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Sample records for stress poor organization

  1. Current stress and poor oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliou, A.; Shankardass, K.; Nisenbaum, R.; Qui?onez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25?64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and ...

  2. Current stress and poor oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, A; Shankardass, K; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C

    2016-09-02

    Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25-64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and access to dental insurance were examined as effect modifiers. A positive relationship between current stress and poor oral health was observed for both outcomes (oral pain coefficient 0.32, 95 % CI 0.26-0.38; general oral health coefficient 0.28, 95 % CI 0.19-0.36). Effects on oral pain were stronger for the uninsured, while effects on general oral health were stronger with decreasing socioeconomic position. Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health, and that this relationship is modified by dental insurance and socioeconomic position. These findings warrant a greater focus on the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease, including how perceived stress contributes to health inequities in self-reported oral health status. Patients experiencing stressful lives may differentially require closer monitoring and more vigilant maintenance of their oral health, above and beyond that which is needed to achieve a state of health in the oral environment of less stressed individuals. There may be health promoting effects of addressing psychosocial concerns related to dental care - particularly for the poor and uninsured.

  3. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  4. Work stress, poor recovery and burnout in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, K; Elovainio, M; Kinnunen, U; Mullola, S; Hintsanen, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Hintsa, T

    2016-10-01

    Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Recovery was measured with the Recovery Experience Questionnaire and the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses adjusted for age, gender and total working hours were performed. Among the 76 study subjects, high ERI was associated with burnout and its dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy. Poor recovery experiences, in terms of low relaxation during leisure time, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and reduced professional efficacy. Sleep problems, in the form of non-restorative sleep, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and both burnout and exhaustion. Supporting a balance between effort and reward at work may enhance leisure time recovery and improve sleep quality, as well as help to reduce burnout rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Poor working conditions and work stress among Canadian sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, P; Sou, J; Chapman, J; Dobrer, S; Braschel, M; Goldenberg, S; Shannon, K

    2017-10-01

    While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14). A modified standardized 'work stress' scale, multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to longitudinally examine the factors associated with work stress. In multivariable analysis, poor working conditions were associated with increased work stress and included workplace physical/sexual violence (β = 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06, 0.29), displacement due to police (β = 0.26; 95% CI 0.14, 0.38), working in public spaces (β = 0.73; 95% CI 0.61, 0.84). Older (β = -0.02; 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) and Indigenous SWs experienced lower work stress (β = -0.25; 95% CI -0.43, -0.08), whereas non-injection (β = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.49) and injection drug users (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03, 0.31) had higher work stress. Vancouver-based SWs' work stress was largely shaped by poor work conditions, such as violence, policing, lack of safe workspaces. There is a need to move away from criminalized approaches which shape unsafe work conditions and increase work stress for SWs. Policies that promote SWs' access to the same occupational health, safety and human rights standards as workers in other labour sectors are also needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Origin of poor doping efficiency in solution processed organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ajay; Duan, Hong-Guang; Tiwari, Vandana; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2018-05-21

    Doping is an extremely important process where intentional insertion of impurities in semiconductors controls their electronic properties. In organic semiconductors, one of the convenient, but inefficient, ways of doping is the spin casting of a precursor mixture of components in solution, followed by solvent evaporation. Active control over this process holds the key to significant improvements over current poor doping efficiencies. Yet, an optimized control can only come from a detailed understanding of electronic interactions responsible for the low doping efficiencies. Here, we use two-dimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy to examine these interactions in the course of the doping process by probing the solution mixture of doped organic semiconductors. A dopant accepts an electron from the semiconductor and the two ions form a duplex of interacting charges known as ion-pair complexes. Well-resolved off-diagonal peaks in the two-dimensional spectra clearly demonstrate the electronic connectivity among the ions in solution. This electronic interaction represents a well resolved electrostatically bound state, as opposed to a random distribution of ions. We developed a theoretical model to recover the experimental data, which reveals an unexpectedly strong electronic coupling of ∼250 cm -1 with an intermolecular distance of ∼4.5 Å between ions in solution, which is approximately the expected distance in processed films. The fact that this relationship persists from solution to the processed film gives direct evidence that Coulomb interactions are retained from the precursor solution to the processed films. This memory effect renders the charge carriers equally bound also in the film and, hence, results in poor doping efficiencies. This new insight will help pave the way towards rational tailoring of the electronic interactions to improve doping efficiencies in processed organic semiconductor thin films.

  7. Identifying poor performance among doctors in NHS organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rachel; Scallan, Samantha; Leach, Camilla; Rickenbach, Mark

    2013-10-01

    To account for the means by which poor performance among career doctors is identified by National Health Service organizations, whether the tools are considered effective and how these processes may be strengthened in the light of revalidation and the requirement for doctors to demonstrate their fitness to practice. This study sought to look beyond the 'doctor as individual'; as well as considering the typical approaches to managing the practice of an individual, the systems within which the doctor is working were reviewed, as these are also relevant to standards of performance. A qualitative review was undertaken consisting of a literature review of current practice, a policy review of current documentation from 15 trusts in one deanery locality, and 14 semi-structured interviews with respondents with an overview of processes in use. The framework for the analysis of the data considered tools at three levels: individual, team and organizational. Tools are, in the main, reactive--with an individual focus. They rely on colleagues and others to speak out, so their effectiveness is hindered by a reluctance to do so. Tools can lack an evidence base for their use, and there is limited linking of data across contexts and tools. There is more work to be done in evaluating current tools and developing stronger processes. Linkage between data sources needs to be improved and proactive tools at the organizational level need further development to help with the early identification of performance issues. This would also assist in balancing a wider systems approach with a current over emphasis on individual doctors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Poor habitual sleep efficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and cortisol stress reactivity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Stijn A A; Liu, Jean C J; Mohammad, Nabilah B; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate sleep and psychological stress can both elevate physiological stress markers, such as cortisol. Prior studies that have applied induced psychosocial stress after a night of experimental sleep deprivation have found these effects to be compounded. We examined whether the relationship between stress reactivity and poor sleep also extends to habitual sleep patterns. Fifty-nine adult male participants were recruited. Habitual sleep patterns were monitored with actigraphy for a week. Participants subsequently underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Cardiovascular responses and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, during stress, and during recovery. Subjects who showed poor habitual sleep efficiency during the week before stress induction responded with higher stress-related elevations of blood pressure and cortisol levels as compared to subjects with high sleep efficiency. This relationship between poor sleep efficiency and elevated blood pressure persisted during the post-stress recovery period. Similar associations between total sleep time in the week prior to the stress induction and physiological reactivity did not reach significance. Our findings indicate that habitual low sleep efficiency exaggerates cardiovascular and neuroendocrine effects of psychosocial stress, in a male population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acculturative Stress, Poor Mental Health and Condom-Use Intention among International Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningxi; Xu, Yayun; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Engaging in sexual risk behaviour can be a maladaptive strategy for international students to deal with stress. This study examined the role of poor mental health in mediating the relationship between acculturative stress and condom-use intention among international students in Beijing, China. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional…

  10. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results. Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core......Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small-and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen-and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims. We...... aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods. We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array...

  11. Doctors' stress responses and poor communication performance in simulated bad-news consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rhonda; Dunn, Stewart; Byrnes, Karen; Morris, Richard; Heinrich, Paul; Shaw, Joanne

    2009-11-01

    No studies have previously evaluated factors associated with high stress levels and poor communication performance in breaking bad news (BBN) consultations. This study determined factors that were most strongly related to doctors' stress responses and poor communication performance during a simulated BBN task. In 2007, the authors recruited 24 doctors comprising 12 novices (i.e., interns/residents with 1-3 years' experience) and 12 experts (i.e., registrars, medical/radiation oncologists, or cancer surgeons, with more than 4 years' experience). Doctors participated in simulated BBN consultations and a number of control tasks. Five-minute-epoch heart rate (HR), HR variability, and communication performance were assessed in all participants. Subjects also completed a short questionnaire asking about their prior experience BBN, perceived stress, psychological distress (i.e., anxiety, depression), fatigue, and burnout. High stress responses were related to inexperience with BBN, fatigue, and giving bad versus good news. Poor communication performance in the consultation was related to high burnout and fatigue scores. These results suggest that BBN was a stressful experience for doctors even in a simulated encounter, especially for those who were inexperienced and/or fatigued. Poor communication performance was related to burnout and fatigue, but not inexperience with BBN. These results likely indicate that burnout and fatigue contributed to stress and poor work performance in some doctors during the simulated BBN task.

  12. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  13. Comparison of good and poor sleepers : stress and life satisfaction of university athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Litwic-Kaminska, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differences in level of perceived stress, type of stress appraisal and life satisfaction between university athletes who declare problems with sleep (Poor Sleepers, PS, n = 72) and those without problems (Good Sleepers, GS, n = 105). In preliminary analyses the PS and GS were compared for group homogeneity with (a) the Chi-Square test for gender and type of sport, and (b) the Mann-Whitney U test for practice time and weekly frequency of trainings. I...

  14. Associations between poor sleep quality and psychosocial stress with obesity in reproductive-age women of lower socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Sarah E; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have not examined the role of psychosocial stress in the relationship between poor sleep quality and obesity among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). We tested the following hypotheses in a sample of reproductive-age women of lower SES: 1) Poor sleep quality is related to increased risk of obesity, and 2) psychosocial stress confounds this association between poor sleep quality and obesity. A total of 927 women age 16 to 40 years attending public health clinics in Southeastern Texas provided information on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sociodemographic and health characteristics, including the Perceived Stress Scale. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in clinic. A series of models examined the associations between sleep disturbance, perceived stress, and weight outcomes, accounting for potential confounding factors. Nearly 30% of women were overweight, and 35% were obese. Half of women had a WC of greater than 35 inches. Most women had poor sleep quality and high levels of stress. Sleep quality and perceived stress were not related to body mass index category or WC in models that adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. Adjusting for potential confounding factors did not alter results. Perceived stress did not modify the association between sleep quality and weight outcomes. Poor sleep quality and psychosocial stress were not related to weight in reproductive-aged women of lower SES. However, poor sleep quality, high stress, overweight, and obesity were common in this group. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Specific Infectious Organisms Associated With Poor Outcomes in Treatment for Hip Periprosthetic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J; Kavolus, Joseph J; Bolognesi, Michael P; Wellman, Samuel S; Seyler, Thorsten M

    2017-06-01

    Periprosthetic hip infection treatment remains a significant challenge for orthopedics. Some studies have suggested that methicillin resistance and gram-negative organism type are associated with increased treatment failure. The aim of this research is to determine if specific organisms were associated with poor outcomes in treatment for hip periprosthetic infection. Records were reviewed of all patients between 2005 and 2015 who underwent treatment for infected partial or total hip arthroplasty. Characteristics of each patient's treatment course were determined including baseline characteristics, infecting organism(s), infection status at final follow-up, surgeries for infection, and time in hospital. Baseline characteristics and organisms that were associated with clinical outcomes in univariate analysis were incorporated into multivariable outcomes models. When compared with patients infected with other organism(s), patients infected with the following organisms had significantly decreased infection-free rates: Pseudomonas, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Proteus. Infection with certain organisms was associated with 1.13-2.58 additional surgeries: methicillin-sensitive S aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, MRSA, Pseudomonas, Peptostreptococcus, Klebsiella, Candida, diphtheroids, Propionibacterium acnes, and Proteus species. Specific organisms were associated with 8.56-24.54 additional days in hospital for infection: methicillin-sensitive S aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Proteus, MRSA, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, and diphtheroids. Higher comorbidity score was also associated with greater length of hospitalization. MRSA, Pseudomonas, and Proteus were associated with all 3 outcomes of lower infection-free rate, more surgery, and more time in hospital in treatment for hip periprosthetic infection. Organism-specific outcome information may help individualize patient

  16. Coercion, autonomy, and the preferential option for the poor in the ethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycox, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    The debate concerning whether to legalize and regulate the global market in human organs is hindered by a lack of adequate bioethical language. The author argues that the preferential option for the poor, a theological category, can provide the grounding for an inductive moral epistemology adequate for reforming the use of culturally Western bioethical language. He proposes that the traditional, Western concept of bioethical coercion ought to be modified and expanded because the conditions of the market system, as viewed from the perspective of organ vendors systemically deprived of access to sufficient resources, are sufficiently exploitative as to diminish the possibility of these vendors giving informed consent. Moreover, empirical studies conducted by professionals in medicine, sociology, psychiatry, economics, and medical anthropology continue to contribute support to the growing interdisciplinary consensus that functionally coercive structural factors exert the most significant influence upon a vendor's decision to sell an organ within any market, regardless of legality or degree of regulation. Therefore any proposal to legalize and regulate the organ market remains patently unethical because doing so would likely function to constrain further the agency of poor potential vendors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  18. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashista, M.; Paul, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: → The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. → A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. → Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. → These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  19. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in Resource poor settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Ruth; Chibanda, Dixon; Brakarsh, Jonathan; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Drugs of abuse in pregnancy, poor neonatal development, and future neurodegeneration. Is oxidative stress the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Riezzo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of licit and illicit drugs is a worldwide issue that is a cause for concern in pregnant women. It may lead to complications in pregnancy that may affect the mother, fetus, and /or neonate. The effects of any substance on the developing embryo and fetus are dependent upon dosing, timing, duration of drug exposure, and the extent of drug distribution. Teratogenic effects have been described when exposure takes place during the embryonic stage; however drugs have subtle effects, including abnormal growth and/or maturation, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and brain organization. The mechanisms by which intrauterine exposure to many substances may result in neuronal injury have not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress and epigenetic changes have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long - term adverse health sequelae, and neuro-developmental impairment in the offspring of addicted mothers. Transgenerational epigenetics may also explain the alarming datum that developmental abnormalities, impairment in learning and memory, and attention deficit can occur even in the absence of direct fetal exposure, when drugs are consumed prior to conception. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating a link between redox state unbalance, epigenetic markers, developmental anomalies, and neurodegeneration. The reviewed literature data uphold redox homeostasis disruption as an important factor in the pathogenesis of drug of abuse- induced neurodegeneration, and highlight the potential for new therapies that could prevent neurodegeneration through antioxidant and epigenetic modulatory mechanisms. This therefore reveals important targets for novel neuroprotective strategies.

  2. Stress and Quality of Life in Urban Caregivers of Children With Poorly Controlled Asthma: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melissa H; Osteen, Philip; Kub, Joan; Bollinger, Mary E; Tsoukleris, Mona; Chaikind, Laurie; Butz, Arlene M

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this analysis was to examine the longitudinal effects of risk and protective factors on quality of life (QOL) in caregivers of minority children with asthma. Caregivers (n = 300) reported on demographics, child asthma characteristics, daily asthma caregiving stress, general life stress, social support, and QOL. Latent growth curve modeling examined changes in QOL across 12 months as a function of stress, asthma control, and social support. Caregivers were primarily the biological mother (92%), single (71%), unemployed (55%), and living in poverty. Children were African American (96%), Medicaid eligible (92%), and had poorly controlled asthma (93%). Lower QOL was associated with higher life stress, greater asthma caregiving stress, and lower asthma control over time. Findings underscore the importance of assessing objective and subjective measures of asthma burden and daily life stress in clinical encounters with urban, low-income caregivers of children with poorly controlled asthma. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  4. Stressful working conditions and poor self-rated health among financial services employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.

  5. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey N Scofield

    Full Text Available The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera. Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults. Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus

  6. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  7. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Stressful life events are associated with a poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) - outcome: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Zachariae, Robert; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2009-01-01

    -fertility-related, naturally occurring stressors may influence IVF pregnancy chances. Our aim was to explore the association between IVF-outcome and negative, i.e. stressful, life-events during the previous 12 months. METHODS: Prior to IVF, 809 women (mean age: 31.2 years) completed the List of Recent Events (LRE...... number of life-events perceived as having a negative impact on quality of life may indicate chronic stress, and the results of our study indicate that stress may reduce the chances of a successful outcome following IVF, possibly through psychobiological mechanisms affecting medical end...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto E Sanchez

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST] and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17 and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81. Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83, sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05, and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96. The corresponding aORs (95% CI for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61, 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03, and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81, respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67 and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97 during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.

  10. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The effective functioning of microfluidic devices in chemical, electrical and mechanical engineering involving fluidics particularly those having vibrations and petroleum products containing organic, inorganic and other microfluidics require understanding and control of stability of poorly conducting parallel fluid flows. The electrical conductivity, σ, of a poorly conducting fluidics, increases with the temperature and the concentration of freely suspended particles like RBC, WBC and so on in the blood, the hylauronic acid (HA) and nutrients of synovial fluid in synovial joints will spin producing microrotation, forming micropolar fluid of Eringen. The presence of Deuterium - Tritium (DT) in inertial fusion target (IFT) may also be modeled using micropolar fluid theory of Eringen. A particular case of micropolar fluid theory when microrotation balances with the natural vorticity of a poorly conducting fluidics in the presence of an electric field is called ‘electrohydrodynamic couple stress fluid’ (EHDCF). These EHDCFs exhibit a variation of electrical conductivity, ∇ σ, increasing with temperature and concentration of freely suspended particles, releases the charges from the nuclei forming distribution of charge density, ρ e . These charges induce an electric field, 1 E i . If need be, we can apply an electric field, 1 E a , by embedding electrodes of different potentials at the boundaries. The total electric field, 1 E = 1 E i + 1 E a , produces a current density, 1 J = ρ σ 1 E, according to Ohm’s law and also produces an electric force, 1 F σ = σ 1 E. This current 1 J acts as sensing and the force, 1 F σ acts as actuation. These two properties make the poorly conducting couple stress fluid to act as a smart material. The objective of this paper is to show that EHDCV in presence of coriolis force plays a significant role in controlling the stability of parallel flows which is essential for an effective functioning of machineries that occur in

  11. Preventing Stress in Organizations How to Develop Positive Managers

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma; Yarker, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Preventing Stress in Organizations:How to Develop Positive Managersoffers an innovative, evidence-based approach to help managers prevent and reduce workplace stress in their staff.Provides information on the critical skills managers must develop in order to prevent stress in their staff, and the key ongoing behaviours that promote a healthy work environmentShows practitioners in occupational psychology, HR, Health and Safety and related professions how positive management can be integrated into an organization???s existing practices and processesServes as an essential guide for managers thems

  12. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  13. Pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal D Patel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although they may present with significant morbidity, pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are mainly afflicitions that affect quality of life. To appropiately treat these entities, comprehension of the various theories of pathophysiology is paramount. Utilizing a Medline search, this article reviews recent data concerning intrinsic (i.e., genetics, postmenopausal status and extrinsic factors (i.e., previous hysterectomy, childbirth leading to organ prolapse or stress incontinence

  14. Stressful Psychosocial Work Environment, Poor Sleep, and Depressive Symptoms among Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…

  15. Removing the Australian tax exemption on healthy food adds food stress to families vulnerable to poor nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Timothy J; Kerr, Deborah A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Savage, Victoria; Pollard, Christina M

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of changing the Australian Goods and Services Tax (GST) on household food stress, which occurs when >25% of disposable income needs to be spent on food. Weekly healthy meal plan costs for average-income (AI), low-income (LI) and welfare-dependent (WDI) families were calculated using the 2013 Western Australian (WA) Food Access and Costs Survey. Four GST scenarios were compared: 1) status quo; 2) increasing GST to 15%; 3) expanding base to include exempt foods at 10% GST; and 4) expanding base to include exempt foods and increasing the tax to 15%. Single-parent families risk food stress regardless of their income or the GST scenario (requiring 24-42% of disposable income). The probability of food stress in Scenario 1 is 100% for WDI two-parent families and 36% for LI earners. In Scenarios 3 and 4, food stress probability is 60-72% for two-parent LI families and AI single-parent families, increasing to 88-94% if residing in very remote areas. There is food stress risk among single-parent, LI and WDI families, particularly those residing in very remote areas. Implications for public health: Expanding GST places an additional burden on people who are already vulnerable to poor nutrition and chronic disease due to their socioeconomic circumstances. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  17. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-organizing map classifier for stressed speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, Pavol; Tovarek, Jaromir; Voznak, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting speech under stress using Self-Organizing Maps. Most people who are exposed to stressful situations can not adequately respond to stimuli. Army, police, and fire department occupy the largest part of the environment that are typical of an increased number of stressful situations. The role of men in action is controlled by the control center. Control commands should be adapted to the psychological state of a man in action. It is known that the psychological changes of the human body are also reflected physiologically, which consequently means the stress effected speech. Therefore, it is clear that the speech stress recognizing system is required in the security forces. One of the possible classifiers, which are popular for its flexibility, is a self-organizing map. It is one type of the artificial neural networks. Flexibility means independence classifier on the character of the input data. This feature is suitable for speech processing. Human Stress can be seen as a kind of emotional state. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, LPC coefficients, and prosody features were selected for input data. These coefficients were selected for their sensitivity to emotional changes. The calculation of the parameters was performed on speech recordings, which can be divided into two classes, namely the stress state recordings and normal state recordings. The benefit of the experiment is a method using SOM classifier for stress speech detection. Results showed the advantage of this method, which is input data flexibility.

  19. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  20. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  1. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali; Levi, Kemal; McGehee, Michae D.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial

  2. The relationships among acculturation, biobehavioral risk, stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and poor birth outcomes in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Dolbier, Christyn L; Fleschler, Robin

    2006-01-01

    To determine the predictive ability of acculturation as an antecedent of stress, biobehavioral risk, corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, and poor birth outcomes in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective, observational design with data collected at 22-25 weeks of gestation and at birth through medical record review. Public prenatal health clinics in south Texas serving low-income women. Self-identified Hispanic women who had singleton pregnancies, no major medical risk complications, and consented to answer questionnaires as well as a venipuncture and review of their prenatal and birth medical records. Gestational age, Apgar scores, length, weight, percentile size, and head circumference of the infant at birth. Significant differences were seen in infant birth weight, head circumference, and percentile size by acculturation. English acculturation predicted stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, biobehavioral risk, and decreased gestational age at birth. Investigation must continue to understand the circumstances that give rise to the decline in birth outcomes observed in Hispanics with acculturation to the dominant English culture in the United States.

  3. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  4. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants and drugs can result in pathophysiological situations in the body. Research in this area is essential as the knowledge on cellular survival and death would help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that are needed for the maintenance of the normal physiological functions of the body. In this regard, naturally occurring bio-molecules can be considered as potential therapeutic targets as they are normally available in commonly consumed foodstuffs and are thought to have minimum side effects. This review article describes the detailed mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology and the ultimate fate of the cells either to survive or to undergo necrotic or apoptotic death. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology have also been included in the review. The review provides useful information about the recent progress in understanding the mechanism(s) of various types of organ pathophysiology, the complex cross-talk between these pathways, as well as their modulation in stressed conditions. Additionally, it suggests possible therapeutic applications of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in conditions involving oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial stress of ∼-36 MPa was measured in PEDOT:PSS while a tensile stress of ∼6 MPa was measured in the BHJ layer. We then analyze the effect of electrode deposition rate on the film stresses in the Al electrode. Compressive stresses of ∼-100 to -145 MPa in the Al electrode lead to a buckling instability resulting in undulating electrode surface topography. The BHJ layer was found to have the lowest cohesion (∼1.5-1.8 J/m 2) among the layers of the solar cell and dependent on the Al electrode deposition rate. The cohesive failure path in the BHJ layer exhibited the same periodicity and orientation of the Al electrode buckling topography. We discuss the implications of the film stresses on damage processes during device fabrication and operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Poor sleep as a pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jinshia; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that poor sleep is a potential pathway underlying the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile. However, existing findings are largely limited to adults. The present study examines whether poor sleep (duration, quality) mediates the relation between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents (N = 220, Mage = 12.62) provided six saliva samples over two days to derive cortisol indices (bedtime, AUCAG, AUCTG, slopeMAX). Perceived stress, stressful life events, self-reported sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured. Using bootstrapping analyses, sleep quality mediated the relation between perceived stress and AUCTG (R2 = 0.10, F(7, 212) = 3.55, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.09, 1.15]), as well as the relation between stressful life events and AUCTG (R2 = 0.11, F(7, 212) = 3.69, p = .001; 95% BCI[0.40, 3.82]). These mediation models remained significant after adjusting for sleep duration, suggesting that poor sleep quality underlies the association between stressful experiences and the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Longitudinal data combined with objectively-measured sleep is essential to further disentangle the complex association between sleep and stress. PMID:25889840

  7. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality. PMID:28539902

  8. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001, denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”. The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”, or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation, which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  9. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term "sleep experiences," coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions ("general sleep experiences"). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor-measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)-with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., "transliminality"), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a "rebound effect." The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness-including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries-may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  10. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  11. Social support and mastery influence the association between stress and poor physical health in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Joanne; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To date, much of the research linking the stress of caring for children with developmental disabilities (e.g. Autism & Down syndrome) with parental health outcomes have tended to concentrate on mental health with less attention paid to the physical health consequences. Thus, this study sought to explore the psychosocial predictors of poor physical health in these caring parents. One hundred and sixty-seven parents (109 caregivers and 58 control parents) completed measures of stress, child problem behaviours, social support, mastery and physical health. Parents of children with developmental disabilities had poorer physical health compared to control parents. Stress and mastery, but not social support and problem behaviours, were significant predictors of poor physical health within caring parents for children with developmental disabilities. However, the association between mastery and physical health was mediated by perceived stress such that those parents who were higher on mastery reported less stress and better physical health; furthermore, the association between stress and physical health was moderated by social support; those parents high on social support and low in stress had better physical health. These results indicate that the paths between psychosocial factors and poor physical health in the caring parents are working synergistically rather than in isolation. They also underscore the importance of providing multi-component interventions that offer a variety of psychosocial resources to meet the precise needs of the parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The linear stability of electrohydrodynamic poorly conducting couple stress viscous parallel fluid flow in a channel is studied in the presence of a non-uniform transverse electric field and Coriolis force using energy method and supplemented with Galerkin Technique. The sufficient condition for stability is obtained for sufficiently small values of the Reynolds number, R e . From this condition we show that strengthening or weakening of the stability criterion is dictated by the values of the strength of electric field, the coefficient of couple stress fluid and independent of Taylor number. In particular, it is shown that the interaction of electric field with couple stress is more effective in stabilizing the poorly conducting couple stress fluid compared to that in an ordinary Newtonian viscous fluid. (author)

  13. Account of residual stress effect in estimation of the period of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in joints with poor penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, A.V.; Knysh, V.V.; Labunskaya, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Dependences permitting to determine by calculation method the duration of the stage of fatigue crack propagation in joints with poor penetration and residual stresses are obtained on the basis of criteria of fracture mechanics. It gives a possibility to estimate the resource of these joints using the calculation-experimental method

  14. Effectiveness of the application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and organic amendments to improve soil quality and plant performance under stress conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azcón, R.; Medina, A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant growth is limited in arid and/or contaminated sites due to the adverse conditions coming from heavy metal (HM) contamination and/or water stress. Moreover, soils from these areas are generally characterised by poor soil structure, low water-holding capacity, lack of organic matter and nutrient

  15. Association of Stress, General Health, and Alcohol Use with Poor Sleep Quality among U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Teresa D.; Kim, Myoung Jin; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor sleep among college students is a major, growing problem associated with lower academic performance, higher rates of health and emotional problems, and development of chronic sleep disorders. Purpose: Though previous studies have focused on individual colleges, our study purpose was to reveal the association of behaviors and…

  16. Ethical decision making in organizations: the role of leadership stress

    OpenAIRE

    Selart, Marcus; Johansen, Svein Tvedt

    2011-01-01

    Across two studies the hypotheses were tested that stressful situations affect both leadership ethical acting and leaders’ recognition of ethical dilemmas. In the studies, decision makers recruited from 3 sites of a Swedish multinational civil engineering company provided personal data on stressful situations, made ethical decisions, and answered to stress-outcome questions. Stressful situations were observed to have a greater impact on ethical acting than on the recognition of ethical dil...

  17. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    , which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  18. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms......, perceived stress) and the mediating effect of these factors on changes in physiological stress markers. We used data from a longitudinal study that studied the health consequences of a major reorganization of non-state public offices executed in Denmark on 1 January 2007. Collection of clinical...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...

  19. Enchytraeids as indicator organisms for chemical stress in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.; Römbke, J.

    2001-01-01

    This review article surveys the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward chemical stress, and the effects of chemical stress on enchytraeid communities in terrestrial ecosystems. The factors affecting bioavailability of stressors to enchytraeids and the nature of direct and indirect effects

  20. Cadmium accumulation by muskmelon under salt stress in contaminated organic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrijel, Ondrasek [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: gondrasek@agr.hr; Davor, Romic [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Marija, Romic; Monika, Zovko [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    Human-induced salinization and trace element contamination are widespread and increasing rapidly, but their interactions and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Phytoaccumulation, as the crucial entry pathway for biotoxic Cd into the human foodstuffs, correlates positively with rhizosphere salinity. Hypothesising that organic matter decreases the bioavailable Cd{sup 2+} pool and therefore restricts its phytoextraction, we assessed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl) and three Cd levels (0.3, 5.5 and 10.4 mg kg{sup -1}) in peat soil on mineral accumulation/distribution as well as vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) in a greenhouse. Salt stress reduced shoot biomass and fruit production, accompanied by increased Na and Cl and decreased K concentration in above-ground tissues. A 25- and 50-day exposure to salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves up to 87% and 46%, respectively. Accumulation of Cd in the fruits was up to 43 times lower than in leaves and remained unaltered by salinity. Soil contamination by Cd enhanced its accumulation in muskmelon tissues by an order of magnitude compared with non-contaminated control. In the drainage solution, concentrations of Na and Cl slightly exceeded those in the irrigation solution, whereas Cd concentration in drainage solution was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the total amount added. Chemical speciation and distribution modelling (NICA-Donnan) using Visual MINTEQ showed predominance of dissolved organic ligands in Cd chemisorption and complexation in all treatments; however, an increase in salt addition caused a decrease in organic Cd complexes from 99 to 71%, with free Cd{sup 2+} increasing up to 6% and Cd-chlorocomplexes up to 23%. This work highlights the importance of soil organic reactive surfaces in reducing trace element bioavailability and phytoaccumulation. Chloride salinity increased Cd accumulation in leaves but not in fruit

  1. Surface stress and large-scale self-organization at organic-metal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollinger, Florian

    2009-01-22

    The role of elastic interactions, particularly for the self-organized formation of periodically faceted interfaces, was investigated in this thesis for archetype organic-metal interfaces. The cantilever bending technique was applied to study the change of surface stress upon formation of the interface between 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and Ag(111). The main focus of this work was on the investigation of the formation of the long-range ordered, self-organized faceted PTCDA/Ag(10 8 7) interface. Reciprocal space maps of this interface were recorded both by spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) in selected area LEED mode. Complementary to the reciprocal data, also microscopic real-space LEEM data were used to characterize the morphology of this interface. Six different facet faces ((111), (532), (743), (954), (13 9 5), and (542)) were observed for the preparation path of molecular adsorption on the substrate kept at 550 K. Facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM localized these facets to grow in homogeneous areas of microscopic extensions. The temperature-dependence of the interface formation was studied in a range between 418 K and 612 K in order to learn more about the kinetics of the process. Additional steeper facets of 27 inclination with respect to the (111) surface were observed in the low temperature regime. Furthermore, using facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM, spatial and size distributions of specific facets were studied for the different temperatures. Moreover, the facet dimensions were statistically analyzed. The total island size of the facets follows an exponential distribution, indicating a random growth mode in absence of any mutual facet interactions. While the length distribution of the facets also follows an exponential distribution, the width distribution is peaked, reflecting the high degree of lateral order. This anisotropy is temperature-dependent and occurs

  2. A thermodynamical model for stress-fiber organization in contractile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucard, Louis; Vernerey, Franck J

    2012-01-02

    Cell mechanical adaptivity to external stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand the formation and organization of the stress fibers from which emerge the cell's mechanical properties. By accounting for the mechanical aspects and the viscoelastic behavior of stress fibers, we here propose a thermodynamic model to predict the formation and orientation of stress fibers in contractile cells subjected to constant or cyclic stretch and different substrate stiffness. Our results demonstrate that the stress fibers viscoelastic behavior plays a crucial role in their formation and organization and shows good consistency with various experiments.

