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Sample records for stress os markers

  1. A stress marker in speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den

    2003-01-01

    This study examins the variability of the fundamental frequency of the voice (SD F0), as an indirect measure of physiological arousal, reflecting the intensity of emotions. The Subjective Unit of Distress (SUD) was applied to assess (a) the success of the experimental manipulation of stress, and (b)

  2. A stress marker in speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    This study examines the variability of the fundamental frequency of the voice (SD F0), as an indirect measure of physiological arousal, reflecting the intensity of emotions. The Subjective Unit of Distress (SUD) was applied to assess (a) the success of the experimental manipulation of stress, and

  3. Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in Argania spinosa subjected to drought stress and recovery. ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries:.

  4. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 causes high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings.

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    Chunchao Wang

    Full Text Available Rice SPX domain gene, OsSPX1, plays an important role in the phosphate (Pi signaling network. Our previous work showed that constitutive overexpression of OsSPX1 in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants improved cold tolerance while also decreasing total leaf Pi. In the present study, we generated rice antisense and sense transgenic lines of OsSPX1 and found that down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings. Compared to wild-type and OsSPX1-sense transgenic lines, more hydrogen peroxide accumulated in seedling leaves of OsSPX1-antisense transgenic lines for controls, cold and methyl viologen (MV treatments. Glutathione as a ROS scavenger could protect the antisense transgenic lines from cold and MV stress. Rice whole genome GeneChip analysis showed that some oxidative-stress marker genes (e.g. glutathione S-transferase and P450s and Pi-signaling pathway related genes (e.g. OsPHO2 were significantly down-regulated by the antisense of OsSPX1. The microarray results were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Our study indicated that OsSPX1 may be involved in cross-talks between oxidative stress, cold stress and phosphate homeostasis in rice seedling leaves.

  5. Workplace Re-organization and Changes in Physiological Stress Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Rikke Hinge; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physiological stress markers as a consequence of workplace reorganization. Moreover, we aimed to investigate changes in the psychosocial work environment (job strain, effortreward imbalance (ERI), in psychological distress (stress symptoms......, perceived stress) and the mediating effect of these factors on changes in physiological stress markers. We used data from a longitudinal study that studied the health consequences of a major reorganization of non-state public offices executed in Denmark on 1 January 2007. Collection of clinical...... and questionnaire data was in 2006 and 2008, and in this sub-study we included 359 participants. To reflect stress reactions of the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system, we included 13 physiological markers. We observed significant change in several physiological stress markers...

  6. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  7. A simple and objective marker for stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Soeren; Karpatschof, Benny; Trojaborg, Werner

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) at sternum and various well established physiological stress measures among opera singers during a performance as a measure for transitional stress, and resting values in out-clinic patients as a measure for persistent stress....

  8. Development and drought tolerance assay of marker-free transgenic rice with OsAPX2 using biolistic particle-mediated co-transformation

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    Dan Feng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and low temperature cause–losses in rice production worldwide. The emergence of transgenic technology has enabled improvements in the drought resistance of rice plants and helped avert crop damage due to drought stress. Selectable marker genes conferring resistance to antibiotics or herbicides have been widely used to identify genetically modified plants. However, the use of such markers has limited the public acceptance of genetically modified organisms. Marker-free materials (i.e., those containing a single foreign gene may be more easily accepted by the public and more likely to find common use. In the present study, we created marker-free drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants using particle bombardment. Overall, 842 T0 plants overexpressing the rice ascorbate peroxidase-coding gene OsAPX2 were generated. Eight independent marker-free lines were identified from T1 seedlings using the polymerase chain reaction. The molecular characteristics of these lines were examined, including the expression level, copy number, and flanking sequences of OsAPX2, in the T2 progeny. A simulated drought test using polyethylene glycol and a drought-tolerance test of seedlings confirmed that the marker-free lines carrying OsAPX2 showed significantly improved drought tolerance in seedlings. In the field, the yield of the wild-type plant decreased by 60% under drought conditions compared with normal conditions. However, the transgenic line showed a yield loss of approximately 26%. The results demonstrated that marker-free transgenic lines significantly improved grain yield under drought-stressed conditions.

  9. Markers of environmental stress in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Gradual long-term changes in soil and environmental factors due to human activity, may affect forest trees and lead to loss of forest productivity. In most cases, the symptoms of stress appear too late for their effects to be reversed through management and/or treatment.

  10. Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, Agnes W.; Drent, Marjolein; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant levels are implicated in the aetiology of sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease. Quercetin is a potent dietary antioxidant that also displays anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, the aim is to examine the effect of quercetin supplementation on markers of

  11. Oxidative Stress Markers and Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we evaluated the serum levels of oxidative stress markers and investigated genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase associated with autism. Materials and Methods: Forty-two children clinically diagnosed with ASD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and a ...

  12. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

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    Jose Luis Martin-Ventura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.

  13. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

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    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  14. An alternatively spliced heat shock transcription factor, OsHSFA2dI, functions in the heat stress-induced unfolded protein response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Zhou, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Song, G; Guo, Z; Wang, W; Qu, X; Zhu, Y; Yang, D

    2015-03-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have evolved a wide range of defence pathways to cope with environmental stress such as heat shock. However, the molecular mechanism of these defence pathways remains unclear in rice. In this study, we found that OsHSFA2d, a heat shock transcriptional factor, encodes two main splice variant proteins, OsHSFA2dI and OsHSFA2dII in rice. Under normal conditions, OsHSFA2dII is the dominant but transcriptionally inactive spliced form. However, when the plant suffers heat stress, OsHSFA2d is alternatively spliced into a transcriptionally active form, OsHSFA2dI, which participates in the heat stress response (HSR). Further study found that this alternative splicing was induced by heat shock rather than photoperiod. We found that OsHSFA2dI is localised to the nucleus, whereas OsHSFA2dII is localised to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, expression of the unfolded protein response (UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE) sensors, OsIRE1, OsbZIP39/OsbZIP60 and the UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE marker OsBiP1, was up-regulated. Interestingly, OsbZIP50 was also alternatively spliced under heat stress, indicating that UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE signalling pathways were activated by heat stress to re-establish cellular protein homeostasis. We further demonstrated that OsHSFA2dI participated in the unfolded protein response by regulating expression of OsBiP1. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Oxidative stress markers imbalance in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Mendes-Silva, Ana Paula; Silva, Lucelia Barroso; Bertola, Laiss; Vieira, Monica Costa; Ferreira, Jessica Diniz; Nicolau, Mariana; Bristot, Giovana; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Teixeira, Antonio L; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2018-03-20

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in young adults. However, there is few data to support its role in the elderly. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether subjects with late-life depression (LLD) presented with changes in oxidative stress response in comparison with the non-depressed control group. We then explored how oxidative stress markers associated with specific features of LLD, in particular cognitive performance and age of onset of major depressive disorder in these individuals. We included a convenience sample of 124 individuals, 77 with LLD and 47 non-depressed subjects (Controls). We measure the plasma levels of 6 oxidative stress markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonil content (PCC), free 8-isoprostane, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. We found that participants with LLD had significantly higher free 8-isoprostane levels (p = 0.003) and lower glutathione peroxidase activity (p = 0.006) compared to controls. Free 8-isoprostane levels were also significantly correlated with worse scores in the initiation/perseverance (r = -0.24, p = 0.01), conceptualization (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) sub-scores, and the total scores (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) on the DRS. Our study provides robust evidence of the imbalance between oxidative stress damage, in particular lipid peroxidation, and anti-oxidative defenses as a mechanism related to LLD, and cognitive impairment in this population. Interventions aiming to reduce oxidative stress damage can have a potential neuroprotective effect for LLD subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Santella, Regina M; Sram, Radim J

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with many diseases. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are believed to be two of the major sources of particulate matter (PM)-mediated adverse health effects. PM in ambient air arises from industry, local heating, and vehicle emissions and poses a serious problem mainly in large cities. In the present study we analyzed the level of oxidative and nitrosative stress among 50 bus drivers from Prague, Czech Republic, and 50 matching controls. We assessed simultaneously the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine and protein carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in blood plasma. For the analysis of all four markers we used ELISA techniques. We observed significantly increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers. The median levels (min, max) of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 8-oxodG: 7.79 (2.64-12.34)nmol/mmol versus 6.12 (0.70-11.38)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); 15-F(2t)-IsoP: 0.81 (0.38-1.55)nmol/mmol versus 0.68 (0.39-1.79)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); carbonyl levels: 14.1 (11.8-19.0)nmol/ml versus 12.9 (9.8-16.6)nmol/ml plasma (p<0.001); NT: 694 (471-3228)nmol/l versus 537 (268-13833)nmol/l plasma (p<0.001). 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels correlated with vitamin E (R=0.23, p<0.05), vitamin C (R=-0.33, p<0.01) and cotinine (R=0.47, p<0.001) levels. Vitamin E levels also positively correlated with 8-oxodG (R=0.27, p=0.01) and protein carbonyl levels (R=0.32, p<0.001). Both oxidative and nitrosative stress markers positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposure. In conclusion, our study indicates that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 results in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  17. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers in diabetes and hypertension

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    Pouvreau C

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloé Pouvreau,1 Antoine Dayre,1 Eugene G Butkowski,2 Beverlie de Jong,2 Herbert F Jelinek2,3 1Faculty of Sciences, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France; 2School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia; 3Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors associated with chronic disease such as essential hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the association of inflammation and oxidative stress in HTN with T2DM as a comorbidity is inconclusive due to the multifactorial nature of these cardiometabolic diseases. Methodology: The influence of pathophysiological factors include genetics, age of patient, and disease progression change throughout the lifespan and require further investigation. The study population included 256 participants attending a rural health screening program who were tested for markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and coagulation/fibrinolysis. Demographic and clinical variables included, age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cholesterol profile. Data were tested for normality, and nonparametric statistics were applied to analyze the sample with significance set at p<0.05. Results: Of the inflammatory markers, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-10 were significantly different between the control and hypertensive group (p<0.03 and between the HTN+T2DM compared to the HTN group (p<0.05. Significant results for oxidative stress were observed for urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 between the control and the HTN+T2DM group (p<0.01. Glutathione (GSH was also significant between the HTN and HTN+T2DM group (p<0.05. Investigation of the progression of HTN also found significant changes in the inflammatory markers IGF-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, and

  18. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Busra; Kara, Ozgur; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Arik, Gunes; Aycicek, Gozde Sengul; Sumer, Fatih; Civelek, Ramazan; Demirtas, Canan; Ulger, Zekeriya

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the presence of low muscle mass and function. Possible mechanisms underlying sarcopenia include oxidative stress and elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and biomarkers that may be involved in its pathogenesis and hence early detection. A total of 72 patients (36 sarcopenic and 36 non-sarcopenic) were included in the study. An experienced geriatric team applied comprehensive geriatric assessment to all patients. Anthropometric measures, gait speed and handgrip strength were recorded. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess skeletal muscle mass. In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests, serum adiponectin, thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older Adults as the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function or muscle performance. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be functionally dependent and had lower scores on comprehensive geriatric assessment tools. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the sarcopenic group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3. Sarcopenic patients had lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, calcium, triglycerides, uric acid and adiponectin (p sarcopenia whereas ESR was positively correlated. The present study demonstrated an association of sarcopenia with inflammatory markers CRP, ESR and adiponectin. Long-term prospective studies are warranted to confirm the relationship between markers oxidative stress and age related muscle decline.

  19. [Serum markers of oxidative stress in infertile women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Aline Zyman de; Rodrigues, Jhenifer Kliemchen; Dib, Luciana Azôr; Romão, Gustavo Salata; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles

    2010-06-01

    to compare serum markers of oxidative stress between infertile patients with and without endometriosis and to assess the association of these markers with disease staging. this was a prospective study conducted on 112 consecutive infertile, non-obese patients younger than 39 years, divided into two groups: Endometriosis (n=48, 26 with minimal and mild endometriosis - Stage I/II, and 22 with moderate and severe endometriosis - Stage III/IV) and Control (n=64, with tubal and/or male factor infertility). Blood samples were collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the analysis of serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and total hydroxyperoxide levels by spectrophotometry and of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were compared between the endometriosis and control groups, stage I/II endometriosis and control, stage III/IV endometriosis and control, and between the two endometriosis subgroups. The level of significance was set at 5% (p Control Group (8.0 ± 2 µMol/g protein) and among patients with stage III/IV disease (9.7 ± 2.3 µMol/g protein) compared to patients with stage I/II disease (8.2 ± 1.0 µMol/g protein). No significant differences in serum malondialdehyde levels were observed between groups. we demonstrated a positive association between infertility related to endometriosis, advanced disease stage and increased serum hydroxyperoxide levels, suggesting an increased production of reactive species in women with endometriosis. These data, taken together with the reduction of serum vitamin E and glutathione levels, suggest the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress in women with infertility associated with endometriosis. The reproductive and metabolic implications of oxidative stress should be assessed in future studies.

