although there are three kinds of stupor in psychiatry, dissociative stupor is the most commonly recognized. In psychiatric clinics or emergency rooms, dissociative stupor is common, but in an oncology setting it is hardly known. Therefore, distinguishing dissociative stupor from consciousness disorder is occasionally difficult, especially in the advanced or terminal phase. We report an advanced lung cancer patient who presented dissociative stupor mimicking consciousness disorder. It is necessary to distinguish between consciousness disorder and dissociative stupor. In addition, consultation with a psychiatrist should be taken into consideration.