  3. Postprandial oxidative stress is increased after a phytonutrient-poor food but not after a kilojoule-matched phytonutrient-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Amanda; Grant, Ross; Tung, Chin; Guest, Jade; Pope, Belinda; Morris, Margaret; Bilgin, Ayse

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that energy-dense foods increase inflammation and oxidative activity, thereby contributing to the development of vascular disease. However, it is not clear whether the high kilojoule load alone, irrespective of the nutritional content of the ingested food, produces the postprandial oxidative and inflammatory activity. This study investigated the hypothesis that ingestion of a high-fat, high-sugar, phytonutrient-reduced food (ice cream) would increase oxidative and inflammatory activity greater than a kilojoule-equivalent meal of a phytonutrient-rich whole food (avocado). The individual contributions of the fat/protein and sugar components of the ice cream meal to postprandial inflammation and oxidative stress were also quantified. Using a randomized, crossover design, 11 healthy participants ingested 4 test meals: ice cream, avocado, the fat/protein component in ice cream, and the sugar equivalent component in ice cream. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 hours (t1, t2, t4) after ingestion. Lipid peroxidation was increased at 2 hours after eating fat/protein (t0-t2, P stress markers. These data indicate that the ingestion of a phytonutrient-poor food and its individual fat/protein or sugar components increase plasma oxidative activity. This is not observed after ingestion of a kilojoule-equivalent phytonutrient-rich food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological Aging and Life Span Based on Entropy Stress via Organ and Mitochondrial Metabolic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy for sustaining life is released through the oxidation of glucose, fats, and proteins. A part of the energy released within each cell is stored as chemical energy of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate molecules, which is essential for performing life-sustaining functions, while the remainder is released as heat in order to maintain isothermal state of the body. Earlier literature introduced the availability concepts from thermodynamics, related the specific irreversibility and entropy generation rates to metabolic efficiency and energy release rate of organ k, computed whole body specific entropy generation rate of whole body at any given age as a sum of entropy generation within four vital organs Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver (BHKL with 5th organ being the rest of organs (R5 and estimated the life span using an upper limit on lifetime entropy generated per unit mass of body, σM,life. The organ entropy stress expressed in terms of lifetime specific entropy generated per unit mass of body organs (kJ/(K kg of organ k was used to rank organs and heart ranked highest while liver ranked lowest. The present work includes the effects of (1 two additional organs: adipose tissue (AT and skeletal muscles (SM which are of importance to athletes; (2 proportions of nutrients oxidized which affects blood temperature and metabolic efficiencies; (3 conversion of the entropy stress from organ/cellular level to mitochondrial level; and (4 use these parameters as metabolism-based biomarkers for quantifying the biological aging process in reaching the limit of σM,life. Based on the 7-organ model and Elia constants for organ metabolic rates for a male of 84 kg steady mass and using basic and derived allometric constants of organs, the lifetime energy expenditure is estimated to be 2725 MJ/kg body mass while lifetime entropy generated is 6050 kJ/(K kg body mass with contributions of 190; 1835.0; 610; 290; 700; 1470 and 95 kJ/K contributed by AT-BHKL-SM-R7 to 1 kg body

  5. A thermodynamical model for stress-fiber organization in contractile cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foucard, Louis; Vernerey, Franck J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell mechanical adaptivity to external stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand the formation and organization of the stress fibers from which emerge the cell’s mechanical properties. By accounting for the mechanical aspects and the viscoelastic behavior of stress fibers, we here propose a thermodynamic model to predict the formation and orientation of stress fibers in contractile cells subjected to constant or cyclic stretch and dif...

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic compounds in noni ( Morinda citrifolia L.) ... seedlings at 1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of salt stress in a 5 x 2 completely randomized experimental design. ... from 32 Countries:.

  7. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  8. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  9. Can Management Practices Make a Difference? Nonprofit Organization Financial Performance during Times of Economic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN HU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis presented unprecedented challenges to nonprofit organizations to sustain their services. In this study, we examined both financial and management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations during times of economic stress. In particular, we investigated whether strategic planning and plan implementation, revenue diversification, and board involvement help nonprofit organizations deal with financial uncertainty and strengthen financial performance. Despite the negative impacts that the economic downturn had on nonprofit organizations, we found that the implementation of strategic plans can help nonprofit organizations reduce financial vulnerability. Our findings call attention to key management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations.

  10. Immunosuppressive therapy after solid-organ transplantation: does the INTERMED identify patients at risk of poor adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaud L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of adherence to medication is a trigger of graft rejection in solid-organ transplant (SOT recipients. Objective: This exploratory study aimed to assess whether a biopsychosocial evaluation using the INTERMED instrument before transplantation could identify SOT recipients at risk of suboptimal post-transplantation adherence to immunosuppressant drugs. We hypothesized that complex patients (INTERMED>20 might have lower medication adherence than noncomplex patients (INTERMED≤20. Methods: Each patient eligible for transplantation at the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, has to undergo a pre-transplantation psychiatric evaluation. In this context the patient was asked to participate in our study. The INTERMED was completed pre-transplantation, and adherence to immunosuppressive medication was monitored post-transplantation by electronic monitors for 12 months. The main outcome measure was the implementation and persistence to two calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, according to the dichotomized INTERMED score (>20 or ≤20. Results: Among the 50 SOT recipients who completed the INTERMED, 32 entered the study. The complex (N=11 and noncomplex patients (N=21 were similar in terms of age, sex and transplanted organ. Implementation was 94.2% in noncomplex patients versus 87.8% in complex patients (non-significant p-value. Five patients were lost to follow-up: one was non-persistent, and four refused electronic monitoring. Of the four patients who refused monitoring, two were complex and withdrew early, and two were noncomplex and withdrew later in the study. Conclusion: Patients identified as complex pre-transplant by the INTERMED tended to deviate from their immunosuppressant regimen, but the findings were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed to evaluate this association further, as well as the appropriateness of using a nonspecific biopsychosocial instrument such as INTERMED in highly

  11. Molecular physiology of weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which weak organic acid (WOA) preservatives inhibit growth of microorganisms may differ between different WOAs and these differences are not well understood. The aim of this thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of the mode of action of these preservatives by which they

  12. Scarcity and Environmental Stress in Public Organizations: A Conjectural Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Slusher, E. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Assuming extreme scarcity, arguments are developed that public organizations could be expected to constrain their domain definition, allow domain selection to dictate technology, seek clientele suited to existing technologies, and, in general, take actions that will ensure that existing technologies are employed at capacity. (Author/IRT)

  13. Stress Testing of Organic Light- Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Davis, Kelley Rountree, Karmann Mills

    2018-01-31

    This report builds on previous DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information on a previously benchmarked OLED product (the Chalina luminaire from Acuity Brands) and provides new benchmarks on the performance of Brite 2 and Brite Amber OLED panels from OLEDWorks. During the tests described here, samples of these devices were subjected to continuous operation in stress tests at elevated ambient temperature environments of 35°C or 45°C. In addition, samples were also operated continuously at room temperature in a room temperature operational life test (RTOL). One goal of this study was to investigate whether these test conditions can accelerate failure of OLED panels, either through panel shorting or an open circuit in the panel. These stress tests are shown to provide meaningful acceleration of OLED failure modes, and an acceleration factor of 2.6 was calculated at 45°C for some test conditions. In addition, changes in the photometric properties of the emitted light (e.g., luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance) was also evaluated for insights into the long-term stability of these products compared to earlier generations. Because OLEDs are a lighting system, electrical testing was also performed on the panel-driver pairs to provide insights into the impact of the driver on long-term panel performance.

  14. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  15. Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Amana; Rehman, Shafiq; Hiraga, Susumu; Makino, Takahiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-22

    Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5 days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between posttraumatic stress disorder and lack of exercise, poor diet, obesity, and co-occuring smoking: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Secrest, Scott; Walls, Jesse; Hallberg, Ellen; Lustman, Patrick J; Schneider, F David; Scherrer, Jeffrey F

    2018-05-01

    Research has shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of development of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Whether PTSD is also associated with behavioral risk factors (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking and obesity) for CMD, is less clear. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to obtain papers published between 1980-2016. Studies were reviewed for quality using the Quality of Cohort screen. Significance values, odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and tests of homogeneity of variance were calculated. A total of 1,349 studies were identified from our search and 29 studies met all eligibility criteria. Individuals with PTSD were 5% less likely to have healthy diets (pooled adjusted OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98), 9% less likely to engage in physical activity (pooled adjusted OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.93), 31% more likely to be obese (pooled adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI:1.25, 1.38), and about 22% more likely to be current smokers (pooled adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.26), than individuals without PTSD. Evidence shows PTSD is associated with reduced healthy eating and physical activity, and increased obesity and smoking. The well-established association between PTSD and metabolic and cardiovascular disease may be partly due to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, high prevalence of obesity, and co-occurring smoking in this population. The well-established association of PTSD with CMD is likely due in part to poor health behaviors in this patient population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmon, Cécile; Baaren, Joan van; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization

  18. Environmental Stress Responses and Experimental Handling Artifacts of a Model Organism, the Copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nilsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S = 35 to S = 5 was used as positive stress control; individuals not exposed to handling or other stressors served as negative stress control. All copepods were grown from eggs to adults without being handled or exposed to any stressors prior the experiment. Survival of nauplii and adults was estimated for up to 10 min of exposure to handling stress and salinity shock. Only adults exhibited decreased survival (44 ± 7% with 10 min of exposure in response to handling stress and were selected for definitive experiments for RNA sequencing. After 10 min of experimental exposures to handling stress or salinity shock, adults were incubated for 15 min or 24 h at normal culture conditions. A small number of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were observed 15 min after exposure to handling stress (2 DEGs or salinity shock (7 DEGs. However, 24 h after exposure, handling stress resulted in 276 DEGs and salinity shock resulted in 573 DEGs, of which 174 DEGs were overlapping between the treatments. Among the DEGs observed 24 h after exposure to handling stress or salinity shock, some commonly-used stress biomarkers appeared at low levels. This suggests that a stress-response was induced at the transcriptional level for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this

  19. [Roles of organic acid metabolism in plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and aluminum toxicity stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfei; Shen, Qirong

    2006-11-01

    Organic acids not only act as the intermediates in carbon metabolism, but also exert key roles in the plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and metal stress and in the plant-microbe interactions at root-soil interface. From the viewpoint of plant nutrition, this paper reviewed the research progress on the formation and physiology of organic acids in plant, and their functions in nitrogen metabolism, phosphorus and iron uptake, aluminum tolerance, and soil ecology. New findings in the membrane transport of organic acids and the biotechnological manipulation of organic acids in transgenic model were also discussed. This novel perspectives of organic acid metabolism and its potential manipulation might present a possibility to understand the fundamental aspects of plant physiology, and lead to the new strategies to obtain crop varieties better adapted to environmental and metal stress.

  20. The genomes of three Bradyrhizobium sp. isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albescens grown in extremely poor soils display important genes for resistance to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Vargas, Luciano K; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Baura, Valter Antonio de; Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio de; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Falcon, Tiago; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2018-05-17

    Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96. The genome comparison with closest strains Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA6 and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 showed important variable regions (with less than 80% of similarity). Genes encoding for factors for resistance/tolerance to heavy metal, flagellar motility, response to osmotic and oxidative stresses, heat shock proteins (present only in the three sequenced genomes) could be responsible for the ability of these microorganisms to survive in inhospitable environments. Knowledge about these genomes will provide a foundation for future development of an inoculant bioproduct that should optimize the recovery of degraded soils using cover crops.

  1. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....

  2. Intrinsic Cell Stress is Independent of Organization in Engineered Cell Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdregt, Inge A E W; Dekker, Sylvia; Alford, Patrick W; Oomens, Cees W J; Loerakker, Sandra; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2018-06-01

    Understanding cell contractility is of fundamental importance for cardiovascular tissue engineering, due to its major impact on the tissue's mechanical properties as well as the development of permanent dimensional changes, e.g., by contraction or dilatation of the tissue. Previous attempts to quantify contractile cellular stresses mostly used strongly aligned monolayers of cells, which might not represent the actual organization in engineered cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether differences in organization affect the magnitude of intrinsic stress generated by individual myofibroblasts, a frequently used cell source for in vitro engineered heart valves. Four different monolayer organizations were created via micro-contact printing of fibronectin lines on thin PDMS films, ranging from strongly anisotropic to isotropic. Thin film curvature, cell density, and actin stress fiber distribution were quantified, and subsequently, intrinsic stress and contractility of the monolayers were determined by incorporating these data into sample-specific finite element models. Our data indicate that the intrinsic stress exerted by the monolayers in each group correlates with cell density. Additionally, after normalizing for cell density and accounting for differences in alignment, no consistent differences in intrinsic contractility were found between the different monolayer organizations, suggesting that the intrinsic stress exerted by individual myofibroblasts is independent of the organization. Consequently, this study emphasizes the importance of choosing proper architectural properties for scaffolds in cardiovascular tissue engineering, as these directly affect the stresses in the tissue, which play a crucial role in both the functionality and remodeling of (engineered) cardiovascular tissues.

  3. Role of Stress Factors on the Adhesion of Interfaces in R2R Fabricated Organic Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Rolston, Nicholas; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-01-01

    adhesion properties. Depth profiling analysis on the fractured samples reveals interdiffusion of layers in the structure, which results in the increase of adhesion and change of the debond path. It is shown that through diffusion and intermixing of internal interfaces coupled stresses can increase......The role of the common stress factors such as high temperature, humidity,and UV irradiation on interface adhesion of roll-to-roll fabricated organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is investigated. The samples range from bare front electrodes to complete devices. It is shown that applying single stress...... or combinations of stresses onto the samples variably affect the adhesion properties of the different interfaces in the OPV device. It is revealed that while the exposure of the complete devices to the stresses results in the loss of photovoltaic performance, some interfaces in the devices present improved...

  4. Stress Prevention@Work : A study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2018-01-01

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative

  5. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and

  6. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants.

  7. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C. T. van Bussel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care.

  8. THE STRESS RESISTANCE OF STUDENTS. THE PARADIGM OF SUBJECT PERSONALITY SELF- ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider a problem of stress resistance of students in the context of subject self-organization of the personality. Methods. The following methods of research are used: questioning; psychological and diagnostic tests «Tolerance of Uncertainty» (NTN and «Personal Factors of Decisions» (PFD by T. V. Kornilova; original experimental experiences – «Coding», a technique of a self-assessment (scaling and «A locus control». While data processing the methods of mathematical statistics (SPSS 12 package – the correlation analysis of Pearson and the factorial analysis with rotation use a component by «verimax» method are applied. Results and scientific novelty. Types of subjectivity and strategy of stress resistance are allocated. The nature and a role of the emotional and stressful mechanism having information and semantic properties in its basis are disclosed. Communication of irresponsible mechanisms of mentality with the sphere of consciousness in the context of subjectivity of the personality is shown. Mechanisms of emotional and rational self-control of system of mental self-organization of the person are presented. The statistical and qualitative data opening communications between properties of subjectivity and stress resistance of the personality are empirically obtained. Variation of the relations and also types of subjectivity and stress resistance emphasized based on the results of the presented research. Original (author’s methods of studying of subjectivity and factors of stress resistance are presented. Practical significance. The revealed factors of subject self-organization reveal the stress-producing directions of the environment and the relation of the personality to situations of changes and uncertainty: and also indicate subject properties of resistance to stress which need to be developed to increase the level of health of students, to reduce risk of deviance and delinquency of

  9. Stress and turnover intent in international organizations: social support and work life balance as resources

    OpenAIRE

    Giauque, David; Anderfuhren-Biget, Simon; Varone, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether work opportunities have an impact on stress and the related turnover intentions of employees working in intergovernmental international organizations. It contextualizes the job resources and demands model within international organizations’ specific work conditions. The empirical test is based on original data from a survey administered in four major organizations of the United Nations system. Results demonstrate that social work opportunities and work-life bal...

  10. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  11. Stress markers in relation to job strain in human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, C G; Söderfeldt, M; Söderfeldt, B; Jones, I; Theorell, T

    2001-01-01

    Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. Employees in two local units of the social insurance organization and two local units of the individual and family care sections of the social welfare in Sweden were selected and 103 employees participated (56% participation rate). The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model. Questions specially designed to measure emotional demands were also included. The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin. The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Trait anxiety as an independent predictor of poor health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress symptoms in rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristvedt, Stephen L.; Trinkaus, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the influence of trait anxiety on patient reports of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in a sample of rectal cancer survivors. Design Eighty patients who had been diagnosed with rectal cancer were assessed at two points in time in a longitudinal study. Methods At Time 1, soon after initial treatment, participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory Harm Avoidance scale, which were combined into a composite measure of trait anxiety. At Time 2, 2-5 years following Time 1, participants were assessed for HRQoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal scale (FACT-C) and for PTSS using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results HRQoL and PTSS were generally favourable on average, although many of the patients reported faring poorly. Higher levels of trait anxiety were predictive of poorer scores on all of the FACT-C and the IES-R total and subscale measures. More severe faecal incontinence was associated with poorer scores on the FACT Emotional well-being subscale, the FACT-Colorectal Cancer Scale, and all of the IES-R scales. Males were more likely than females to have poorer scores on the FACT Social well-being subscale, and those patients who were further out from active treatment had more favourable scores on the FACT-Colorectal Cancer Scale. The presence of a colostomy did not impact HRQoL or PTSS. Conclusion Trait anxiety had a significant influence on HRQoL and PTSS several years following diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:19171084

  13. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  14. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations: Proximity? Generativity? Minority stress? Social location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.

  15. Bias stress effect and recovery in organic field effect transistors : proton migration mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; Bao, Z.; McCulloch, I.

    2010-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors exhibit operational instabilities when a gate bias is applied. For a constant gate bias the threshold voltage shifts towards the applied gate bias voltage, an effect known as the bias-stress effect. We have performed a detailed experimental and theoretical study of

  16. Molecular doping for control of gate bias stress in organic thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Moritz P., E-mail: hein@iapp.de; Lüssem, Björn; Jankowski, Jens; Tietze, Max L.; Riede, Moritz K. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zakhidov, Alexander A. [Fraunhofer COMEDD, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fraunhofer COMEDD, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-06

    The key active devices of future organic electronic circuits are organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Reliability of OTFTs remains one of the most challenging obstacles to be overcome for broad commercial applications. In particular, bias stress was identified as the key instability under operation for numerous OTFT devices and interfaces. Despite a multitude of experimental observations, a comprehensive mechanism describing this behavior is still missing. Furthermore, controlled methods to overcome these instabilities are so far lacking. Here, we present the approach to control and significantly alleviate the bias stress effect by using molecular doping at low concentrations. For pentacene and silicon oxide as gate oxide, we are able to reduce the time constant of degradation by three orders of magnitude. The effect of molecular doping on the bias stress behavior is explained in terms of the shift of Fermi Level and, thus, exponentially reduced proton generation at the pentacene/oxide interface.

  17. Molecular doping for control of gate bias stress in organic thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Moritz P.; Lüssem, Björn; Jankowski, Jens; Tietze, Max L.; Riede, Moritz K.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Leo, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The key active devices of future organic electronic circuits are organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Reliability of OTFTs remains one of the most challenging obstacles to be overcome for broad commercial applications. In particular, bias stress was identified as the key instability under operation for numerous OTFT devices and interfaces. Despite a multitude of experimental observations, a comprehensive mechanism describing this behavior is still missing. Furthermore, controlled methods to overcome these instabilities are so far lacking. Here, we present the approach to control and significantly alleviate the bias stress effect by using molecular doping at low concentrations. For pentacene and silicon oxide as gate oxide, we are able to reduce the time constant of degradation by three orders of magnitude. The effect of molecular doping on the bias stress behavior is explained in terms of the shift of Fermi Level and, thus, exponentially reduced proton generation at the pentacene/oxide interface

  18. The stress of being contaminated? Adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    High levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCB and DDT have been found in the Arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. Corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between POPs and reproduction through their potential consequences on different reproductive traits (breeding decision, egg-laying date, breeding success) and corticosterone secretion (baseline and stress-induced levels). We addressed those questions in an Arctic population of female black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-breeding stage and measured several legacy POPs (PCBs and pesticides: HCB, p,p'-DDE, CHL) in whole blood. POP levels were not related to breeding decision neither to breeding success, whereas females with high levels of pesticides laid their eggs earlier in the season. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and body condition index in non-breeding females. Black-legged kittiwakes with higher levels of PCB showed stronger adrenocortical response when subjected to a capture-handling stress protocol. We suggest that PCBs may disrupt corticosterone secretion whereas the positive relationship between pesticides and egg-laying date could either originate from a direct effect of pesticides or may be related to other confounding factors such as age or individual's quality. Although no direct negative reproduction output of POPs was found in this study, it is possible that the most contaminated individuals would be more sensitive to environmental stress and would be less able to maintain parental investment than less polluted individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Missima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Radiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Organ Dysfunctions in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, N.; Yacoub, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aim of the present study was to determine the possible protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) against radiation-induced oxidative stress associated with organ dysfunctions. Omega-3 PUFA was administered by oral gavages to male albino rats at a dose of 0.4 g/ kg body wt daily for 4 weeks before whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy. Significant increase of serum lipid peroxidation end product as malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction in blood glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activities were recorded on 3rd and 8th days post-irradiation. Oxidative stress was associated with a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme activities, markers of heart damage, significant increases in uric acid, urea and creatinine levels, markers of kidney damage, significant increases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and transaminases (ALT and AST) activities, markers of liver damage. Moreover significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were recorded. Omega-3 PUFA administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunctions tested in this study. It could be concluded that oral supplementation of omega-3 PUFA before irradiation may afford protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress and might preserve the integrity of tissue functions of the organs under investigations.

  1. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  2. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  3. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S=35 to S=...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....... for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  5. 14C-incorporation into sugars and organic acids of water-stressed maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Fock, H.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of 14 C into sugars and some organic acids of maize leaves has been studied in relation to the leaf water potential by feeding 14 CO 2 (370 ppm) for 1,2 and 4 min during steady state photosynthesis at 25 0 C (PAR = 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). The relative specific radioactivity (RSA) of the sugars was low (0.2% after 4 min) at -0.62 MPa (control) and decreased by about 50% when psi dropped to -0.95 MPa. The authors conclude that the low rate of photosynthetic sugar synthesis in maize leaves decreased during water stress. The RSA of malate was extremely low at -0.62 MPa (0.02%). This result may be the consequence of the large pool size of malate in maize leaves. The authors presume that there are two malate pools present in maize leaves, a small metabolic pool and a larger storage pool. The RSA of malate decreased during the stress period. This is consistent with the decline in net CO 2 uptake during water stress. The pool sizes of citrate and isocitrate increased when psi dropped to -0.95 MPa. As practically no radioactivity was detected in these organic acids, they conclude that these compounds are synthesized from unlabelled precursors during water stress

  6. Cellular stress and innate inflammation in organ-specific autoimmunity: lessons learned from vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary For decades, research in autoimmunity has focused primarily on immune contributions to disease. Yet recent studies report elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abnormal activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells targeted by autoimmunity, implicating cellular stress originating from the target tissue as a contributing factor. A better understanding of this contribution may help to answer important lingering questions in organ-specific autoimmunity, like what factors initiate disease, and what directs its tissue specificity. Vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of the skin, has been the focus of translational research for over 30 years, and both melanocyte stress and immune mechanisms have been thought to be mutually exclusive explanations for pathogenesis. Chemical-induced vitiligo is a unique clinical presentation that reflects the importance of environmental influences on autoimmunity, provides insight into a new paradigm linking cell stress to the immune response, and serves as a template for other autoimmune diseases. In this review I will discuss the evidence for cell stress contributions to a number of autoimmune diseases, the questions that remain, and how vitiligo, an underappreciated example of organ-specific autoimmunity, helps to answer them. PMID:26683142

  7. Growth and stress response mechanisms underlying post-feeding regenerative organ growth in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Perry, Blair W; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Ruggiero, Robert P; McGaugh, Suzanne E; Choudhary, Amit; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2017-05-02

    Previous studies examining post-feeding organ regeneration in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) have identified thousands of genes that are significantly differentially regulated during this process. However, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of coherent mechanisms and specific growth pathways that underlie these rapid and extensive shifts in organ form and function. Here we addressed these gaps by comparing gene expression in the Burmese python heart, liver, kidney, and small intestine across pre- and post-feeding time points (fasted, one day post-feeding, and four days post-feeding), and by conducting detailed analyses of molecular pathways and predictions of upstream regulatory molecules across these organ systems. Identified enriched canonical pathways and upstream regulators indicate that while downstream transcriptional responses are fairly tissue specific, a suite of core pathways and upstream regulator molecules are shared among responsive tissues. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, PPAR/LXR/RXR signaling, and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response are significantly differentially regulated in multiple tissues, indicative of cell growth and proliferation along with coordinated cell-protective stress responses. Upstream regulatory molecule analyses identify multiple growth factors, kinase receptors, and transmembrane receptors, both within individual organs and across separate tissues. Downstream transcription factors MYC and SREBF are induced in all tissues. These results suggest that largely divergent patterns of post-feeding gene regulation across tissues are mediated by a core set of higher-level signaling molecules. Consistent enrichment of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response indicates this pathway may be particularly important in mediating cellular stress during such extreme regenerative growth.

  8. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  9. Oxidative stress may be involved in distant organ failure in tourniquet shock model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Rie; Kato, Naho; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2014-03-01

    Crush syndrome is characterized by prolonged shock resulting from extensive muscle damage and multiple organ failure. However, the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure has not yet been completely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the molecular biological and histopathological aspects of distant organ injury in crush syndrome by using tourniquet shock model mice. DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle showed an increase in the mRNA levels of Cox-2, Hsp70, c-fos, and IL-6, at 3h after ischemia/reperfusion injury at the lower extremity. In vivo staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) showed edema and degeneration in the soleus muscle, but no change in the distant organs. Immunohistological staining of the HSP70 protein revealed nuclear translocation in the soleus muscle, kidney, liver, and lung. The c-fos mRNA levels were elevated in the soleus muscle, kidney, and liver, displaying nuclear translocation of c-FOS protein. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis suggested the involvement of apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the soleus muscle. Apoptotic cells were not found in greater quantities in the kidney. Oxidative stress, as determined using a free radical elective evaluator (d-ROM test), markedly increased after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, examination of immunohistological changes and determination of oxidative stress are proposed to be useful in evaluating the extent of tourniquet shock, even before changes are observed by HE staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Dong, Xiujuan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics. This protective effect coincided with reduced malondialdehyde and increased glutathione in both serum and lung tissues, indicating attenuated oxidative stress in crocin-treated rats. Myeloperoxide levels in lung, kidney and liver were also reduced. Crocin can potentially be used to protect organs from HS-induced damages during resuscitation due to its anti-oxidative role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne J. A. Hoek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1 the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2 the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. Methods The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees’ perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Secondary outcome measures

  12. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Rianne J A; Havermans, Bo M; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2017-07-17

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1) the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2) the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees' perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Secondary outcome measures are job demands, job resources and the number

  13. Common and distinct organ and stress responsive transcriptomic patterns in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castleden Ian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is clearly established as the model plant species. Given the ever-growing demand for food, there is a need to translate the knowledge learned in Arabidopsis to agronomically important species, such as rice (Oryza sativa. To gain a comparative insight into the similarities and differences into how organs are built and how plants respond to stress, the transcriptomes of Arabidopsis and rice were compared at the level of gene orthology and functional categorisation. Results Organ specific transcripts in rice and Arabidopsis display less overlap in terms of gene orthology compared to the orthology observed between both genomes. Although greater overlap in terms of functional classification was observed between root specific transcripts in rice and Arabidopsis, this did not extend to flower, leaf or seed specific transcripts. In contrast, the overall abiotic stress response transcriptome displayed a significantly greater overlap in terms of gene orthology compared to the orthology observed between both genomes. However, ~50% or less of these orthologues responded in a similar manner in both species. In fact, under cold and heat treatments as many or more orthologous genes responded in an opposite manner or were unchanged in one species compared to the other. Examples of transcripts that responded oppositely include several genes encoding proteins involved in stress and redox responses and non-symbiotic hemoglobins that play central roles in stress signalling pathways. The differences observed in the abiotic transcriptomes were mirrored in the presence of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of stress responsive genes and the transcription factors that potentially bind these regulatory elements. Thus, both the abiotic transcriptome and its regulation differ between rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusions These results reveal significant divergence between Arabidopsis and rice, in terms of the

  14. The association of lifestyle and stress with poor glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: a Croatian nationwide primary care cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralić Lang, Valerija; Bergman Marković, Biserka; Vrdoljak, Davorka

    2015-08-01

    To assess lifestyle habits and self-reported stress levels among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in general practitioners' (GP) offices in Croatia. 449 GPs from all Croatian regions from 2008 to 2010 consecutively recruited up to 20-25 participants diagnosed with T2DM at least 3 years prior to the study, aged ≥40 years, and scheduled for diabetes control check-ups. The recruitment period lasted six months. Lifestyle habits and self-reported stress were assessed using the questionnaire from the Croatian Adult Health Survey. The study included 10285 patients with T2DM with mean (±standard deviation) age of 65.7±10.05 years (48.1% men). Mean HbA1c level was 7.57±1.58%. 79% of participants reported insufficient physical activity, 24% reported inappropriate dietary patterns, 56% reported current alcohol consumption, 19% were current smokers, and 85% reported at least medium level of stress. Multivariate analysis showed that having received advice to stop drinking alcohol, inadequate physical activity, consumption of milk and dairy products, adding extra salt, and high level of stress were significantly associated with increased HbA1c (P lifestyle habits. These results suggest that diabetes patients in Croatia require more specific recommendations on diet, smoking cessation, exercise, and stress control.

  15. Investigating burnout situations, nurses' stress perception and effect of a post-graduate education program in health care organizations of northern Italy: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Caruso, Rosario; Campanella, Francesca; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Miazza, Daniela; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Burnout (BO) is increasingly considered a public health problem: it is not only harmful to the individual, but also for the organization. Therefore, in recent years, research has given particular attention to the study of the phenomenon and its antecedents among the nursing profession. In the last ten years, the literature shows the prevalence of BO in different clinical settings, but there are few recent data describing the phenomenon and its relationship with educational preventive programs. The aims of this study are: a) to describe the prevalence of nurses' risk of BO in the northern Italy area b) to describe nurses' coping and their perception of the BO antecedents. c) to describe the effects of education on the nurses' coping and their recognition of BO antecedents. The study is structured into two main parts. The first was cross-sectional, the second was prospective. Burnout Potential Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional part to survey risk of BO in three big hospitals in Northern Italy. The Health Profession Stress and Coping Scale (HPSCS) was used in the prospective part to survey the nurses' stress perception and their coping mechanisms in a post-graduate educational program. Nurses' BO risk is within the normal range, although the BPI highlighted three borderline subscales: poor team work, work overload and poor feedback. Post-graduate education had a positive effect on the stress perception, but it is not sufficient to improve coping mechanisms. The study revealed the more stressful work situations and the effect of post-graduate education to prevent the effects of stress. This topic needs further investigation in the light of the result of this study.

  16. Serum GGT activity and hsCRP level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with good and poor glycemic control: An evidence linking oxidative stress, inflammation and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh G; Chacko, Anusha N

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes is undoubtedly one of the most challenging health problems in 21st century. Understanding the pathogenesis and preventing long term complications have been major goals of research in diabetes mellitus (DM). Research in the past few years has linked oxidative stress and inflammation to beta cell dysfunction. Aim of this study is to evaluate serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity (marker of oxidative stress) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) level (an inflammatory marker) in type 2 DM subjects with good and poor glycemic control. Further, we investigated correlation between serum GGT and hsCRP level with glycemic control (FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c) in subjects. A cross sectional study consists of 150 patients out of them 50 patients having type 2 DM with good control (Group II), 50 patients with type 2 DM with poor control (Group III) and 50 normal healthy control (Group I) were selected. Serum GGT, serum hsCRP, FBS, PP2BS, HbA1c, and other biochemical investigations include serum liver enzymes and lipids were measured. Mean serum GGT and hsCRP concentration were statistically significantly higher in group III patients compared to group I and group II subjects as well as increased in group II compared to group I (p stress and inflammation appears to be a key component and also associated with poor glycemic control and further pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. All our finding suggesting a link between oxidative stress, inflammation and glycemic control in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events: The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents--The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large population cohort of 2,064 Dutch…

  18. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events : The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents-The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large

  19. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayzoun, H. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Garnier, C., E-mail: cgarnier@univ-tln.fr [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Angeletti, B. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement UMR 6635 CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, FR ECCOREV, Europôle Méditerranéen de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Ouammou, A. [LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Mounier, S. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  20. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayzoun, H.; Garnier, C.; Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C.; Angeletti, B.; Ouammou, A.; Mounier, S.