  20. Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene from rice and analysis of the response of this gene to abiotic stresses. ... The cDNA with the whole open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 284 amino acid residues with ...

  1. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative Stress in COPD: Sources, Markers, and Potential Mechanisms

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    Adam John Anthony McGuinness

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and reactive oxygen species (ROS are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause. Evidence has indicated that the function of several key cells appears altered in COPD patients, and expression levels of important oxidant and antioxidant molecules may be abnormal. Therapeutic trials attempting to restore equilibrium to these molecules have not impacted upon all facets of disease and whilst the theory behind ROS influence in COPD appears sound, current models testing relevant pathways to tissue damage are limited. The heterogeneity seen in COPD patients presents a challenge to our understanding, and further research is essential to identify potential targets and stratified COPD patient populations where ROS therapies may be maximally efficacious.

  3. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

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    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  4. Os acromiale: evaluation of markers for identification on sagittal and coronal oblique MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, D.S. [University of Michigan, Dept. of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]|[Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Kneeland, J.B. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Herzog, R. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An os acromiale is a developmental abnormality of ossification involving the anterior acromion which may contribute to impingement and rotator cuff disease. When axial MR sections do not include the acromioclavicular joint, the diagnosis of this often subtle abnormality will rest on its recognition on oblique coronal and sagittal images where it mimics the acromioclavicular joint. The identification of this anomaly is important as it frequently alters the type of surgical procedure utilized in symptomatic patients. We evaluate several imaging features which may be used to diagnose an os acromiale in these cases. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  5. Os acromiale: evaluation of markers for identification on sagittal and coronal oblique MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, D.S.; Kneeland, J.B.; Herzog, R.

    1997-01-01

    An os acromiale is a developmental abnormality of ossification involving the anterior acromion which may contribute to impingement and rotator cuff disease. When axial MR sections do not include the acromioclavicular joint, the diagnosis of this often subtle abnormality will rest on its recognition on oblique coronal and sagittal images where it mimics the acromioclavicular joint. The identification of this anomaly is important as it frequently alters the type of surgical procedure utilized in symptomatic patients. We evaluate several imaging features which may be used to diagnose an os acromiale in these cases. (orig.). With 5 figs

  6. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

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    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  7. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H 2 O 2 -producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na + /K + ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters ( OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 , and OsAKT1 ) involved in Na + /K + homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na + and K + regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  8. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

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    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  9. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  10. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  11. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Kamodyová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001–10%. Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p<0.01. Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p<0.001. Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p<0.05 and p<0.01. One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  12. Oxidative stress parameters as markers of the different trimesters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy has been associated with changes in physiologic and metabolic functions accompanied by a high metabolic demand and elevated requirements for tissue oxygen with eventual increase in oxidative pressure on the antioxidant defence system of the body. Thus, it was based on this premise that some markers of ...

  13. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Picavet, H. Susan J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  14. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Susan, H; Picavet, J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    ObjectiveThe prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  15. Role of OsWAK124, a rice wall-associated kinase, in response to environmental heavy metal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, X.; Hou, X.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) family play important roles in both development and stress responses. There are about one hundred and twenty five OsWAKs annotated in the rice genome but their functions in rice growth and development are largely unknown. In this paper, we reported a functional role of the OsWAK124 (Os12g0266200) in rice heavy metal responses. Confocal GFP experiments located OsWAK124 in the cell wall and analyses of OsWAK124 promoter GUS transgenic lines suggested that OsWAK124 promoter is primarily active at the meristematic tissues under normal growth condition. Under stress conditions, however, OsWAK124 promoter activity is induced in non-meristematic tissues, such as leaf, stem and root, and the activity in the meristematic tissues is further enhanced. Various transgenic rice lines carrying either RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression constructs were generated. Transgenic lines were tested for their responses to various stress conditions including salicylic acid, NaCl, AlCl/sub 3/, CuSO/sub 4/ and CdSO/sub 4/. Our analyses showed that rice seedlings overexpressing OsWAK124 are more resistant to the three tested heavy metals (Al, Cu, and Cd), which suggested that OsWAK124, like some Arabidopsis WAK members, plays a role in environmental heavy metal stress responses. (author)

  16. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  17. Oxidative Stress Markers and Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... stress such as asthma, lung cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.[11-13]. Although ... epigenetic, and environmental factors. Little is known ..... glutathione Stransferase genes increase risk of prostate cancer biochemical ...

  18. Systemic oxidative stress markers in animal model for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Kravtsova, Violetta; Aalkjær, Christian

    Involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in development of major depressive disorder has recently become evident, though mechanisms behind this remain elusive. We analyzed therefore OxS pathways in rat Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression. Rats are exposed to chronic unpredictable mild...... mg/kg/day). Saline injections were done to control the vehicle effect. Escitalopram treated rats were sub-divided into 2 groups: responders and non-responders, according to their hedonic state and compared to non-stressed rats, treated with either saline or Escitalopram. Measurement of total...... glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lungs, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, saphenous, mesenteric, and tail arteries were used as estimates for OxS. In heart, glutathione was increased in CMS rats in comparison with non-stressed vehicle group. Accordingly, an estimate for free radical activity, MDA...

  19. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  20. Social Support, Perceived Stress, and Markers of Heart Failure Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography

  1. Oxidative stress markers at birth: Analyses of a neonatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Rizzo, Manfredi; Scaturro, Giusy; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Corsello, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand neonatal stress and, thus, control it efficaciously, there is a need for more information on the manifestations of stress at the molecular level in the newborn, with particular regard to oxidants, and anti-oxidant and anti-stress mechanisms, including mitochondrial heat shock protein-chaperones such as Hsp60. We investigated patterns of anti-oxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and Hsp60 levels in sera from newborns and found significant associations between glutathione (GSH) levels and gestational age, delivery modality, and lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH) level. LOOH levels and spontaneous (vaginal) delivery were independently associated with increased GSH levels when these were above the median. Hsp60 and LOOH levels were positively correlated whereas Hsp60 and GSH levels were inversely correlated in spontaneously delivered newborns; in contrast, Hsp60 and GSH levels were positively correlated in newborns delivered by cesarea. Our results point to new directions in the search for definite patterns of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 in the newborn's serum that might have functional and diagnostic significance and that could help in the monitoring of newborn health during and after delivery. In addition, the data provide a starting basis for investigating the precise roles and interplay of GSH and Hsp60 in the maintenance of an optimal redox balance at birth to cope with the stress inherent to delivery, and also for investigating the predictive value of any given pattern of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 at birth with regard to health status and risk of disease in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  3. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...... difference was observed between the fish oil groups. No changes in a variety of in vivo markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation or inflammation were observed after daily intake of oxidised fish oil for 3 or 7 weeks, indicating that intake of oxidised fish oil may not have unfavourable short......-term effects in healthy human subjects....

  4. Low intensity aerobic exercise and oxidative stress markers in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed A; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

  5. Activation of PERK signaling through fluoride-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in OS732 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Zhou, Yu-lai; Zhang, Xiu-yun; Lu, Peng; Li, Guang-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Our proteomical analysis of osteoblasts exposed to fluoride revealed a distinctive upregulation of proteins in osteoblast. These upregulated proteins play key roles in the protein folding. The PRK-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling, one branch of unfolded protein response (UPR) to combat ER stress, is a transcription factor needed for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. The mechanism of skeletal fluorosis by which fluoride regulates osteoblast is not fully defined. Here we studied the effect of fluoride on PERK signaling genes and x-box binding protein 1 (xbp-1) in OS7232 cells (human osteoblast-like cell line). Meantime, genes associated with bone turnover were examined in this study. We found that early and continuous fluoride exposure increased the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) expression and activated the PERK signaling pathway, resulting in activation of transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The altered expression of cbfa1, osteoprotegerin (OPG)/nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were viewed in this study. These results showed fluoride impelled a distinctive ER stress response in OS732 cells, primarily by activating PERK and PERK-dependent signaling. Little effects were viewed for activating xbp-1, a common target of the other two canonical sensors of ER stress, ATF6 and IRE1. In this study the altered expression of bone turnover genes were consistent with activation of ER stress and PERK signaling. This study proved that PERK signaling play major roles in action of fluoride on osteoblast, and suggested that bone response in skeletal fluorosis may be due in part to PERK signaling pathway.

  6. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  7. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  8. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.

  9. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Ghatak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet.

  10. Stress markers in relation to job strain in human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, C G; Söderfeldt, M; Söderfeldt, B; Jones, I; Theorell, T

    2001-01-01

    Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. Employees in two local units of the social insurance organization and two local units of the individual and family care sections of the social welfare in Sweden were selected and 103 employees participated (56% participation rate). The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model. Questions specially designed to measure emotional demands were also included. The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin. The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  12. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  13. Salivary DNA and markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baňasová, Lenka; Kamodyová, Natália; Janšáková, Katarína; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Stanko, Peter; Turňa, Ján; Celec, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Previous observational studies have shown that periodontal status is associated with salivary markers of oxidative damage. A direct comparison of periodontitis patients and controls using a wide palette of salivary markers of oxidative stress is lacking. Characteristics of salivary DNA in periodontitis are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the salivary markers of oxidative stress and characteristics of salivary DNA between patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontitis-free controls. Saliva was collected from 23 patients with chronic periodontitis and 19 periodontitis-free controls. All participants underwent a clinical periodontal examination. Markers of oxidative and carbonyl stress were measured in saliva. Human and bacterial DNA was quantified, and human DNA integrity was assessed. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances were higher in patients than in controls; at least in men, the difference was significant (p periodontitis patients. The results confirmed the association of salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances with periodontitis. Lipid peroxidation in periodontitis seems to be caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species in men and by decreased antioxidant status in women. Whether lower salivary DNA integrity is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains to be elucidated. Salivary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances are associated with periodontitis at least on a population level. Sex-specific causes of lipid peroxidation might point towards different pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haitong; Kodiha, Mohamed; Lee, Sunghoon; Stochaj, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a) severe stress and (b) drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and human antigen R protein (HuR) are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that delimit nucleoli with

  15. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitong Su

    Full Text Available The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a severe stress and (b drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS and human antigen R protein (HuR are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that

  16. A Rice CPYC-Type Glutaredoxin OsGRX20 in Protection against Bacterial Blight, Methyl Viologen and Salt Stresses

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    Xi Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs belong to the antioxidants involved in the cellular stress responses. In spite of the identification 48 GRX genes in rice genomes, the biological functions of most of them remain unknown. Especially, the biological roles of members of GRX family in disease resistance are still lacking. Our proteomic analysis found that OsGRX20 increased by 2.7-fold after infection by bacterial blight. In this study, we isolated and characterized the full-length nucleotide sequences of the rice OsGRX20 gene, which encodes a GRX family protein with CPFC active site of CPYC-type class. OsGRX20 protein was localized in nucleus and cytosol, and its transcripts were expressed predominantly in leaves. Several stress- and hormone-related motifs putatively acting as regulatory elements were found in the OsGRX20 promoter. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that OsGRX20 was expressed at a significantly higher level in leaves of a resistant or tolerant rice genotype, Yongjing 50A, than in a sensitive genotype, Xiushui 11, exposed to bacterial blight, methyl viologen, heat, and cold. Its expression could be induced by salt, PEG-6000, 2,4-D, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid treatments in Yongjing 50A. Overexpression of OsGRX20 in rice Xiushui 11 significantly enhanced its resistance to bacterial blight attack, and tolerance to methyl viologen and salt stresses. In contrast, interference of OsGRX20 in Yongjing 50A led to increased susceptibility to bacterial blight, methyl viologen and salt stresses. OsGRX20 restrained accumulation of superoxide radicals in aerial tissue during methyl viologen treatment. Consistently, alterations in OsGRX20 expression affect the ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio and the abundance of transcripts encoding four reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes after methyl viologen-induced stress. Our results demonstrate that OsGRX20 functioned as a positive regulator in rice tolerance to multiple stresses

  17. Evidence for nuclear interaction of a cytoskeleton protein (OsIFL) with metallothionein and its role in salinity stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Neelam; Sharan, Ashutosh; Gupta, Brijesh K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is being perceived as a major threat to agriculture. Plant breeders and molecular biologist are putting their best efforts to raise salt-tolerant crops. The discovery of the Saltol QTL, a major QTL localized on chromosome I, responsible for salt tolerance at seedling stage in rice has given new hopes for raising salinity tolerant rice genotypes. In the present study, we have functionally characterized a Saltol QTL localized cytoskeletal protein, intermediate filament like protein (OsIFL), of rice. Studies related to intermediate filaments are emerging in plants, especially with respect to their involvement in abiotic stress response. Our investigations clearly establish that the heterologous expression of OsIFL in three diverse organisms (bacteria, yeast and tobacco) provides survival advantage towards diverse abiotic stresses. Screening of rice cDNA library revealed OsIFL to be strongly interacting with metallothionein protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay further confirmed this interaction to be occurring inside the nucleus. Overexpression of OsIFL in transgenic tobacco plants conferred salinity stress tolerance by maintaining favourable K+/Na+ ratio and thus showed protection from salinity stress induced ion toxicity. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of a cytoskeletal protein in salinity stress tolerance in diverse organisms. PMID:27708383

  18. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ömer; Çubukçuoğlu, Zeynep; Erdin, Soner; Taş, Cumhur; Onur, Ece; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502); household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501); participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414); hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667), and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450); and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597). There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  19. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

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    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  20. Levels of salivary stress markers in patients with anxiety about halitosis.