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  1. Inactivation of GABAA receptor is related to heat shock stress response in organism model Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriela; Elizalde, Alejandro; Trujillo, Xochitl; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Hernandez-Chavez, Abel; Hernandez, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying oxidative stress (OS) resistance are not completely clear. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a good organism model to study OS because it displays stress responses similar to those in mammals. Among these mechanisms, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is thought to affect GABAergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat shock stress (HS) on GABAergic activity in C. elegans. For this purpose, we tested the effect of exposure to picrotoxin (PTX), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), hydrogen peroxide, and HS on the occurrence of a shrinking response (SR) after nose touch stimulus in N2 (WT) worms. Moreover, the effect of HS on the expression of UNC-49 (GABAA receptor ortholog) in the EG1653 strain and the effect of GABA and PTX exposure on HSP-16.2 expression in the TJ375 strain were analyzed. PTX 1 mM- or H2O2 0.7 mM-exposed worms displayed a SR in about 80 % of trials. GABA exposure did not cause a SR. HS prompted the occurrence of a SR as did PTX 1 mM or H2O2 0.7 mM exposure. In addition, HS increased UNC-49 expression, and PTX augmented HSP-16.2 expression. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that oxidative stress, through either H2O2 exposure or application of heat shock, inactivates the GABAergic system, which subsequently would affect the oxidative stress response, perhaps by enhancing the activity of transcription factors DAF-16 and HSF-1, both regulated by the IIS pathway and related to hsp-16.2 expression.

  2. Protective effects of novel organic selenium compounds against oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Terra Stefanello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic selenium compounds possess numerous biological properties, including antioxidant activity. Yet, the high toxicity of some of them, such as diphenyl diselenide (DPDS, is a limiting factor in their current usage. Accordingly, we tested four novel organic selenium compounds in the non-parasite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and compared their efficacy to DPDS. The novel organic selenium compounds are β-selenoamines 1-phenyl-3-(p-tolylselanylpropan-2-amine (C1 and 1-(2-methoxyphenylselanyl-3-phenylpropan-2-amine (C2 and analogs of DPDS 1,2-bis(2-methoxyphenyldiselenide (C3 and 1,2-bisp-tolyldiselenide (C4. Synchronized worms at the L4 larval stage were exposed for one hour in M9 buffer to these compounds. Oxidative stress conditions were induced by juglone (200 μM and heat shock (35 °C. Moreover, we evaluated C. elegans behavior, GST-4::GFP (glutathione S-transferase expression and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. All tested compounds efficiently restored viability in juglone stressed worms. However, DPDS, C2, C3 and C4 significantly decreased the defecation cycle time. Juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression was not attenuated in worms pretreated with the novel compounds, except with C2. Finally, AChE activity was reduced by DPDS, C2, C3 and C4. To our knowledge, this is study firstly showed the effects of C1, C2, C3 and C4 selenium-derived compounds in C. elegans. Low toxic effects were noted, except for reduction in the defecation cycle, which is likely associated with AChE inhibition. The juglone-induced stress (reduced viability was fully reversed by compounds to control animal levels. C2 was also efficient in reducing the juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression, suggesting the latter may mediate the stress induced by this compound. Future studies could be profitably directed at addressing additional molecular mechanisms that mediate the protective effects of these novel organic selenium compounds.

  3. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  4. Influence of sap's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on energetic and purine exchange of irradiated organism under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisov, T.K.; Agafonova, I.P.; Zhetpisbaev, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of immuno correctors under development of common adaptive syndrome is saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock. Research of influence of saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on enzymes activity of energetic and purine exchange under stress was carried out. There were 2 series of experiments with 120 white rats. Results showed that the irradiated animals on the background phyto therapy had high enzymes activity under stress during all of the investigation periods. The preparations from plantain and burdock biomass increase unspecific resistivity of organism and helps of energetic exchange's rise irradiated organs's sells of animals under stress

  5. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  6. Managing complex workplace stress in health care organizations: leaders' perceived legitimacy conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa

    2009-12-01

    To conceptualize how health care leaders' strategies to increase their influence in their psychosocial work environment are experienced and handled, and may be supported. The complex nature of the psychosocial work environment with increased stress creates significant challenges for leaders in today's health care organizations. Interviews with health care leaders (n = 39) were analysed in accordance with constructivist grounded theory. Compound identities, loyalty commitments and professional interests shape conditions for leaders' influence. Strategies to achieve legitimacy were either to retain clinical skills and a strong occupational identity or to take a full leadership role. Ethical stress was experienced when organizational procedural or consequential legitimacy norms were in conflict with the leaders' own values. Leadership support through socializing processes and strategic support structures may be complementary or counteractive. Support programmes need to have a clear message related to decision-making processes and should facilitate communication between top management, human resource departments and subordinate leaders. Ethical stress from conflicting legitimacy principles may be moderated by clear policies for decision-making processes, strengthened sound networks and improved communication. Supportive programmes should include: (1) sequential and strategic systems for introducing new leaders and mentoring; (2) reflective dialogue and feedback; (3) team development; and (4) decision-making policies and processes.

  7. Investigating inbreeding depression for heat stress tolerance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2012-01-01

    Mating between closely related individuals often causes reduced fitness, which is termed ‘inbreeding depression’. Inbreeding is, therefore, a threat towards the persistence of animal and plant populations. Here we present methods and results from a practical for high-school and first-year univers......Mating between closely related individuals often causes reduced fitness, which is termed ‘inbreeding depression’. Inbreeding is, therefore, a threat towards the persistence of animal and plant populations. Here we present methods and results from a practical for high-school and first......-year university students and discuss learning outcomes of the exercise as an example of inquiry-based science teaching. We use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to test the ability of inbred and control (non-inbred) females to survive heat stress exposure. Flies were anaesthetised and collected...... into vials before exposure to 38°C heat stress in a water bath for 1 h. Half an hour later the number of comatose inbred and control flies were scored and chi-square statistic procedures were used to test for different degrees of heat stress tolerance between the two lines of flies. The practical introduces...

  8.  Oxidative stress modulates the organization of erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olszewska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Apart from their main role in transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide, erythrocytes play also an important role in organism antioxidative defence. Direct exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS results in shortening of their half-life, even by 50�20The presence of glucose, being the substrate in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP cycle, is one of the factors that can have influence on the level of oxidative stress. The activity of PPP increases during oxidative stress. Glucose guarantees normal PPP functioning with the production of reductive equivalents in the amounts necessary to reproduction of glutathione – nonenzymatic free radical scavenger. In available literature there are no reports regarding the changes in protein contents of erythrocyte cytoskeleton exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide in relation to glucose presence in incubation medium.Material/methods:Erythrocytes taken from 10 healthy subjects were used to assess the influence of generated free radicals on erythrocyte proteins and chosen parameters of oxidative stress. Erythrocytes were incubated in the solutions containing deferent concentrations of t-butyl hydroperoxide and glucose. Electrophoresis was performed on polyacrylamide gel in denaturating conditions. The contents of tryptophan in membranes was evaluated spectrofluorometrically.Results/conclusions:In vitro conditions oxidative stress leads to protein damage in erythrocyte cytoskeleton, both in proteins inside the cell as well as having contact with extracellular environment. In consequence, the amount of low-molecular proteins – mainly globin, which bind to cytoskeleton, increases. This process takes place independently of glucose presence in incubation medium. One of the element of protein cytoskeleton, tryptophan, also undergoes degradation. The decrease of its contents is higher during erythrocyte exposure to t-BOOH in environment containing glucose, what can suggest prooxidative influence of glucose in

  9. Migration Stress, Poor Mental Health, and Engagement in Sex with High-Risk Partners: A Mediation Modeling Analysis of Data from Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Robserson, Emily

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e.g., sex workers, intravenous injection drug users, blood donors, persons infected with HIV, persons with sexually transmitted infection, and same gender partners) in the past year. The proposed relationship was tested using mediation modeling method. Among the sample, 5.5% reported having had sex with high-risk partners in the past year. Mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between DMSQ scores and having sex with high-risk partners was mediated by BSI (coefficient =0.41, 95% CI [0.21, 0.65]), including its components of somatization (0.32 [0.15, 0.53]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.31 [0.07, 0.55]), depression (0.45 [0.23, 0.72]), anxiety (0.41 [0.23, 0.63]), and hostility (0.35 [0.17, 0.56]). Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced in males than in females. The study findings provide new data advancing our understanding of the mechanism of engagement in risky sex, underscoring the need for the HIV prevention policies in China to pay more attention to mental health of the rural-to-urban migrant population.

  10. [Organizational well-being and work-related stress in health care organizations: validation of the Work-related Stress Assessment Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations.

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  12. In-silico identification and characterization of organic and inorganic chemical stress responding genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan; Bashir, Farrukh; Muzaffar, Shafia; Afzal, Saba; Behlil, Farida; Khan, Muzaffar

    2014-10-15

    To study the life processes of all eukaryotes, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a significant model organism. It is also one of the best models to study the responses of genes at transcriptional level. In a living organism, gene expression is changed by chemical stresses. The genes that give response to chemical stresses will provide good source for the strategies in engineering and formulating mechanisms which are chemical stress resistant in the eukaryotic organisms. The data available through microarray under the chemical stresses like lithium chloride, lactic acid, weak organic acids and tomatidine were studied by using computational tools. Out of 9335 yeast genes, 388 chemical stress responding genes were identified and characterized under different chemical stresses. Some of these are: Enolases 1 and 2, heat shock protein-82, Yeast Elongation Factor 3, Beta Glucanase Protein, Histone H2A1 and Histone H2A2 Proteins, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, ras GTPase activating protein, Establishes Silent Chromatin protein, Mei5 Protein, Nondisjunction Protein and Specific Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase. Characterization of these genes was also made on the basis of their molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  14. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  15. Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X

    2014-11-01

    In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Value of MRI in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence in the absence of organ descent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyersdorff, D.; Taupitz, M.; Fischer, T.; Hamm, B.; Tunn, R.; Rieprich, M.

    2001-01-01

    To detect pathomorphological changes of the pelvic floor, the vagina, and the urethra by MR imaging in patients with stress urinary incontinence in the absence of organ descent compared with findings in 10 healthy controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 10 healthy controls and 38 patients with stage II urinary incontinence showing no urge symptoms but a pathological stress profile on urodynamic testing. The subjects underwent MR imaging with a phased-array coil at 1.5 T in addition to urodynamic testing and gynecological examination. The following sequences were used: axial and coronal PD-weighted TSE sequences with a FOV of 20 cm and a section thickness of 4 mm; axial STIR sequence. Sagittal T 2 -weighted HASTE sequences were acquired during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Results: In 22/38 cases pathomorphological changes were found by MR imaging. The pathomorphological changes were classified as lateral defects (n = 14) if the musculofascial connection between the levator muscle and the lateral vaginal wall or the butterfly shape of the vagina was absent and as central (n = 16) if changes were detected in the urethral wall. Defects of the pelvic floor muscles were detected in 8 cases. No underlying changes were identified in 16/38 cases. Conclusion: In cases of female urinary incontinence, MR imaging of the pelvic floor can detect pathomorphological changes, which are difficult to identify by clinical examination. MR imaging currently does not allow the detection of morphological changes in all forms of female urinary stress incontinence. (orig.) [de

  17. Dietary β-glucans differentially modulate immune and stress-related gene expression in lymphoid organs from healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douxfils, Jessica; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Mandiki, S N M; Emile, Wakson; Tort, Lluis; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Although β-glucans stimulating effects have already been demonstrated on the immune system of numerous animal species, available data remain relatively variable and more research should be done regarding the complexity of underlying mechanisms. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the stress and immune-related effects of dietary β-glucans (i.e. Macrogard ® ) by considering a number of influencing factors such as the dose (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5% in food), feeding duration (15 versus 30 days), tissue (blood, kidney, spleen, gills) and infection status (healthy or infected). Blood parameters (lysozyme, ACH50 activities, leucocyte populations) and mRNA expression level of several immune- and stress-related genes (TFN-α1, IL-1β, IL10, COX-2, TGF-β, MC2R, HSP70) were measured. Our results suggest that spleen may be a highly responsive organ to dietary β-glucans both in healthy or infected fish, and that this organ may therefore significantly contribute to the immune reinforcement induced by such immunostimulatory diet. Our study further reveals that overdoses of β-glucans and/or prolonged medication can lead to a non-reactive physiological status and, consequently, to a poor immune response. All in all, the current data emphasizes the need for further extensive research in the field of dietary β-glucans as a preventive method for farmed fish protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  19. [Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.

  20. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  1. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed.

  2. The 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria versus the 1985 World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance : poor agreement in the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, F; Dekker, J M; Stehouwer, C D; Nijpels, G; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced new diagnostic criteria. These new criteria are based on fasting plasma glucose levels, avoiding the burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We compared the 1997 ADA criteria with the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO)

  3. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  4. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  5. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  6. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... minimum risk-based capital requirements.\\3\\ Stress testing is one tool that helps both bank supervisors... the FDIC and the OCC to help to ensure that the company-run stress testing regulations are consistent... purposes of the annual company-run stress tests so that the same set of scenarios can be used to conduct...

  7. Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Momoko; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice. After 28 consecutive days of immobilization stress, behavioral tests were conducted and tissue sampling was performed. The results showed that the body weight of middle-aged mice was severely lowered by stress, but emotional behaviors were hardly influenced by either aging or stress. Aging influenced changes in amino acid metabolism in the brain and increased various amino acid levels in the uterus and ovary. In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CCN2/CTGF is required for matrix organization and to protect growth plate chondrocytes from cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Glenn, Faith; Aivazi, Armen; Akopyan, Lusi; Ong, Jessica R; Baxter, Ruth R; Benya, Paul D; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Nieuwenhoven, Frans A; Hunziker, Ernst B; Lyons, Karen M

    2013-08-01

    CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2)) is a matricellular protein that utilizes integrins to regulate cell proliferation, migration and survival. The loss of CCN2 leads to perinatal lethality resulting from a severe chondrodysplasia. Upon closer inspection of Ccn2 mutant mice, we observed defects in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and hypothesized that the severe chondrodysplasia caused by loss of CCN2 might be associated with defective chondrocyte survival. Ccn2 mutant growth plate chondrocytes exhibited enlarged endoplasmic reticula (ER), suggesting cellular stress. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed elevated stress in Ccn2 mutants, with reduced stress observed in Ccn2 overexpressing transgenic mice. In vitro studies revealed that Ccn2 is a stress responsive gene in chondrocytes. The elevated stress observed in Ccn2-/- chondrocytes is direct and mediated in part through integrin α5. The expression of the survival marker NFκB and components of the autophagy pathway were decreased in Ccn2 mutant growth plates, suggesting that CCN2 may be involved in mediating chondrocyte survival. These data demonstrate that absence of a matricellular protein can result in increased cellular stress and highlight a novel protective role for CCN2 in chondrocyte survival. The severe chondrodysplasia caused by the loss of CCN2 may be due to increased chondrocyte stress and defective activation of autophagy pathways, leading to decreased cellular survival. These effects may be mediated through nuclear factor κB (NFκB) as part of a CCN2/integrin/NFκB signaling cascade.

  9. History of cervical insufficiency increases the risk of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence in parous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, David; Addae-Konaedu, Kateena L; Bauer, Alison M; Dawodu, Konyinsola I; Hackney, David N; El-Nashar, Sherif A

    2018-01-01

    A likely contributor to pelvic floor disorders is injury and degradation of connective tissue components such as collagen and elastin, leading to weakening of the pelvic floor. Prior studies have found similar connective tissue component changes in women with cervical insufficiency (CI). However, the connection between pelvic floor disorders and cervical insufficiency has not previously been evaluated. Our objective was to determine whether a history of cervical insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence after controlling for confounders. The study used de-identified clinical data from a large multi-institution electronic health records HIPAA-compliant data web application, Explorys Inc. (Cleveland, Ohio, USA). Women with a history of at least one prior delivery after at least 20 weeks' gestation between the years 1999 and 2016 were identified. Logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors and adjust for confounders. The primary outcome was subsequent development of either stress incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. A total of 1,182,650 women were identified, of whom 30,890 (2.6%) had a history of cervical cerclage or insufficiency. A history of cervical insufficiency was associated with an increased risk of either pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence (aOR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.84-2.02). A history of cervical insufficiency was more strongly associated with an increased risk of pelvic organ prolapse (aOR=2.06, 95%CI: 1.91-2.21) than with stress urinary incontinence (aOR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.80-2.02). A history of cervical insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of development of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Mark D; Houk, Ronald J T; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Talin, A Alec; Pikarsky, Joel; Choudhury, Arnab; Gall, Kenneth A; Hesketh, Peter J

    2008-11-05

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N2 or O2. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO2. Finally, we report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes.

  11. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC-MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da. FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products.

  12. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the brain subfornical organ contributes to sex differences in angiotensin-dependent hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S-Y; Fan, J; Shen, Y; He, J-J; Peng, W

    2016-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the brain subfornical organ (SFO), a key cardiovascular regulatory centre, has been implicated in angiotensin (ANG) II-induced hypertension in males; however, the contribution of ER stress to ANG II-induced hypertension in females is unknown. Female hormones have been shown to prevent ER stress in the periphery. We tested the hypothesis that females are less susceptible to ANG II-induced SFO ER stress than males, leading to sex differences in hypertension. Male, intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received a continuous 2-week subcutaneous infusion of ANG II or saline. Additional male, intact and OVX female rats received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ER stress inducer tunicamycin. ANG II, but not saline, increased blood pressure (BP) in both males and females, but intact females exhibited smaller increase in BP and less depressor response to ganglionic blockade compared with males or OVX females. Molecular studies revealed that ANG II elevated expression of ER stress biomarkers and Fra-like activity in the SFO in both males and females; however, elevations in these parameters were less in intact females than in males or OVX females. Moreover, ICV tunicamycin induced smaller elevation in BP and less increase in expression of ER stress biomarkers in the SFO in intact females compared with males or OVX females. The results suggest that differences in ANG II-induced brain ER stress between males and females contribute to sex differences in ANG II-mediated hypertension and that oestrogen protects females against ANG II-induced brain ER stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  15. The fifth leaf and spike organs of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) display different physiological and metabolic responses to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jordan A; Sherrard, Mark E; Manfredi, Kirk P; Abebe, Tilahun

    2016-11-09

    Photosynthetic organs of the cereal spike (ear) provide assimilate for grain filling, but their response to drought is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the drought response of individual organs of the barley spike (awn, lemma, and palea) and compared them with a vegetative organ (fifth leaf). Understanding differences in physiological and metabolic responses between the leaf and spike organs during drought can help us develop high yielding cultivars for environments where terminal drought is prevalent. We exposed barley plants to drought by withholding water for 4 days at the grain filling stage and compared changes in: (1) relative water content (RWC), (2) osmotic potential (Ψ s ), (3) osmotic adjustment (OA), (4) gas exchange, and (5) metabolite content between organs. Drought reduced RWC and Ψ s in all four organs, but the decrease in RWC was greater and there was a smaller change in Ψ s in the fifth leaf than the spike organs. We detected evidence of OA in the awn, lemma, and palea, but not in the fifth leaf. Rates of gas exchange declined more rapidly in the fifth leaf than awn during drought. We identified 18 metabolites but, only ten metabolites accumulated significantly during drought in one or more organs. Among these, proline accumulated in all organs during drought while accumulation of the other metabolites varied between organs. This may suggest that each organ in the same plant uses a different set of osmolytes for drought resistance. Our results suggest that photosynthetic organs of the barley spike maintain higher water content, greater osmotic adjustment, and higher rates of gas exchange than the leaf during drought.

  16. Ghrelin Pre-treatment Attenuates Local Oxidative Stress and End Organ Damage During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Yutaka; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Pearson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced systemic inflammation significantly contributes to the development of postoperative complications, including respiratory failure, myocardial, renal and neurological dysfunction and ultimately can lead to failure of multiple organs. Ghrelin is a small endogenous peptide with wide ranging physiological effects on metabolism and cardiovascular regulation. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of ghrelin against CPB-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress and acute organ damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats randomly received vehicle (n = 5) or a bolus of ghrelin (150 μg/kg, sc, n = 5) and were subjected to CPB for 4 h (protocol 1). In separate rats, ghrelin pre-treatment (protocol 2) was compared to two doses of ghrelin (protocol 3) before and after CPB for 2 h followed by recovery for 2 h. Blood samples were taken prior to CPB, and following CPB at 2 h and 4 h. Organ nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was measured by Western blotting. CPB induced leukocytosis with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 indicating a potent inflammatory response. Ghrelin treatment significantly reduced plasma organ damage markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and protein levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, particularly in the brain, lung and liver, but only partly suppressed inflammatory cell invasion and did not reduce proinflammatory cytokine production. Ghrelin partially attenuated the CPB-induced elevation of epinephrine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine when compared to the CPB saline group, while dopamine levels were completely suppressed. Ghrelin treatment sustained plasma levels of reduced glutathione and decreased glutathione disulphide when compared to CPB saline rats. These results suggest that even though ghrelin only partially inhibited the large CPB induced increase in catecholamines and organ macrophage infiltration, it reduced oxidative

  17. Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    cis-Acting regulatory elements are important molecular switches involved in the transcriptional regulation of a dynamic network of gene activities controlling various biological processes, including abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and developmental processes. In particular, understanding regulatory gene networks in stress response cascades depends on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. The ever-improving accuracy of transcriptome expression profiling has led to the identification of various combinations of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes involved in stress and hormone responses. Here we discuss major cis-acting elements, such as the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and the dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat (DRE/CRT), that are a vital part of ABA-dependent and ABA-independent gene expression in osmotic and cold stress responses.

  18. ``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.

    1994-10-01

    Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ≈ ca. 120 Pa à φ = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants

  19. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  20. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  1. Supplementation of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil mediates potassium bromate induced oxidative stress and multiple organ toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabeer; Pasha, Imran; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2012-01-01

    The plants and their functional ingredients hold potential to cure various maladies and number of plants hold therapeutic potential. The present research was designed study the health promoting potential of black cumin (Nigella sativa) fixed oil (BCFO) and essential oil (BCEO) against oxidative stress with special reference to multiple organ toxicity. For the purpose, thirty rats (Strain: Sprague Dawley) were procured and divided into three groups (10 rats/group). The groups were fed on their respective diets i.e. D1 (control), D2 (BCFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (BCEO @ 0.30%) for a period of 56 days. Mild oxidative stress was induced with the help of potassium bromate injection @ 45 mg/Kg body weight. Furthermore, the levels of cardiac and liver enzymes were assayed. The results indicated that oxidative stress increased the activities of cardiac and liver enzymes. However, supplementation of BCFO and BCEO was effective in reducing the abnormal values of enzymes. Elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CPK and CPK-MB were reduced from 456 to 231, 176 to 122 and 45 to 36mg/dL, respectively. Similarly, liver enzymes were also reduced. However, the results revealed that BCEO supplementation @ 0.30% is more effectual in ameliorating the multiple organ toxicity in oxidative stressed animal modelling. In the nutshell, it can be assumed that black cumin essential oil is more effective in reducing the extent of potassium bromate induced multiple organ toxicity (cardiac and liver enzymes imbalance) that will ultimately helpful in reducing the extent of myocardial and liver necrosis.

  2. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...... often rely heavily on services provided by governments. We test this proposition using micro-level survey data from the Afrobaromenter. Multilevel regressions across 18 countries show that poor people are much more prone to experience having to pay bribes to government officials....

  3. Osmotic stress alters the balance between organic and inorganic solutes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéro, Anthony; Molinié, Roland; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Petit, Emmanuel; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Guillot, Xavier; Mesnard, François; Courtois, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is grown for its oil and its fiber. This crop, cultivated in temperate regions, has seen a renewed interest due to the presence of abundant molecules of interest for many applications. Little information is available about the behavior of flax during osmotic stress; yet this is considered a major stress that causes significant yield losses in most crops. To control the presence of this stress better, flax behavior was investigated following the application of osmotic stress and the response was examined by applying increasing concentrations of PEG 8000. This resulted in the reorganization of 32 metabolites and 6 mineral ions in the leaves. The analysis of these two types of solute highlighted the contrasting behavior between a higher metabolite content (particularly fructose, glucose and proline) and a decrease in mineral ions (especially nitrate and potassium) following PEG treatment. However, this reorganization did not lead to a greater accumulation of solutes, with the total amount remaining unchanged in leaves during osmotic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of organic additives on preferred plane and residual stress of copper electroplated on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Heesan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the preferred plane and the residual stress of an electroplated copper on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-N,N-dimethylaminodithiocarbamoyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (DPS) were studied. Polyimide film coated with sputtered copper was used as a substrate. Preferred plane, residual stress, and impurity level in the electroplated copper were measured by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD), calculated by Stoney's equation, and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SMS), respectively. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) while with increasing the concentration of DPS, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 1 0), (1 0 0), and (1 1 1). Based on the modified preferred growth model, where the amount of additive adsorbed on a plane is newly assumed to be proportional to its surface energy in vacuum, the predicted preferred planes correspond to the experimental results. The residual stress of the electroplated copper depended on the type of additive as well as its concentration but was independent of the preferred plane. For example, PEG and DPS induced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the electroplated copper, respectively, and their magnitudes increased with their concentrations. The dependency of residual stress on the additives was explained by the incorporated additives into the electroplated copper.

  5. Stress-rupture lifetimes of organic fiber-epoxy strands and pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.T.; Chiu, I.L.; Gates, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term behavior of filament-wound pressure vessels were tested, Kevlar 49 epoxy strands were studied in stress-rupture for more than a year. Because the strands are the smallest structural unit in filament winding, their behavior directly controls the performance of vessels. Five different stress levels were studied: 86, 80, 74, 68, and 50% of the mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS). At each stress level, approximately one-hundred strands were hung in a room maintained at 22 to 24 0 C and below 20% relative humidity. Failure times were automatically recorded by a data acquisition system. Lifetimes were analyzed statistically using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. The maximum-likelihood method was used to estimate the parameters. The shape parameter, which is a measure of scatter and failure-rate change, increased with decreasing stress level. Less scatter and increasing failure rates were observed at lower stresses. There was no sign of an endurance limit down to 68% UTS. At 50% UTS no failure had yet occurred after 9000 h. The strand data were compared with data on lifetimes of pressure vessels wound with the same fiber and epoxy. The strands had slightly longer characteristic lifetimes, except at 86% UTS, and slightly less scatter, except at 68% UTS. The results of this study indicate that strands can provide valuable information about the long-term performance of filament-wound pressure vessels

  6. Accounting for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists have long tried to understand the nature of poverty and how poor people make decisions. For example, T.W. Schultz, a Nobel Laureate, former professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and former president of the American Economic Association, spent his career working in development and agricultural economics. In his 1980 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schultz suggests that there is some accounting for the behavior of the poor in agriculture. "Fa...

  7. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Attachment organization in Arabic-speaking refugees with post traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees......, 42% Preoccupied, 5% Cannot Classify) was found, in addition to high intake levels of post traumatic stress symptoms and comorbidity. Findings are compared with AAI studies of other PTSD or trauma samples, and the paper elaborates upon the methodological challenges in administering the AAI...

  9. Performance of organic field effect transistors with high-k gate oxide after application of consecutive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Changhwan; Lee, Kilbock [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Joong Hwee [Department of Embedded Systems Engineering,University of Incheon, Incheon 406-722 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki-Young [Korea Institute of Patent Information, Seoul, 146-8 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: jhahn@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-30

    We report the effect of consecutive electrical stress on the performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Sputtered aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) were used as gate oxide layers. After the electrical stress, the threshold voltage, which strongly depends on bulk defects, was remarkably shifted to the negative direction, while the other performance characteristics of OFETs such as on-current, transconductance and mobility, which are sensitive to interface defects, were slightly decreased. This result implies that the defects in the bulk layer are significantly affected compared to the defects in the interface layer. Thus, it is important to control the defects in the pentacene bulk layer in order to maintain the good reliabilities of pentacene devices. Those defects in HfO{sub 2} gate oxide devices were larger compared to those in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide devices.

  10. Glutaredoxins in plant development, abiotic stress response, and iron homeostasis: From model organisms to crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress require the judicious balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are a group of oxidoreductases that participate in the control of ROS and are traditionally defined as redox regulators. New studies suggest the member...

  11. Classroom Organization and Teacher Stress Predict Learning Motivation in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which observed teaching practices and self-reported teacher stress predict children's learning motivation and phonological awareness in kindergarten. The pre-reading skills of 1,268 children were measured at the beginning of their kindergarten year. Their learning motivation and phonological awareness were…

  12. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3′,-5′-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 899–942. PMID:26261901

  13. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2015-10-10

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed.

  14. Relationship of antioxidant and oxidative stress markers in different organs following copper toxicity in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Kalita, Jayantee, E-mail: jayanteek@yahoo.com [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Bora, Himangsu K. [National Laboratory Animal Centre, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2016-02-15

    Copper (Cu) at a higher level becomes toxic and it can catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radical. We report the vulnerability of liver, kidney and brain to different dose of copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) induced oxidative stress at different time duration. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (weight range = 205 ± 10 g) were equally divided into three groups. CuSO{sub 4} was administered orally to the experimental groups (Group-II and III) up to 90 days in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight per day. Saline water was given to the control group (Group-I). At the end of 30, 60 and 90 days of administration, neurobehavioral studies were done and six rats from each group were sacrificed. Their liver, kidney and brain tissues were subjected for Cu, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, bilirubin and transaminases were measured. GSH, TAC and MDA levels were correlated with the markers of respective organ dysfunction. Administration of CuSO{sub 4} resulted in increased free Cu and MDA level, and decrease GSH and TAC levels in group-II and III compared with group-I. In experimental groups, the reduction in TAC and GSH levels was maximum in liver tissue followed by brain and kidney; whereas increase in MDA level was highest in liver followed by brain and kidney at 30, 60 and 90 days. TAC and GSH levels in the liver inversely correlated with serum transaminases and bilirubin, and tissue free Cu, and positively correlated with MDA levels. Free Cu level in kidney tissue and BUN inversely correlated with TAC and GSH, and positively with MDA level. Grip-strength, rotarod and Y-maze findings were inversely correlated with brain free Cu and MDA levels and positively with GSH and TAC levels. The oxidative stress was highest in liver followed by brain and kidney after oral CuSO{sub 4} exposure in a rat model. These levels correlated with the respective organ dysfunction and tissue

  15. Different organization of base excision repair of uracil in DNA in nuclei and mitochondria and selective upregulation of mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylase after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, M; Otterlei, M; Pena Diaz, Javier

    2007-01-01

    , indicating regulatory effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial BER. To examine the overall organization of uracil-BER in nuclei and mitochondria, we constructed cell lines expressing EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) fused to UNG1 or UNG2. These were used to investigate the possible presence...... BER processes are differently organized. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA for mitochondrial UNG1 after oxidative stress indicates that it may have an important role in repair of oxidized pyrimidines....

  16. Rice sHsp genes: genomic organization and expression profiling under stress and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Anil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps constitute an important component in the heat shock response of all living systems. Among the various plant Hsps (i.e. Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20, Hsp20 or small Hsps (sHsps are expressed in maximal amounts under high temperature stress. The characteristic feature of the sHsps is the presence of α-crystallin domain (ACD at the C-terminus. sHsps cooperate with Hsp100/Hsp70 and co-chaperones in ATP-dependent manner in preventing aggregation of cellular proteins and in their subsequent refolding. Database search was performed to investigate the sHsp gene family across rice genome sequence followed by comprehensive expression analysis of these genes. Results We identified 40 α-crystallin domain containing genes in rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 out of these 40 genes constitute sHsps. The additional 17 genes containing ACD clustered with Acd proteins of Arabidopsis. Detailed scrutiny of 23 sHsp sequences enabled us to categorize these proteins in a revised scheme of classification constituting of 16 cytoplasmic/nuclear, 2 ER, 3 mitochondrial, 1 plastid and 1 peroxisomal genes. In the new classification proposed herein nucleo-cytoplasmic class of sHsps with 9 subfamilies is more complex in rice than in Arabidopsis. Strikingly, 17 of 23 rice sHsp genes were noted to be intronless. Expression analysis based on microarray and RT-PCR showed that 19 sHsp genes were upregulated by high temperature stress. Besides heat stress, expression of sHsp genes was up or downregulated by other abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to stress regulation, various sHsp genes were differentially upregulated at different developmental stages of the rice plant. Majority of sHsp genes were expressed in seed. Conclusion We identified twenty three sHsp genes and seventeen Acd genes in rice. Three nucleocytoplasmic sHsp genes were found only in monocots. Analysis of expression profiling of sHsp genes revealed

  17. Dimensions of control as related to work organization, stress, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how increased worker control-on the individual as well as on collective level-may be a means to reduce the risk of work environment-related stress and diseases. Control is also an important element in socialization processes and in work reform activities directed to a democratization of working life. The concept of control connects a number of research perspectives. It deals with the individual and the collective level, as well as the relationship between them, and it may be a bridge between a social psychological and a psychobiological perspective. In this article, the author considers the control concept primarily from a stress perspective, but also examines how production techniques, legislation, and management strategies create the structure of control at work.

  18. Light, stress and herbivory : from photoprotection to trophic interactions using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the most important process for nearly all life on earth. Photosynthetic organisms capture and transfer light energy from the sun into chemical energy which in turn provides a resource base for heterotrophic organisms. Natural light regimes are irregular and vary over magnitudes. At a certain light intensity, metabolic processes cannot keep up with the electron flow produced by the primary photoreactions, and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. ROS are highly rea...

  19. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals...

  20. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Majority (60%) of the patients were reviewed at least twice in the last 6 months at the time of the interview. 195 (83%) patients reported that drugs prescribed were not available at the hospital pharmacy, but 186 (79%) of. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence. In Hypertensive Patients In Lusaka, Zambia. 1,4. 1.

  1. Use of Concomitant Stress Incontinence Surgery at Time of Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery Since Release of the 2011 Notification on Serious Complications Associated with Transvaginal Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Alice; Khan, Aqsa; Ohmann, Erin L; Brucker, Benjamin M; Smilen, Scott; Rosenblum, Nirit; Nitti, Victor W

    2017-04-01

    There is controversy regarding the performance of concomitant anti-incontinence procedures at the time of pelvic organ prolapse repair. Data support improvement in stress urinary incontinence with a concomitant sling but increased adverse events. We assessed trends in preoperative stress urinary incontinence evaluation, concomitant anti-incontinence procedure at pelvic organ prolapse surgery and postoperative anti-incontinence procedures at our institution before and after the 2011 FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) Public Health Notification pertaining to vaginal mesh. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery from 2009 to 2015. Preoperative workup included assessment of subjective stress urinary incontinence and/or evaluation for leakage with reduction of pelvic organ prolapse on physical examination, urodynamics or a pessary trial. The percentages of concomitant and postoperative anti-incontinence procedures were compared before and after the 2011 FDA notification. A total of 775 women underwent pelvic organ prolapse repair. The percentage of anti-incontinence procedures at pelvic organ prolapse repair decreased from 54.8% to 38.0% after the FDA notification (p = 0.002) while the incidence of preoperative objective stress urinary incontinence on examination, urodynamics and pessary trials remained constant. The incidence of postoperative anti-incontinence procedures within 1 year of the index surgery remained low. We found a decrease in the incidence of concomitant anti-incontinence procedures at the time of pelvic organ prolapse repair following the 2011 FDA notification despite no significant decline in subjective stress urinary incontinence or demonstrable stress urinary incontinence on preoperative evaluation. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the FDA notification on treatment patterns in women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Effects of organic pollution and physical stress on benthic macroinvertebrate communities from two intermittently closed and open coastal lagoons (ICOLLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and environmental conditions were studied in two intermittently closed and open coastal lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs), located in southern Algarve (Foz do Almargem e Salgados), with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution, originated mainly from wastewater discharges, and the physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoons. Most of the year, lagoons were isolated from the sea, receiving the freshwater inputs from small rivers and in Salgados, also from the effluents of a wastewater plant. According to environmental and biotic conditions, Foz do Almargem presented a greater marine influence and a lower trophic state (mesotrophic) than Salgados (hypereutrophic). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the lagoons were distinct, just as their relations with environmental parameters. Mollusca were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in Foz do Almargem, while Insecta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea were more relevant in Salgados. Corophium multisetosum occurred exclusively in Salgados stations and, just as Chironomus sp., other Insecta and Oligochaeta, densities were positively related to total phosphorus, clay content and chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment, chlorophyll a concentration in water and with total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Abra segmentum, Cerastoderma glaucum, Peringia ulvae and Ecrobia ventrosa occurred only in Foz do Almargem, with lower values of the above mentioned parameters. Both lagoons were dominated by deposit feeders and taxa tolerant to environmental stress, although in Salgados there was a greater occurrence of opportunistic taxa associated to pronounced unbalanced situations, due to excess organic matter enrichment.

  3. RodZ and PgsA Play Intertwined Roles in Membrane Homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and Resistance to Weak Organic Acid Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Johan; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Folkerts, Hendrik; de Boer, Richard; Zakrzewska, Anna; Kulik, Wim; Vaz, Fred M.; Brul, Stanley; Ter Beek, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene

  4. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+)) from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+) level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+)ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible nature of this

  5. Assessment of Stress Risks and Learning Opportunities in the Work Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.D.; Peeters, M.H.H.; Vaas, F.; Dhondt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Organizational innovation and recent European legislation on work organization require instruments, to be used by practitioners, for the assessment of jobs and the redesign of the structure of the division of labour. In The Netherlands the so-called WEBA-instrument (conditions for well-being at

  6. Kitchen Organization in Full-Service Restaurants: Reducing Heat and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available How a restaurant kitchen is organized directly correlates to how the guest receives an experience. The authors investigated five different kitchens to find out how their design impacted its front and back of house staff, and guests experience.

  7. STRESS IN THE AIR: INHALED POLLUTANTS AND MULTI-ORGAN IMPAIRMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution has been blamed for nearly 7 million premature deaths worldwide. For decades, the research on how air pollution impacts human health has centered on cardiopulmonary consequences. However, more recently it is clearly evident that air pollution affects every organ in ...

  8. Specific oxidative stress parameters differently correlate with nailfold capillaroscopy changes and organ involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccieri, Valeria; Spadaro, Antonio; Fuksa, Leos; Firuzi, Omidreza; Saso, Luciano; Valesini, Guido

    2008-02-01

    Oxidative stress is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to clarify such a hypothesis by determination of four different plasmatic parameters of oxidative stress, and to define its role in the microvascular damage, assessed by nailfold capillaroscopy (NC). Plasma samples of 18 patients with SSc were analyzed. The biomarkers measured were: total antioxidant capacity, hydroperoxides (ROOHs), and sulfhydryl (SH) and carbonyl (CO) groups. Each patient had a detailed clinical assessment and underwent an NC. The results showed significantly increased ROOHs in SSc patients compared to control group (5.02 +/- 0.24 vs 3.28 +/- 0.19 micromol/l; p capillaroscopy semiquantitative rating scale score (p < 0.05) and with the rating system for avascular areas (p < 0.03). The levels of CO groups inversely correlated with modified Rodnan's skin score (p < 0.039) and were lower in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (p < 0.045), while the levels of SH groups were lower in those presenting gastrointestinal involvement (p < 0.029). The obtained data indicate augmented free radical-mediated injury in SSc and also show correlations among oxidative abnormalities, some clinical findings, and signs of a more severe microvascular involvement. These results give more evidence to the connection between oxidative impairment and SSc.

  9. Casting of organic glass by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at low temperature. II. Optical strain of remaining stress type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kaetsu, I.; Honda, S.

    1978-01-01

    Previously it was found that casting could be carried out efficiently without strain formation by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers. Two types of strain were observed in casting: thermal stream type, which was studied previously, and remained stress type. In this report, the effect of various factors on the formation of remaining stress-type strain in radiation-induced casting polymerization was studied. It was found that the molecular weight of prepolymer did not affect strain formation, while prepolymer concentration and viscosity of the system had a serious influence on strain formation. It could be deduced that this type of strain formed as a result of remaining inner stress due to poor relaxation of the shrinking stress. It was realized that less volume shrinkage of glass-forming monomers accompanying casting polymerization reduced the strain formation of this type in radiation-induced casting polymerization at low temperatures

  10. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING MODELS OF STRESS-TESTING OF THE TRADING PORTFOLIO OF FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimbaev Farkhad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis gave an impetus to finding “weaknesses” in financial institutions. One such tool is the stress-testing. This method is intended to identify through modeling “hypothetical” or “historical” scenarios, the most losses, in the execution of a script. In the simulation of hypothetical scenarios to find the impact factor, as shock events on the trade portfolio. When using historical scenarios, as the shocks applied developments in the past that have caused catastrophic losses, both in quantitative and qualitative size. For example, such scenarios can be: financial crises of the 90-ies and the current decline in international stock markets, a drop or increase in foreign exchange rates, etc.

  11. Comparative transcriptomics indicate changes in cell wall organization and stress response in seedlings during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christina M; Subramanian, Aswati; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Correll, Melanie J; Kiss, John Z

    2017-08-21

    Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part of bioregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on gene expression in plant development. We analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The bioinformatics methods used included RMA (robust multi-array average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5.0), and PLIER (probe logarithmic intensity error estimation). Glycome profiling was used to analyze cell wall composition in the samples. In addition, our results were compared to those of two other groups using the same hardware on the same mission (BRIC-16). In our BRIC-16 experiments, we noted expression changes in genes involved in hypoxia and heat shock responses, DNA repair, and cell wall structure between spaceflight samples compared to the ground controls. In addition, glycome profiling supported our expression analyses in that there was a difference in cell wall components between ground control and spaceflight-grown plants. Comparing our studies to those of the other BRIC-16 experiments demonstrated that, even with the same hardware and similar biological materials, differences in results in gene expression were found among these spaceflight experiments. A common theme from our BRIC-16 space experiments and those of the other two groups was the downregulation of water stress response genes in spaceflight. In addition, all three studies found differential regulation of genes associated with cell wall remodeling and stress responses between spaceflight-grown and ground control plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Petra

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.

  13. Complications of Transvaginal Mesh for Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence: Tips for Prevention, Recognition, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Susan; Terlecki, Ryan; Costantini, Elisabetta; Badlani, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    Mesh-related complications following transvaginal management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have received significant attention in the last decade. We sought to identify patient, product, and technical factors associated with an increased risk of complications after mesh-based transvaginal repair of anterior POP and SUI. In this review we clarify the different pattern of complications after POP and SUI repairs. Our aim is to provide a practical evidence-based guide for physicians to prevent and, if necessary, manage product-associated complications in a stepwise manner. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search of all English-language articles published from 2010 to June 2016, using these search terms: mesh, pelvic organ prolapse, and stress urinary incontinence. Expert opinion is also provided. Mesh-related complications are much lower after repair of SUI compared with POP, despite its more frequent use. Vaginal exposure is the most common mesh-specific complication. Patients may present with vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, pain, recurrent urinary tract infection, and/or hematuria. Conversely, patients may be asymptomatic. Small asymptomatic mesh exposures (mesh encountered within the urinary tract must be fully excised. Following excision, pain may persist in up to 50% of patients. Vaginal extrusion, persistent pain, and urethral and/or bladder erosion are the three most common product-specific complications following mesh-based repair for SUI or POP. Conservative therapies may be attempted, but most patients ultimately require partial or complete mesh excision. We reviewed the recent literature on mesh-related complications after repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Vaginal exposure, persistent pain, and erosion into the urinary tract are the most common. These often require surgical management, best suited to a urologist with training and experience in this area. Evidence supports

  14. Occupational Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Löblová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...

  15. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  16. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Energy poor or fuel poor: What are the differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kang; Lloyd, Bob; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Energy poverty and fuel poverty are descriptors of problems of households' energy consumption, they are both distinct problems and have been addressed by many researchers, organizations and governments. Cross use of the terms of energy poverty and fuel poverty in published papers is common. As an accurate descriptor is the presupposition of research and policy development, especially for those who just started to pay attention to this issue, this paper compares the definitions, research priorities, status quo, and problems of these two concepts, and summarizes the relationship between them. The paper suggests that only when the research targets are households who are living in a cold climate and have difficulty in getting access to electricity or modern cooking facilities, and in supplying indoor heating with appropriate cost, the concepts of energy poverty and fuel poverty have the chance to be broadened and mutually integrated. - Highlights: • Address energy poverty and fuel poverty simultaneously. • Compare energy poverty and fuel poverty from 4 perspectives. • Summarize the relationship between energy poverty and fuel poverty. • Divide energy poor and fuel poor into three categories

  18. Adjusting membrane lipids under salt stress: the case of the moderate halophilic organism Halobacillus halophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Patrizia; Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Köcher, Saskia; Thompson, Melanie; Müller, Volker; Corcelli, Angela

    2013-04-01

    The lipid composition of Halobacillus halophilus was investigated by combined thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of the total lipid extract. Main polar lipids were found to be sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, while cardiolipin was a minor lipid together with phosphatidic acid, alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol and two not yet fully identified lipid components. In addition the analyses of residual lipids, associated with denatured proteins after the lipid extraction, revealed the presence of significant amounts of cardiolipin, indicating that it is a not readily extractable phospholipid. Post decay source mass spectrometry analyses allowed the determination of acyl chains of main lipid components. On increasing the culture medium salinity, an increase in the shorter chains and the presence of chain unsaturations were observed. These changes in the lipid core structures might compensate for the increase in packing and rigidity of phospholipid and sulfoglycolipid polar heads in high-salt medium, therefore contributing to the homeostasis of membrane fluidity and permeability in salt stress conditions. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A case of multiple organ failure induced by postoperative radiation therapy probably evoking oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Akinori; Ishizuka, Shynji; Suzuki, Michihiko; Minoshima, Shinobu; Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Kitamoto, Kiyoshi; Nagasawa, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, several laboratories have suggested that serum levels of antioxidant activity and redox balance are reduced in patients with chronic renal failure. Some clinical reports have also proposed that defective serum antioxidative enzymes may contribute to a certain uremic toxicity through peroxidative cell damage. A 48-year-old woman was referred to us from the surgical department of our hospital because of consciousness disturbance, panctytopenia and acute acceleration of chronic azotemia after postoperative radiation therapy. We diagnosed acute acceleration of chronic renal failure with severe acidemia and started hemodialysis therapy immediately. Two days after admission to our department, she developed upper abdominal sharp pain and bradyarrhythmia. Serum amylase activity was elevated markedly and the ECG finding showed myocardial ischemia. On the 24th hospital day these complications were treated successfully with conservative therapy and hemodialysis. We considered that radiation therapy in this patient with chronic renal failure evoked marked oxidative stress and that deficiency of transferrin played an important role in peroxidative cell damage. (author)

  20. The contribution of oxidative stress to drug-induced organ toxicity and its detection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudia V; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Oliveira, Paulo J; Will, Yvonne

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays the 'redox hypothesis' is based on the fact that thiol/disulfide couples such as glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine (Cys/CySS) and thioredoxin ((Trx-(SH)2/Trx-SS)) are functionally organized in redox circuits controlled by glutathione pools, thioredoxins and other control nodes, and they are not in equilibrium relative to each other. Although ROS can be important intermediates of cellular signaling pathways, disturbances in the normal cellular redox can result in widespread damage to several cell components. Moreover, oxidative stress has been linked to a variety of age-related diseases. In recent years, oxidative stress has also been identified to contribute to drug-induced liver, heart, renal and brain toxicity. This review provides an overview of current in vitro and in vivo methods that can be deployed throughout the drug discovery process. In addition, animal models and noninvasive biomarkers are described. Reducing post-market drug withdrawals is essential for all pharmaceutical companies in a time of increased patient welfare and tight budgets. Predictive screens positioned early in the drug discovery process will help to reduce such liabilities. Although new and more efficient assays and models are being developed, the hunt for biomarkers and noninvasive techniques is still in progress.

  1. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  3. Saccharomyces interspecies hybrids as model organisms for studying yeast adaptation to stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopandic, Ksenija

    2018-01-01

    The strong development of molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies in the last two decades has significantly improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of Saccharomyces yeasts. It has been shown that many strains isolated from man-made environments are not pure genetic lines, but contain genetic materials from different species that substantially increase their genome complexity. A number of strains have been described as interspecies hybrids, implying different yeast species that under specific circumstances exchange and recombine their genomes. Such fusing usually results in a wide variety of alterations at the genetic and chromosomal levels. The observed changes have suggested a high genome plasticity and a significant role of interspecies hybridization in the adaptation of yeasts to environmental stresses and industrial processes. There is a high probability that harsh wine and beer fermentation environments, from which the majority of interspecies hybrids have been isolated so far, influence their selection and stabilization as well as their genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The lessons we have learned about geno- and phenotype plasticity and the diversity of natural and commercial yeast hybrids have already had a strong impact on the development of artificial hybrids that can be successfully used in the fermentation-based food and beverage industry. The creation of artificial hybrids through the crossing of strains with desired attributes is a possibility to obtain a vast variety of new, but not genetically modified yeasts with a range of improved and beneficial traits. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  5. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. Methods: The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying a...

  6. Reproductive organ and vascular specific promoter of the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase mediates environmental stress responses in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Md Kamrul Huda

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca(2+ from the cell, hence regulating Ca(2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca(2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied.The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The -1478 to -886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for -1210 and -886 bp flanking region. The -1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The -1210 and -886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the -886 bp and -519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs.The rice plasma membrane Ca(2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue-specificity and inducible

  7. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  8. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Perception is reality: How patients contribute to poor workplace safety perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; DelliFraine, Jami L; Brannon, S Diane

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and aides are among the occupational subgroups with the highest injury rates and workdays lost to illness and injury in North America. Many studies have shown that these incidents frequently happen during provision of patient care. Moreover, health care workplaces are a source of numerous safety risks that contribute to worker injuries. These findings identify health care as a high-risk occupation for employee injury or illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among patient care, employee safety perceptions, and employee stress. Using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Model of Job Stress and Health as a foundation, we developed and tested a conceptual workplace safety climate-stress model that explicates how caring for high-risk patients is a safety stressor that has negative outcomes for health care providers, including poor workplace safety perceptions and increasing stress levels. We introduced the concept of "high-risk patients" and define them as those who put providers at greater risk for injury or illness. Using a nonexperimental survey design, we examined patient types and safety perceptions of health care providers (nurses, aides, and allied health) in an acute care hospital. Health care providers who care for high-risk patients more frequently have poor safety climate perceptions and higher stress levels. Safety climate was found to mediate the relationship between high-risk patients and stress. These findings bring insight into actions health care organizations can pursue to improve health care provider well-being. Recognizing that different patients present different risks and pursuing staffing, training, and equipment to minimize employee risk of injury will help reduce the staggering injury rates experienced by these employees. Moreover, minimizing employee stress over poor workplace safety is achievable through comprehensive workplace safety climate programs that include supervisor, management

  11. Selol, an organic selenium donor, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Agnieszka; Wilkaniec, Anna; Jęśko, Henryk; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Lenkiewicz, Anna M; Kurek, Eliza; Wroczyński, Piotr; Adamczyk, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are key intertwined pathological factors in many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disorders as well as autism. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Selol, an organic selenium donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the peripheral administration of LPS in a dose of 100 μg/kg b.w. evoked typical pathological reaction known as systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, we observed elevated blood levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, as well as increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-treated animals. Selol significantly prevented these LPS-evoked changes. Subsequently, Selol protected against LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (Tnfa, Ifng, Il6) in rat brain cortex. The molecular mechanisms through which Selol prevented the neuroinflammation were associated with the inhibition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) accumulation and with an increase of glutathione-associated enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and expression. Finally, we observed that Selol administration effectively protected against LPS-induced changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). In conclusion, our studies indicated that Selol effectively protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release, by boosting antioxidant systems, and by augmenting BDNF level. Therefore, Selol could be a multi-potent and effective drug useful in the treatment and prevention of brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Relationship between personality organization and the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among university students in health careers in the Region of Coquimbo, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, René Barraza; Navarro, Nadia Muñoz; Astorga, Ana Contreras

    The literature reports a set of variables associated with depression, anxiety and stress in health career students. The only one of these that could have a constant input is the structure of personality organisation. The present study aims to determine the relationship between the dimensions of personality organization and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms reported by first-year university health career students. Under a non-experimental ex-post-facto design, the personality organisation was evaluated in 235 1st year university, medical, nursing, and kinesiology from three universities of La Serena and Coquimbo (Chile). Inventory of personality organization and scale of depression, anxiety and stress to sift participants was used. The relationship of personality with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms was determined by multiple regression analysis. It was found that the primary and overall personality dimensions explained 28% of the variance of depression (Pstress 22%, with the use of primitive defenses and identity diffusion dimensions that largely contribute to the explanatory model. The dimensions of personality organization could have a significant relationship with the emergence of depression, anxiety and stress, as the explanatory burden dimension provides the primitive defenses and identity diffusion. These results may be useful for early recognition of aspects of personality of applicants, and to perform actions that strengthen them in order to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  14. In vitro assessment of environmental stress of persistent organic pollutants on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kuntong; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Lingli; Zhang, Mei; Yi, Meisheng; Wu, Yuping

    2015-12-25

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are detected ubiquitously and are linked to range of adverse health effects. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin inhabited the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, where high concentrations of POPs have been reported. This study evaluated the threats posed by POPs in the environment to the dolphin using an in vitro system. We selected BNF(β-naphthoflavone) and four POPs (DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), CHLs(chlorides), HCHs(hexachlorocyclohexanes) and HCB(hexachlorobenzene)) which had been accumulated in the dolphin with high concentrations to treat the cultured skin fibroblast cells (ScSF cells) of the dolphin, and investigated the expression patterns of the ecological stress biomarkers CYP1A1, AHR and HSP70 in the cell line. The results showed that CYP1A1 was up-regulated after being exposed to different concentrations of BNF, DDTs and HCHs. CHLs, HCHs and HCB promoted AHR expression. HSP70 expression was increased by high concentrations of BNF and DDTs. Moreover, comet assay experiments revealed that DDTs produced higher degree of DNA damage to ScSF cells than other POPs, implying that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin in the PRE has been threatened by POPs accumulated in the body, especially by DDTs. Our results provided important information to assess the risk of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin raised by environmental POPs in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  16. Characterization of diverse soybean genotypes using 14 carbon for organic acid exudation under phosphorus stress and its relationship with phosphorus acquisition efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengavasi, Krishnapriya; Pandey, Renu

    2017-01-01

    To characterise the physiological aspects influencing organic acid exudation under low phosphorus (P) stress, experiment was conducted to screen a diverse soybean panel (comprising 116 genotypes) for total carbon exudation employing shoot labelling with 14 CO 2 technique. Among the traits measured at seedling stage, total carbon ( 14 C) exudation, P uptake and total dry weight contributed to the maximum genotypic variability in soybean. The proportion of organic acids (including oxalate, citrate, succinate and fumarate) was the highest among root-exuded compounds induced by low P stress in soybean. Improved root length, surface area and volume coupled with higher activity of enzymes in TCA cycle contributed to enhanced organic acid exudation under low P. Efficient soybean genotypes (EC-232019 and G-2344) exhibited superior growth and P acquisition efficiency under low soil P availability attributed to its higher root exudation potential aiding in mining fixed soil P. To understand the molecular mechanism differentially regulating root exudation potential in contrasting genotypes (EC-232019 and EC-113396), root proteome analysis at low P stress was carried out. Among the total proteins visualised by 2D-gel electrophoresis, 105 genotypes (32%) were differentially expressed between sufficient and low P levels. A total of 44 (14%) proteins were down-regulated by more than two-fold while 61 (15%) proteins were up-regulated by more than two-fold at low P. The differential proteins were involved in a myriad of functions including organic acid accumulation, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism under low P stress. Characterisation of 17 proteins with unknown function indicated the role of novel genes under low P stress. The identified genotypes have potential to be used as donors in crop improvement programs to develop high-yielding P-efficient cultivars which may be an asset to low-input sustainable agriculture. (author)

  17. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: II. NITROGEN AND WATER USE EFFICIENCIES, AND SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response to two nitrogen sources on water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and tolerance of salt-stressed chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels, and two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer as ammonium nitrate were arranged in randomized complete block designs replicated four times. The liquid organic-N source was an organic, extracted with water from grass clippings. Water use decreased about 19 and 30% in moderate and high salt-stressed plants. Water use efficiency decreased only in high salt-stressed plants. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased either by increased salinity or increased N rates. An apparent increase in salt tolerance was noted when plants were fertilized with organic-N source compared to that of inorganic-N source.

  18. [Study on concomitant surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse and TVT-O for treatment of stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-mei; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Liu, Chong-dong; Wang, Shu-zhen

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the necessity, safety and efficacy of transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during transvaginal corrective operation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010, 92 patients undergoing transvaginal pelvic reconstruction surgery for correction of POP concomitant TVT-O for treatment of SUI in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology affiliated to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital as concomitant surgery group were enrolled in this retrospective study matched with 90 patients with mild SUI without SUI surgery as non-concomitant surgery group and 120 patients without SUI as control group.Variable clinical index, clinical efficacy and complications were compared among those three groups. Compared with those in the other two groups, the mean age [(62 ± 11) years] was lower (P = 0.007,0.038), the operation time only slightly increased (12.8 min and 12.9 min respectively) significantly in concomitant TVT-O group. The bleeding loss and the length of staying hospital after operation all exhibited no significant differences within three groups (P > 0.05). The effective rate for SUI was 96.7% (89/92) in concomitant TVT-O group, corrective operation of POP was ineffective for 74.4% (67/90) SUI, 9.2% (11/120) patients presented new SUI in the patients without SUI preoperatively. TVT-O is a simple, safe and effective method in the treatment of SUI, which is more suitable for performing simultaneously during the corrective operation of POP.Efficacy of SUI correction was limited in those patients undergoing only pelvic reconstructive surgery. However, a preventive anti-incontinence procedure is not recommended because of the lower incidence in POP patients without SUI preoperatively.

  19. Effect of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Two Ecotypes of Savory (Satureja hortensis L. under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Akrami nejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual and aromatic plant from Labiatae family, which has plenty of essential oil and is important in medicinal, food, health and beauty industries (6. In comparison with chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers especially manure have lots of organic material sources, and can be used as nutrients, especially Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium. Organic fertilizers also keeps more water in the soil (14. Water deficit is one of the most important boundaries of production in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress reduces water content, limits plant growth and changes some physiological and metabolic activities (31. This experiment was conducted as there is a global interest for production of medicinal plants with sustainable agriculture system, and with low input and shortage of information about Savory reaction to fertilization in drought stress condition. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of chemical fertilizers and different organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two ecotypes of savory under drought stress condition. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of organic and mineral (N, P and K fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of savory in drought stress condition, two separate split plot designs with three replications were carried out in 2012-2013 year, at the research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. In each design fertilizers including cow manure (30 ton per hectare, poultry manure (10 ton per hectare, chemical fertilizers (used equally with macro elements existing in both poultry and cow manure and control (no fertilizer were used as main factor. Kerman and Khuzestan ecotypes were sub-factor. One of the experiments was irrigated to 100% and the other to 50% of field capacity. Two experiments were analyzed as a combined design. The important characteristics of Savory such as plant

  20. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  1. World Health organization guidelines for management of acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: key challenges on the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Bisson, Jonathan; Cohen, Judith; Hijazi, Zeinab; Jones, Lynne; de Jong, Joop T V M; Magrini, Nicola; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Seedat, Soraya; Silove, Derrick; Souza, Renato; Sumathipala, Athula; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Weissbecker, Inka; Zatzick, Douglas; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Wietse Tol and colleagues discuss some of the key challenges for implementation of new WHO guidelines for stress-related mental health disorders in low- and middle-income countries. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  3. 76 FR 35072 - Proposed Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... framework should be applied at various levels in the banking organization, such as business line, portfolio... a banking organization's overall strategy and annual and planning cycles. Results should be... part of the development and maintenance of a banking organization's contingency funding planning. \\6...

  4. Uterine, but not ovarian, female reproductive organ involvement at presentation by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor outcomes and a high frequency of secondary CNS involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Cheah, Chan Y; Hutchings, Martin

    2016-01-01

    progression-free survival and overall survival compared to those without reproductive organ involvement, whereas ovarian DLBCL was not predictive of outcome. Secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement (SCNS) occurred in 7/17 (41%) women with uterine DLBCL (two patients with concomitant ovarian DLBCL...

  5. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  6. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  7. Toward Improved Lifetimes of Organic Solar Cells under Thermal Stress: Substrate-Dependent Morphological Stability of PCDTBT:PCBM Films and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Ho Chiu, Kar; Shahid Ashraf, Raja; Fearn, Sarah; Dattani, Rajeev; Cheng Wong, Him; Tan, Ching-Hong; Wu, Jiaying; Cabral, João T; Durrant, James R

    2015-10-15

    Morphological stability is a key requirement for outdoor operation of organic solar cells. We demonstrate that morphological stability and lifetime of polymer/fullerene based solar cells under thermal stress depend strongly on the substrate interface on which the active layer is deposited. In particular, we find that the stability of benchmark PCDTBT/PCBM solar cells under modest thermal stress is substantially increased in inverted solar cells employing a ZnO substrate compared to conventional devices employing a PSS substrate. This improved stability is observed to correlate with PCBM nucleation at the 50 nm scale, which is shown to be strongly influenced by different substrate interfaces. Employing this approach, we demonstrate remarkable thermal stability for inverted PCDTBT:PC70BM devices on ZnO substrates, with negligible (humidity exposure as widely reported previously, can also demonstrate enhanced morphological stability. As such we show that the choice of suitable substrate interfaces may be a key factor in achieving prolonged lifetimes for organic solar cells under thermal stress conditions.

  8. Are the energy poor also income poor? Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach is applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The objective is to determine if the energy poor are also income poor and whether and how energy policies help reduce energy poverty, independent of income. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57% of households are energy poor, versus 22% that are income poor. But in urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28% compared to 20% that are income poor. That is, energy policies are expected to play some roles in mitigating energy poverty. We find that reducing energy poverty requires not only support for rural electrification, but also more use of modern cooking fuels such as LPG. While income growth matters, a combination of energy related programs can play an independent and substantial role in reducing energy poverty. - Highlights: ► This paper applies a new approach to measuring energy poverty to rural and urban India. ► It also compares and contrasts income poverty with energy poverty in the context of India. ► Findings suggest that income poverty tracks energy poverty in urban India, but not in rural India. ► Income growth is very important in reducing energy poverty. ► In addition, access to and reliability of modern sources (electricity, LPG) are also helpful.

  9. Mental stress and hypertension, an evolutionary framework: some historical perspectives of the 1960 World Health Organization Prague Hypertension Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchel, Otto

    2003-03-01

    Emotional stress acutely and repetitively causing blood pressure increase or aggravating existing hypertension is usually not reflected by norepinephrine and epinephrine increase but by a sudden rise of dopamine, the third "defensive" catecholamine coping with the damaging neuropsychological and cardiovascular actions of the first two. This double-edged sympathetic response to emotional stress evolves during human lifespan and long-term evolution of hypertension. In the course of philogenesis it carries a potential mismatch between the normal physiology of the human dopaminergic system and current environmental (emotional particularly) conditions in industrialized countries. This offers a rational support to a mental stress-cardiovascular diseases relationship proposed 40 years ago in a WHO report which followed a memorable 1960 Prague Hypertension Meeting.

  10. Determination of the effects of organic antioxidants and fat sources on performance, carcass and bone characteristics of broilers under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyed javad Hosseini-vashan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heat stress is one of the major environmental stressors that negatively influence feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestion, absorption, and retention in the poultry production. In the two last decades, several researches were done to find approaches for decreasing the undesirable effects of high ambient temperatures. Supplementation of powder, extract and essence of some medicinal plants were proposed that could be used in poultry production to improve the performance, immune system and antioxidant status in heat stress condition. Turmeric powder is known as a natural antioxidant, because it has several antioxidant component specially curcumin that prevent the oxidative reaction and the free radicals production in the live body. On the other hand, some of by-products in food industry may also be used in heat stressed birds. Tomato pomace is a reachable source of vit E, C and A and several carotenoids specially lycopene that has antimutagenic, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Therefore the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of organic antioxidants including turmeric powder and tomato pomace and fat sources including soybean oil, canola oil and tallow on performance, carcass and bone characteristics of broilers under heat stress. Materials and Methods An experiment with factorial arrangement 3× 2× 2 (3 oils involved: canola, soybean, tallow, 2 turmeric powder (TRP levels involved 0.4, 0.8% and 2 tomato pomace (TP levels 3, 5 of TP% in a completely randomized design in heat stressed birds was done. Five hundred four one-d-old male Ross broilers were randomly allocated to 36 experimental units with 12 dietary treatments (3 replicates with 12 birds in each. The feed and water were supplied ad libitum. All diets were balanced to meet the nutrient requirement proposed by the Ross committee. A daily heat stressed (HS schedule (33oC for 5 h was applied from 29 to 42d of

  11. Bias-stress characterization of solution-processed organic field-effect transistor based on highly ordered liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, M.; Iino, H.; Hanna, J.