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    Fukui, Makoto; Hinode, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Masami; Kataoka, Kosuke; Ito, Hiro-O

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between salivary stress markers and mental stress states in patients complaining of oral malodour. The utility of the salivary stress markers in assessment of mental conditions of those patients was also investigated. The study population included 74 patients, aged 20-59 years, who complained of oral malodour and were referred to the Breath Odor Clinic at Tokushima University Hospital. Patients were classified into two groups, genuine halitosis (GH) and psychosomatic halitosis (PH), according to the results of organoleptic rating measurement. All patients were subjected to examination by the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) Health Questionnaire. Resting saliva was collected and levels of salivary IgA, cortisol and chromogranin A were determined by ELISA. Twenty-three volunteers not complaining of halitosis were included as the control group. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney's U-test were used for statistical analysis. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of salivary cortisol in the PH group as compared with GH and control groups (psalivary cortisol concentrations were found in CMI scale III and IV (tendency towards neurosis) than in scale I and II (normal) (psalivary cortisol reflects a status of chronic stress condition, psychosomatic halitosis might be closely related to this state of chronic stress. Determination of cortisol levels in saliva may provide useful information for evaluating the mental status of patients complaining of halitosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 8-isorpostanes – markers for oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea patients with systolic dysfunction

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    Cherneva RV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Radostina Vlaeva Cherneva,1 Ognian Borisov Georgiev,1 Daniela Stoichkova Petrova,1 Emil Ivanov Manov,2 Sylvia Rumenova Ruseva,3 Vanio Ivanov Mitev,3 Julia Ivanova Petrova4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Synthesis and Analysis of Bioactive Substances, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 4Department of Neurology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria Objective: Increased oxidative stress is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but remains disputed in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Among oxidative stress markers, isorpostanes are considered to be the most sensitive and specific. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare urinary isorpostanes in patients with OSA and systolic dysfunction to patients with OSA and preserved ejection fraction (EF and determine their role as markers for increased oxidative stress and early cardiac damage. Materials and methods: Urinary 8F2-isorpostanes were measured in 30 patients with OSA and mild systolic dysfunction (EF = 45.7% ± 6.17% and compared to 15 patients with OSA and normal EF (EF = 60.3% ± 6.3%. Univariate regression analysis was performed to find predictors of left systolic dysfunction. Correlations between 8-isorpostanes, anthropometric, metabolic, and sleep study characteristics were explored. In addition, in 19 patients the effect of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP therapy was evaluated during a 3 month follow-up. Markers of hemodynamic stress, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide and oxidative stress, measured by 8-isorpostanes were compared before and after the follow-up. Results: Urinary levels of 8-isorpostanes were significantly higher in the group with mild systolic dysfunction

  2. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Some Antioxidant Markers In Pregnant Cows Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the heat stress and the decrease of antioxidants, the oxidative stress is produced which has a negative impact on the efficiency of productive and reproductive functions in cows. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the status of some antioxidant markers as well as measuring the level of progesterone as a criterion essential for duration of pregnancy besides the stress hormone cortisol in heat stressed pregnant and non-pregnant cows under hot summer conditions. Twelve healthy Brown Swiss cows with average body weight 350 kg were divided into two groups, six cows in each according to pregnancy status. The 1 st group consisted of 6 pregnant cows while the 2 nd included 6 non-pregnant cows. The rectal temperature (RT) was measured and blood samples were collected during three months to determine total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT) enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), cortisol and progesterone hormones.The result showed that there was an increase of rectal temperature for pregnant cows than in non-pregnant but didn't reach the critical value. In addition, there were significant increases in total antioxidant, progesterone and cortisol as compared with non-pregnant heat stressed cows while non-significant decrease in catalase enzyme in pregnant cows and non-significant increase in malondialdehyde in pregnant cows were observed. It could be concluded that total antioxidants, progesterone and cortisol hormones are a good biomarkers for oxidative stress in pregnant heat stressed cows while the non-significant changes in catalase and malondialdehyde may attributed to the small number of animals used and further studies on large number are recommended to evaluate the validity of those markers.

  3. Novel and Stress Relevant EST Derived SSR Markers Developed and Validated in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosamia, Tejas C.; Mishra, Gyan P.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95%) SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81%) sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86%) were the most abundant followed by di-nucleotide repeats (27.51%) while AG/CT (20.7%) and AAG/CTT (13.25%) were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62%) primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut. PMID:26046991

  4. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  5. Circadian Rhythms of Oxidative Stress Markers and Melatonin Metabolite in Patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A

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    Rie Miyata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER with severe neurological disorders, in which oxidative stress and disturbed melatonin metabolism may be involved. Herein we confirmed the diurnal variation of melatonin metabolites, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant power in urine of patients with XPA and age-matched controls, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The peak of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a metabolite of melatonin, was seen at 6:00 in both the XPA patients and controls, though the peak value is lower, specifically in the younger age group of XPA patients. The older XPA patients demonstrated an increase in the urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, having a robust peak at 6:00 and 18:00, respectively. In addition, the urinary level of total antioxidant power was decreased in the older XPA patients. Recently, it is speculated that oxidative stress and antioxidant properties may have a diurnal variation, and the circadian rhythm is likely to influence the NER itself. We believe that the administration of melatonin has the possibility of ameliorating the augmented oxidative stress in neurodegeneration, especially in the older XPA patients, modulating the melatonin metabolism and the circadian rhythm.

  6. Oxidative stress markers in saliva and periodontal disease status: modulation during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pınar; Emingil, Gülnur; Öztürk, Veli-Özgen; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-07-08

    Periodontal diseases may affect local and systemic inflammation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. This systemic health burden could compromise the outcome of pregnancy in expectant mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative stress markers, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and total bacterial loads in the saliva of pregnant and postpartum women, and to investigate their association with periodontal disease severity. A total of 187 women were originally recruited for this case-control study, assigned to the following groups a) pregnant group, b) postpartum group: the pregnant group re-evaluated 6 months after giving birth, c) control group: systemically healthy and non-pregnant women. The levels of the studied oxidative stress markers in saliva were measured by commercially available kits. The levels of salivary 8-OHdG were significantly elevated in the pregnant, compared with the control group. Although salivary 8-OHdG levels slightly decreased after giving birth (postpartum group), the difference did not reach significance. In contrast, the activity of antioxidant enzyme GPx in saliva was significantly lower in the pregnant than the control group. Although no differences in lipid peroxidation (represented by TBARS) were observed between the pregnant and control groups, after giving birth TBARS levels were significantly lowered. Only in the postpartum and control groups did clinical measurements of periodontal disease severity correlate with oxidative stress markers. Interestingly, there were no such correlations with TBARS in the pregnant and postpartum groups. The present study shows changes in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in saliva during pregnancy and after birth, which may be affected by periodontal health status in the latter case. Whether this is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, or not, remains to be elucidated. Early

  7. Assessment of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyenoğlu, Özgür Bilgin; Uğur, Mete Gürol; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Can, Günay; Öztürk, Ebru; Balat, Özcan; Erel, Özcan

    2014-06-01

    To determine the levels of oxidative stress markers in recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel automated method. 30 pregnant women in their first trimester with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this prospective controlled study. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant level (TOL) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in maternal serum were measured using the more recently designated Erel method. We observed statistically significant increased TOL and OSI levels in patient group (p = 0.032, p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated statistically significant decreased TAC in pregnant women who had a history of RPL (p = 0.013). Our results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a central role in the etiopathogenesis of RPL. Further studies to evaluate the predictive role of TAC, TOL, OSI levels using Erel method are needed.

  8. Changes in Oxidative Stress Markers and Biological Markers of Muscle Injury with Aging at Rest and in Response to an Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Regis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (pantioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. PMID:24618679

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCs. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kodavanti , P., J. Royland ,...

  10. The Relations Between Immunity, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Markers, in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Anca, Popescu; Bogdana, Virgolici; Olivia, Timnea; Horia, Virgolici; Dumitru, Oraseanu; Leon, Zagrean

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance are the principal culprits in childhood obesity. Immune modifications are also important in the development of the obesity complications.The aim of this study is to find the relations for some immunity parameters with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation. Sixty obese children (10-16 years old) and thirty age and sex matched lean children were involved. The activities for erythrocyte superoxid dismutase (SOD), for erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and serum thioredoxin level were measured by ELISA, as oxidative stress markers. Circulating immune complexes (CIC), complement fractions C3, C4 and the self-antibodies, antismooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), antiliver-kidney microsome antibodies (LKM1) were measured by ELISA methods. Ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured as inflammatory markers by immunoturbidimetric methods. ceruloplasmin (pLKM1 and ASMA and GPx activity were not modified between groups. Positive correlations (for pLKM1 (r=0.37), GPx activity and ASMA (r=0.27), haptoglobin and C3 (r=0.33), ceruloplasmin and CIC (r=0.41), CRP and C3 (p<0.27) and negative correlations were calculated for C4 both with GPx activity (r= -0.28) and with thioredoxin level (r= -0.27). In the obese children versus the lean ones, higher levels for C3 (p<0.001), C4(p<0.001), CIC (p<0.05), In conclusion, this study demonstrates that immune modifications, inflammation and oxidative stress are related and they act in cluster in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sugar consumption produces effects similar to early life stress exposure on hippocampal markers of neurogenesis and stress response

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    Jayanthi eManiam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience is a known risk factor for psychiatric disorders. It is also known that stress influences food preference. We were interested in exploring whether the choice of diet following early life stress exerts long-lasting molecular changes in the brain, particularly the hippocampus, a region critically involved in stress regulation and behavioural outcomes. Here, we examined the impact of early life stress induced by limited nesting material (LN and chronic sucrose availability post-weaning on an array of hippocampal genes related to plasticity, neurogenesis, stress and inflammatory responses and mitochondrial biogenesis. To examine mechanisms underlying the impact of LN and sugar intake on hippocampal gene expression, we investigated the role of DNA methylation. As females are more likely to experience adverse life events, we studied female Sprague-Dawley rats. After mating LN was imposed from days 2-9 postpartum. From 3-15 weeks of age, female Control and LN siblings had unlimited to access to either chow and water, or chow, water and 25% sucrose solution. LN markedly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR and neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1 mRNA, markers involved in stress and hippocampal plasticity respectively, by more than 40%, with a similar effect of sugar intake in control rats. However, no further impact was observed in LN rats consuming sugar. Hippocampal Akt3 mRNA expression was similarly affected by LN and sucrose consumption. Interestingly, DNA methylation across 4 CpG sites of the GR and Neurod1 promoters was similar in LN and control rats. In summary, early life stress and post-weaning sugar intake produced long-term effects on hippocampal GR and Neurod1 expression. Moreover we found no evidence of altered promoter DNA methylation. We demonstrate for the first time that chronic sucrose consumption alone produces similar detrimental effects on the expression of hippocampal genes as LN exposure.

  12. Association of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers with Metabolic Syndrome in Asian Indians in India

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    Veena S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with a proinflammatory state. Here, we assessed the contribution of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers towards prediction of MetS. A total of 2316 individuals were recruited in Phase I of the Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study (IARS. Modified ATPIII guidelines were used for classification of subjects with MetS. Among the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers studied, levels of hsCRP (P<.0001, Neopterin (P=.036, and oxLDL (P<.0001 were significantly higher among subjects with MetS. Among the markers we tested, oxLDL stood out as a robust predictor of MetS in the IARS population (OR 4.956 95% CI 2.504–9.810; P<.0001 followed by hsCRP (OR 1.324 95% CI 1.070–1.638; P=.010. In conclusion, oxLDL is a candidate predictor for MetS in the Asian Indian population.