    2017-06-01

    Bias-stress effects in solution-processed, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) field effect transistors (FETs) are studied under negative and positive direct current bias. The bottom gate, bottom contact polycrystalline Ph-BTBT-10 FET with a hybrid gate dielectric of polystyrene and SiO2 shows high field effect mobility as well as a steep subthreshold slope when fabricated with a highly ordered smectic E liquid crystalline (SmE) film as a precursor. Negative gate bias-stress causes negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) for Ph-BTBT-10 FET in ambient air, but ΔVth rapidly decreases as the gate bias decreases and approaches to near zero when the gate bias goes down to 9 V in amplitude. In contrast, positive gate bias-stress causes negligible ΔVth even with a relatively high bias voltage. These results conclude that Ph-BTBT-10 FET has excellent bias-stress stability in ambient air in the range of low to moderate operating voltages.

  12. Low sustainability, poor governance, and other challenges encountered by grassroots non-governmental organizations targeting HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in China - a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Yoona; Li, Jinghua; Gu, Jing; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Grassroots non-governmental organizations (NGOs) played pivotal roles in HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Their governance and sustainability issues were under-studied. This nation-wide study surveyed leaders of 202 of the HIV related NGOs in China.58.4% of the leaders believed that their NGO would last for ≤5 years; which was negatively associated with perceived good relationship with CDC. 65.3% mentioned ≥3 non-sustainability issues; associated factors included perceived inadequacies in prevention skills, management skills, policy support, technical support, operational support, and CDC's support; a reverse association was found for frequent collaboration with organizations in China. 30.6% of the leaders mentioned ≥7 governance issues; a stepwise model found a positive association with having no office and negative associations with number of full-time staff and core volunteers. These problems would severely limit the effectiveness of HIV prevention among MSM. Related improvements and support are warranted.

  13. Use of transgenic GFP reporter strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the patterns of stress responses induced by pesticides and by organic extracts from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Charumathi; Lafayette, Ivan; Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa; Gutierrez, Carmen; Martin, Jose Rodriguez; Chowdhuri, Debapratim K; De Pomerai, David I

    2013-01-01

    As a free-living nematode, C. elegans is exposed to various pesticides used in agriculture, as well as to persistent organic residues which may contaminate the soil for long periods. Following on from our previous study of metal effects on 24 GFP-reporter strains representing four different stress-response pathways in C. elegans (Anbalagan et al. Ecotoxicology 21:439-455, 2012), we now present parallel data on the responses of these same strains to several commonly used pesticides. Some of these, like dichlorvos, induced multiple stress genes in a concentration-dependent manner. Unusually, endosulfan induced only one gene (cyp-34A9) to very high levels (8-10-fold) even at the lowest test concentration, with a clear plateau at higher doses. Other pesticides, like diuron, did not alter reporter gene expression detectably even at the highest test concentration attainable, while others (such as glyphosate) did so only at very high concentrations. We have also used five responsive GFP reporters to investigate the toxicity of soil pore water from two agricultural sites in south-east Spain, designated P74 (used for cauliflower production, but significantly metal contaminated) and P73 (used for growing lettuce, but with only background levels of metals). Both soil pore water samples induced all five test genes to varying extents, yet artificial mixtures containing all major metals present had essentially no effect on these same transgenes. Soluble organic contaminants present in the pore water were extracted with acetone and dichloromethane, then after evaporation of the solvents, the organic residues were redissolved in ultrapure water to reconstitute the soluble organic components of the original soil pore water. These organic extracts induced transgene expression at similar or higher levels than the original pore water. Addition of the corresponding metal mixtures had either no effect, or reduced transgene expression towards the levels seen with soil pore water only. We

  14. "Managing" the poor: neoliberalism, Medicaid HMOs and the triumph of consumerism among the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskovsky, J

    2000-10-01

    In order to explore the contradictions of neoliberal health policy, this article examines Medicaid managed care in Philadelphia. At the federal and state levels, government is increasingly promoting private-sector market-based strategies over policies formerly associated with the welfare state, arguing that the former are the most effective means of achieving economic growth and guaranteeing social welfare. A prime example of this shift, Medicaid managed care is a policy by which states contract with private-sector health maintenance organizations to provide health coverage to the poor. Drawing on ethnographic and historical data, this paper shows how Pennsylvania's Medicaid managed care program has created access barriers for poor Philadelphians. It also illustrates how ideologies that justify this policy shift serve to mask its detrimental effects on the poor. By contrasting the state's consumerist model with one group's protest efforts, this article calls into question the neoliberal ideology that undergirds health and welfare "reform."

  15. Density and permeability of a loess soil: long-term organic matter effect and the response to compressive stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    to compressive stress, undisturbed soil cores were collected from a long-term fertilisation experiment in Bad Lauchstädt in Germany, including combinations of animal manure and mineral fertilisers. The cores were drained to -100 hPa matric potential and exposed to uniaxial confined compression (200k......Pa). Investigated indicators for compression resistance included compression index, precompression stress, and resistance and resilience indices based on measured soil physical properties (bulk density, air-filled porosity, air permeability, and void ratio). Soil resilience was assessed following exposure...... but the correlation was not significant. However, initial bulk density (ρbi) and initial gravimetric water content (wi) were significantly positively correlated to the indices of soil compression resistance, with the effect of ρbi being significantly stronger. Significant recovery of airfilled porosity and air...

  16. The organization of irrational beliefs in posttraumatic stress symptomology: testing the predictions of REBT theory using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study directly tests a central prediction of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) that has received little empirical attention regarding the core and intermediate beliefs in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A theoretically consistent REBT model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined using structural equation modelling techniques among a sample of 313 trauma-exposed military and law enforcement personnel. The REBT model of PTSD provided a good fit of the data, χ(2) = 599.173, df = 356, p depreciation beliefs. Results were consistent with the predictions of REBT theory and provides strong empirical support that the cognitive variables described by REBT theory are critical cognitive constructs in the prediction of PTSD symptomology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  18. Organic Nitrates and Nitrate Resistance in Diabetes: The Role of Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Emphasis on Antioxidant Properties of Pentaerithrityl Tetranitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Oelze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic nitrates represent a class of drugs which are clinically used for treatment of ischemic symptoms of angina as well as for congestive heart failure based on the idea to overcome the impaired NO bioavailability by “NO” replacement therapy. The present paper is focused on parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance, and aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying nitrate resistance in the setting of diabetes. Since oxidative stress was identified as an important factor in the development of tolerance to organic nitrates, but also represents a hallmark of diabetic complications, this may represent a common principle for both disorders where therapeutic intervention should start. This paper examines the evidence supporting the hypothesis that pentaerithrityl tetranitrate may represent a nitrate for treatment of ischemia in diabetic patients. This evidence is based on the considerations of parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance as well as on preliminary data from experimental diabetes studies.

  19. Organic Nitrates and Nitrate Resistance in Diabetes: The Role of Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Emphasis on Antioxidant Properties of Pentaerithrityl Tetranitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Matthias; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Organic nitrates represent a class of drugs which are clinically used for treatment of ischemic symptoms of angina as well as for congestive heart failure based on the idea to overcome the impaired NO bioavailability by “NO” replacement therapy. The present paper is focused on parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance, and aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying nitrate resistance in the setting of diabetes. Since oxidative stress was identified as an important factor in the development of tolerance to organic nitrates, but also represents a hallmark of diabetic complications, this may represent a common principle for both disorders where therapeutic intervention should start. This paper examines the evidence supporting the hypothesis that pentaerithrityl tetranitrate may represent a nitrate for treatment of ischemia in diabetic patients. This evidence is based on the considerations of parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance as well as on preliminary data from experimental diabetes studies. PMID:21234399

  20. [Supposed role of "metabolic memory" in formation of response reaction to stress-factors in young and adult organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Dlubovskaia, V L; Dmitriev, Iu V; Meshaĭkina, N I; Maleev, V A; Klimova, E M

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the combined long-lasted influences of sulfur sulfate and diet restriction in young (3 month age) and adult (21 month age) Vistar rats on activity of glucose-6-phospatase, alaninaminotranspherase (ALT), aspartataminotranspherase (AST), and on phosphorilating activity of liver mitochondria was studied to investigate the role of metabolic memory on the peculiarities of response reaction. The young animals not differed from adult ones in the possibility of inducing activity of glucose-6-phospatase, ALT, and on phosphorilating activity after the influence of sulfur sulfate and diet restriction. The age-related differences in glucose-6-phospatase and transpherases and phosphorilating activity existing in control disappeared after the long-lasted action of sulfur sulfate and diet restriction. The answer reaction in enzyme activity to stress factors applied many times depends upon the metabolic memory formed in the process of adaptation, and the age of animals have no influence on it. In some relation the ontogenesis may be considered as a result of adaptation genesis. The metabolic memory can change the answer of the system to the stress influence. There are three types of modification of the answer to stress factors: the answer remains unchanged (metabolic memory), "paradox answer" formation, and super activation of the metabolic system.

  1. RodZ and PgsA play intertwined roles in membrane homeostasis of Bacillus subtilis and resistance to weak organic acid stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Willem Albertus Van Beilen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell’s rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed. We show that both genes are co-transcribed and that both the rodZ::mini-Tn10 mutant and a conditional pgsA mutant, under conditions of minimal pgsA expression, were sensitive to sorbic and acetic acid. Both strains displayed a severely altered membrane composition. Compared to the wild-type strain, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin levels were lowered and the average acyl chain length was elongated. Induction of rodZ expression from a plasmid in our transposon mutant led to no recovery of weak acid susceptibility comparable to wild-type levels. However, pgsA overexpression in the same mutant partly restored sorbic acid susceptibility and fully restored acetic acid sensitivity. A construct containing both rodZ and pgsA as on the genome led to some restored growth as well. We propose that RodZ and PgsA play intertwined roles in membrane homeostasis and resistance to weak organic acid stress.

  2. New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... ... resistance to late blight, good abiotic stress performance, nutritional value, ... The work has identified several metabolites related to disease ... the transfer of genes between closely related organisms of the same species.

  3. Value of MRI in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence in the absence of organ descent; Beitrag der MRT in der Diagnostik der Stress-Harninkontinenz ohne begleitenden Descensus urogenitalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersdorff, D.; Taupitz, M.; Fischer, T.; Hamm, B. [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Tunn, R.; Rieprich, M. [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe

    2001-07-01

    To detect pathomorphological changes of the pelvic floor, the vagina, and the urethra by MR imaging in patients with stress urinary incontinence in the absence of organ descent compared with findings in 10 healthy controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 10 healthy controls and 38 patients with stage II urinary incontinence showing no urge symptoms but a pathological stress profile on urodynamic testing. The subjects underwent MR imaging with a phased-array coil at 1.5 T in addition to urodynamic testing and gynecological examination. The following sequences were used: axial and coronal PD-weighted TSE sequences with a FOV of 20 cm and a section thickness of 4 mm; axial STIR sequence. Sagittal T{sub 2}-weighted HASTE sequences were acquired during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Results: In 22/38 cases pathomorphological changes were found by MR imaging. The pathomorphological changes were classified as lateral defects (n = 14) if the musculofascial connection between the levator muscle and the lateral vaginal wall or the butterfly shape of the vagina was absent and as central (n = 16) if changes were detected in the urethral wall. Defects of the pelvic floor muscles were detected in 8 cases. No underlying changes were identified in 16/38 cases. Conclusion: In cases of female urinary incontinence, MR imaging of the pelvic floor can detect pathomorphological changes, which are difficult to identify by clinical examination. MR imaging currently does not allow the detection of morphological changes in all forms of female urinary stress incontinence. (orig.) [German] In einer prospektiven Studie sollen mittels MRT pathomorphologische Veraenderungen des Beckenbodens, der Vagina und der Urethra bei Patientinnen mit Stress-Harninkontinenz (HI) ohne begleitenden Descensus urogenitalis im Vergleich zu Patientinnen ohne HI untersucht werden. Material und Methoden: 38 Patientinnen mit Stress-HI im Stadium II wurden zusaetzlich zur

  4. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  5. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: I.GROWTH AND YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two sources of nitrogen on plant growth, and fruit yield of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia grown in greenhouse to increased salinity   were evaluated. An organic source extracted from grass clippings in rates of 120 and 200 kg N ha-1, and another inorganic (ammonium nitrate in rate of 120 kg ha-1 were combined with low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. Salinity treatments reduced dry matter production, leaf area, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate but increased leaf area ratio. Mean fresh fruit yields decreased for each N rate and source combinations as soil salinity increased. The organic fertilizer produced higher fruit yields tan the inorganic fertilizer. The highest fruit yield was obtained with the increased rate of organic N.    The fruit number was more affected by salinity than the individual fruit weight. This organic fertilizer may be an effective N source for chile pepper and other vegetable crops grown under non- and salt-stressed conditions.

  6. Resuscitative therapy with erythropoietin reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses of vital organs in a rat severe fixed-volume hemorrhagic shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Mirzaei, Reza; Ahghari, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) still has a high mortality rate and none of the known resuscitative regimens completely reverse its adverse outcomes. This study investigated the effects of different models of resuscitative therapy on the healing of organ damage in a HS model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: Sham, without HS induction; HS, without resuscitation; HS+Blood, resuscitation with the shed blood; HS+Blood+NS, resuscitation with blood and normal saline; HS+Blood+RL, resuscitation with blood and Ringer's lactate; EPO, erythropoietin was added to the blood and RL. Blood and urine samples were obtained 3 h after resuscitation. Kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were harvested for multiple organ failure evaluation. Survival rate was the highest in the Sham, EPO and HS+Blood+RL groups compared to others. Plasma creatinine concentration, ALT, AST, urinary NAG activity and renal NGAL mRNA expression significantly increased in the HS+Blood+RL group compared to the Sham group. There was a significant increase in tissue oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HS+Blood+RL group compared to the Sham rats. EPO had more protective effects on multiple organ failure compared to the HS+Blood+RL group. EPO, as a resuscitative treatment, attenuated HS-induced organ damage. It seems that it has a potential to be attractive for clinical trials.

  7. Space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization of double-helix nanostructure: a nanotube twist with a moving catalyst head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-05-22

    Inorganic materials with double-helix structure have attracted intensive attention due to not only their elegant morphology but also their amazing morphology-related potential applications. The investigation on the formation mechanism of the inorganic double-helix nanostructure is the first step for the fundamental studies of their materials or physical properties. Herein, we demonstrated the space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT)-array double helices under scanning electron microscopy by directly observing their formation process from individual layered double hydroxide flakes, which is a kind of hydrotalcite-like material composed of positively charged layers and charge-balancing interlayer anions. Space confinement is considered to be the most important extrinsic factor for the formation of CNT-array double helices. Synchronous growth of the CNT arrays oppositely from LDH flakes with space confinement on both sides at the same time is essential for the growth of CNT-array double helices. Coiling of the as-grown CNT arrays into double helices will proceed by self-organization, tending to the most stable morphology in order to release their internal rotation stress. Based on the demonstrated mechanism, effective routes were carried out to improve the selectivity for CNT-array double helices. The work provides a promising method for the fabrication of double-helix nanostructures with their two helices connected at the end by self-assembly.

  8. Effect of life-skills Training on Social Anxiety Symptoms and Stress Coping Methods in Teens in Families Support with Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanvand Amouzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of life-skills training on social anxiety symptoms and stress coping methods in teens with social anxiety that are supported by welfare department. The research method was semi-empirical with two group's pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were socially anxious teens in families supported by welfare organization in Darreh shahr town. So, after first administration of Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, 30 persons with highest scores were selected and randomly assigned in to an experimental group (15 persons and a control group (15 persons. The experimental group received “life-skills” training through thirteen two hour sessions twice a week. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. The instrument for this study, social phobia inventory Conver and etal (2000 (SPIN and parker & ender questionnaire of coping with stress (1991 were administered at the pretest and post-test stage to all participations. The result of multiple covariance analysis indicated that “life-skills” training significantly decreased the amount of social anxiety, emotion-based coping and evasion-based coping and so significant increase in the scores of problem-based coping in the experimental group as compared the control group (p=0.0001. The result of the study revealed that “life-skills” training could be used as a useful intervention for teens in families that are supported by welfare organization.

  9. Heat Shock Protein Genes Undergo Dynamic Alteration in Their Three-Dimensional Structure and Genome Organization in Response to Thermal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2017-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization is important for proper gene regulation, yet how the genome is remodeled in response to stress is largely unknown. Here, we use a highly sensitive version of chromosome conformation capture in combination with fluorescence microscopy to investigate Heat Shock Protein ( HSP ) gene conformation and 3D nuclear organization in budding yeast. In response to acute thermal stress, HSP genes undergo intense intragenic folding interactions that go well beyond 5'-3' gene looping previously described for RNA polymerase II genes. These interactions include looping between upstream activation sequence (UAS) and promoter elements, promoter and terminator regions, and regulatory and coding regions (gene "crumpling"). They are also dynamic, being prominent within 60 s, peaking within 2.5 min, and attenuating within 30 min, and correlate with HSP gene transcriptional activity. With similarly striking kinetics, activated HSP genes, both chromosomally linked and unlinked, coalesce into discrete intranuclear foci. Constitutively transcribed genes also loop and crumple yet fail to coalesce. Notably, a missense mutation in transcription factor TFIIB suppresses gene looping, yet neither crumpling nor HSP gene coalescence is affected. An inactivating promoter mutation, in contrast, obviates all three. Our results provide evidence for widespread, transcription-associated gene crumpling and demonstrate the de novo assembly and disassembly of HSP gene foci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Characteristics of aperiodic sequence of slip events caused by interaction between seismic patches and that caused be self-organized stress heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations of earthquake cycles are conducted to investigate the origin of complexity of earthquake recurrence. There are two main causes of the complexity. One is self-organized stress heterogeneity due to dynamical effect. The other is the effect of interaction between some fault patches. In the model, friction on the fault is assumed to obey a rate- and state-dependent friction law. Circular patches of velocity-weakening frictional property are assumed on the fault. On the remaining areas of the fault, velocity-strengthening friction is assumed. We consider three models: Single patch model, two-patch model, and three-patch model. In the first model, the dynamical effect is mainly examined. The latter two models take into consideration the effect of interaction as well as the dynamical effect. Complex multiperiodic or aperiodic sequences of slip events occur when slip behavior changes from the seismic to aseismic, and when the degree of interaction between seismic patches is intermediate. The former is observed in all the models, and the latter is observed in the two-patch model and the three-patch model. Evolution of spatial distribution of shear stress on the fault suggests that aperiodicity at the transition from seismic to aseismic slip is caused by self-organized stress heterogeneity. The iteration maps of recurrence intervals of slip events in aperiodic sequences are examined, and they are approximately expressed by simple curves for aperiodicity at the transition from seismic to aseismic slip. In contrast, the iteration maps for aperiodic sequences caused by interaction between seismic patches are scattered and they are not expressed by simple curves. This result suggests that complex sequences caused by different mechanisms may be distinguished.

  11. Analysis of the effect of conflict-management and resolution training on employee stress at a healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraway, Dana L; Haraway, William M

    2005-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable and can be both positive and negative. Although it is impossible, and probably not wise, to eliminate conflict, it is prudent for healthcare organizations to provide direct instruction in conflict-management training. In this study, 23 supervisors and managers in a local healthcare organization participated in two 3-hour sessions designed to teach practical conflict-management strategies immediately applicable to their workplace duties and responsibilities. A comparison of pretest and posttest measures indicates statistically significant differences in four areas and suggests a positive influence of the brief intervention.

  12. The impact of pesticides on oxidative stress level in human organism and their activity as an endocrine disruptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Wołejko, Elżbieta; Wydro, Urszula; Butarewicz, Andrzej

    2017-07-03

    Pesticides cause serious environmental and health problems both to humans and animals. The aim of this review is to discuss selected herbicides and fungicides regarding their mode of action and their influence on basic oxidative stress parameters and endocrine disruption properties tested in selected cell cultures in vitro. Because of numerous difficulties which animal studies are subject to, cell cultures are an excellent experimental model reflecting human exposure to different pesticides through all relevant routes. This experimental model can be used to monitor aggregate and cumulative pesticide exposures.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the potato Hsp20 gene family: identification, genomic organization and expression profiles in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Ruoqiu; Kong, Nana; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chenghui; Wu, Wentao; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-18

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential components in plant tolerance mechanism under various abiotic stresses. Hsp20 is the major family of heat shock proteins, but little of Hsp20 family is known in potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is an important vegetable crop that is thermosensitive. To reveal the mechanisms of potato Hsp20s coping with abiotic stresses, analyses of the potato Hsp20 gene family were conducted using bioinformatics-based methods. In total, 48 putative potato Hsp20 genes (StHsp20s) were identified and named according to their chromosomal locations. A sequence analysis revealed that most StHsp20 genes (89.6%) possessed no, or only one, intron. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the StHsp20 genes, except 10, were grouped into 12 subfamilies. The 48 StHsp20 genes were randomly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Nineteen tandem duplicated StHsp20s and one pair of segmental duplicated genes (StHsp20-15 and StHsp20-48) were identified. A cis-element analysis inferred that StHsp20s, except for StHsp20-41, possessed at least one stress response cis-element. A heatmap of the StHsp20 gene family showed that the genes, except for StHsp20-2 and StHsp20-45, were expressed in various tissues and organs. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of StHsp20 genes and demonstrated that the genes responded to multiple abiotic stresses, such as heat, salt or drought stress. The relative expression levels of 14 StHsp20 genes (StHsp20-4, 6, 7, 9, 20, 21, 33, 34, 35, 37, 41, 43, 44 and 46) were significantly up-regulated (more than 100-fold) under heat stress. These results provide valuable information for clarifying the evolutionary relationship of the StHsp20 family and in aiding functional characterization of StHsp20 genes in further research.

  14. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  15. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... of risk management, the final guidance provides principles that a banking organization should follow... integrated into overall risk management.\\8\\ The agencies expect such companies would follow the principles... risk management program. The guidance outlines broad principles for a [[Page 29464

  16. The effects of zinc nanooxide on cellular stress responses of the freshwater mussels Unio tumidus are modulated by elevated temperature and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falfushynska, Halina; Gnatyshyna, Lesya; Yurchak, Irina [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, 46027, Kryvonosa Str. 2, Ternopil (Ukraine); Sokolova, Inna, E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Stoliar, Oksana [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, 46027, Kryvonosa Str. 2, Ternopil (Ukraine)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Effects of nano-ZnO (n-ZnO) in combination with other stressors were studied. • At 18 °C, exposures to n-ZnO caused up-regulation of lysosomal cathepsin D. • Cellular responses to n-ZnO and Zn{sup 2+} were distinct. • Warming to 25 °C activated caspase-3 and abolished antioxidants response to n-ZnO. • Biological effects of n-ZnO in mussels are strongly modulated by other stressors. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity is a growing concern in freshwater habitats. However, understanding of the nanoparticle effects on aquatic organisms is impeded by the lack of the studies of the nanoparticles effects in the environmentally relevant context of multiple stress exposures. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) are widely used metal-based nanoparticles in electronics and personal care products that accumulate in aquatic environments from multiple non-point sources. In this study, we evaluated the effects of n-ZnO in a model organism, a mussel Unio tumidus, and the potential modulation of these effects by common co-occurring environmental stressors. Male U. tumidus were exposed for 14 days to n-ZnO (3.1 μM), Zn{sup 2+} (3.1 μM), Ca-channel blocker nifedipine (Nfd 10 μM), combinations of n-ZnO and Nfd or n-ZnO and thiocarbamate fungicide Tattoo (Ta, 91 μg L{sup −1}) at 18 °C, and n-ZnO at 25 °C (n-ZnO + t°). Total and metallothionein-bound Zn levels as well as levels of metallothioneins (MT), cellular stress responses and cytotoxicity biomarkers were assessed in the mussels. The key biomarkers that showed differential responses to different single and combined stressors in this study were activities of caspase-3 and lysosomal cathepsin D, as well as protein carbonyl content. At 18 °C, exposures to n-ZnO, organic pollutants and their combinations led to a prominent up-regulation of MT levels (by ∼30%) and oxidative stress response including up-regulation of superoxide dismutase activity, an increase in oxyradical production, and a 2–3-fold

  17. The effects of zinc nanooxide on cellular stress responses of the freshwater mussels Unio tumidus are modulated by elevated temperature and organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falfushynska, Halina; Gnatyshyna, Lesya; Yurchak, Irina; Sokolova, Inna; Stoliar, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of nano-ZnO (n-ZnO) in combination with other stressors were studied. • At 18 °C, exposures to n-ZnO caused up-regulation of lysosomal cathepsin D. • Cellular responses to n-ZnO and Zn 2+ were distinct. • Warming to 25 °C activated caspase-3 and abolished antioxidants response to n-ZnO. • Biological effects of n-ZnO in mussels are strongly modulated by other stressors. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity is a growing concern in freshwater habitats. However, understanding of the nanoparticle effects on aquatic organisms is impeded by the lack of the studies of the nanoparticles effects in the environmentally relevant context of multiple stress exposures. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) are widely used metal-based nanoparticles in electronics and personal care products that accumulate in aquatic environments from multiple non-point sources. In this study, we evaluated the effects of n-ZnO in a model organism, a mussel Unio tumidus, and the potential modulation of these effects by common co-occurring environmental stressors. Male U. tumidus were exposed for 14 days to n-ZnO (3.1 μM), Zn 2+ (3.1 μM), Ca-channel blocker nifedipine (Nfd 10 μM), combinations of n-ZnO and Nfd or n-ZnO and thiocarbamate fungicide Tattoo (Ta, 91 μg L −1 ) at 18 °C, and n-ZnO at 25 °C (n-ZnO + t°). Total and metallothionein-bound Zn levels as well as levels of metallothioneins (MT), cellular stress responses and cytotoxicity biomarkers were assessed in the mussels. The key biomarkers that showed differential responses to different single and combined stressors in this study were activities of caspase-3 and lysosomal cathepsin D, as well as protein carbonyl content. At 18 °C, exposures to n-ZnO, organic pollutants and their combinations led to a prominent up-regulation of MT levels (by ∼30%) and oxidative stress response including up-regulation of superoxide dismutase activity, an increase in oxyradical production, and a 2–3-fold decrease in the

  18. Identifying and managing stress among teachers in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lužar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is stress among teachers present or not, what are the relationships between the causes of stress, identifying stress and stress management and the impact on the quality of education.Purpose: The purpose and the focus of the research is to determine the presence of stress or stress load with teachers at the vocational secondary school; the purpose was to also determine the largest causes, how to recognize and control them.Method: By reading the literature, answers were found that stress is present everywhere in our life and there are many causes for them. The aim of research study is achieved by doing a qualitative study in vocational secondary schools where teachers are participants in the interview.Results: All eight of the interview participants responded that stress is present. As a reason for stress, five of the participants stated that the reason was due to changes at work, poor discipline of students, and poor teacher student relationships. With two participants, an important cause of stress is talking with parents about problematic students. Three participants identified stress as irritability and agitation, five participants as being tired and low concentration in equal ratios. They control stress with sports or talking in equal ratios.Organization: The contribution of the research study is importantfor management as answers on possible reasons for frequent sick leaves may be determined in a given period of the school year and leads to reflection of any possible preventive measures to reduce stress activity.Company: The findings of the research study are important for society as a whole. Stress experienced by secondary school teachers are seen as fatigue, irritability and agitation that consequently can lead towards poor quality of teaching and thus long-term impact on the whole environment.Originality: The research was conducted in four vocational secondary schools, i.e., mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electric, and

  19. [Study on reductive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse concomitant with anti-incontinence sling for treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Lu, Yongxian; Shen, Wenjie; Liu, Jingxia; Ge, Jing; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ying; Niu, Ke; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Wenying; Qiu, Chengli

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of anti-incontinence sling in the treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) during reductive surgery for advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Jun. 2003 to Dec. 2012, 78 patients with OSUI underwent reductive surgery for advanced POP such as high uterosacral ligament suspension, sacrospinous ligament suspension and sacral colpopexy in the First Affiliated Hospital, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army. Among them, 41 patients received reductive surgery alone was enrolled in non-concomitant anti-incontinence group and the other 37 patients who underwent same surgery with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) or tension-free vaginal tape-obturator technique (TVT-O) was in anti-incontinence group. The patient's demography, objective and subjective outcomes, as well as complications and injures were compared between the two groups. The pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q) was used to evaluate the objective outcomes of POP. Urinary distress inventory (UDI-6) and incontinence impact questionnaire short form (IIQ-7) were used to evaluate the subjective outcomes of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Compared with the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group, the objective outcomes of reductive surgery exhibited no significant differences (100%, 78/78), and only the operation time of anti-incontinence group slightly increased 16 minutes. The occurrence rate of postoperative SUI was 12% (5/41), 15% (6/41), 17% (7/41) respectively after the operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up in the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group; and the occurrence rate of the anti-incontinence group was 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37); but none of patients in the two groups require further surgery for stress urinary incontinence. Mean score of UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in all the patients decreased significantly after operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up (all P statistic difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). It

  20. A prospective study of musculoskeletal outcomes among manufacturing workers: II. Effects of psychosocial stress and work organization factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, Fredric; Fethke, Nathan B; Anton, Dan; Merlino, Linda; Rosecrance, John; Marcus, Michele; Jones, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize associations between psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Methodological limitations of previous studies of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and musculoskeletal outcomes have produced inconsistent associations. In this prospective epidemiologic study of 386 workers, questionnaires to assess decision latitude ("control") and psychological job demands ("demand") were administered to study participants and were used to classify them into job strain "quadrants". Measures of job stress and job change were collected during each week of follow-up. Incident hand/arm and neck/shoulder symptoms and disorders were ascertained weekly. Associations between exposure measures and musculoskeletal outcomes were estimated with proportional hazard methods. When compared to the low-demand/high-control job strain referent category, large increases in risk of hand/arm disorders were observed for both high-demand/high-control (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 16.4]) and high-demand/low-control job strain categories (HR = 5.18,95% CI = [1.39, 19.4]). Similar associations were observed for hand/arm symptoms. A strong association was also observed between the low-demand/low-control job strain category and neck/shoulder disorders (HR = 6.46, 95% CI = [1.46, 28.6]). Statistically significant associations were also observed between weekly stress level and weekly job change and several musculoskeletal outcomes. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and work organizational factors and musculoskeletal outcomes were large and in the hypothesized direction. Prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders may require attention to psychosocial and work organizational factors in addition to physical factors. Methods to control adverse effects of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors should be explored.

  1. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on physiological traits and CBF gene expression in peach floral organs under freezing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment on the cold resistance of peach flower, the floral organs of two peach cultivars were treated with 20 mg/L SA and stored at 0°C for observation and sample collection. Water application was the control. After a treatment period, the anther relative water content of the control and SA-treated flowers decreased. The extent of the reduction was greater in the control, suggesting that the SA treatment significantly helped to maintain the anther water content of peach. Analysis of the stigma relative electric conductivity revealed that the SA treatment prevented membrane injury during the low temperature treatment. Additionally, we measured CBF gene expression at low temperature in the petal, stigma and ovary. The expression was markedly upregulated in the cold-treated floral organs. CBF gene expression after SA treatment was higher than in the control when cold conditions continued. These results suggest that the effects of SA on ameliorating the freezing injury to peach floral organs and on enhancing cold tolerance may be associated with the induction of CBF gene.

  2. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  3. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  4. Increased extracellular heat shock protein 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS associated with multiple organ failure and related to acute inflammatory-metabolic stress response in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression.HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern.