  13. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  14. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

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    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  15. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Kober, Helena; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-12-01

    Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria. It is of unknown etiology and involves serious risks for the pregnant women and fetus. One of the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is oxidative stress, where excess free radicals produce harmful effects, including damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. In addition, the sulfhydryl delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase enzyme (δ-ALA-D) that is part of the heme biosynthetic pathway in pro-oxidant conditions can be inhibited, which may result in the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), associated with the overproduction of free radicals, suggesting it to be an indirect marker of oxidative stress. As hypertensive pregnancy complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality maternal and fetal where oxidative stress appears to be an important factor involved in preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of δ-ALA-D and classic oxidative stress markers in the blood of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The analysis and quantification of the following oxidative stress markers were performed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS); presence of protein and non-protein thiol group; quantification of vitamin C; Catalase and δ-ALA--D activities in samples of blood of pregnant women with mild preeclampsia (n=25), with severe preeclampsia (n=30) and in a control group of healthy pregnant women (n=30). TBARS was significantly higher in women with preeclampsia, while the presence of thiol groups, levels of vitamin C, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in groups of pregnant women with preeclampsia compared with healthy women. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between groups of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The data suggest a state of increased oxidative stress in pregnant women with

  16. The Impact of Rapid Weight Loss on Oxidative Stress Markers and the Expression of the Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tumova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is linked with a state of increased oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the etiology of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of rapid weight loss on oxidative stress markers in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Design and Methods. We measured oxidative stress markers in 40 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS+, 40 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetS−, and 20 lean controls (LC at baseline and after three months of very low caloric diet. Results. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL levels decreased by 12% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a reduction in total cholesterol (TC, even after adjustment for age and sex. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity decreased by 4.7% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a drop in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, TC, and insulin levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a model including ox-LDL, LpPLA2 activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO improved prediction of MetS status among obese individuals compared to each oxidative stress marker alone. Conclusions. Oxidative stress markers were predictive of MetS in obese subjects, suggesting a higher oxidative stress. Rapid weight loss resulted in a decline in oxidative stress markers, especially in MetS+ patients.

  17. Pressure pain sensitivity as a marker for stress and pressure pain sensitivity-guided stress management in women with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Christen K; Ballegaard, Søren; Karpatschof, Benny

    2014-01-01

    employees was divided in a High Stress Group (HSG, n = 37) and a Low Stress Group (LSG, n = 128) to evaluate the association between PPS, questionnaire-related Quality of Life (QOL) and self-evaluated stress. (2) A PPS-guided stress management program (n = 40) was compared to a Psychosocial Group......OBJECTIVES: To validate (1) Pressure Pain Sensitivity (PPS) as a marker for stress and (2) a PPS-guided intervention in women with primary Breast Cancer (BC). METHODS: (1) A total of 58 women with BC were examined before and after 6 months of intervention. A control group of 165 women office...... scores: (all p stress scores (all p

  18. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in euthymia of bipolar disorder--Gender and obesity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengesser, S A; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Fellendorf, F T; Platzer, M; Mitteregger, A; Unterweger, R; Reininghaus, B; Mangge, H; Wallner-Liebmann, S J; Zelzer, S; Fuchs, D; McIntyre, R S; Kapfhammer, H P; Reininghaus, E Z

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of uni- and bipolar disorder. Herein we primarily sought to characterize markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress during euthymia in adults with bipolar disorder (BD). Oxidative markers were further evaluated in this BD sample in synopsis with excess overweight or obesity and/or comorbid metabolic syndrome (MetS). Peripheral markers of oxidative stress [i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, (TBARS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl proteins] and antioxidant markers [e.g. total antioxidative capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)] were obtained in a cohort of euthymic adults with BD (N=113) and compared to healthy controls (CG) (N=78). Additionally, anthropometric measures included the body mass index (BMI) [kg/m(2)], waist and hip circumference [cm], waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WtHR) as well as the IDF-defined MetS. The major finding was a significantly decreased TAC in BD compared to the CG (pobesity had significantly elevated TAC when compared to CG without concurrent MetS (pstress and antioxidative defense. Male test persons showed significantly higher peripheral markers of oxidative stress than women- female sex may exert protective effects. Furthermore, the biosignature of oxidative stress obtained herein was more pronounced in males with concurrent metabolic disorders. Our results further extend knowledge by introducing the moderating influence of gender and obesity on oxidative stress and BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Markers of oxidative stress in obese men with and without hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, Vanja; Asferg, Camilla; Kjær, Laura Kofoed

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate if the 24-hour excretion of the urinary markers for oxidative stress to DNA and RNA, measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, were increased in obese individuals with or ......OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate if the 24-hour excretion of the urinary markers for oxidative stress to DNA and RNA, measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, were increased in obese individuals...... with or without hypertension compared to lean controls. METHODS: A total of 63 obese hypertensive men (obeseHT), 40 obese normotensive men (obeseNT) and 27 lean normotensive men (leanNT) were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI) was between 20.0 and 24.9 kg/m(2) in leanNT participants and ≥30 kg/m(2...

  20. Impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress markers in methamphetamine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Qiaoyang; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Zhou, Chenglin; Yu, Shunying; Hashimoto, Kenji; Zhao, Min

    2018-03-17

    This study aimed to investigate whether 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on oxidative stress markers in blood and on cognitive functions in patients who have methamphetamine dependence. Serum levels of oxidative stress markers, including total anti-oxidation capability, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), were measured at baseline (all participants) and the 12-week follow-up (methamphetamine-dependent patients). Serum levels of CAT and MDA in methamphetamine-dependent patients (n = 68) were higher than those in healthy controls (n = 35) at baseline. Furthermore, the international shopping list (ISL) task scores of methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly lower than those of the controls, indicating verbal memory deficits in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Although there were no significant interactions for all cognitive function scores, aerobic exercise improved the processing speed in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Of interest, aerobic exercise significantly attenuated a spontaneous increase in serum MDA levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients after 12-weeks of abstinence. In conclusion, this study showed that methamphetamine-dependent patients with verbal learning and memory deficits have higher serum levels of MDA, and that a 12-week aerobic exercise program may have beneficial effects on the processing speed as well as blood lipid peroxidation in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  2. Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist d’Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Chronic glaucoma is a multifactorial disease among which oxidative stress may play a major pathophysiological role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma compared with a control group. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma and in healthy controls using the following keywords: “oxidative stress” or “oxidant stress” or “nitrative stress” or “oxidative damage” or “nitrative damage” or “antioxidative stress” or “antioxidant stress” or “antinitrative stress” and “glaucoma”. We stratified our meta-analysis on the type of biomarkers, the type of glaucoma, and the origin of the sample (serum or aqueous humor). We included 22 case-control studies with a total of 2913 patients: 1614 with glaucoma and 1319 healthy controls. We included 12 studies in the meta-analysis on oxidative stress markers and 19 on antioxidative stress markers. We demonstrated an overall increase in oxidative stress markers in glaucoma (effect size = 1.64; 95%CI 1.20–2.09), ranging from an effect size of 1.29 in serum (95%CI 0.84–1.74) to 2.62 in aqueous humor (95%CI 1.60–3.65). Despite a decrease in antioxidative stress marker in serum (effect size = –0.41; 95%CI –0.72 to –0.11), some increased in aqueous humor (superoxide dismutase, effect size = 3.53; 95%CI 1.20–5.85 and glutathione peroxidase, effect size = 6.60; 95%CI 3.88–9.31). The differences in the serum levels of oxidative stress markers between glaucoma patients and controls were significantly higher in primary open angle glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.7; 95%CI 8.78–16.6, P stress increased in glaucoma, both in serum and aqueous humor. Malonyldialdehyde seemed the best biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum. The increase of some

  3. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy

  4. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity and Molecular Marker-Trait Association Analysis for High Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Kumar Pradhan

    Full Text Available Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright's F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance.

  5. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity and Molecular Marker-Trait Association Analysis for High Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Barik, Saumya Ranjan; Sahoo, Ambika; Mohapatra, Sudipti; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Mahender, Anumalla; Meher, Jitandriya; Anandan, Annamalai; Pandit, Elssa

    2016-01-01

    Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright's F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance.

  6. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  7. UVB radiation prevents skeleton growth and stimulates the expression of stress markers in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Poma, Veronica; Costa, Caterina; Matranga, Valeria

    2005-01-01

    Ozone depletion results in an increased flux of biologically damaging radiations reaching the earth. Although ultraviolet (UV) penetration is attenuated by the seawater, harmful effects can be still observed at low depths where sea urchin embryos are living. We have used Paracentrotus lividus embryos to study the impacts of UV radiation on their development. Blastula cultures were exposed to different doses of UVB (312 nm) radiations and the resulting endpoint effects were evaluated in terms of embryonic morphological abnormalities, variations in specific gene expression, and changes in the levels of stress proteins. We found that embryos were moderately sensitive to 50 J/m 2 UVB radiation; an increase in the number of developmentally delayed and malformed embryos was detected when increasing doses, up to 1000 J/m 2 , were used. Major developmental defects, observed 24 and 48 h after exposure, consisted in the failure of skeleton elongation and patterning. Accordingly, we found a reduction in the number of primary mesenchyme cells that expressed Pl-SM30, a gene coding for one of the specific matrix proteins of the skeleton. The morphological effects observed 1, 24, and 48 h after exposure were correlated with a dose-dependent increase in the level and in the activation of two recognized stress markers, namely hsp70 and p38 MAPk, respectively, consistent with their role in mediating cellular response to stress and suggesting a function in embryo survival

  8. Consequences of low birthweight on urinary excretion of DNA markers of oxidative stress in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillestrøm, P R; Weimann, A; Jensen, C B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight (LBW) has been associated with an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes in adult life. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by increased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether young healthy adults born...... with LBW showed differences in oxidative stress under normal conditions and during the added challenge of a physiological Intralipid infusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urinary excretion of DNA markers of oxidative stress were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in 19 men (aged 19 years) with LBW and in 19 age matched...... with LBW and NBW (66.9 versus 73.9 nmol/15 h, 17.8 versus 18.5 nmol/15 h, 11.9 versus 14.4 nmol/15 h and 44.0 versus 43.2 pmol/15 h, respectively). Furthermore, Intralipid infusion did not affect excretion of DNA adducts in LBW or NBW subjects. Statistically significant correlations were found between body...

  9. Understanding How Dogs Age: Longitudinal Analysis of Markers of Inflammation, Immune Function, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Haydock, Richard M; Hayek, Michael G; Park, JeanSoon

    2018-05-09

    As in human populations, advances in nutrition and veterinary care have led to an increase in the lifespan of companion animals. Detrimental physiological changes occurring later in life must be understood before interventions can be made to slow or reduce them. One important aspect of human aging is upregulation of the inflammatory response and increase in oxidative damage resulting in pathologies linked to chronic inflammation. To determine whether similar processes occur in the aging dog, changes in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated in 80 Labrador retrievers from adulthood to the end of life. Serum levels of immunoglobulin M (p immunoglobulin G or C-reactive protein unless the last year of life was included in the analysis (p = .002). Baseline levels of heat shock protein 70 decreased with age (p < .001) while those after exposure to heat stress were maintained (p = .018). However, when excluding final year of life data, a decline in the heat shock protein 70 response after heat stress was observed (p = .004). These findings indicate that aging dogs undergo changes similar to human inflammaging and offer the possibility of nutritional or pharmacological intervention to delay or reduce these effects.

  10. Protein oxidative stress markers in peritoneal fluids of women with deep infiltrating endometriosis are increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Fiorese, Mauro; Marcellin, Louis; Lemarechal, Herve; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric; Borderie, Didier; Chapron, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Are protein oxidative stress markers [thiols, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites] in perioperative peritoneal fluid higher in women with histologically proven endometriosis when compared with endometriosis-free controls? Protein oxidative stress markers are significantly increased in peritoneal fluids from women with deep infiltrating endometriosis with intestinal involvement when compared with endometriosis-free controls. Endometriosis is a common gynaecologic condition characterized by an important inflammatory process. Various source of evidence support the role of oxidative stress in the development of endometriosis. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and December 2012, and included 235 non-pregnant women, younger than 42 year old, undergoing surgery for a benign gynaecological condition. After complete surgical exploration of the abdomino-pelvic cavity, 150 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 85 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Women with endometriosis were staged according to a surgical classification in three different phenotypes of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Perioperative peritoneal fluids samples were obtained from all study participants. Thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites were assayed in all peritoneal samples. Concentrations of peritoneal AOPP were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in the control group (median, 128.9 µmol/l; range, 0.3-1180.1 versus median, 77.8 µmol/l; range, 0.8-616.1; P peritoneal nitrates/nitrites were higher in endometriosis patients than in the control group (median, 24.8 µmol/l; range, 1.6-681.6 versus median, 18.5 µmol/l; range, 1.6-184.5; P peritoneal fluids protein AOPP and nitrates/nitrites were significantly increased only in DIE samples

  11. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  12. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Leena J.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. ► Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. ► Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. ► Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. ► Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of

  13. CD133 is a marker of bioenergetic stress in human glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E Griguer

    Full Text Available Mitochondria dysfunction and hypoxic microenvironment are hallmarks of cancer cell biology. Recently, many studies have focused on isolation of brain cancer stem cells using CD133 expression. In this study, we investigated whether CD133 expression is regulated by bioenergetic stresses affecting mitochondrial functions in human glioma cells. First, we determined that hypoxia induced a reversible up-regulation of CD133 expression. Second, mitochondrial dysfunction through pharmacological inhibition of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC produced an up-regulation of CD133 expression that was inversely correlated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Third, generation of stable glioma cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA showed significant and stable increases in CD133 expression. These glioma cells, termed rho(0 or rho(0, are characterized by an exaggerated, uncoupled glycolytic phenotype and by constitutive and stable up-regulation of CD133 through many cell passages. Moreover, these rho(0 cells display the ability to form "tumor spheroids" in serumless medium and are positive for CD133 and the neural progenitor cell marker, nestin. Under differentiating conditions, rho(0 cells expressed multi-lineage properties. Reversibility of CD133 expression was demonstrated by transfering parental mitochondria to rho(0 cells resulting in stable trans-mitochondrial "cybrid" clones. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight about the regulation of CD133 by environmental conditions (hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunction (genetic and chemical. Considering these new findings, the concept that CD133 is a marker of brain tumor stem cells may need to be revised.

  14. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansooreh; Shidfar, Farzad; Tabassi, Zohreh; Shahaboddin, Mohamadesmaeil; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Evaluation of cardiac risk by oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.A.; Qayyum, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diabetic patients for cardiac risk by measuring oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in relation with glycaemic control. Methodology: A total of 140 subjects were included in this case-control study, comprising of 70 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and an equal number, age and sex matched controls. The patients were non-alcoholic and had age >40 years, BMI < 30 kg/m/sup 2/ and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7-10%. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were analyzed on selectra-E auto analyzer. Serum nitrate was measured at 540 nm on ELISA. HbA1c on was analyzed by using Human kit. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hS-CRP) was analyzed on immulite 1000. Results: Patients mean age was 51 (range 40-73) years. Diabetic patients had significantly elevated median of HbA1c (7.9 vs 4.9), hS CRP (6.0 vs 2.12), TC (5.95 vs 4.45), nitrate (19.20vs 10.70) and GGT (29.50 vs 22.50) as compared to controls (p< 0.001). HbA1c showed a positive correlation (p <0.001) with hS-CRP (r=0.49), TC (r=0.69), nitrate (r=0.41) and GGT (r=0.30). Conclusion: Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers should be used in addition to HbA1c for assessment of increased cardiac risk in un-controlled diabetic patients because of accelerated atherosclerosis due to free radical injury. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Mungbean Mutant Lines to Drought Stress and Their Genetic Relationships Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliasti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of mungbean cultivarstolerant to drought stress through mutation breeding approach would enable us to anticipate the crop yield-reducing effects of climate changes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield performance of mungbean mutant lines that showed tolerance to drought stress, and to analyze their genetic diversity and relationship among mutant lines using SSR markers. The study was conducted during the dry season of 2012 in the Muneng experimental farm, Probolinggo, East Java. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Five mutant lines and two parental lines as control were tested for evaluation of yield and drought tolerance under twoenvironments of two irrigation systems as treatment. The two environmental conditions consisted of optimal irrigation (at least three times: at planting, flowering and during pod filling and suboptimal irrigation (two times at planting and flowering. To evaluate genetic variation among selected mutant lines and their discrimination from parental lines in molecular level, a cluster analysis was performed using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA in the NTSYS software. The results showed that three mutant lines, including PsJ30, PsJ31, PsJ32 produced the highest grain yields of 1.17, 1.01, and 1.04 ton/ha, respectively, compared to the other mutant lines and the parents Gelatik (0.85 ton/ha and Perkutut (0.87 ton/ha as control check. Of those mutant lines, PSJ31 was the most tolerant to drought with sensitivity index value of 0.47. The PSJ31 has now been officially released as a new variety ( 2013, named as Muri which was identified to have high yield and tolerant to drought. Based on 23 SSR markers used for clustering analysis of those 3 selected mutant lines,9SSR markers (MBSS R033; satt137; MBSSR008; MBSSR203; MBSSR013; MBSSR021; MBSSR016; MBSSR136; and DMBSSR013 were successfully identified the three mungbean mutant

  17. OsAPX4 gene response to several environmental stresses in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) over-expressing ascorbate peroxidase exhibited greater tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 and transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing OsAPX4 had a greater salt tolerance than wild-type plants in 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 150, 200 mM NaCl and 5, 7.5 mM NaHCO3.

  18. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P  0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tolerance analysis of chloroplast OsCu/Zn-SOD overexpressing rice under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The 636-bp-long cDNA sequence of OsCu/Zn-SOD (AK059841 was cloned from Oryza sativa var. Longjing11 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The encoded protein comprised of 211 amino acids is highly homologous to Cu/Zn-SOD proteins from tuscacera rice and millet. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in rice, the level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression was lowest in roots and was highest in petals and during the S5 leaf stage. Moreover, the expression level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression decreased during the L5 leaf stage to maturity. The level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression, however, was increased under saline-sodic stress and NaHCO3 stress. Germination tests under 125, 150, and 175 mM NaCl revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than the non-transgenic (NT Longjing11 lines in terms of germination rate and height. Subjecting seedlings to NaHCO3 and water stress revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of SOD activity, fresh weight, root length, and height. Under simulated NaHCO3 stress, OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of survival rate (25.19% > 6.67% and yield traits (average grain weight 20.6 > 18.15 g. This study showed that OsCu/Zn-SOD gene overexpression increases the detoxification capacity of reactive oxygen species in O. sativa and reduces salt-induced oxidative damage. We also revealed the regulatory mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzyme in saline-sodic stress resistance in O. sativa. Moreover, we provided an experimental foundation for studying the mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzymes in the chloroplast.

  20. Serum Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casoinic F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and controls.

  1. Low heart rate: a marker of stress resilience. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan

    2008-06-15

    The stimulation-seeking theory posits that individuals with low habitual autonomic arousal levels will seek stimulation to increase their arousal to more optimal levels. Because of their assumed high optimal stimulation levels, persons characterized by low autonomic arousal may be better able to endure stressors than those with higher levels. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that low resting heart rate (HR) and high respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) protect against the detrimental effects of stressors on mental health in early adolescents from the general population. Data were collected as part of TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective cohort of Dutch (pre)adolescents (N = 1478), with measurements at approximately age 11 (T1) and age 13.5 (T2). Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were assessed at both waves, using multiple informants. Resting HR and RSA were assessed at T1 and the amount of parent-reported stressors and long-term difficulties at T2. Stressors predicted mental health problems in adolescents with intermediate and high HR, but not in those with low HR. These findings were consistent regardless of the measure used to assess stressors and of adjustment for T1 mental health problems. Furthermore, the stress-buffering effects of low HR pertained to both externalizing problems and internalizing problems. No stress-buffering effects were found for RSA, suggesting predominantly sympathetic influences. Our study, which linked physiologic measures to stress sensitivity in real life, suggests that low HR is a marker of resilience to the effects of environmental challenges in early adolescence.

  2. OsLEA3-2, an abiotic stress induced gene of rice plays a key role in salt and drought tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Duan

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  3. Evaluation of serum prolidase activity and oxidative stress markers in men with BPH and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Efe, Erkan; Çelik, Ahmet; Dagli, Hasan; Kılınc, Metin; Resim, Sefa

    2017-12-12

    Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are diseases of elderly men and are related to increased oxidative stress (OS). Although prolidase has a role in collagen metabolism, it is also used to evaluate OS in many diseases. However, there is a lack of data about serum prolidase activity (SPA) in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare SPA levels in males with BPH and PCa. Evaluation was made of a total of 81 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for a definitive diagnosis due to high PSA levels. Patients were separated into 2 groups as BPH and PCa patients. Pre-biopsy malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), PSA levels and serum prolidase activities (SPA) were compared between the groups and the correlations of SPA with the other parameters were also investigated in both groups. BPH was diagnosed in 51 patients and PCa in 30. The mean age of patients was similar in both groups as 63.25 ± 5.81 years in the BPH group 65.30 ± 7.35 years in the PCa group(p:0.081). The median MDA and SOD levels were insignificantly increased in the PCa patients. SPA values were similar in BPH and PCa patients. SPA did not correlate with age, PSA, MDA or SOD levels in either group. Our study results revealed that serum prolidase activity is similar in BPH and PCa cases and is not correlated with MDA, SOD or PSA levels.

  4. Oxidative stress markers in hypertensive states of pregnancy: preterm and term disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia Olha Kurlak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion continues as to whether de novo hypertension in pregnancy with significant proteinuria (pre-eclampsia; PE and non-proteinuric new hypertension (gestational hypertension; GH are parts of the same disease spectrum or represent different conditions. Non-pregnant hypertension, pregnancy and PE are all associated with oxidative stress. We have established a 6 weeks post-partum clinic for women who experienced a hypertensive pregnancy. We hypothesized that PE and GH could be distinguished by markers of oxidative stress; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and antioxidants (ferric ion reducing ability of plasma; FRAP. Since the severity of PE and GH is greater pre-term, we also compared pre-term and term disease. Fifty-eight women had term PE, 23 pre-term PE, 60 had term GH and 6 pre-term GH, 11 pre-existing (essential hypertension (EH without PE. Limited data were available from normotensive pregnancies (n=7 and non-pregnant controls (n=14. There were no differences in postpartum TBARS or FRAP between hypertensive states; TBARS (P=0.001 and FRAP (P=0.009 were lower in plasma of non-pregnant controls compared to recently-pregnant women. Interestingly FRAP was higher in preterm than term GH (P=0.013. In PE and GH, TBARS correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (P=0.036; this association strengthened with inclusion of EH ((P=0.011. The 10 year Framingham index for cardiovascular risk was positively associated with TBARS (P=0.003.Oxidative stress profiles do not differ between hypertensive states but appear to distinguish between recently-pregnant and non-pregnant states. This suggests that pregnancy may alter vascular integrity with changes remaining 6 weeks postpartum. LDL-cholesterol is a known determinant of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease and we have shown this association to be present in hypertensive pregnancy further emphasizing that such a pregnancy may be revealing a pre-existing cardiovascular

  5. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  6. Inflammatory and oxidative stress airway markers in premature newborns of hypertensive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Madoglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative stress and inflammation are important mechanisms in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and preterm diseases, their contribution to the respiratory prognosis of premature infants of hypertensive mothers is not known. Our objective was to determine the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the airways of premature infants born to hypertensive and normotensive mothers, in the first 72 h of life, and to investigate whether they are predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD/death. This was a prospective study with premature infants less than 34 weeks’ gestation on respiratory support who were stratified into 2 groups: 32 premature infants of hypertensive mothers and 41 of normotensive women, with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, malformation, congenital infection, and death within 24 h after birth. The outcome of interest was BPD/death. Malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in airway aspirates from the first and third days of life and did not differ between the groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. The concentrations of MDA, NO, and IL-8 were not predictors of BPD/death. Premature infants who developed BPD/death had higher levels of IL-8 in the first days of life. The gestational age, mechanical ventilation, and a small size for gestational age were risk factors for BPD/death. In conclusion, the biomarkers evaluated were not increased in premature infants of hypertensive mothers and were not predictors of BPD/death.