  5. Application of an immunoperoxidase staining method for detection of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine as a biomarker of chemical-induced oxidative stress in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machella, Nicola; Regoli, Francesco; Cambria, Antonio; Santella, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is a typical modification of DNA caused by oxygen free radicals and can be an useful biomarker for pollutants inducing oxidative stress. An immunoperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody 1F7 toward 8-oxo-dG was applied to tissues and smeared cells of marine organisms for detection and quantification of oxidative DNA damage in such models. The assay, previously employed on human cells, was assessed for the first time on Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and European eels (Anguilla anguilla), exposed to model pro-oxidant chemicals, namely benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and copper. Quantification of 8-oxo-dG was microscopically carried out and expressed as relative nuclear staining intensity. Higher levels of oxidative DNA damage were detected in the digestive glands of treated mussels compared to controls, while the effect was less pronounced in haemocytes, characterized by more elevated basal levels of 8-oxo-dG. The assay was suitable for detection of 8-oxo-dG also in fish liver sections indicating consistent damage after B[a]P exposure. The main advantage of the immunohistochemical approach is the elimination of DNA extraction which considerably reduces the processing of biological samples. In addition, the assay requires small amounts of frozen tissues or fixed cells for detection of 8-oxo-dG and is potentially able to discriminate variable susceptibility to oxidative stress in different cell types. Although further investigations are required for the improvement and the validation of the assay in field conditions, laboratory exposures provided useful indications on the consistency of the approach and the efficacy of antibody 1F7 in marine organisms for a rapid assessment of pollutant-induced oxidative DNA damage

  6. Hypoxia/reoxygenation stress signals an increase in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the blood-brain barrier: relevance to CNS drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon J; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-li; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation stress (H/R) is a component of several diseases. One approach that may enable neural tissue rescue after H/R is central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs with brain protective effects such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Our present in vivo data show that atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed statin, attenuates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in the brain after H/R, suggesting neuroprotective efficacy. However, atorvastatin use as a CNS therapeutic is limited by poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Therefore, we examined regulation and functional expression of the known statin transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the BBB under H/R conditions. In rat brain microvessels, H/R (6% O2, 60 minutes followed by 21% O2, 10 minutes) increased Oatp1a4 expression. Brain uptake of taurocholate (i.e., Oap1a4 probe substrate) and atorvastatin were reduced by Oatp inhibitors (i.e., estrone-3-sulfate and fexofenadine), suggesting involvement of Oatp1a4 in brain drug delivery. Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) signaling with the selective inhibitor SB431542 increased Oatp1a4 functional expression, suggesting a role for TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in Oatp1a4 regulation. Taken together, our novel data show that targeting an endogenous BBB drug uptake transporter (i.e., Oatp1a4) may be a viable approach for optimizing CNS drug delivery for treatment of diseases with an H/R component.

  7. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  8. [POP-Q indication points, Aa and Ba, involve in diagnosis and prognosis of occult stress urinary incontinence complicated with pelvic organ prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Wu, Wenying; Yang, Qing; Hu, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Hong, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the correlation between pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q) indication points and the incidence of occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) and its impact on prognosis. Retrospective study medical records of 93 patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) staged at III-IV, of which underwent pelvic reconstruction operations with Prolift system from Jan. 2007 to Sept. 2012. None of these patients had clinical manifestations of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before surgery, and in which 44 patients were included in study group (POP complicated with OSUI) because they were identified with OSUI, another 49 patients as control group (simple POP). Follow-up and collecting datas including POP-Q, stress test, urodynamic recordings, incidence of de novo SUI, statistic analyzing by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). (1) The study group had a much higher incidence of 30% (13/44) on de novo SUI than that of control group (4%, 2/49; P < 0.01). (2) Vaginal delivery (OR = 5.327, 95% CI: 1.120-25.347), constipation (OR = 5.789, 95% CI: 1.492-22.459), preoperative OSUI (OR = 13.695, 95% CI: 2.980-62.944), anterior vaginal wall prolapse (OR = 6.115, 95% CI: 1.231-30.379) were identified as dependent risk factors for de novo SUI by logistic regression analysis. (3) For POP patients that complicated with OSUI, we chose a cutoff value of +1.5 cm for Aa point as the threshold to predicting incidence of de novo SUI according to ROC curve, area under the curve (AUC) was 0.889 (P < 0.05), the sensitivity reached 88.9% and specificity was 73.9%. According to ROC curve of Ba point, a cutoff value of +2.5 cm was chosen as the threshold to predicting incidence of de novo SUI post-operation, it had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 82.6%, AUC was 0.766 (P < 0.05). Pre-operative OSUI is a dependent risk factor of de novo SUI for advanced POP patients. Aa and Ba points are correlated with preoperative OSUI, and it is worthy to be

  9. The Effect of Chemical, Biological and Organic Nutritional Treatments on Sunflowers Yield and Yield Components under the Influence of Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh soleymani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To achieve the higher economic yield of crop plants, supplying enough nutrients to plants is very important. Moreover, nutrient uptakes by plants is influenced by the soil water contents. However, nowadays chemical fertilizer application is important agronomic factor that has significant effects on growth and quantity and quality of final yield, but traditional nutrient management and excessive use of chemical fertilizers may cause the environmental problems such as contamination of soil and water resources, low quality of agricultural products and reduction of soil fertility. These factors have drawn attention to health and ecological sustainable farming systems (Sharma, 2002. In this context, usage of organic and biological products for plant nutrition is considered as one of the solutions to achieve the goals of sustainable agriculture. Materials and methods To evaluate the effect of various feeding systems on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under the influence of water deficit stress, a split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out in the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University during the growing season of 2013-2014. Main plots consisted of two irrigation levels: optimum irrigation and deficit irrigation stress (irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from evaporation pan, class A, respectively and sub-plots included of nine nutrition systems: 1- no bio or chemical fertilizer application, 2- 100% of the recommended chemical fertilizer , 3- vermicompost, 4- phospho nitro kara, 5- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara, 6- vermicompost+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 7- phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 8- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 9- ½ proposed chemical fertilizer. Phospho-nitro-kara which contains phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen fixing bacteria (Bacillus coagulans, azotobactr chroocuccum and

  10. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  11. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate in a 28-year-old male: The outcome is poor in young patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Madan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is common in older patients. Rarity in younger population limits the study of natural history and prognosis in this population. Most of the published data has reported poor outcome in younger patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Here, we report a case of prostate cancer in 28-year-old male who presented with bone metastasis. After bilateral inguinal orchidectomy, he was started on anti-androgen therapy and received palliative radiotherapy for bone metastasis. There was only a slight decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA level and pelvic disease post treatment. Subsequently, he was started on opioid analgesics (by World Health Organization, WHO, step ladder in view of persistent pain. The index case is being presented for its rarity and probable poor outcome in young patients and to stress on the fact that the possibility of primary prostatic adenocarcinoma should be investigated in a male presenting with bone metastasis irrespective of the age.

  12. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by endophytic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, R; Chowdhury, S; Gond, S K; White, J F

    2018-04-01

    Endophytes are micro-organisms including bacteria and fungi that survive within healthy plant tissues and promote plant growth under stress. This review focuses on the potential of endophytic microbes that induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. How endophytes promote plant growth under stressful conditions, like drought and heat, high salinity and poor nutrient availability will be discussed. The molecular mechanisms for increasing stress tolerance in plants by endophytes include induction of plant stress genes as well as biomolecules like reactive oxygen species scavengers. This review may help in the development of biotechnological applications of endophytic microbes in plant growth promotion and crop improvement under abiotic stress conditions. Increasing human populations demand more crop yield for food security while crop production is adversely affected by abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and high temperature. Development of stress tolerance in plants is a strategy to cope with the negative effects of adverse environmental conditions. Endophytes are well recognized for plant growth promotion and production of natural compounds. The property of endophytes to induce stress tolerance in plants can be applied to increase crop yields. With this review, we intend to promote application of endophytes in biotechnology and genetic engineering for the development of stress-tolerant plants. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress......’s disease patients. Results The combined evidence of this dissertation shows a moderately higher risk of some common chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and atopic disorders among individuals exposed to work-related stressors and perceived stress. Most empirical studies also report higher...... of pathways. The physiological stress response has the ability to directly affect vital body systems including the cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic systems. Further, stress can lead to unfavorable changes in health-related behavior, impaired sleep and poor mental health. An increasing number of well...

  14. Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased γ-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively

  15. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  16. Consensus Statement of the European Urology Association and the European Urogynaecological Association on the Use of Implanted Materials for Treating Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher R; Cruz, Francisco; Deffieux, Xavier; Milani, Alfredo L; Arlandis, Salvador; Artibani, Walter; Bauer, Ricarda M; Burkhard, Fiona; Cardozo, Linda; Castro-Diaz, David; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Deprest, Jan; Gunnemann, Alfons; Gyhagen, Maria; Heesakkers, John; Koelbl, Heinz; MacNeil, Sheila; Naumann, Gert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; Salvatore, Stefano; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Tarcan, Tufan; Van der Aa, Frank; Montorsi, Francesco; Wirth, Manfred; Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Surgical nonautologous meshes have been used for several decades to repair abdominal wall herniae. Implantable materials have been adopted for the treatment of female and male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and female pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A consensus review of existing data based on published meta-analyses and reviews. This document summarises the deliberations of a consensus group meeting convened by the European Association of Urology (EAU) and the European Urogynecological Association, to explore the current evidence relating to the use of polypropylene (PP) materials used for the treatment of SUI and POP, with reference to the 2016 EAU guidelines (European Association of Urology 2016), the European Commission's SCENIHR report on the use of surgical meshes (SCENIHR 2015), other available high-quality evidence, guidelines, and national recommendations. Current data suggest that the use of nonautologous durable materials in surgery has well-established benefits but significant risks, which are specific to the condition and location they are used for. Various graft-related complications have been described-such as infection, chronic pain including dyspareunia, exposure in the vagina, shrinkage, erosion into other organs of xenografts, synthetic PP tapes (used in SUI), and meshes (used in POP)-which differ from the complications seen with abdominal herniae. When considering surgery for SUI, it is essential to evaluate the available options, which may include synthetic midurethral slings (MUSs) using PP tapes, bulking agents, colposuspension, and autologous sling surgery. The use of synthetic MUSs for surgical treatment of SUI in both male and female patients has good efficacy and acceptable morbidity. Synthetic mesh for POP should be used only in complex cases with recurrent prolapse in the same compartment and restricted to those surgeons with appropriate training who are working in multidisciplinary referral centres. Synthetic slings can be safely used

  17. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  18. Evaluation of the oxidative stress induced by the electron beam radiation on various organs of Swiss Albino mice - in-vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishakh, R.; Moodithaya, Shailaja S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is one of the important threats in the modern world. Though the radiation injuries by natural means is very less common, advancement in the nuclear warfare research had increased the threat of radiation induced damage to biological system. Since years researchers are in search of a novel radio-protector, but without complete success. The reason behind may be its toxicity in higher doses. All the above research challenges lead many researchers to investigate radiation induced damage. Most of the studies had been done to investigate radiation induced damage in the lethal dose of radiation. But less work had been done to study the effect of radiation on tissues at sublethal dose. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the effect of radiation on the various organs in mice model. Swiss albino mice of 6 to 8 weeks old were divided into 2 groups i.e., Control, Radiation control with 6 mice in each group. 6 Gy sub lethal dose of electron beam radiation was used as radiation source. The liver, kidney and brain were dissected and used for biochemical analysis. The significant decrease in total antioxidant levels were observed in Liver and Kidney of irradiated mice, Glutathione levels were found to be decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain, Glutathione S - transferase levels were found to be significantly decreased in Liver and Brain, Catalase activity was found to be decreased in Liver, Super oxide dismutase activity was found to be significantly decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain homogenates when compared with the tissue homogenates of control group. From the results we can conclude that the liver is the most sensitive organ for the electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress when compared with Kidney and Brain. (author)

  19. Pro-poor growth and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent gender gaps in education, health, employment, productive assets and inputs can affect pro poor growth (in the sense of increasing monetary incomes of the poor). After discussing serious methodological problems with examining gender issues in the context of an income-based pro-poor growth framework, the paper considers theory and evidence on the impact of gender inequality on pro poor growth. While there is a considerable literature suggesting negative impact...

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose phosphate synthase (sps) genes are expressed differentially in organs and tissues, and their transcription is regulated by osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Guzmán, María Gloria; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo; López-Bucio, José; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Sucrose is synthesized from UDP-Glc and Fru-6-phosphate via the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) enzymes, which produce Suc-6-phosphate. Suc-6-phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated by phosphatases to produce Suc and inorganic phosphate. Arabidopsis has four sps genes encoding SPS enzymes. Of these enzymes, AtSPS1F and AtSPS2F have been grouped with other dicotyledonous SPS enzymes, while AtSPS3F and AtSPS4F are included in groups with both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous SPS enzymes. In this work, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana transformants containing the promoter region of each sps gene fused to gfp::uidA reporter genes. A detailed characterization of expression conferred by the sps promoters in organs and tissues was performed. We observed expression of AtSPS1F, AtSPS2F and AtSPS3F in the columella roots of the plants that support sucrose synthesis. Hence, these findings support the idea that sucrose synthesis occurs in the columella cells, and suggests that sucrose has a role in this tissue. In addition, the expression of AtSPS4F was identified in embryos and suggests its participation in this developmental stage. Quantitative transcriptional analysis of A. thaliana plants grown in media with different osmotic potential showed that AtSPS2F and AtSPS4F respond to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of water stress, organic amendment and mycorrhizal inoculation on soil microbial community structure and activity during the establishment of two heavy metal-tolerant native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R; Caravaca, F; Bååth, E

    2012-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the effect of water stress on plant growth and development of two native plant species (Tetraclinis articulata and Crithmum maritimum) and on microbial community composition and activity in the rhizosphere soil, following the addition of an organic amendment, namely sugar beet residue (SBR), and/or the inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, namely Glomus mosseae, in a non-sterile heavy metal-polluted soil. The AM inoculation did not have any significant effect on plant growth of both species. In T. articulata, SBR increased shoot growth, foliar P, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), fungi-related PLFA, AM fungi-related neutral lipid fatty acid, bacterial gram-positive/gram-negative PLFA ratio and the β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. SBR and AM inoculation increased phosphatase activity in T. articulata plants grown under drought conditions. In both plants, there was a synergistic effect between AM inoculation and SBR on mycorrhizal colonisation under drought conditions. In C. maritimum, the increase produced by the SBR on total amounts of PLFA, bacterial gram-positive-related PLFA and bacterial gram-negative-related PLFA was considerably higher under drought conditions. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of the amendment with regard to stimulating microbial communities and plant growth was largely limited by drought, particularly for plant species with a low degree of mycorrhizal colonisation.

  2. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P  0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  3. The Mediating Role of Job Stress on The Effect of Mobbing on Burnout: An Analysis of Social Security Organization Employees in The District of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Erol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, due to the influence of Mobbing (MO on Burnout (BU, the mediating role of Job Stress (JS on employees is examined. Hence, 826 employees of public and private institutions in Ankara were included in the sample. The data obtained by a questionnaire that prepared by Leymann (1996’s MO scale, and Maslach (1981's BU scale and Haynes (1996's JS scale. Data was evaluated by using One-Way ANOVA, correlation, regression, and multiple regression SPSS. As can be seen from the results of research, applied and perceived MO has a significant impact on employees' JS’s levels and becomes effective in the creation of JS. On the other hand, BU syndrome were seen as a consequence of the resulting JS. These conditions affect each other and existence of one within the organizational structure, results emergence of the other two. Therefore, management of organization, all levels of managers, and employees as individuals should be aware of these psychological states and conduct studies aimed for its prevention.In this research, meaningful relationships have been identified in the mediating role of JS at the impact of MO on BU. On the other hand in terms of demographic variables, significant variations were found in the levels of MO, BU, and JS

  4. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-09-01

    Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed.

  5. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  6. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  7. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are

  8. Isolated microalbuminuria indicates a poor medical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Van der Velde, Marije; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; De Jong, Paul E; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2013-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to diabetes and/or hypertension, and as such to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has been questioned whether isolated microalbuminuria, that is microalbuminuria in the absence of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) history, hypertension and diabetes has clinical relevance. Included were 8356 subjects who participated in the first four screening rounds of the PREVEND study, a prospective, community-based, observational cohort study. Isolated microalbuminuria was defined as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h), in the absence of a CVD history, hypertension (blood pressuredefinition of isolated microalbuminuria, in which 2250 person-years of follow-up were available. In subjects with isolated microalbuminuria, the incidence rates of cardiovascular events and mortality, hypertension and diabetes were 15.3, 28.9 and 8.9 per 1000 person-year follow-up, respectively. Subjects with isolated microalbuminuria had an increased risk for cardiovascular events and mortality [crude HR 2.23 (1.63-3.07); Phypertension [OR 1.95 (1.47-2.59); Phypertension and/or diabetes. This increased risk remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. The relative risk held by isolated microalbuminuria was similar to the relative risk held by microalbuminuria in subjects that did have a CVD history, hypertension and/or diabetes. Isolated microalbuminuria indicates a poor prognosis and warrants medical attention.

  9. High prevalence of urinary incontinence and poor knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) measured the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in South. Africa for the first time, but only among women who had had children.2. In 1998, the World Health Organization's first International. Consultation on Incontinence classified UI as a disease,.

  10. The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Wesley C.; Mumford, Petey W.; Mao, Xuansong; Romero, Matthew A.; Hyatt, Hayden W.; Zhang, Yufeng; Mobley, Christopher B.; Quindry, John C.; Young, Kaelin C.; Beck, Darren T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the

  11. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  12. Effects of transverse electric field and heterogeneity of a poorly electrically conducting fluid saturated nanoporous zeolites acquiring smart material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraiah, N.; Ranganna, G.; Shilpa, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explain a Mathematical Model involving Darcy linear drag, Forchheimer quadratic drag, horizontal density gradient and the variation of electrical conductivity due to organic substances dissolved in a heterogeneous Boussinesq poorly conducting couple stress fluid flow (PCPCSFF) through Nano Porous Zeolites regarded as densely packed porous media. Initially, the flow is at rest and set in motion due to initial piecewise horizontal concentration gradient. Analytical solutions, for electric potential using the Maxwell field equations and for velocity and density using nonlinear Darcy – Forchheimer equation in the presence of couple stress and electric force are obtained using the method of time series evolution. The analytical solutions for streamlines and density are computed for different values of time, t, for a particular value of electric number W 1 and couple stress parameter β and the results are depicted graphically in figures 1 and 2. From these figures we found that the streamlines are closer in the region of x 0 and the density profiles are concentrated in the lower region and develop curvature in the presence of electric field and couple stress parameter. The physical reason for the nature of streamlines and density profiles are given in the last section and some important conclusions are drawn. (author)

  13. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  14. Model of organizational stress for use within an occupational health education/promotion or well-being of members of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash S Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a simple model of organizational stress which can be used to educate or inform employees, personnel and health professionals about the relationship between potential work-related stress hazards, individual and organizational symptoms of stress, negative outcomes and financial costs. The components of the model relate directly to a recent Health and Safety Executive publication (Cox, 1993 which focuses on improving and maintaining employee health and well-being.

  15. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  16. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  17. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  18. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of ...

  19. Automated processing of leucocyte-poor platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, N P; Seghatchian, M J; Bessos, H

    1992-10-01

    In view of transfusion reactions and alloimmunization associated with leucocyte contamination of platelet concentrates (PC), there is a general move towards the production of leuco-poor PC. This goal is currently pursued by the production of various PC using buffy coat and apheresis techniques. Although there is no overall consensus on the meaning of 'leuco-poor', by assuming that this refers to a level of 5-50 x 10(7) leucocytes per PC, we were able to make comparisons with available systems used in Europe. In addition to platelet and white cell counts, other markers of PC quality were assessed in some cases. These included traditional markers (such as hypotonic stress response, pH, and lactate and beta-thromboglobulin levels) and newer markers (such as glycocalicin and plasma von Willebrand factor levels). Our preliminary results showed appreciable differences in platelet and white cell content of PC prepared by various types of apheresis equipment. Appreciable differences in the quality of stored PC were also observed between routine PC (non-leuco-poor and buffy coat and apheresed PC (leuco-poor).

  20. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  2. Mapping the variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in time and space in Sicily, an extremely variable semi-arid Mediterranean region, highlighted that C was lost in area rich in organic C and gained in poor-C areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Calogero; Acutis, Marco; Lombardo, Luigi; Lipani, Aldo; Fantappiè, Maria; Märker, Michael; Saia, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The stock of organic carbon in the soil (SOC) is an indicator of soil ability to support agro-ecosystems productivity and resilience to environmental changes (Schillaci et al. 2016; 2017). In addition, SOC stock change through space and especially time is a valuable indicator of the soil ability to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere and thus its potential to reduce the greenhouse gas effect. In the present work, we mapped (1-km resolution) the space-time variation of the SOC stock after 15 years (1993 to 2008) in a semi-arid Mediterranean area (25,286 km2) after modelling SOC concentration (0-0.4 m depth) with boosted regression trees (BRT) and computing the SOC stock after the application of the bulk density maps of ISRIC (soilgrid.com, Hengl et al., 2014). The area under study (Sicily, south of Italy) has a plenty of contrasting environments, with changing ecosystems, soils, and microclimatic regions. The BRT procedure was run with a set of 25 predictors per year, including land use, soil traits, morphometric indicators and remote sensing covariates (derived from Landsat5 data). The BRT output consisted of a high pseudo-R2(=0.71 for 1993 and 0.63 for 2008) of the SOC concentration, low uncertainty (standard deviation doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.10.

  3. Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by organic extracts of particulate matter(PM 10)collected from a subway tunnel in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Hyun; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Duck Shin; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2012-12-12

    Particulate matter (PM) has become an important health risk factor in our society. PM can easily deposit in the bronchi and lungs, causing diverse diseases such as respiratory infections, lung cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In recent days, more and more toxicological studies have been dealing with air particles in distinctive areas including industrial areas, transportation sites, or indoors. Studies on subway PM in particular, have been recognizing PM as an important health risk factor because many people use subways as a major mode of public transportation (4 million people a day in Korea). The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of organic extract (OE) of subway PM10 and potential attribution of PAHs to these effects. Particles were collected in the subway tunnel at Kil-eum station(Line 4) for one month and then extracted with Dichloromethane (DCM). Chinese Hamster Ovary cells(CHO-K1) and human normal bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to OE, and MN and Comet assays were conducted to analyze the genotoxicity. The results showed that OE increased DNA or chromosome damages in both cell lines. In the modified Comet assay and MN assay with free radical scavengers, we confirmed that the genotoxic effect of OE was partially due to the oxidative damage on DNA. DCFHD Aassay also indicated that OE induced ROS generation in BEAS-2B cells. PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(k)fluoranthrene, etc.], the most well-known carcinogens in polluted air, were detected in Kil-eum PM10. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that OE of subway PM10 has genotoxic effects on normal human lung cells, and oxidative stress could be one of the major mechanisms of these genotoxic effects.In addition, some genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs were detected in OE by GC/MS/MS, even though PAHs level was not enough to increase CYP1A1 gene. Therefore, we suggest that additive or synergistic effects by unidentified chemicals as well as PAHs contained in OE of subway

  4. The teacher under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged pro...

  5. Association of DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Traumatic Experience Type and History in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Howard; Petukhova, Maria V; Sampson, Nancy A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Gureje, Oye; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has documented significant variation in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depending on the type of traumatic experience (TE) and history of TE exposure, but the relatively small sample sizes in these studies resulted in a number of unresolved basic questions. To examine disaggregated associations of type of TE history with PTSD in a large cross-national community epidemiologic data set. The World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys assessed 29 TE types (lifetime exposure, age at first exposure) with DSM-IV PTSD that was associated with 1 randomly selected TE exposure (the random TE) for each respondent. Surveys were administered in 20 countries (n = 34 676 respondents) from 2001 to 2012. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2015, to September 1, 2016. Prevalence of PTSD assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Among the 34 676 respondents (55.4% [SE, 0.6%] men and 44.6% [SE, 0.6%] women; mean [SE] age, 43.7 [0.2] years), lifetime TE exposure was reported by a weighted 70.3% of respondents (mean [SE] number of exposures, 4.5 [0.04] among respondents with any TE). Weighted (by TE frequency) prevalence of PTSD associated with random TEs was 4.0%. Odds ratios (ORs) of PTSD were elevated for TEs involving sexual violence (2.7; 95% CI, 2.0-3.8) and witnessing atrocities (4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-17.8). Prior exposure to some, but not all, same-type TEs was associated with increased vulnerability (eg, physical assault; OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.9) or resilience (eg, participation in sectarian violence; OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) to PTSD after the random TE. The finding of earlier studies that more general history of TE exposure was associated with increased vulnerability to PTSD across the full range of random TE types was replicated, but this generalized vulnerability was limited to prior TEs involving violence, including participation in organized violence (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), experience of

  6. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C; Carter, Matthew E; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-02-19

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses.

  7. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  8. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  9. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  10. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  11. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations' development…

  12. Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ of Bomba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... discovered the Harlem Renaissance Movement or New Negro Movement ... Beti picks up as a subject for his satire in The Poor Christ of Bomba. ..... slave driver, and the indigenous man into an instrument of production” (6).

  13. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  14. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  15. Residential Electrostatic Precipitator - Performance at efficient and poor combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Yngvesson, Johan; Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a pilot residential electrostatic precipitator R{sub E}SP (Applied Plasma Physics AS), was investigated at laboratory. Measurements of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), content of organic and elemental carbon, and mass size distribution of particles upstream and downstream of ESP were performed. Values for PM1 (particles < 1 {mu}m) were calculated from the particle size distributions. Concentrations and size distributions with respect to particle numbers were measured in separate tests. Gas concentrations, temperatures and boiler parameters were also measured. The TSP concentrations upstream of the R{sub E}SP were varied in range of 15-390 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}. Up to concentrations of about 300 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, the TSP-concentrations out from the ESP were less than 20 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, which is well below the German emission limit for wood stoves. The removal efficiencies with respect to mass were about 87% at efficient combustion and 93% at poor combustion. Corresponding values with respect to number concentrations were about 97% at efficient combustion and almost 99% at poor combustion. The better performance at poor combustion may be explained by lower flue gas temperature, leading to longer residence time in the ESP. High removal efficiencies were also found with respect to particulate organic and elemental carbon.

  16. Hsf and Hsp gene families in Populus: genome-wide identification, organization and correlated expression during development and in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Bobin; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huanquan; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-14

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that are involved in many normal cellular processes and stress responses, and heat shock factors (Hsfs) are the transcriptional activators of Hsps. Hsfs and Hsps are widely coordinated in various biological processes. Although the roles of Hsfs and Hsps in stress responses have been well characterized in Arabidopsis, their roles in perennial woody species undergoing various environmental stresses remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive identification and analysis of Hsf and Hsp families in poplars is presented. In Populus trichocarpa, we identified 42 paralogous pairs, 66.7% resulting from a whole genome duplication. The gene structure and motif composition are relatively conserved in each subfamily. Microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that most of the Populus Hsf and Hsp genes are differentially expressed upon exposure to various stresses. A coexpression network between Populus Hsf and Hsp genes was generated based on their expression. Coordinated relationships were validated by transient overexpression and subsequent qPCR analyses. The comprehensive analysis indicates that different sets of PtHsps are downstream of particular PtHsfs and provides a basis for functional studies aimed at revealing the roles of these families in poplar development and stress responses.

  17. Comparison of the genetic organization of the early salt-stress-response gene system in salt-tolerant Lophopyrum elongatum and salt-sensitive wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dubcovsky, J; Galvez, AF; Dvořák, J

    1994-01-01

    Lophopyrum elongatum is a facultative halophyte related to wheat. Eleven unique clones corresponding to genes showing enhanced mRNA accumulation in the early stages of salt stress were previously isolated from a L. elongatum salt-stressed-root cDNA library. The chromosomal distribution of genes complementary to these clones in several genomes of the tribe Triticeae and their copy number in the L. elongatum and wheat genomes are reported. Genes complementary to clones pESI4, pESI14, pESI15, pE...

  18. Challenges in managing postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2009-06-01

    Managing postpartum hemorrhage depends in part on having a prepared mind, a complement of trained coworkers, and full access to modern therapies. The last 2 components are rare in resource-poor areas and their absence may be accentuated by climatic instability and lack of basic transportation. Greater use of the active management of third stage of labor and administration of misoprostol by nontrained birth attendants will provide beneficial reductions in hemorrhage rates in resource-poor areas. Additional improvements depend on increasing public awareness, facilitating existing nongovernmental organizations in their community-related, upgrading training of traditional birth attendants, and providing cell phone communication to workers in remote areas, in addition to providing better access to blood.

  19. Interoception and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eSchulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain-body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain-body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain-body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g. by acute or chronic stress of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain-body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (HPA axis and autonomic nervous system, psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a feed-forward model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events, the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate stress.

  20. Beyond "banking for the poor": credit mechanisms and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A

    1996-10-01

    This article describes some strengths and limitations of credit programs for women in developing countries. It is urged that development planners recognize the importance of the selection of the type of credit mechanism in the long term. Ethical issues should be decided upon before the credit mechanism is operable. Organizations should make clear what level of commitment there is to empower borrowers. Most organizations give loans to women and assume empowerment will take place without devising strategies to ensure empowerment. Credit mechanisms include credit for the poor and credit by the poor. A sound financial portfolio and 100% repayment are not the appropriate criteria for securing the empowerment of women. Empowerment of women is related to "building the capacity of borrowers to manage and control decision making." UNICEF's framework of gender equality and women's empowerment identifies levels of empowerment as "welfare, access, conscientisation, participation, and control." Development planners should be aware that provision of credit also has the potential to increase a poor family's debt. Delinquency may be hidden by overlapping loans that trap borrowers. Fewer installment payments increase the chances of a debt trap. Reducing the number of installments may reduce administrative costs and conform to production processes, but may also lead to a debt trap. There is now considerable emphasis on investing in low-income women entrepreneurs as a highly efficient means of achieving social and economic objectives. Credit programs aim to support the growth of small, self-sustaining businesses, to improve women's opportunities, and to provide alternatives to exploitation by local money-lenders. This article describes the following credit mechanisms: bank guarantee systems, government credit schemes, intermediary projects, direct lending projects, banks for the poor, credit unions, and village-based banks.

  1. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  2. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  3. Origin of poor doping efficiency in solution processed organic semiconductors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional details on sample characterization, quantum chemistry calculations to obtain transition dipole moments of the ions and determine the strength of the Coulomb interaction, two-dimensional correlation analysis has been provided. In addition, this document also contains details of the calculations used to simulate 2D electronic spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c8sc00758f

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ajay; Duan, Hong-Guang; Tiwari, Vandana; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Doping is an extremely important process where intentional insertion of impurities in semiconductors controls their electronic properties. In organic semiconductors, one of the convenient, but inefficient, ways of doping is the spin casting of a precursor mixture of components in solution, followed by solvent evaporation. Active control over this process holds the key to significant improvements over current poor doping efficiencies. Yet, an optimized control can only come from a detailed understanding of electronic interactions responsible for the low doping efficiencies. Here, we use two-dimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy to examine these interactions in the course of the doping process by probing the solution mixture of doped organic semiconductors. A dopant accepts an electron from the semiconductor and the two ions form a duplex of interacting charges known as ion-pair complexes. Well-resolved off-diagonal peaks in the two-dimensional spectra clearly demonstrate the electronic connectivity among the ions in solution. This electronic interaction represents a well resolved electrostatically bound state, as opposed to a random distribution of ions. We developed a theoretical model to recover the experimental data, which reveals an unexpectedly strong electronic coupling of ∼250 cm–1 with an intermolecular distance of ∼4.5 Å between ions in solution, which is approximately the expected distance in processed films. The fact that this relationship persists from solution to the processed film gives direct evidence that Coulomb interactions are retained from the precursor solution to the processed films. This memory effect renders the charge carriers equally bound also in the film and, hence, results in poor doping efficiencies. This new insight will help pave the way towards rational tailoring of the electronic interactions to improve doping efficiencies in processed organic semiconductor thin films. PMID:29896388

  4. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  5. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  6. Opportunities for making ends meet and upward mobility: differences in organizational deprivation across urban and suburban poor neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexandra K; Wallace, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Given the recent rise of poverty in U.S. suburbs, this study asks: What poor neighborhoods are most disadvantageous, those in the city or those in the suburbs? Building on recent urban sociological work demonstrating the importance of neighborhood organizations for the poor, we are concerned with one aspect of disadvantage—the lack of availability of organizational resources oriented toward the poor. By breaking down organizations into those that promote mobility versus those that help individuals meet their daily subsistence needs, we seek to explore potential variations in the type of disadvantage that may exist.Methods. We test whether poor urban or suburban neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived by breaking down organizations into three types: hardship organizations, educational organizations, and employment organizations. We use data from the 2000 U.S. County Business Patterns and the 2000 U.S. Census and test neighborhood deprivation using logistic regression models.Results. We find that suburban poor neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived than are urban poor neighborhoods, especially with respect to organizations that promote upward mobility. Interesting racial and ethnic composition factors shape this more general finding.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that if a poor individual is to live in a poor neighborhood, with respect to access to organizational resources, he or she would be better off living in the central city. Suburban residence engenders isolation from organizations that will help meet one's daily needs and even more so from those offering opportunities for mobility.