  7. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations in behaviour, cerebral cortical morphology and cerebral oxidative stress markers following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Nwoha, Polycarp U

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame. Sections of the cerebral cortex were processed and stained for general histology, and also examined for neuritic plaques using the Bielschwosky's protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed using appropriate antibodies. Aspartate and antioxidant levels were also assayed from cerebral cortex homogenates. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Body weight and food consumption decreased significantly with aspartame consumption. Locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly after first dose, and with repeated administration of aspartame. Histological changes consistent with neuronal damage were seen at 40, 80 and 160mg/kg. Neuritic plaque formation was not evident; while GFAP-reactive astrocytes and NSE-reactive neurons increased at 40 and 80mg/kg but decreased at 160mg/kg. Superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide increased with increasing doses of aspartame, while aspartate levels showed no significant difference. The study showed morphological alterations consistent with neuronal injury and biochemical changes of oxidative stress. These data therefore supports the need for caution in the indiscriminate use of aspartame as a non-nutritive sweetener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  10. Biotic stress protein markers of Aquilaria sp. for gaharu species identification in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2012-01-01

    Gaharu trees (Aquilaria) is in danger of extinction in the wild due to illegal logging. Its resin (Gaharu) is used for the production of highly valued incense throughout Asia. In Aquilaria sp. systemic induction of defense genes in response to mechanical wounding in nature is regulated by an 18-amino-acid peptide signal protein called systemin. This protein is produced in response to the natural stress at the vicinity of the wound and is also influenced by its genetic background. As the protein can be differentiated by its locality, the protein expressed is also found to be significantly different which, in turn, can be used for identification of this plant species. In this work, A. malaccensis and A. hirta were evaluated based on the targeted genes related to systemin. Targeted gene refers to specific sequence in genomic DNA. Sequence mining from public databases is part of the crucial process in getting the specific genes. The sequences will go through alignment step to identify conserved region prior to primer design. The primers were used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques to amplify the conserved regions. It was found that both samples can be differentiated. This would be useful for plant breeders, trader and planter in ensuring authentic planting materials. This paper will describe the use of targeted genes primers as markers in identifying the Aquilaria species. (author)

  11. Are oxidative stress markers useful to distinguish schizoaffective disorder from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Feridun; Virit, Osman; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk A

    2014-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a disease with both affective and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to compare oxidative metabolism markers of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we also aimed to investigate whether schizoaffective disorder could be differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in terms of oxidative metabolism. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in the blood samples that were collected from schizoaffective patients (n = 30), bipolar disorder patients (n = 30) and schizophrenic patients (n = 30). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by dividing TOS by TAS. TOS and OSI were found to be higher in patients with schizoaffective disorder compared with those in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. TAS was not significantly different between the groups. Schizoaffective disorder was found to be different from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of oxidative parameters. This result may indicate that schizoaffective disorder could differ from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of biochemical parameters. Increased TOS levels observed in schizoaffective disorder may suggest poor clinical course and may be an indicator of poor prognosis.

  12. Field Performance of Five Soybean Mutants Under Drought Stress Conditions and Molecular Analysis Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yuliasti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research wereto evaluate (1 the performance of soybean mutant lines under drought stress conditions, and(2 the genetic diversity and relationship among the mutant lines using SSR markers.The field evaluation was conducted during the dry season of 2011 and 2012 at the experimental Farm of Mataram University, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The field experiment was set up in a randomized block design. Ten mutant lines and two control varieties were evaluated in four replications. Genetic distance among evaluated lines were determined based on allelic diversity analysis using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci. Under drought stress conditions, two mutant lines, Kdl3 and Kdl8,showed a better performance compared to the other ones. The high yielding mutant lines were Kdl3and Kdl8, which yielded 1.75 t ha-1and 1.69 t ha-1, respectively, compared to the parent and national control, Panderman 1.43 t ha-1 and Muria 1.32 t ha-1. These mutant linesrequired 30.75 to 32days to flower and 79.75 to 83.75 day to harvest with relatively short plant height 28.25 and 23.35 cmrespectively. Those mutant characters were better than those of the other three mutants, the original parents, and the control soybean species. Since the evaluated soybean mutant lines yielded more under drought stress conditions than the standard varieties, they can be used and registered as drought-tolerant soybean mutants. Moreover, the evaluated soybean accessions showed a wide genetic distance. The accessions were clustered into two groups according to their genetic background, namelygroup I (the Panderman with three mutant lines and group II (the Muria with two mutant lines. Twenty-three out of 40 evaluated SSR loci, including AW31, BE806, CMAC7L, S080, S126, S57, S171, S224, S285, S294, S393, S294, S383, S511, S511, S520, S540, S547, S551, S571, S577, and S578, provided polymorphic alleles between the parents and their mutants and could be used to differentiate

  13. Age-Specific Determinants of Pulse Wave Velocity among Metabolic Syndrome Components, Inflammatory Markers, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Seung Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2018-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is thought to have different relationships with metabolic syndrome (MS) components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress, according to age. However, age-specific determinants of PWV have not yet been studied. We investigated age-dependent relationships among PWV and MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. A total of 4,318 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 19-34 y (n=687), 35-44 y (n=1,413), 45-54 y (n=1,384), and 55-79 y (n=834). MS components, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidative stress markers were measured. There were age-related increases in MS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), triglycerides, glucose, hs-CRP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 8-epi-prostaglandin F 2α (8-epi-PGF 2α ), and baPWV. BaPWV was significantly associated with sex and elevated BP in the 19-34 y group; with age, sex, BMI, elevated BP and triglycerides in the 35-44 y group; with age, sex, elevated BP, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and oxidized LDL in the 45-54 y group; and with age, BMI, elevated BP, fasting glucose and oxidized LDL in the 55-79 y group. Our results show that age-related increases in baPWV are associated with age-related changes in MS components, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. However, each of these factors has an age-specific, different impact on arterial stiffness. In particular, oxidative stress may be independently associated with arterial stiffness in individuals older than 45 y.

  14. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein level as a marker of oxidative stress in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Kocaman Türk, Füsun; Bingöl, Gülsüm

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), in which 100% oxygen is inhaled under hyperbaric pressure, may create OS. Therefore, the aim of this research was to measure the serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) level in patients undergoing HBOT. Twenty-nine patients who underwent HBOT to treat various diseases were enrolled in this study. The serum oxLDL level was measured at the beginning of the first and after the 10th therapy session. There was no significant difference between the oxLDL level of patients before and after HBOT (4.96±0.1 vs. 4.94±0.1 U/mL; p=0.36). HBOT seems to be safe in terms of oxLDL production up to 10 sessions. However, further large-scale studies investigating longer duration of HBOT treatment are required to understand the role of OS.

  15. Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4 is an important enzyme for ascorbate recycling. To examine whether heterologous expression of MDHAR from Oryza sativa (OsMDHAR can prevent the deleterious effects of unfavorable growth conditions, we constructed a transgenic yeast strain harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying OsMDHAR (p426GPD::OsMDHAR. OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells displayed enhanced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide by maintaining redox homoeostasis, proteostasis, and the ascorbate (AsA-like pool following the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and molecules, metabolic enzymes, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors, compared to wild-type (WT cells carrying vector alone. The addition of exogenous AsA or its analogue isoascorbic acid increased the viability of WT and ara2Δ cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing cells was greater than that of WT cells when cells at mid-log growth phase were exposed to high concentrations of ethanol. High OsMDHAR expression also improved the fermentative capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a standard cultivation temperature (30°C. The alcohol yield of OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast during fermentation was approximately 25% (0.18 g·g-1 higher than that of WT yeast. Accordingly, OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These results suggest that heterologous OsMDHAR expression increases tolerance to reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis and improves survival during fermentation, which enhances fermentative capacity.

  16. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    : To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...... of the patients was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed by a five-factor PANSS model. Measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (9 AM plasma cortisol and daytime salivary cortisol output) were recorded...... was found (P = 0.009). The high CATS score group showed higher levels of perceived stress (P = 0.02), but there was no difference between the high vs. low CATS group in HPA-axis activity. Conclusion: Although causal inferences cannot be made from this cross-sectional study, the study adds support...

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with systemic inflammatory markers and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrehmand, F; Vaisi-Raygani, A; Kiani, A; Rahimi, Z; Tavilani, H; Ardalan, M; Vaisi-Raygani, H; Shakiba, E; Pourmotabbed, T

    2015-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that involves multiple organs and is characterized by persistent systemic inflammation. Among the effects of inflammatory mediators, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be important in the development of SLE. In this study, the possible association between MMP-9 and MMP-2 functional promoter polymorphism, stress, and inflammatory markers with development of severe cardiovascular disease (CVD), high blood pressure (HBP), and lupus nephropathy (LN) in SLE patients was investigated. The present case-control study consisted of 109 SLE patients with and without CVD, HBP and LN and 101 gender- and age-matched unrelated healthy controls from a population in western Iran. MMP-2 -G1575A and MMP-9 -C1562T polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP, serum MMP-2 and MMP-9, neopterin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid levels were determined by ELISA, HPLC and enzyme assay, respectively. We found that MMP-9 -C1562 T and MMP-2 -G1575A alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of SLE by 2.98 times (p = 0.015). Findings of this study also demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the serum levels of MMP-2, neopterin and MDA and a significant decrease in serum level of MMP-9 in the presence of MMP-9-C1562 T and MMP-2 -G1575A alleles in SLE patients compared to controls. Further, SLE patients with MMP-9 (C/T + T/T) genotype had significantly higher serum concentrations of MMP-2, neopterin, MDA and LDL-C, but lower serum MMP-9 and HDL-C levels than corresponding members of the control group. MMP-9 (C/T + T/T) genotype increased risk of hypertension in SLE patients 2.71-fold. This study for the first time not only suggests that MMP-9 -C1562 T and MMP-2 -G1575A alleles synergistically increase the risk of SLE but also high serum levels of MDA, neopterin, and circulatory levels of MMP-2 and lower MMP-9 in SLE patients. This

  18. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic opium (Taryak) smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Ali; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Solhi, Hassan; Rafiei, Mohammad; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    A relationship between the expression of inflammation markers, oxidative stress and opium use has not been clearly established. This study was done to determine serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), quantity of C3 and C4 complement factors, immunoglobulins, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in opium smokers and non-drug-using control participants. The present study was done on 44 male opium smokers and 44 controls of the same sex and age (20-40 years). The control group was healthy individuals with no lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. All of the opium abusers were selected from those who had a history of opium use, for at least one year, with a daily opium dosage not less than 2g. Addicts known to abuse alcohol or other drugs were excluded. Serum hs-CRP concentration was measured using ELISA method and serum C3, C4 and immunoglobulins concentration were determined by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) method. NO production was estimated through Griess reaction and TAC was assessed by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) test. Serum hs-CRP, complement factors (C3 and C4) and FRAP levels were significantly higher in the opium smokers (8.93 ± 1.93; 138.47 ± 13.39; 68.79 ± 7.02 and 972.75 ± 11.55, respectively) relative to the control group (0.72 ± 0.09; 93.36 ± 8.73; 33.08 ± 7.39 and 761.95 ± 18.61, respectively). These results permit us to conclude that opium smokers indeed present with a low to moderate grade inflammation, which is defined by an increase in acute phase proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pressure pain sensitivity as a marker for stress and pressure pain sensitivity-guided stress management in women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Christen K; Ballegaard, Søren; Karpatschof, Benny; Schousen, Peer

    2014-08-01

    To validate (1) Pressure Pain Sensitivity (PPS) as a marker for stress and (2) a PPS-guided intervention in women with primary Breast Cancer (BC). (1) A total of 58 women with BC were examined before and after 6 months of intervention. A control group of 165 women office employees was divided in a High Stress Group (HSG, n = 37) and a Low Stress Group (LSG, n = 128) to evaluate the association between PPS, questionnaire-related Quality of Life (QOL) and self-evaluated stress. (2) A PPS-guided stress management program (n = 40) was compared to a Psychosocial Group Intervention (PGI, n = 91) and no treatment (n = 86) with respect to a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire measured QOL. (1) Resting PPS and changes in PPS during the intervention period correlated significantly to EORTC and Short Form 36 (SF 36) main scores: (all p stress scores (all p stress. (2) The PPS-guided intervention group improved EORTC main score, pain and nausea, when compared to the control groups (all p stress. PPS-guided intervention improved QOL in women with breast cancer.

  20. The effect of social environment on markers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.

  1. Overexpression of an AP2/ERF Type Transcription Factor OsEREBP1 Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jisha

    Full Text Available AP2/ERF-type transcription factors regulate important functions of plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental stimuli. A rice AP2/ERF transcription factor, OsEREBP1 is a downstream component of a signal transduction pathway in a specific interaction between rice (Oryza sativa and its bacterial pathogen, Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 in rice driven by maize ubiquitin promoter did not affect normal plant growth. Microarray analysis revealed that over expression of OsEREBP1 caused increased expression of lipid metabolism related genes such as lipase and chloroplastic lipoxygenase as well as several genes related to jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthesis. PR genes, transcription regulators and Aldhs (alcohol dehydrogenases implicated in abiotic stress and submergence tolerance were also upregulated in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed increase in endogenous levels of α-linolenate, several jasmonate derivatives and abscisic acid but not salicylic acid. Soluble modified GFP (SmGFP-tagged OsEREBP1 was localized to plastid nucleoids. Comparative analysis of non-transgenic and OsEREBP1 overexpressing genotypes revealed that OsEREBP1 attenuates disease caused by Xoo and confers drought and submergence tolerance in transgenic rice. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 activates the jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways thereby priming the rice plants for enhanced survival under abiotic or biotic stress conditions. OsEREBP1 is thus, a good candidate gene for engineering plants for multiple stress tolerance.

  2. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Altered lipid peroxidation markers are related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and not trauma itself in earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah; Bulut, Mahmut; Bez, Yasin; Kaplan, İbrahim; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Uysal, Cem; Selçuk, Hilal; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-06-01

    The traumatic life events, including earthquakes, war, and interpersonal conflicts, cause a cascade of psychological and biological changes known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation, and paraoxonase is a known antioxidant enzyme. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between earthquake trauma, PTSD effects on oxidative stress and the levels of serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme activity, and levels of serum MDA. The study was carried out on three groups called: the PTSD group, the traumatized with earthquake exercise group, and healthy control group, which contained 32, 31, and 38 individuals, respectively. Serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activities from all participants were measured, and the results were compared across all groups. There were no significant differences between the PTSD patients and non-PTSD earthquake survivors in terms of the study variables. The mean PON1 enzyme activity from PTSD patients was significantly lower, while the mean MDA level was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (p PTSD showed higher MDA levels and lower PON1 activity when compared to healthy controls. However, the differences between these groups did not reach a statistically significant level. Increased MDA level and decreased PON1 activity measured in PTSD patients after earthquake and may suggest increased oxidative stress in these patients. The nonsignificant trends that are observed in lipid peroxidation markers of earthquake survivors may indicate higher impact of PTSD development on these markers than trauma itself. For example, PTSD diagnosis seems to add to the effect of trauma on serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activity. Thus, serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activity may serve as biochemical markers of PTSD diagnosis.

  4. Molecular markers for assessment of radiation-induced oxidant stress of occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova, K.; Zaharieva, E.; Aneva, N.; Kazarska, O.; Boteva, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are mainly due to high creativity, oxygen - containing free radicals and molecules known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). After irradiation the cells accumulate ROS, which may induce destructive changes in all cell structures and macromolecules (membranes, DNA, RNA , proteins and enzymes) and result in abnormalities on cell and tissue level. The effects of ROS are particularly important in chronic oxidative stress induced by prolonged occupational exposure that can permanently disrupt cellular redox homeostasis, which increase the risk of oncogenic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and other diseases. This requires the study of the antioxidant status of the Kozloduy NPP personnel who are professionally exposed to low dose irradiation. Materials and methods: As an antioxidant status markers, changes in the levels of the ROS and the electrochemical potential at mitochondrial lymphocytes (both before and after their additional in vitro exposure to 3 Gy), as well as the antioxidant activity of blood plasma are analyzed. The study was conducted with spectral methods and includes 40 professionally exposed people from the Kozloduy NPP (mean age 44.3, and radiation exposure from 0,1 to 257,9 mSv) and 20 unexposed controls (mean age 46.5 years). Results: Statistical analysis of the data shows that chronic exposure to low doses IR as a result of occupation exposure does not lead to significant changes in the levels of the ROS, the antioxidant activity of plasma and mitochondrial electrochemical potential. More significant impact on these indicators proves the age of the respondents, which is explained by a decrease in the activity of the cellular reparative and antioxidant systems induced by the natural processes of aging. Results for occupational exposure and non-exposure persons were heterogeneous due to the individual radio sensitivity of the persons included in biomonitoring. Conclusion

  5. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Human Milk do not Differ by Maternal BMI But are Related to Infant Growth Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget E; Patinkin, Zachary W; Pyle, Laura; de la Houssaye, Becky; Davidson, Barbara S; Geraghty, Sheela; Morrow, Ardythe L; Krebs, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Objective Obesity in adults is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether or not this phenotype is reflected in human milk (HM) composition, or may impact infant growth remains unknown. We investigated whether HM from overweight/obese (OW/Ob) mothers exhibited higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. We also correlated these bioactive components with infant growth patterns. Methods This was an observational cohort of 56 breastfeeding mothers and their infants [33 normal weight (NW) and 23 OW/Ob]. Infants were followed until 6 months of age and HM collected at 2-weeks and 4-months. Results Markers of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenol (HNE), decreased in HM over time (p < 0.001) and did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, were all inter-correlated (p < 0.001) but did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. HM fat, protein, lactose, and total calories did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Infant growth patterns did not differ by group. In a model of infant weight-for-length-Z score trajectory, there was a significant interaction between both lactose and 8OHdG with maternal group: HM lactose and 8OHdG concentrations were both positively associated with increases in WLZ trajectory only among infants breastfed by OW/Ob mothers. Conclusions for Practice HM composition was relatively stable between NW and OW/Ob women. In exclusively breastfed infants, HM concentrations of lactose and 8OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress, may contribute to regulation of infant weight gain, especially among infants of OW/Ob women.

  6. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach.

  7. Effect of Clonidine (an Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Oxidative Stress Markers in the Heart of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Syamimi Nik Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology. Antihypertensive drug Clonidine action in ameliorating oxidative stress was not well studied. Therefore, this study investigate the effect of Clonidine on oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO in SHR and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups [SHR, SHR+Clonidine (SHR-C, SHR+L-NAME, SHR+Clonidine+L-NAME(SHRC+L-NAME]. Rats (SHRC were administered with Clonidine (0.5 mg kg−1 day−1 from 4 weeks to 28 weeks in drinking water and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1 from 16 weeks to 28 weeks to SHRC+L-NAME. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. At the end of 28 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and in their heart homogenate, oxidative stress parameters and NO was assessed. Clonidine treatment significantly enhanced the total antioxidant status (TAS (P<0.001 and reduced the thibarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.001 and protein carbonyl content (PCO (P<0.05. These data suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the hypertensive organ damage and Clonidine not only lowers the SBP but also ameliorated the oxidative stress in the heart of SHR and SHR+L-NAME.

  8. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers. Part II. Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2008-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variability of markers of oxidative damage to lipids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 15-F2t-IsoP) and proteins (protein carbonyl levels) in 50 bus drivers and 50 controls from Prague, Czech Republic, and to identify factors affecting oxidative stress markers. The samples were collected in three seasons with different levels of air pollution. The exposure to environmental pollutants (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, c-PAHs, particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10, and volatile organic compounds, VOC) was monitored by personal and/or stationary monitors. For the analysis of both markers, ELISA techniques were used. The median levels of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 15-F2t-IsoP (nmol/mmol creatinine): winter 2005, 0.81 versus 0.68 (pbus drivers in winter seasons, but not in summer. Lipid peroxidation was positively correlated with c-PAHs and PM exposure; protein oxidation correlated negatively and was highest in summer suggesting another factor(s) affecting protein carbonyl levels.

  9. Marcadores séricos de estresse oxidativo em mulheres inférteis com endometriose Serum markers of oxidative stress in infertile women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zyman de Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar marcadores séricos de estresse oxidativo entre pacientes inférteis com e sem endometriose e avaliar a associação destes marcadores com o estadiamento da doença. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo envolvendo a inclusão consecutiva de 112 pacientes inférteis, não-obesas, com idade inferior a 39 anos, divididas em dois grupos: Endometriose (n=48, sendo 26 com endometriose mínima e leve - Estádio I/II e 22 com endometriose moderada e grave - Estádio III/IV e Controle (n=64, com fator tubário e/ou masculino de infertilidade. Durante a fase folicular precoce do ciclo menstrual, foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para análise dos níveis séricos de malondialdeído, glutationa e níveis totais de hidroperóxidos, por espectrofotometria e vitamina E, por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados da seguinte forma: os grupos endometriose versus controle; endometriose estádio I/II e controle, endometriose estádio III/IV e controle e entre os dois subgrupos de endometriose. Em todas as análises, foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: to compare serum markers of oxidative stress between infertile patients with and without endometriosis and to assess the association of these markers with disease staging. METHODS: this was a prospective study conducted on 112 consecutive infertile, non-obese patients younger than 39 years, divided into two groups: Endometriosis (n=48, 26 with minimal and mild endometriosis - Stage I/II, and 22 with moderate and severe endometriosis - Stage III/IV and Control (n=64, with tubal and/or male factor infertility. Blood samples were collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the analysis of serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and total hydroxyperoxide levels by spectrophotometry and of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were compared between the endometriosis and control groups, stage I

  10. Improved stress tolerance and productivity in transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing the Oryza sativa glutathione synthetase OsGS under paddy field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Im; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Jin-Ju; Mok, Ji-Eun; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Il-Sup; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2017-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which increase under various environmental stresses, have deleterious effects on plants. An important antioxidant, glutathione, is used to detoxify reactive oxygen species in plant cells and is mainly produced by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). To evaluate the functional roles of the glutathione synthetase gene (OsGS) in rice, we generated four independent transgenic rice plants (TG1-TG4) that overexpressed OsGS under the control of the constitutively expressed OsCc1 promoter. When grown under natural paddy field conditions, the TG rice plants exhibited greater growth development, higher chlorophyll content, and higher GSH/GSSH ratios than control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Subsequently, the TG rice plants enhanced redox homeostasis by preventing hydroperoxide-mediated membrane damage, which improved their adaptation to environmental stresses. As a result, TG rice plants improved rice grain yield and total biomass following increases in panicle number and number of spikelets per panicle, despite differences in climate during the cultivation periods of 2014 and 2015. Overall, our results indicate that OsGS overexpression improved redox homeostasis by enhancing the glutathione pool, which resulted in greater tolerance to environmental stresses in the paddy fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A TOOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  12. Variability of salivary markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in young healthy individuals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettrichová, I.; Tóthová, L.; Hodosy, J.; Behuliak, Michal; Celec, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-30 ISSN 1351-0002 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biomarkers of oxidative stress * carbonyl stress * sex difference Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2016

  13. Monitoring environmental stress in forest trees using biochemical and physiological markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; S. Long

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the usefulness of polyamines, particularly putrescine, and amino acids such as arginine, as foliar indicators of abiotic stress in visually asymptomatic trees. An evaluation of apparently healthy trees is essential in developing risk assessment and stress remediation strategies for forest trees prior to the onset of obvious decline....

  14. OsGA2ox5, a Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme, Is Involved in Plant Growth, the Root Gravity Response and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Shan, Chi

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2b-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C19-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C20-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5), was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C20-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C20-GAs (GA12, GA53). Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GAdeficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 mM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  15. OsGA2ox5, a gibberellin metabolism enzyme, is involved in plant growth, the root gravity response and salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Shan

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2β-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C₁₉-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C₂₀-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5, was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C₂₀-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C₂₀-GAs (GA₁₂, GA₅₃. Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 µM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  16. Serum Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoinic, F; Sampelean, D; Buzoianu, Anca D; Hancu, N; Baston, Dorina

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms responsible for disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and test their relationships with clinical and biochemical patient characteristics, compared to patients with DMT2 without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and controls. In all, 60 consecutive patients with DMT2 and NASH, 55 with DMT2 without NAFLD, and 50 age-and-gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. The serum levels of protein carbonyls and 8-isoprostane were determined by ELISA methods, while the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by means of the spectrophotometric method. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory parameters were examined for all the subjects included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the independent predictive factors in the relationships investigated here. Patients with DMT2 and NASH displayed significantly higher serum levels of protein carbonyls (1.112 ± 0.42 nmol/dL), MDA (6.181 ± 1.81 ng/mL), and 8-isoprostane (338.6 ± 98.5 pg/mL) compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that in patients with DMT2 and NASH, the serum levels of oxidative stress markers were independently and positively associated with: HbA1c, duration of diabetes, the UKPDS cardiovascular risk score (for protein carbonyls); age, LDL-cholesterol (for 8-isoprostane); and triglycerides serum levels (for MDA). Our findings indicate that the process of oxidative stress tends to increase in patients with DMT2 and NASH, compared to patients with DMT2 without NAFLD, and controls. This evidence suggests that an antioxidant therapy might prove useful in the treatment of patients with DMT2 and NASH.