  7. Is American business working for the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, M J; Ellwood, D T

    1991-01-01

    At first glance, poverty seems to have little to do with business. When most people--managers included--think about poverty, they assume that people are poor because they are isolated from the mainstream economy, not productive participants in it. But according to Harvard University professors Mary Jo Bane and David Ellwood, this is a misleading image of the true face of poverty in the United States today. Most poor adults--and a full 90% of poor children--live in families where work is the norm, not the exception. Poor people often work or want to work. But at the low-wage end of the American economy, having a job is no guarantee of avoiding poverty. Poverty is a business issue, then, because the American poor are part of the American work force. And this poses a problem for managers. In a more competitive and fast-changing economic environment, the performance of companies increasingly depends on the capabilities of their employees. In response to this human-resource challenge, more and more managers are embracing the language of "empowerment". And yet how can low-wage employees believe empowerment when their experience of work is, quite literally, impoverishment? It is unlikely that American companies can create the work force of the future with the poverty policies of the past. Fortunately, there are some simple policy mechanisms that can assist the working poor without putting an undue burden on business. Enacting them, however, requires managers to see poverty policy as one part of a national human-resource strategy that links the strategic concerns of companies to a broad social agenda.

  8. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  9. Organic photovoltaic films

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are of interest for future applications in solar cells. Although results for single layer organic materials have been disappointing, high photocurrent quantum efficiencies can be achieved in composite systems including both electron donating and electron accepting components. Efficiencies of over 2% have now been reported in four different types of organic solar cell. Performance is limited by the low red absorption of organic materials, poor charge transport, and...

  10. Who speaks for the poor (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear energy benefits the poor, because it alleviates a shortage of petroleum. Less-developed countries suffer directly from a shortage of petroleum; also petroleum is necessary to raise food in the developed countries for export to the less-developed countries. (L.L.)

  11. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  12. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  13. Adult Literacy and the Poor Farming People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    In discussing Rafe-uz-Zaman's essay on adult literacy and national development (see v9, n1 of this journal), the author cites examples to support his thesis that mass literacy campaigns in predominately agricultural countries can be successful only if there is simultaneous undertaking of economic development programs focused on the rural poor. (MF)

  14. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  15. Getting to Know L2 Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Masoud; Mustapha, Ramlee; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan BT Tengku Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Among the plethora of studies conducted thus far to explore the factors affecting EFL reading effectiveness, scant attention seems to be paid to the why of poor reading comprehension of most EFL learners. In this regard, the present article capitalized on qualitative research on a small scale, for the purpose of addressing the not-so-often debated…

  16. Dealing with living in poor neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, R.; Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this prologue to the special issue, the guest editors place the contributions in the context of current debates on living in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods. These debates concern two broad categories of residents: poor households that are assisted to move from concentrations of poverty to

  17. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  18. Poor migrants in Bandung: settlement and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1989-01-01

    Sukapakir is the real but appropriate name of a poor urban kampung in southwestern Bandung. It is one of the most densely populated neighbourhoods of the town now, although some forty years ago it was still a largely rural district. On the fringes of Sukapakir, one finds even today a few sawah

  19. The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Chao, T.T.

    1973-01-01

    The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides was studied using synthesized samples of three members of the manganous manganite (birnessite) group, of different chemical composition and crystallinity, and a poorly organized ??-MnO2. All four oxides sorbed significant quantities of silver. The manganous manganites showed the greatest sorption (up to 0.5 moles silver/mole MnOx at pH 7) while the ??-MnO2 showed the least (0.3 moles silver/ mole MnOx at pH 7). Sorption of silver was adequately described by the Langmuir equation over a considerable concentration range. The relationship failed at low pH values and high equilibrium silver concentrations. The sorption capacity showed a direct relationship with pH. However, the rate of increase of sorption capacity decreased at the higher pH values. Silver sorption maxima. were not directly related to surface area but appeared to vary with the amount of occluded sodium and potassium present in the manganese oxide. The important processes involved in the uptake of silver by the four poorly crystallized manganese oxides ara considered to be surface exchange for manganese, potassium and sodium as well as exchange for structural manganese, potassium and sodium. ?? 1973.

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF WORD EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION OF DOSTOEVSKY’S NOVEL “POOR FOLK”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Demir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research work has been concentrated on equivalence in translation literary works into Turkish; we have laid stress on lexicological problems of the Turkish translations of "Poor Folk" by Dostoevsky also with the help of Russian-Turkish comparative literature.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Nor Asma; Moy, Foong Ming; Wong, Li Ping

    2018-05-31

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, conducted in two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the Malay language (M-PSQI), whereas Phase II determined the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality where a total of 1871 secondary school teachers were studied. Participants were recruited using multistage sampling. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, comorbidities and characteristics of sleep. The M-PSQI was used to measure sleep quality. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used to measure mental health status. Results showed that the M-PSQI had a good internal consistency and moderate reliability. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 (95% CI: 54-67) %. Total teaching hours/day, depression and stress were significantly associated with poor sleep quality in the univariate analysis, while only stress (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.05%) remained significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, stress level of the secondary school teachers should be reduced to improve sleep quality.

  2. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  3. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  4. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    Our investigations into% the effects of stressful military training have shown that individuals exhibiting superior performance differ significantly from individuals exhibiting poor performance in their psychological...

  5. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  6. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Early life stress (ELS is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for

  7. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress (ELS) is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for stress

  8. Simultaneous protection of organic p- and n-channels in complementary inverter from aging and bias-stress by DNA-base guanine/Al2O3 double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyeong; Hwang, Hyuncheol; Min, Sung-Wook; Shin, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-28

    Although organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have various advantages of lightweight, low-cost, mechanical flexibility, and nowadays even higher mobility than amorphous Si-based FET, stability issue under bias and ambient condition critically hinder its practical application. One of the most detrimental effects on organic layer comes from penetrated atmospheric species such as oxygen and water. To solve such degradation problems, several molecular engineering tactics are introduced: forming a kinetic barrier, lowering the level of molecule orbitals, and increasing the band gap. However, direct passivation of organic channels, the most promising strategy, has not been reported as often as other methods. Here, we resolved the ambient stability issues of p-type (heptazole)/or n-type (PTCDI-C13) OFETs and their bias-stability issues at once, using DNA-base small molecule guanine (C5H5N5O)/Al2O3 bilayer. The guanine protects the organic channels as buffer/and H getter layer between the channels and capping Al2O3, whereas the oxide capping resists ambient molecules. As a result, both p-type and n-type OFETs are simultaneously protected from gate-bias stress and 30 days-long ambient aging, finally demonstrating a highly stable, high-gain complementary-type logic inverter.

  9. Waterlogging and submergence: surviving poor aeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atwell, B.J.; Ismail, A.M.; Pedersen, O.; Shabala, S.; Sorrell, B.; Voesenek, Laurentius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074850849

    2014-01-01

    Flooding, resulting in soil waterlogging and in many situations even complete submergence of plants, is an important abiotic stress in many regions worldwide. The number of floods has increased in recent decades (Figure 18.1), and the severity of floods is expected to increase further in many

  10. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  11. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Arukwe

    Full Text Available In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles--Crocodylus niloticus--from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2, glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu, total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO, total glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA. On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX and glutathione S-transferases (GST were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species.

  12. Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress Responses in Captive Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Exposed to Organic Contaminants from the Natural Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Røsbak, Randi; Adeogun, Aina O.; Langberg, Håkon A.; Venter, Annette; Myburgh, Jan; Botha, Christo; Benedetti, Maura; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in relation to chemical burden in the liver of male and female Nile crocodiles—Crocodylus niloticus—from a commercial crocodile farm passively exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic pollutants was investigated. In general, the data showed that male crocodiles consistently produced higher biotransformation and oxidative stress responses compared to females. Relationships between these responses and concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed. Specifically, the catalytic assays for EROD and BROD (not PROD and MROD) showed sex-differences between male and female crocodiles and paralleled immunochemically determined CYP1A and CYP3A protein levels; the relatively similar levels of PAHs in both sexes suggest an estrogen-mediated reduction of this pathway in females. The antioxidant system exhibited higher levels in male crocodiles with slight or significant higher values for catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidases-H2O2 (GPx-H2O2), glutathione peroxidases-Cu (GPx-Cu), total antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radicals (TOSC-ROO) and hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO), total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On the other hand, the activities of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were significantly higher in females. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant groupings that revealed correlative relationships (both positive and negative) between biotransformation/oxidative stress variables and liver PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon burden. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter crocodiles exhibited adverse exposure responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant effects on key cellular pathways, and these responses may be established as relevant species biomarkers of exposure and effects in this endangered species. PMID

  13. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (Pfeed conversion efficiency (Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (Phens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (Phens. The high stocking density challenge suppressed NDV antibody response (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage (P<0.01). From the present observations, it can be concluded that CrMet can improve laying performance largely because it alleviates harmful responses to stressful conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Аrg-Х Proteo-Processing as Model System for Organization of Karyogenomics Interphase Chromatin of Mature Germs of Wheats, Formed in the Conditions of Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ivanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available First experimental data on the epigenetics mechanisms of karyogenomics interphase chromatin of hexaploidy wheat are driven to terminologies of karyogenomics and epibiochemistry. The zones of localization of Arg-X of proteo-processing are educed in nonhistones and core histones, topological associated domens, in the cellular nuclear of mesocotyle of vegetative period of growth morphogeny of mature germs of wheat adapted to cold stress. These data will be useful for those who involved in the development of mathematical logic schemes of the theory and practice of biological specificity, and it could be included in the ontology of the stages karyogenomics plant growth and development.

  15. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Poor Performance Status Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Gregory J., E-mail: kubicek-gregory@cooperhealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Turtz, Alan [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Xue, Jinyu; Patel, Ashish; Richards, Gregory; LaCouture, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Cappelli, Louis; Diestelkamp, Tim [Rowan Graduate School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Saraiya, Piya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Bexon, Anne [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Lerman, Nati [Department of Medical Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Goldman, Howard Warren [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Patients with poor performance status (PS), usually defined as a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60 or less, were not eligible for randomized stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) studies, and many guidelines suggest that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the most appropriate treatment for poor PS patients. Methods and Materials: In this retrospective review of our SRS database, we identified 36 patients with PS of 60 or less treated with SRS for central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease. PS, as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Status, was 60 (27 patients), 50 (8 patients), or 40 (1 patient). The median number of CNS lesions treated was 3. Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months (range, 0.73-25.6 months). Fifteen patients (41%) were alive at 6 months, and 6 patients (16.6%) were alive at 1 year. There was no difference in OS in patients who underwent previous WBRT. There were no local failures or cases of radiation toxicity. Distant CNS failures were seen in 9 patients (25%). Conclusions: Our patients with poor PS had reasonable median OS and relatively low distant CNS failure rates. Patients in this patient population may be ideal candidates for SRS compared with WBRT given the low incidence of distant failure over their remaining lives and the favorable logistics of single-fraction treatment for these patients with debility and their caregivers.

  16. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  17. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the

  18. Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol and Organic Acids Affect Gene Expression of Selected Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Markers in IPEC-J2 Cells Exposed to Salmonella typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A; Adolfse, Simone J M; Ahad, Dina S A; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H G; Jongerius-Gortemaker, Betty G M; Post, Jan A; Brüggemann, Holger; Santos, Regiane R

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils and organic acids are used as feed additives to improve health status and reduce colonization with pathogens. Although bactericidal in vitro, concentrations achieved in the animal gut are probably not lethal to pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of

  19. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: III. ION UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of salinity and two N sources on content, uptake rate and translocation of nutrients by chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Either an organic-N liquid fertilizer extracted from grass clippings or ammonium nitrate, an inorganic fertilizer, were combined with three different soil salinity treatments (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1. Fertilizer treatments were two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer. The combination of each N rate and source with the three salinity levels were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. The use of the organic-N source produced greater cation contents in roots, shoots, and enhanced the uptake rates and translocation of cations to shoots compared to plants fertilized with inorganic-N. The root and shoot concentration, uptake rates and root-to-shoot transport of Cl increased at increasing salinity. Higher contents of Cl and cations in chile pepper shoots in relation to roots were observed. It was also observed that high N rate from the organic source enhanced the cation contents in both roots and shoots. Salinity diminished N content, N uptake rate and root to shoot transport in both roots and shoots

  20. Systems-Wide Analysis of Acclimation Responses to Long-Term Heat Stress and Recovery in the Photosynthetic Model Organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, Dorothea; Veyel, Daniel; Mühlhaus, Timo; Sommer, Frederik; Jüppner, Jessica; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Sandmann, Michael; Fehrle, Ines; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Steup, Martin; Geimer, Stefan; Kopka, Joachim; Giavalisco, Patrick; Schroda, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We applied a top-down systems biology approach to understand how Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to long-term heat stress (HS) and recovers from it. For this, we shifted cells from 25 to 42°C for 24 h and back to 25°C for ≥8 h and monitored abundances of 1856 proteins/protein groups, 99 polar and 185 lipophilic metabolites, and cytological and photosynthesis parameters. Our data indicate that acclimation of Chlamydomonas to long-term HS consists of a temporally ordered, orchestrated implementation of response elements at various system levels. These comprise (1) cell cycle arrest; (2) catabolism of larger molecules to generate compounds with roles in stress protection; (3) accumulation of molecular chaperones to restore protein homeostasis together with compatible solutes; (4) redirection of photosynthetic energy and reducing power from the Calvin cycle to the de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids to replace polyunsaturated ones in membrane lipids, which are deposited in lipid bodies; and (5) when sinks for photosynthetic energy and reducing power are depleted, resumption of Calvin cycle activity associated with increased photorespiration, accumulation of reactive oxygen species scavengers, and throttling of linear electron flow by antenna uncoupling. During recovery from HS, cells appear to focus on processes allowing rapid resumption of growth rather than restoring pre-HS conditions. PMID:25415976

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the grapevine stilbene synthase multigenic family: genomic organization and expression profiles upon biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS, a type III polyketide synthase (PKS. Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS, the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species. Results In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be

  2. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  3. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  4. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  5. Justice, Work, and the Ghetto Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, Tommie

    2012-01-01

    In view of the explanatory significance of joblessness, some social scientists, policymakers,and commentators have advocated strong measures to ensure that the ghetto poor work, includingmandating work as a condition of receiving welfare benefits. Indeed, across the ideological po-litical spectrum, work is often seen as a moral or civic duty and as a necessary basis for personaldignity. And this normative stance is now instantiated in federal and state law, from the tax schemeto public benefits....

  6. Bureaucracy and Pro-poor Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cheema; Asad Sayeed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the premise that a functioning state is a necessary pre-requisite for pro-poor change, it is critical to investigate the role of the bureaucracy as a key catalyst in this process. Weber (1968) ascribes bureaucracies to be anchors of the modern nation state as their conduct is based on rational-legal norms. Bureaucracies, according to this ideal type, temper the populist urges of politicians who wish to execute policy unencumbered by rules and procedures. State success or failure in m...

  7. Access to energy for the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntjens, E.; Van Bussel, F.; Raats, M.

    2005-01-01

    Paper dealing with the topic E nergy consumption and economic development (in developed / wealthy and undeveloped / poor regions; energy price, social influence and energy efficiency. 'Brothers and sisters, I want to tell you this. The greatest thing on earth is to have the love of God in your heart, and the next greatest thing is to have electricity in your house.' In the early 1940s a farmer, who had just been connected to the electric grid, gave witness in a rural church in the United States of America(author)

  8. Association of diarrhoea, poor hygiene and poor social conditions in childhood with blood pressure in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, L; Lynch, J W; Lakka, H-M; Kauhanen, J; Smith, G D

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as proxies for dehydration on high blood pressure in later life. Data were from a subset of participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based cohort study in eastern Finland. Information on childhood factors was collected from school health records (n=952), from the 1930s to the 1950s. Adult data were obtained from baseline examinations of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort (n=2682) in 1984-1989. Men who had poor hygiene in childhood had on average 4.07 mm Hg (95% CI 0.53 to 7.61) higher systolic blood pressure than men who had good or satisfactory hygiene in childhood in the age-adjusted analysis. Reports of diarrhoea were not associated with adult blood pressure. The authors' findings suggest that poor hygiene and living in poor social conditions in childhood are associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Reported childhood diarrhoea did not explain the link between hygiene and high blood pressure in adulthood.

  9. Arsenic-induced stress activates sulfur metabolism in different organs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants accompanied by a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Torres, Carmelo; Feriche-Linares, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruíz, Marta; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out. Data showed a correlation among arsenic accumulation in the different organs, PCs content and the antioxidative response, with a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are clear connections between arsenic uptake, increase of their As-chelating capacity in roots and a decline of antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and the ascorbate peroxidase) whose alteration provoked As-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest that roots act as barrier of arsenic mediated by a prominent sulfur metabolism which is characterized by the biosynthesis of high amount of PCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Student under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and developmental aspects of stress, namely, with causes, consequences and the strategies for overcoming stressful events in the education of children and adolescents. Life events in which children most often participate and which are also potential sources of stress (stressors can be classified into familial, interpersonal, personal and academic. Out of numerous identified sources of stress, we have focused our attention on several less researched ones in the field of school life starting school, transition from primary school to secondary and from secondary school to university, peer rejection and problems concerning financing school education. Anxiety, depression and anger were analyzed as the most frequent consequences of unfavorable life events. The following strategies for overcoming stress are most often used by children and adolescents: seeking social support, problem-solving orientation, reduction and avoidance of tension as well as sport and recreation.

  11. Education of quality to the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. van der Merwe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality education often eludes South African learners from poverty- stricken environments. There are, however, some notable exceptions. This article looks at how quality education based on social capital is provided to the poor. The author reports on a qualitative investigation based on both focus group and individual interviews conducted at a resource-poor KwaZulu- Natal school serving learners from Grade R to 9. The findings show that quality education at the research site relates to the moral agency of the school principal and teaching staff. Through their ethics of being and doing, the school principal and teaching staff ensure that sufficient resources, sound home-school relations, and a high premium on moral values result in a receptive learner corps. This environment encourages these learners to act with diligence, honesty, politeness, respect and service to the community. The findings contribute to research that maintains that quality education is indicative of the school principal and teachers‟ ethics of being and of doing.

  12. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Ambuj D.

    2005-01-01

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  13. Crisis and Communication among Rural Poor People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ganjar Runtiko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the crisis is often multiple on people in rural poverty that secluded and away from the reach of government. Main factor cannot be ignored in crisis is communication. Prolonged crisis will occur when the channels of communication in society clogged. This study establishes three specific targets: (1 To obtain a comprehensive overview of the rural poor people’s knowledge about the crisis and the potential impact, (2 To discover crisis problems faced by the rural people poor, (3 To enlist communication problems in a crisis situation. This study used a qualitative method with a case study approach. Research data collect by conducting FGD of 40 informants selected based on purposive sampling, furthermore eight people were interviewed in depth, plus other supporting informant. The results of the research show people on those two locations have understood the crisis based on their experience of dealing with it. They believe the economic crisis as the first aspect that must be resolved. The completion of crisis should consider indigenous wisdom to avoid a new crisis.

  14. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  15. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  16. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  17. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. Methods and analysis A case–control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Trial registration number Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618. PMID:24699462

  18. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case-control study protocol (LOD-Hipertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-03

    Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. A case-control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618.

  19. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated by providing midge larvae with 1.0 mg of food per individual per day, but varying the ratio of Tetramin to non-nutritious methyl-cellulose. A second experiment followed a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors were growth period and diet quality. Diet quality and growth period were found to influence the individual biomass considerably. NO size was related to the quality of the diet provided at the end of the experiment, regardless of larval biomass. Therefore, NO size appears to be related to growth rate at time of collection rather than larval size. The authors proposed using NO size of larvae in natural populations as a measure of growth on which to base estimates of secondary production and as a new way to monitor individual and population responses to environmental stress. Preliminary field measurements of larval production and NO size from oil sands-affected and reference wetlands were found to be consistent with laboratory results.

  20. Nucleolar organizer (NO) size as a measure of instantaneous growth in Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) : a tool for monitoring individual and population responses to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J.; Wytrykush, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reported on 2 laboratory experiments that were conducted using Chironomus riparius larvae to relate nucleolar growth (NO) size to chironomid growth. In one experiment, 5 treatments varied in diet quality only, which was manipulated by providing midge larvae with 1.0 mg of food per individual per day, but varying the ratio of Tetramin to non-nutritious methyl-cellulose. A second experiment followed a 2 x 2 factorial design. The factors were growth period and diet quality. Diet quality and growth period were found to influence the individual biomass considerably. NO size was related to the quality of the diet provided at the end of the experiment, regardless of larval biomass. Therefore, NO size appears to be related to growth rate at time of collection rather than larval size. The authors proposed using NO size of larvae in natural populations as a measure of growth on which to base estimates of secondary production and as a new way to monitor individual and population responses to environmental stress. Preliminary field measurements of larval production and NO size from oil sands-affected and reference wetlands were found to be consistent with laboratory results.

  1. STRESS INDUCED OBESITY: LESSONS FROM RODENT MODELS OF STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc., these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and loose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the elements that influence the metabolic outcome in order to further our understanding of stress

  2. Isolated microalbuminuria indicates a poor medical prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Van der Velde, Marije; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; De Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background. Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to diabetes and/or hypertension, and as such to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has been questioned whether isolated microalbuminuria, that is microalbuminuria in the absence of a

  3. WTO accepts rules limiting medicine exports to poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John S

    2003-09-12

    In a controversial decision on August 30, 2003, the World Trade Organization agreed to complex rules limiting the export of medications to developing countries. Reaction to the decision so far has shown a complete disconnect between trade delegates and the WTO, both of which praise the new rules as a humanitarian advance, and those working in treatment access in poor countries, who believe that they will effectively block treatment from reaching many who need it. We have prepared a background paper that analyzes this decision and its implications and offers the opinions of key figures on both sides of the debate. It is clear that the rules were largely written for and probably by the proprietary pharmaceutical industry, and imposed on the countries in the WTO mainly by the United States. The basic conflict is that this industry does not want the development of international trade in low-cost generic copies of its patented medicines--not even for poor countries, where little or no market exists. Yet millions of people die each year without medication for treatable conditions such as AIDS, and drug pricing remains one of several major obstacles to controlling global epidemics.

  4. Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.

  5. The Nordic version of working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    The development of service economies in the Western world has led to a debate on the quality of new service jobs as many are low-wage jobs with poor working conditions and career opportunities (Westergaard-Nielsen 2008; Gautié & Schmitt 2009; Kalleberg 2011). Empirical and theoretical work has...... from the European Labour Force Survey it is examined how low wage service work has developed in the private sector in the three countries since 2000 and which segments that can be identified. Data is drawn from the last quarter of 2000 (before the economic boom), 2007 (before the financial crisis....../restaurants, as the majority of low-wage private service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden work in these sectors (Bosch & Lehndorff 2005). We compare developments in the three countries to identify similar and different segments that have emerged over the past 15 years. Finally, the paper discusses findings in relation...

  6. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  8. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  9. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  10. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  11. MANAGEMENT OF STRESS AND MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES

    OpenAIRE

    UNNIKRISHNAN.P

    2017-01-01

    Stress is a physical and emotional reaction when everyone encounters the various challenges of life. It will lead to mental unrest. Stress is the body’s automatic response to any physical or mental demand placed on it. Stress is a negative concept and creates a negative mental attitude in the mind of individuals. The various reasons for stress in organizations are over work load, role ambiguity, role conflict, isolation, lack of family-social support etc. Moderate stress relating to job aspec...

  12. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  13. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  14. Stress and disorders of the stress system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrousos, George P

    2009-07-01

    All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.

  15. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  16. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used t...

  17. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  19. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  20. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Natale, Bryony; Lemus, Maria A; Natale, David R; Fisher, Steven A

    2017-02-15

    A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O 2 ) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function. We used Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-Lox to inactivate Hif-1α in maternal tissues at E8.5 (MATcKO), and used ODD-Luciferase as a reporter of hypoxia in placenta and fetal tissues. MATcKO of Hif-1α reduced the number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and Tpbpa-positve trophoblast cells in the maternal decidua at E13.5 -15.5. There were dynamic changes in all three layers of E13.5-15.5 MATcKO placenta. Of note was the under-development of the labyrinth at E15.5 associated with reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining consistent with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Labyrinth defects were particularly evident in placentas connected to effectively HIF-1α heterozygous null embryos. MATcKO had no effect on basal ODD-Luciferase activity in fetal organs (heart, liver, brain) at any stage, but at E13.5-15.5 resulted in enhanced induction of the ODD-Luciferase hypoxia reporter when the dam's inspired O 2 was reduced to 8% for 4 hours. MATcKO also slowed the growth after E13.5 of fetuses that were effectively heterozygous for Hif-1α, with most being non-viable at E15.5. The hearts of these E15.5 fetuses were abnormal with reduction in size, thickened epicardium and mesenchymal septum. We conclude that maternal HIF-1α is required for placentation including recruitment of uNK and trophoblast cells into the maternal decidua and other trophoblast cell behaviors. The placental defects render the fetus vulnerable to O 2

  1. 12 years of irrigation in a drought stressed pine forest speeds up carbon cycling and alters the soil biome but has negligible effects on soil organic matter storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Frank; Hartmann, Martin; Brunner, Ivano; Rigling, Andreas; Herzog, Claude; Schaub, Marcus; Frey, Beat

    2017-04-01

    Inneralpine valleys are experiencing repeated summer droughts, which have caused a die-back of pine forests since the 1990s. Drought limits the metabolic activity and hence C cycling in the plant and soil system. The net effects of drought on soil organic matter (SOM) storage is, however, ambiguous as drought affects both C inputs and outputs. Moreover, in the long-term, water limitation is also altering above- and belowground diversity due to species-dependent resistance and adaptation to drought. In our study, we explored how ten years of irrigation of a water-limited pine forest in the central European Alps altered above- and belowground diversity and C cycling in the plant and soil systems. The decadal long irrigation during summer time strongly increased ecosystem productivity with litter fall and fine root biomass being increased by +50 and +40%, respectively. At the same time, soil CO2 efflux was stimulated by 60%, indicating that the removal of water limitation enhanced both the inputs and outputs of C into soils. The accelerated C cycling was also mirrored by compositional shifts in the soil microbiome. 454-pyrosequencing of ribosomal marker genes indicated that irrigation promoted bacteria and fungi with more copiotrophic life style strategies, that are typical for nutrient-rich conditions associated with a higher decomposition. Determination of SOM pools revealed a C loss in the organic layer under irrigation (-900 gC m-2) but a C gain in the mineral soil (+970 gC m-2), resulting in a negligible net effect. The likely mechanisms for the altered vertical SOM distribution might be (1) an accelerated mineralization of litter in conjunction with higher C inputs from the rhizosphere and/or (2) an increased incorporation of litter in the mineral soil as suggested by a litter bag experiment showing a stimulated activity of the macrofauna with a 5-fold increase of the earthworm density. In summary, our long-term irrigation experiment revealed that the removal of

  2. Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder

  3. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  4. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  5. Poor, Old “Physical Education”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earle F. Zeigler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical activity (and related health education (“poor, old ‘PE’” needs to assert its "will to win" more vigorously then ever before. Scholarly and scientific investigation of the past 60 years since Sputnik was launched in 1957 has identified a wide variety of findings proving that a quality program can provide highly important benefits to the growing child and youth. Societal developments, including other curricular demands, have undoubtedly created uneasiness within the overall field of education. In North America the time and attention devoted to the relatively few involved in external highly competitive sport for the few has been a negative factor. At the same time intramural athletics for the large majority of children and youth has not been available to the extent it should be. There is now doubt as to the field’s ability to achieve high status within education. Therefore, we must pledge ourselves to make still greater efforts to become vibrant and stirring through absolute dedication and commitment in our professional endeavors. Ours is a high calling since we seek to improve the quality of life for all people on earth through the finest type of human motor performance in exercise, sport, and related expressive movement.

  6. Reciprocal Regulation of the TOR Kinase and ABA Receptor Balances Plant Growth and Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Li, Zhongpeng; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Liu, Xue; Fu, Liwen; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Du, Yanyan; Xie, Shaojun; Zhang, Chunguang; Gao, Jinghui; Cao, Minjie; Huang, Xiaosan; Zhu, Yingfang; Tang, Kai; Wang, Xingang; Tao, W Andy; Xiong, Yan; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2018-01-04

    As sessile organisms, plants must adapt to variations in the environment. Environmental stress triggers various responses, including growth inhibition, mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms that integrate stress responses with growth are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase phosphorylates PYL ABA receptors at a conserved serine residue to prevent activation of the stress response in unstressed plants. This phosphorylation disrupts PYL association with ABA and with PP2C phosphatase effectors, leading to inactivation of SnRK2 kinases. Under stress, ABA-activated SnRK2s phosphorylate Raptor, a component of the TOR complex, triggering TOR complex dissociation and inhibition. Thus, TOR signaling represses ABA signaling and stress responses in unstressed conditions, whereas ABA signaling represses TOR signaling and growth during times of stress. Plants utilize this conserved phospho-regulatory feedback mechanism to optimize the balance of growth and stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Formation of poorly crystalline iron monosulfides: Surface redox reactions on high purity iron, spectroelectrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, E.B. [Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, Copenhagen K, DK-1350 (Denmark); Odziemkowski, M.S. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: marek@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca; Gillham, R.W. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    In the use of iron for reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents in ground water, due to presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria the formation of hydrogen sulfide is expected. To simulate those processes the interface between 99.99% pure iron and 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} deoxygenated solution with 3.1 x 10{sup -5}-7.8 x 10{sup -3} M Na{sub 2}S . 9H{sub 2}O added was studied. The surface processes were characterised by the in situ normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS) and ex situ techniques; X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The open circuit potential (OCP) was monitored during in situ NRS measurements, and potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements were carried out to reveal electrochemical behaviour of iron electrode. Open circuit potential-time transients indicated that the native oxide is unstable in deaerated bicarbonate solution and undergoes reductive dissolution (i.e. autoreduction) leaving the metallic Fe covered by Fe(OH){sub 2}, adsorbed OH{sup -}, and patches of 'magnetite-like' oxide. Immediately upon injection of the Na{sub 2}S-solution the iron interface undergoes complex redox surface processes and a poorly crystalline FeS film forms. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization measurements indicated a mechanical breakdown of the FeS film. The origin and initiation of this breakdown process is not clear but is probably a result of internal stress developed during film growth. Based on surface studies supported by electrochemical measurements, a conceptual model for the complex redox processes occurring at the iron interface is proposed. This model describes the structural development of a poorly crystalline FeS, which breaks down, allowing further dissolution of the Fe and formation of FeOOH at the interface. Simultaneously and despite the existence of thick layer of FeS the entrance of hydrogen was evident as the typical hydrogen cracks in bulk of the

  9. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-11-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 years, BMI: 30.0±7.1 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA-PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0.008), and have less physical

  10. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  11. Making law work for the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2005-11-15

    To many, law – the systems of binding rules governing human relations – seems remote from the reality of daily struggle in poor and marginalised communities around the world. Yet, directly or indirectly, legal rules shape the way we behave in our everyday life, and contribute to organise social and economic relations (from commercial codes to EC 'freedom-of-movement' treaty provisions to welfare state legislation). Since the 1960s, development agencies have supported law reform processes in developing countries. Interest in law reform was recently revived by the recognition of the importance of institutional frameworks for social change ('New Institutional Economics'), and by the attention paid by several development agencies to concepts like good governance and the rule of law. Earlier emphasis on 'legal transplants' and naive assumptions about the way the law operates have given way to a better understanding of the complex nature of processes of legal and socio-economic change. Drawing on three examples, this paper explores the extent to which legal tools can contribute to improve the lives of poorer groups in both developing and developed countries; the conditions under which this is possible; and the constraints that such tools face in the pursuit of this aim. The paper aims to spark reflection and debate on these issues – not to come up with definitive answers. It is likely to be of interest for development lawyers, development practitioners working at a macro-planning level, and researchers. As for development practitioners, the paper sets out the case for taking law seriously as a tool for positive change. As for development lawyers, it argues that designing and implementing legal interventions that deliver that positive change is function not only of sound legal thinking, but also of a solid understanding of power relations and other social, cultural, political and economic factors that affect the way the law operates in

  12. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  13. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  14. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Women swell ranks of working poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Despite expanded global female employment (45% of women aged 15-64 years are economically active), women still comprise 70% of the world's 1 billion people living in poverty. Moreover, women's economic activities remain largely confined to low-wage, low-productivity forms of employment. A report by the International Labor Organization (ILO), prepared as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and the World Summit for Social Development, identified discrimination in education as a central cause of female poverty and underemployment. Each additional year of schooling is estimated to increase a woman's earnings by 15%, compared to 11% for a man. At the workplace, women face inequalities in terms of hiring and promotion standards, access to training and retraining, access to credit, equal pay for equal work, and participation in economic decision making. In addition, even women in higher-level jobs in developing countries spend 31-42 hours per week in unpaid domestic activities. The ILO has concluded that increasing employment opportunities for women is not a sufficient goal. Required are actions to improve the terms and conditions of such employment, including equal pay for work of equal value, improved occupational safety and health, enhanced security in informal or atypical forms of work, guarantees of freedom of association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, and appropriate maternity protection and child care provisions. Finally, taxation and social welfare policies must be rewritten to accommodate the reality that women are no longer the dependent or secondary earner in families.

  16. Drug-like properties and the causes of poor solubility and poor permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, C A

    2000-01-01

    There are currently about 10000 drug-like compounds. These are sparsely, rather than uniformly, distributed through chemistry space. True diversity does not exist in experimental combinatorial chemistry screening libraries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and chemical reactivity-related toxicity is low, while biological receptor activity is higher dimensional in chemistry space, and this is partly explainable by evolutionary pressures on ADME to deal with endobiotics and exobiotics. ADME is hard to predict for large data sets because current ADME experimental screens are multi-mechanisms, and predictions get worse as more data accumulates. Currently, screening for biological receptor activity precedes or is concurrent with screening for properties related to "drugability." In the future, "drugability" screening may precede biological receptor activity screening. The level of permeability or solubility needed for oral absorption is related to potency. The relative importance of poor solubility and poor permeability towards the problem of poor oral absorption depends on the research approach used for lead generation. A "rational drug design" approach as exemplified by Merck advanced clinical candidates leads to time-dependent higher molecular weight, higher H-bonding properties, unchanged lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer permeability. A high throughput screening (HTS)-based approach as exemplified by unpublished data on Pfizer (Groton, CT) early candidates leads to higher molecular weight, unchanged H-bonding properties, higher lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer aqueous solubility.

  17. 5 Things You Should Know about Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress related to the pressures of work, school, family and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about by a sudden negative change, such ... can provide emotional and other support. To reduce stress, ask for help from friends, family, and community or religious organizations. Consider a Clinical ...

  18. Pull the plug on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Bruce; McCraty, Rollin; Childre, Doc

    2003-07-01

    Stress is rampant, stress is growing, and stress hurts the bottom line. A 1999 study of 46,000 workers revealed that health care costs are 147% higher for those who are stressed or depressed, independent of other health issues. But what exactly is stress? It usually refers to our internal reaction to negative, threatening, or worrisome situations--a looming performance report, say, or interactions with a dismissive colleague. Accumulated over time, negative stress can depress you, burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you--because it's both an emotional and a physiological habit. Of course, many companies understand the negative impact of cumulative stress and offer programs to help employees counteract it. The problem is that employees in the greatest need of help often don't seek it. Since 1991, the authors have studied the physiological impact of stress on performance, at both the individual and organizational levels. Their goal largely has been to decode the underlying mechanics of stress. They've sought not only to understand how stress works on a person's mind, heart, and other bodily systems but also to discover the precise emotional, mental, and physiological levers that can counteract it. After working with more than 50,000 workers and managers in more than 100 organizations, the authors have found that learning to manage stress is easier than most people think. They have devised a scientifically based system of tools, techniques, and technologies that organizations can use to reduce employee stress and boost overall health and performance. In this article, they use the story of someone they call Nigel, a senior executive with whom they've worked, to describe how these techniques reduce stress in the real world.

  19. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  20. Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture of in schools. ... of this paper is to find strategies that can overcome poor readership in schools. ... Keywords: English First Additional Language, Writing Skills, Spelling Errors, ...

  1. Causes and consequences of poor reading habit on primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes and consequences of poor reading habit on primary school pupils in Enugu urban. ... Moreover, they noticed that poor reading habit negatively affect pupils' educational achievement. The researchers ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Standard & Poor's kulupäid ei kummarda / Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raigna, Raivo

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline reitinguagentuur Standard & Poor's hoiatas, et ilma rahanduslike reformideta hakkab Eesti rahvastiku vananemine avaldama tugevat survet avaliku sektori rahandusele ja ühtlasi riigi reitingule. Standard & Poor'si nn. mustast stsenaariumist, pakutud lahendusest

  3. Contributing Factors to Poor Service Delivery by Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor service delivery by local government is crippling South African businesses .... main categories: one focuses on an employee's internal attributes (content ... admitted that their attitude to work was adversely affected by the poor quality.

  4. Information Lives of the Poor: Fighting poverty with technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... ... access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the ... the developing-country poor are using modern communication tools. ... Policy impacts ... A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the ...

  5. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-04-29

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks.

  6. Advertising and the Poor. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lawrence

    This monograph examines the impact of media advertising on the poor. The first half of the report discusses research on the conceptual styles of the poor, mass communication among the poor, and advertising and the low-income consumer. The second half describes the methodology and results of a study of the advertising evaluation capacity and…

  7. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  8. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  9. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor quality of life among financial service employees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sergio; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-01-01

    Workers in the financial services sector are exposed to great stress at work. This study investigates whether exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions is independently associated with poor health-related physical and mental quality of life among financial services workers. We studied a nationwide representative sample of 2,054 workers of a large Brazilian state bank in 2008. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scale and the Job content questionnaire (JCQ). Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12). Poor mental and physical HRQL was defined by the lowest quartiles of the SF-12 final score distributions. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. In the multivariate analysis, exposures to low control and lack of social support at work (JCQ) were associated with poor HRQL in the physical domain. Increasing effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment (ERI), on the other hand, were associated with poor HRQL in the mental domain, with a significant statistical trend. Overcommitment was also associated with poor physical HRQL. The results suggest that exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions has a negative impact on both domains of HRQL among financial service workers. They also indicate that ERI and DC models capture different aspects of job strain.

  10. Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizanova, O; Babula, P; Pacak, K

    2016-07-01

    Stress as a modern civilization factor significantly affects our lives. While acute stress might have a positive effect on the organism, chronic stress is usually detrimental and might lead to serious health complications. It is known that stress induced by the physical environment (temperature-induced cold stress) can significantly impair the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapies and the anti-tumor immune response. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has shown that patients taking drugs known as β-adrenergic antagonists ("β-blockers"), which are commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmia, hypertension, and anxiety, have significantly lower rates of several cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about catecholamines as important stress hormones in tumorigenesis and discuss the use of β-blockers as the potential therapeutic agents.

  11. Ecophysiology of gelatinous Nostoc colonies: unprecedented slow growth and survival in resource-poor and harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2014-07-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Nostoc includes several species forming centimetre-large gelatinous colonies in nutrient-poor freshwaters and harsh semi-terrestrial environments with extended drought or freezing. These Nostoc species have filaments with normal photosynthetic cells and N2-fixing heterocysts embedded in an extensive gelatinous matrix of polysaccharides and many other organic substances providing biological and environmental protection. Large colony size imposes constraints on the use of external resources and the gelatinous matrix represents extra costs and reduced growth rates. The objective of this review is to evaluate the mechanisms behind the low rates of growth and mortality, protection against environmental hazards and the persistence and longevity of gelatinous Nostoc colonies, and their ability to economize with highly limiting resources. Simple models predict the decline in uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decline in the growth rate of spherical freshwater colonies of N. pruniforme and N. zetterstedtii and sheet-like colonies of N. commune in response to a thicker diffusion boundary layer, lower external DIC concentration and higher organic carbon mass per surface area (CMA) of the colony. Measured growth rates of N. commune and N. pruniforme at high DIC availability comply with general empirical predictions of maximum growth rate (i.e. doubling time 10-14 d) as functions of CMA for marine macroalgae and as functions of tissue thickness for aquatic and terrestrial plants, while extremely low growth rates of N. zetterstedtii (i.e. doubling time 2-3 years) are 10-fold lower than model predictions, either because of very low ambient DIC and/or an extremely costly colony matrix. DIC uptake is limited by diffusion at low concentrations for all species, although they exhibit efficient HCO3(-) uptake, accumulation of respiratory DIC within the colonies and very low CO2 compensation points. Long light paths and light attenuation by

  12. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  13. Decomposing the Gap in Childhood Undernutrition between Poor and Non–Poor in Urban India, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Result Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005–06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. Conclusions The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition. PMID:23734231

  14. Decomposing the gap in childhood undernutrition between poor and non-poor in urban India, 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005-06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005-06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition.

  15. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...

  16. Nursing staff under heavy stress: focus on Greece A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Theofanidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current global financial constrains place a burden on the development of health care services worldwide. Although nurses are the backbone of any health establishment, they seem are under constant occupational stress which varies from country to country.Aim: This paper aims to present and analyze critically the key stress factors on contemporary nursing.Method: A strategically planned four-step literature review was used focusing on identifying key stress factors in selected papers.Results: The refining process identified 26 key references which were analyzed and tabulated. These revealed areas of concern such as: insufficient work recourses, poor communication with superiors, dissatisfaction with psychosocial work environment, lowering levels of education achieved and pay, split-shifts and prolonged night shifts, high demanding tasks, verbal abuse, mobbing and antagonistic attitudes in work place and poor organization at work.Conclusions: A number of intervention strategies to avoid excess stress are presented which include: improved education of the workforce and awareness building; assessment-focused interventions; therapeutic counseling; skill-building and reorganizing the work environment.

  17. Living with type 1 diabetes is challenging for Zambian adolescents: qualitative data on stress, coping with stress and quality of care and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Pouwer, Frans

    2015-04-18

    Psychosocial problems are common in patients with diabetes. However, data on psychosocial issues affecting patients with diabetes in Zambia are scarce. The present study explored sources of stress, stress coping strategies, stigma and perceived quality of life and care as experienced by adolescents living with Type 1 Diabetes in Zambia. Semi-structured interviews were carried out. Three groups of participants involving adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes (n = 10), caregivers (n = 8) and health practitioners (n = 4) were interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed using a thematic approach. Stress was commonly reported by adolescents mainly stemming from social, psychological and physical sources. To deal with stress, adolescents often employed different coping strategies such as adapting, accepting and avoiding among others. Both internal factors (those relating to the patients themselves) and external factors (those related to the context of the patients') influenced the patients' quality of health care. In addition, low quality of life was an issue among adolescents and their families. Poor diet, low socioeconomic status and lack of medicine were factors affecting quality of health care. Stress was an issue affecting adolescents; the coping strategies employed were sometimes maladaptive such as avoiding injecting themselves to escape stress. Several aspects of quality of life were suboptimal in both adolescents and their families, such as stigmatization, short life expectancy, low socioeconomic status and poor social participation. Findings show that there is an urgent need for a strong response from all stakeholders (governments, patients, organizations and companies) to improve diabetes care and living conditions for young people with type 1 diabetes living in Zambia.

  18. Integration of immigrants into a new culture is related to poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-08-10

    This article reports on the relationship between cultural influences on life style, coping style, and sleep in a sample of female Portuguese immigrants living in Germany. Sleep quality is known to be poorer in women than in men, yet little is known about mediating psychological and sociological variables such as stress and coping with stressful life circumstances. Migration constitutes a particularly difficult life circumstance for women if it involves differing role conceptions in the country of origin and the emigrant country. The study investigated sleep quality, coping styles and level of integration in a sample of Portuguese (N = 48) and Moroccan (N = 64) immigrant women who took part in a structured personal interview. Sleep quality was poor in 54% of Portuguese and 39% of Moroccan women, which strongly exceeds reports of sleep complaints in epidemiologic studies of sleep quality in German women. Reports of poor sleep were associated with the degree of adoption of a German life style. Women who had integrated more into German society slept worse than less integrated women in both samples, suggesting that non-integration serves a protective function. An unusually large proportion of women preferred an information-seeking (monitoring) coping style and adaptive coping. Poor sleep was related to high monitoring in the Portuguese but not the Moroccan sample. Sleep quality appears to be severely affected in women with a migration background. Our data suggest that non-integration may be less stressful than integration. This result points to possible benefits of non-integration. The high preference for an information-seeking coping style may be related to the process of migration, representing the attempt at regaining control over an uncontrollable and stressful life situation.

  19. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  20. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadieh BANIASADI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39% were male. Twelve cases (10% had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71% cases had depression, 97 (79% patients stress, 94 (76% patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62% cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35, anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022, and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77 were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. CONCLUSION Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  1. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Mohebbi, Elham; Hayatbakhsh Abbasi, Mahdy; Oghabian, Zohreh

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale) questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39%) were male. Twelve cases (10%) had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71%) cases had depression, 97 (79%) patients stress, 94 (76%) patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62%) cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35), anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022), and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77) were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  2. Poor energy poor: Energy saving obligations, distributional effects, and the malfunction of the priority group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The European Union’s Energy Efficiency Directive forces the Member States to install energy efficiency obligation schemes. In a first step, this paper identifies the distributional effects caused by this policy instrument which occur when energy efficiency measures are implemented (phase of delivery) and when its costs are passed on to the society (phase of financing). In the phase of delivery, suppliers prefer to implement measures at the property of those customers which enable them to minimise their costs, i.e. enterprises with large energy savings potentials and high-income households who can contribute a greater share of the costs. In the phase of financing, distributional effects occur when the costs of the scheme are passed on from the obliged suppliers to their customers, primarily affecting less competitive customers, i.e. households and small enterprises. In the British scheme, the so-called priority group was installed in order to decrease distributional effects and to support energy poor households. In a second step, this paper evaluates approaches to reduce energy poverty and indicates ineffectiveness, high transaction costs and incoherency with the aims of the obligation scheme. Alternative approaches to tackle energy poverty are briefly described. - Highlights: • The paper discusses distributional effects of energy efficiency obligations. • Significant distributional effects occur when measures are implemented. • Significant distributional effects occur when costs are passed on to the customers. • Suppliers face problems to identify energy poor households. • The priority group contradicts the scheme’s intention of cost minimisation

  3. Beyond liposomes: Recent advances on lipid based nanostructures for poorly soluble/poorly permeable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Carbone, C; Souto, E B

    2017-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hybrid nanoparticles, have gained increasing interest as drug delivery systems because of their potential to load and release drugs from the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) of class II (low solubility and high permeability) and of class IV (low solubility and low permeability). Lipid properties (e.g. high solubilizing potential, biocompatibility, biotolerability, biodegradability and distinct route of absorption) contribute for the improvement of the bioavailability of these drugs for a set of administration routes. Their interest continues to grow, as translated by the number of patents being field worldwide. This paper discusses the recent advances on the use of SLN, NLC and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for the loading of lipophilic, poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs, being developed for oral, topical, parenteral and ocular administration, also discussing the industrial applications of these systems. A review of the patents filled between 2014 and 2017, concerning the original inventions of lipid nanocarriers, is also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  5. Early Adversity, Elevated Stress Physiology, Accelerated Sexual Maturation, and Poor Health in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for…

  6. Coping with stress and by stress: Russian men and women talking about transition, stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have claimed stress to be a major reason for poor public health in Russia and referred to significant social changes as a reason for the high level of perceived stress among Russians. This article aims to examine how stress and its relation to health are interpreted in the context of everyday life in Russian men's and women's interview talk with a focus on descriptions of recent social changes. The research material consists of 29 thematic interviews of men and women from St. Petersburg aged 15-81. In the analysis of contextual constructions of stress, we found that stress was used not only within a context of an individual's own life as an expression of a strained psycho-physiological state but also denoted larger societal processes and changes. In addition to individual experiences, the whole of Russian society was described as suffering from stress. Throughout the material, most interviewees, whilst outspokenly blaming stress for deteriorating physical health, met difficulties in making concrete these negative influences. Based on analysis, we interpret our interviewees' accounts of stress as a part of the cultural discourse wherein 'stress' serves as a conceptual tool in making interpretations about both the people and their social environment. Stress, as a concept, has emerged in a wide range of different institutional sites, such as the media and public health policy and has become a discursive entity of contemporary social life in Russia. We claim that it has simultaneously become an intermediary concept articulating a shared, cultural experience of the changes in Russian society and their effects on individuals' everyday life and health. Thus, the concept of stress helps people to articulate, make sensible, and cope with the impacts of transition on their individual lives.

  7. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  8. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health. Population-based interviews were conducted in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. (n ≈ 1000 per country). GDP, GINI coefficient, Justice Index and Freedom Index were used as objective MF, whereas subjective MF were perceived wealth, justice and freedom measured at the individual level. Poor mental health was assessed as a combination of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. In a random-intercept-model, GINI coefficient and Freedom Index were significant positive country-level, and perceived wealth, justice, and freedom significant negative individual-level predictors of symptoms of poor mental health. Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem's relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  9. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,

  10. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... problems Headaches Heart disease Sleep problems Weight gain Memory and concentration impairment That's why it's so important ...

  11. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... hand, the fit on “hard” dimensions as salary, financial rewards and career opportunities is found to be unrelated to the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The fit with regard to job security is an important exception, however....... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  12. The impact of static stress change, dynamic stress change, and the background stress on aftershock focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    The focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Southern California before and after four M ≥ 6.7 main shocks provide insight into how fault systems respond to stress and changes in stress. The main shock static stress changes have two observed impacts on the seismicity: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the static stress change and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the static stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly aligned with the static stress changes for absolute stress changes of ≥ 0.02 MPa, for up to ~20 years following the main shock. The dynamic stress changes have similar, although smaller, effects on the local focal mechanisms and the spatial seismicity distribution. Dynamic stress effects are best observed at long periods (30–60 s) and for metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction. This implies that dynamic triggering operates, at least in part, through cyclic shear stress loading in the direction of fault slip. The background stress also strongly controls both the preshock and aftershock mechanisms. While most aftershock mechanisms are well oriented in the background stress field, 10% of aftershocks are identified as poorly oriented outliers, which may indicate limited heterogeneity in the postmain shock stress field. The fault plane orientations of the outliers are well oriented in the background stress, while their slip directions are not, implying that the background stress restricts the distribution of available fault planes.

  13. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  14. Stress and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.

  15. Stress Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the post-modern management organizational leaders have the obligation of protecting their employees against factors that could cause damages to their potentially wealthy lives. Stress is such a factor. We shall attempt by means of the present article to draw attention on certain general aspects that should be taken into account in drafting plans for fighting against and diminishing the stress faced by the employees

  16. Stress fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Cooper, K.L.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur

  17. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. Thus oxidative stress constitutes a major threat to organisms living in aerobic environments.

  18. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...... was increased (from 6 to 39% of organic content, depending upon sediment type). However, in some of the sediment types, a higher fraction of organic matter led to a decline in biomass. The biomass of L. uniflora was less responsive to organic content and was decreased significantly only when the least labile......P>1. Despite real improvement in the water quality of many previously eutrophic lakes, the recovery of submerged vegetation has been poor. This lack of recovery is possibly caused by the accumulation of organic matter on the top layer of the sediment, which is produced under eutrophic conditions...

  19. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  20. Outcome of poor response Paediatric AML using early SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    ) or > 5% blasts after AM (n = 14, refractory disease). Poor response patients received intensively timed induction and proceeded to SCT when a donor was available. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 267 evaluable patients (12%) had a poor response. SCT was performed in 25; using matched unrelated donors in 13......BACKGROUND: Children with poor response acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) generally have a very poor outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often recommended for these children but the benefit is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate survival for poor response AML patients...... treated with SCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17...

  1. Job stress among Iranian prison employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, J; Akbari, R; Farasati, F; Mahaki, B

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Job stress was highest among employees of "correction and rehabilitation center" of Ilam province followed by "Dalab vocational training center." There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  2. Job Stress among Iranian Prison Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  3. Industrial Catching Up in the Poor Periphery 1870-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents industrial output and labor productivity growth around the poor periphery 1870-1975 (Latin America, the European periphery, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia). Intensive and extensive industrial growth accelerated there over this critical century. The precocious poor periphery leaders underwent a surge and more poor countries joined their club. Furthermore, by the interwar the majority were catching up on Germany, the US and the UK, a process that ...

  4. Avaliação de genótipos de aveia branca sob estresse de ácidos orgânicos Responses of white oat genotypes to stresses of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2009-01-01

    :3:1 ratio, respectively were tested. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications on a factorial scheme. Measured variables were root (CR shoot (CPA length, root number (NR, root (MSR and shoot (MSPA dry matter. Variance analyses and regression fitness were performed. The effects of the interaction between doses and genotypes were significant for the variables CR and MSR. The regression curves indicated two genotypes (OR-3 e FAPA-5 with stable root growth and three (OR-3, UFRGS-17 e UPF-15 with stable dry matter accumulation under organic acid stresses. The characterization of these genotypes regarding organic acid phytotoxic action is an important resource for breeding programs aiming at to develop high yielding cultivars for no-tillage or minimal tillage systems in hydromorphic soils of southern Brazil.

  5. Sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study used cross sectional descriptive design and a total of three hundred and two (302 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique from five randomly selected foreign-owned manufacturing companies. Data were collected using questionnaire and statistically analysed using frequencies, percentages and weighted means. The study reveals factors such as unfavourable physical working conditions, job insecurity, poor career development, and long working hours fostering stress on employees in the sampled companies. The study further reveals that respondents suffered consequences such as restlessness, anxiety and nervous indigestion, headache, neck ache, and inability to concentrate. This study however has implication for management of foreign-owned manufacturing organization. Based on this, appropriate recommendations were made application of which will help to ensure enabling workplace environment and thus reduce the effects of stress on employees.

  6. Cortisol responsiveness to stress in channel catfish influences susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress is unavoidable in aquaculture and hence strains of fish that are resilient and adaptable to stress need to be developed. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had reduced ability to resist pathogens. Cortisol is the primary stress hormone...

  7. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  8. The need for mental health services research focusing on poor young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the relationship between poverty and increased risk for a broad spectrum of mental disorders has been documented for several decades, very little is known about providing mental health treatments to poor individuals. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of developing, and empirically evaluating, sensitive and appropriate interventions for poor young women who suffer from common mental disorders. WHO ARE THE US POOR?: In the US, nearly 14% of individuals live in poverty, and another 20% in near poverty. The poor are disproportionally women and children such that 63% of female-headed households are poor. Young women and ethnic minorities are over-represented among the poor also, with 55% of those living below the poverty level being minorities. NEEDS AND BARRIERS TO CARE AMONG POOR, YOUNG WOMEN: The poor have more mental disorders than those with more resources. Further, women are twice as likely as men to have a mood or anxiety disorder, including major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with younger women at higher risk than older women. Research alos indicates that poor women have high exposure to traumatic events and cumulative adversity that is directly related to their mental health. This history may serve, in part, as a barrier to seeking mental health care. Other barriers in this population include lack of insurance, lack of access to primary care where mental disorders might be detected, practical problems like lack of childcare or transportation, and the inflexibility of low-income service jobs. Religious beliefs and attitudes about mental health treatment may play a role as well. Recent policy changes in the US have contributed to the vulnerability of this group as eligibility for welfare programs has reduced, and time limits have decreasd. Services for immigrants are also severely limited, and managed care strategies for those in the public sector may be confusing. IMPORTANT, UNANSWERED QUESTION: More needs

  9. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  10. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  12. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  13. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Inbal; Weindling, Esther; Jubran, Ritta; Cohen, Aviv; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  14. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  15. LTP after Stress: Up or Down?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Joëls

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When an organism is exposed to a stressful situation, corticosteroid levels in the brain rise. This rise has consequences for behavioral performance, including memory formation. Over the past decades, it has become clear that a rise in corticosteroid level is also accompanied by a reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Recent studies, however, indicate that stress does not lead to a universal suppression of LTP. Many factors, including the type of stress, the phase of the stress response, the area of investigation, type of LTP, and the life history of the organism determine in which direction LTP will be changed.

  16. Improving indoor air quality for poor families : a controlled experiment in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Wheeler, David

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization's 2004 Global and Regional Burden of Disease Report estimates that acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (pollution from burning wood, animal dung, and other bio-fuels) kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. This paper reports on an experiment that studied the use of different fuels in conjunction with different combinations of construction material...

  17. A comparison of the language skills of ELLs and monolinguals who are poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Massey-Garrison, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to examine how oral language abilities relate to reading profiles in English language learners (ELLs) and English as a first language (EL1) learners, and the extent of similarities and differences between ELLs and EL1s in three reading subgroups: normal readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders. The study included 100 ELLs and 50 EL1s in Grade 5. The effect of language group (ELL/EL1) and reading group on cognitive and linguistic skills was examined. Except for vocabulary, there was no language group effect on any measure. However, within ELL and EL1 alike, significant differences were found between reading groups: Normal readers outperformed the two other groups on all the oral language measures. Distinct cognitive and linguistic profiles were associated with poor decoders and poor comprehenders, regardless of language group. The ELL and EL1 poor decoders outperformed the poor comprehenders on listening comprehension and inferencing. The poor decoders displayed phonological-based weaknesses, whereas the poor comprehenders displayed a more generalized language processing weakness that is nonphonological in nature. Regardless of language status, students with poor decoding or comprehension problems display difficulties with various aspects of language.

  18. Analysis of Poor Performance of Senior Secondary Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...

  19. Finance for the Poor: An Assessment of the Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of microfinance in the Nigerian financial system is an attempt to provide the poor with access to micro-financial services. Micro-banks that are supposed to provide these services are faced with many challenges. Among these are: inability to reach a greater number of the poor; funding of commercial sectors ...

  20. Outcome of poor response paediatric AML using early SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Gustafsson, Britt; Ha, Shau-Yin; Heldrup, Jesper; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Lausen, Birgitte; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Hasle, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Children with poor response acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) generally have a very poor outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often recommended for these children but the benefit is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate survival for poor response AML patients treated with SCT. Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17) or > 5% blasts after AM (n = 14, refractory disease). Poor response patients received intensively timed induction and proceeded to SCT when a donor was available. Thirty-one of 267 evaluable patients (12%) had a poor response. SCT was performed in 25; using matched unrelated donors in 13, matched sibling donors in 6, cord blood donor in 4, and haploidentical donor in two. The median follow-up for the 31 poor responding patients was 2.6 years (range 0.4 - 8.1 years) and 3-year probability of survival 70% (95% CI 59-77%). The poor responders in the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol had a favourable prognosis treated with time-intensive induction followed by SCT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  2. Globalisation And The Poor Nations | Maku | Journal of Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews some definition of globalization, presents the real picture of the general economic welfare of poor nation in the era of intensive globalsiation and proffer policy recommendation on the strategies the poor nations can adopt to integrate fully and derive the immense benefits from globalization process.

  3. Mandated empowerment: handing antipoverty policy back to the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit V; Duflo, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The current trend in antipoverty policy emphasizes mandated empowerment: the poor are being handed the responsibility for making things better for themselves, largely without being asked whether this is what they want. Beneficiary control is now being built into public service delivery, while microcredit and small business promotion are seen as better ways to help the poor. The clear presumption is that the poor are both able and happy to exercise these new powers. This essay uses two examples to raise questions about these strategies. The first example is about entrepreneurship among the poor. Using data from a number of countries, we argue that there is no evidence that the median poor entrepreneur is trying his best to expand his existing businesses, even if we take into account the many constraints he faces. While many poor people own businesses, this seems to be more a survival strategy than something they want to do. The second example comes from an evaluation of a program in India that aims to involve poor rural parents in improving local public schools. The data suggest that despite being informed that they now have both the right to intervene in the school and access to funds for that purpose, and despite being made aware of how little the children were learning, parents opt to not get involved. Both examples raise concerns about committing ourselves entirely to antipoverty strategies that rely on the poor doing a lot of the work.

  4. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  5. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link-or its absence-to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs

  6. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  7. Influencing pro-poor telecommunication policies in Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the cancellation of a plan to tax mobile usage in Bangladesh. Surveys on mobile expenditures in several South Asian countries found that nearly half of the poor people in Bangladesh own a mobile phone. Ownership rates are even higher in ...

  8. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  9. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  10. Gustatory and metabolic perception of nutrient stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Nancy J; Ro, Jennifer; Chung, Brian Y; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-02-24

    Sleep loss is an adaptive response to nutrient deprivation that alters behavior to maximize the chances of feeding before imminent death. Organisms must maintain systems for detecting the quality of the food source to resume healthy levels of sleep when the stress is alleviated. We determined that gustatory perception of sweetness is both necessary and sufficient to suppress starvation-induced sleep loss when animals encounter nutrient-poor food sources. We further find that blocking specific dopaminergic neurons phenocopies the absence of gustatory stimulation, suggesting a specific role for these neurons in transducing taste information to sleep centers in the brain. Finally, we show that gustatory perception is required for survival, specifically in a low nutrient environment. Overall, these results demonstrate an important role for gustatory perception when environmental food availability approaches zero and illustrate the interplay between sensory and metabolic perception of nutrient availability in regulating behavioral state.

  11. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  12. prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Introduction: Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, ... Conclusion: The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor ..... Stansfeld S, Head J, Marmot M. Work related factors and ...

  13. Children in Sport: Participation Motives and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passer, Michael W.

    1981-01-01

    Research on children's sport participation motives is examined to provide insight about potential sources of stress in organized youth sports. A four-stage model of stress is outlined, and topics that deserve further research are discussed. (CJ)

  14. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  15. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  16. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media Organization Fermilab Organization Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Line Organization LBNF Project Director LCLS-II

  17. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Iwata, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the electrocardiogram along with blood pressure and heart rate. Participants provided self-reported information about the presence/absence of work/home stress and the possible confounders affecting QT indicators. Home stress was related positively to QT index (p=0.040) after adjusting for the possible confounders, though work stress did not show a significant relation to QTc interval or QT index. The odds ratio of home stress to elevated QT index (≥105) was 2.677 (95% CI, 1.050 to 6.822). Work/home stress showed no significant relation to blood pressure or heart rate. These findings suggest that autonomic imbalance, readily assessed by QT indicators, can be induced by home stress in Japanese workers. Additional research is needed to identify different types of home stress that are strongly associated with autonomic imbalance.

  18. The Influence of Organizational Reconciliation Policies and Culture on Workers Stress Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Work-family reconciliation plays a crucial role in the well-being of employees, having impacts at the individual, social and organizational level. Studies concluded that poor work-life balance as one of the ten predictors of psychosocial risks at work. A family-friendly culture relates to how an organization values and allows the articulation of the various spheres of its workers’ life. We intended to determine the effect of different variables like the existence of services, the organizational culture and the managers and colleagues support, on the stress experienced. A sample of 156 employees, from five organizations in the same region of Portugal, responded to a survey contributing to the empirical results of the study. We have conducted a structural equation model to test whether the factor solution of the perception of the reconciliation capability - STRESS model demonstrated a goodness of fit to the population studied. We’ve concluded that more important than the existence of reconciliation services, the perception of a supportive organizational culture, namely by colleagues and supervisors has great influence in reconciliation capability and by that way on work stress feelings. This might explain why workers do not use all the spectrum of resources provided by organizations and states to work-life reconciliation.

  19. Stress biology and aging mechanisms: toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Elissa S; Lithgow, Gordon J

    2014-06-01

    The rate of biological aging is modulated in part by genes interacting with stressor exposures. Basic research has shown that exposure to short-term stress can strengthen cellular responses to stress ("hormetic stress"). Hormetic stress promotes longevity in part through enhanced activity of molecular chaperones and other defense mechanisms. In contrast, prolonged exposure to stress can overwhelm compensatory responses ("toxic stress") and shorten lifespan. One key question is whether the stressors that are well understood in basic models of aging can help us understand psychological stressors and human health. The psychological stress response promotes regulatory changes important in aging (e.g., increases in stress hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin). The negative effects of severe stress are well documented in humans. Potential positive effects of acute stress (stress resistance) are less studied, especially at the cellular level. Can stress resistance slow the rate of aging in humans, as it does in model organisms? If so, how can we promote stress resistance in humans? We urge a new research agenda embracing the continuum from cellular stress to psychological stress, using basic and human research in tandem. This will require interdisciplinary novel approaches that hold much promise for understanding and intervening in human chronic disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...