  17. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  18. Effects of Fat and Sugar, Either Consumed or Infused toward the Brain, on Hypothalamic ER Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evita Belegri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-folding stress at the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER occurs in the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO and is linked to metabolic disease development. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, a controlled network of pathways inducing a set of genes that recovers ER function. However, it is unclear whether hypothalamic ER stress during DIO results from obesity related changes or from direct nutrient effects in the brain. We here investigated mRNA expression of UPR markers in the hypothalamus of rats that were exposed to a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS diet for 1 week and then overnight fed ad libitum, or fasted, or fat/sugar deprived (i.e., switched from obesogenic diet to chow. In addition, we determined the direct effects of fat/sugar on mRNA expression of hypothalamus UPR markers by intracarotic infusions of intralipids and/or glucose in chow-fed rats that were fasted overnight. Short term (1 week exposure to fcHFHS diet increased adiposity compared to chow-feeding. Short term exposure to a fcHFHS diet, followed by mild food restriction overnight, induced hypothalamic ER stress in rats as characterized by an increase in spliced to unspliced X-box binding protein 1 mRNA ratio in hypothalamus of fcHFHS fed rats compared to chow fed rats. Moreover, infused lipids toward the brain of overnight fasted rats, were able to induce a similar response. Non-restricted ad libitum fcHFHS-diet fed or totally fasted rats did not show altered ratios. We also observed a clear increase in hypothalamic activating transcription factor 4 mRNA in rats on the fcHFHS diet while being ad libitum fed or when infused with intralipid via the carotic artery compared to vehicle infusions. However, we did not observe induction of downstream targets implying that this effect is a more general stress response and not related to ER stress. Overall, we conclude that the hypothalamic stress response might be a sensitive

  19. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  20. A marker of biological age explains individual variation in the strength of the adult stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Clare; Nettle, Daniel; Larriva, Maria; Gillespie, Robert; Reichert, Sophie; Brilot, Ben O; Bedford, Thomas; Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    The acute stress response functions to prioritize behavioural and physiological processes that maximize survival in the face of immediate threat. There is variation between individuals in the strength of the adult stress response that is of interest in both evolutionary biology and medicine. Age is an established source of this variation-stress responsiveness diminishes with increasing age in a range of species-but unexplained variation remains. Since individuals of the same chronological age may differ markedly in their pace of biological ageing, we asked whether biological age-measured here via erythrocyte telomere length-predicts variation in stress responsiveness in adult animals of the same chronological age. We studied two cohorts of European starlings in which we had previously manipulated the rate of biological ageing by experimentally altering the competition experienced by chicks in the fortnight following hatching. We predicted that individuals with greater developmental telomere attrition, and hence greater biological age, would show an attenuated corticosterone (CORT) response to an acute stressor when tested as adults. In both cohorts, we found that birds with greater developmental telomere attrition had lower peak CORT levels and a more negative change in CORT levels between 15 and 30 min following stress exposure. Our results, therefore, provide strong evidence that a measure of biological age explains individual variation in stress responsiveness: birds that were biologically older were less stress responsive. Our results provide a novel explanation for the phenomenon of developmental programming of the stress response: observed changes in stress physiology as a result of exposure to early-life adversity may reflect changes in ageing.

  1. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  2. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi, Shigeru Uchiyama, Yuya Kato, Teruko Yuhi, Hiromi Ushijima, Makoto Takezaki, Toshihiro Tominaga, Yoshiko Moriyama, Kunio Takeda, Toshiro Miyahara and Naoki Nagatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2 containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20. The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  3. Role of deferoxamine on enzymatic stress markers in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease after chronic aluminum exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, José L; Garcia, Tania; Gómez, Mercedes; Nogués, M Rosa; Giralt, Montserrat; Domingo, José L

    2011-06-01

    The effect of the chelator deferoxamine (DFO) on the activity of enzymatic stress markers was assessed in amyloid beta peptide (AβPP) transgenic mice, an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, after oral aluminum (Al) exposure for 6 months. AβPP transgenic (Tg2576) and C57BL6/SJL wild-type mice of 5 months of age were fed a diet supplemented with Al lactate (1 mg of Al/g food). Four groups of Tg2576 and wild-type animals were used: control, Al only, DFO only, and Al plus DFO. Mice in the DFO-treated groups received also subcutaneous injections of 0.20 mmol/kg/d of this chelating agent twice a week until the end of the study at 11 months of age. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex were removed and processed to examine a number of oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, the expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Aluminum levels in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice were higher than those found in cerebellum and cortex, while the main oxidative effects were evidenced in the presence of DFO only. Oral Al exposure of AβPP transgenic mice would have some potential to promote pro-oxidant events, while DFO administration would not help in preventing these deleterious effects.

  4. Vitamin E supplementation in canine atopic dermatitis: improvement of clinical signs and effects on oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik Kapun, A; Salobir, J; Levart, A; Tavčar Kalcher, G; Nemec Svete, A; Kotnik, T

    2014-12-06

    Low levels of plasma vitamin E concentrations were found in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). The present study was aimed at determining the effect of an eight-week vitamin E supplementation on clinical response (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) scores and pruritus intensity) in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Levels of oxidative stress markers (plasma malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations) were also determined. Twenty-nine dogs with CAD were included in the study. Fourteen received vitamin E (8.1 IU/kg once daily, orally) and 15 received mineral oil as placebo (orally). All dogs were treated with antihistamine fexofenadine. Levels of oxidative stress markers (with the exception of skin vitamin E), CADESI-03 and pruritus intensity were determined at the beginning, then every two weeks. Skin vitamin E was determined at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Significantly higher plasma levels of vitamin E and TAC were observed in the vitamin E group than in the placebo group. CADESI-03 scores determined throughout the treatment in the vitamin E group were significantly lower than in the placebo group. The findings of this study support the supplementation of vitamin E in dogs with atopic dermatitis. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Associations Among Plasma Stress Markers and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Breast Cancer Following Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyun-Bin; Kang, Eun-Chan; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Moon, Jung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Choi, Ji-Min; Jung, Do-Un

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of present study is to analyze the prevalence of depression and anxiety following breast cancer surgery and to assess the factors that affect postoperative psychological symptoms. Methods The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Body Image Scale (BIS), and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess the psychological states of patients who had been diagnosed with and had undergone surgery for breast cancer. Blood concentrations of the stress markers adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, arginine-vasopressin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme were measured. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multilinear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Results At least mild depressive symptoms were noted in 50.5% of patients, while 42.4% of patients exhibited at least mild anxiety symptoms. HAM-D score was positively correlated with HAM-A (r=0.83, p<0.001) and BIS (r=0.29, p<0.001) scores and negatively correlated with RSES score (r=-0.41, p<0.001). HAM-A score was positively correlated with BIS score (r=0.32, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RSES score (r=-0.27, p<0.001). There were no statistically significant associations between stress markers and depression/anxiety. Conclusion Patients with breast cancer frequently exhibit postoperative depression and anxiety, which are related to low levels of self-esteem and distorted body image. PMID:29475233

  6. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  7. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Uchiyama, Shigeru; Kato, Yuya; Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  8. Immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles for measuring salivary secretory IgA in dogs as a stress marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Aki; Kato, Yuya; Takezaki, Makoto; Tominaga, Toshihiro; Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio; Miyahara, Toshiro; Nagatani, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Uchiyama, Shigeru [Okayama University of Science Specialized Training College, 8-3 Handa-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0003 (Japan); Yuhi, Teruko; Ushijima, Hiromi, E-mail: nagatani@dac.ous.ac.j [Biodevicetechnology Ltd. 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi-City, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a well-known stress marker for humans. The concentration of salivary sIgA in dogs has also been reported as a useful stress marker. In addition, salivary sIgA in dogs has been used to determine the adaptive ability of dogs for further training. There are conventional procedures based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs. However, ELISA requires long assay time, complicated operations and is costly. In the present study, we developed an immunochromatographic assay for measuring salivary sIgA in dogs using a dilution buffer containing a non-ionic surfactant. We determined 2500-fold dilution as the optimum condition for dog saliva using a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.2) containing non-ionic surfactant (3 wt% Tween 20). The results obtained from the saliva samples of three dogs using immunochromatographic assay were compared with those obtained from ELISA. It was found that the immunochromatographic assay is applicable to judge the change in salivary sIgA in each dog. The immunochromatographic assay for salivary sIgA in dogs is a promising tool, which should soon become commercially available for predicting a dog's psychological condition and estimating adaptive ability for training as guide or police dogs.

  9. The impact of match-play tennis in a hot environment on indirect markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Wade L; Périard, JP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status in response to playing tennis in HOT (∼36°C and 35% relative humidity (RH)) and COOL (∼22°C and 70% RH) conditions. Methods 10 male tennis players undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ie, ball in play) of 20 min, corresponding to ∼122 and ∼107 min of total play in HOT and COOL conditions, respectively. Core body temperature, body mass and indirect markers of oxidative stress (diacrons reactive oxygen metabolic test) and antioxidant status (biological antioxidant potential test) were assessed immediately prematch, midmatch and postmatch, and 24 and 48 h into recovery. Results Regardless of the condition, oxidative stress remained similar throughout play and into recovery. Likewise, match-play tennis in the COOL had no impact on antioxidant status. However, antioxidants status increased significantly in the HOT compared with COOL environment (pantioxidant status. These data suggest that the heat stress observed in the HOT environment may provide a necessary signal for the upregulation of antioxidant defence, dampening cellular damage. PMID:24668382

  10. Alterations of markers of oxidative stress caused by environmental factors and their dynamics under impact of native biomodulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasytyte-Buneviciene, D.; Juozulynas, A.; Bunevicius, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensified formation of free radicals is one of the most important harmful factors of ionizing radiation acting upon human organism. Under physiological conditions, anti oxidative system preserves from harmful influence of free radicals. To avoid a disturbing influence of oxidative stress upon the processes of human homeostasis, additional quantities of antioxidants are indispensable. Among native biomodulators, pollen are well known for their anti oxidative, antitoxic and radioprotective properties. Dynamics of alterations of markers of oxidative stress as well as possibilities of restitution of their qualitative and quantitative indices were studied using native pollen. Correction programme was performed on 50 persons, 9 males and 41 female, residing and working under impact of harmful factors of oxidative stress, who used pollen 10 g per day during a period of 30 days. Control group consisted of 57 persons, 10 males and 47 females living and working under the same conditions. Blood tests (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde and katalase) using standard spectrophotometric methodic were studied before and after the course of treatment. After the treatment, contents of metabolites of lipid peroxidation, diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde in blood serum essentially reduced. Activity of catalase decreased significantly in blood serum of the males and regularly smoking females. In conclusion, data presented demonstrate anti oxidative efficiency of native pollen and suggest more often it's applying in cases with alterated processes of homeostasis under impact of harmful factors of oxidative stress including influence of ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath of workers exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles are elevated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Pušman, Jan; Zíková, Naděžda; Zakharov, S.; Machajová, M.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 69-70 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : oxidative stress * exhaled breath * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary -thyroid (HPT) axes across multiple matrices. APPROACH Task 1 – Natural...performance. Hair samples will be collected from the anterior back region of seals for determination of cortisol as a measure of chronic stress...and 5 juveniles. Task 3 – TSH challenges Thyroid hormones (thyroxin, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are

  13. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    regulation in a captive dolphin population PI: Cory Champagne This project examines roles of CBG and rT3 in the sister study on the Navy captive...bottlenose dolphin population. Molecular indicators of chronic stress in a model pinniped - the northern elephant seal. PI: Cory Champagne This...Khudyakov J.I., C.D. Champagne , L. Preeyanon, R.M. Ortiz, D.E. Crocker. 2015. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging

  14. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; pstress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of extrinsic stress on somatic markers and behavior are dependent on animal housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzard, Damien; Mumby, Dave G; Sandi, Carmen; Poirier, Guillaume L; van der Kooij, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Properties of the environment play an important role in animal wellbeing and may modulate the effects of external threats. Whereas stressors can affect emotion and impair cognition, environmental enrichment may prevent the occurrence of such negative sequelae. Animals exposed to semi-natural group-housing experience a complex environment; whereas environmental enrichment might protect against stressors, a socially-enriched environment(SEE) could entail aggressive inter-male encounters with additive stress effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to external stressors, footshocks and forced swimming, on adrenal gland and body weights as well as on behavior in rats housed under SEE or standard, non-enriched environment (NEE), conditions. We found that SEEs reduced the anxiogenic effects of stress. Moreover, SEEs improved the performance in an operant task and prevented the increase in impulsive behavior produced by external stressors on NEE animals. Whereas these findings are indicative of stress-buffering effects of SEEs, adrenal gland weights were increased while total body weights were decreased in SEE rats, suggesting that SEEs may simultaneously exacerbate physiological measurements of stress. Finally, in the SEE, total aggressive behaviors and body wounds were paradoxically reduced in animals that received external stressors in comparison to non-stressed controls. The consequences of the external stressors applied here are not uniform, varying according to the housing condition and the outcome considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of rice germplasm under salt stress at the seedling stage through SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Amin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight rice germplasms were used for identification of salt tolerant rice genotypes at the seedling stage at the experimental farm and Biotechnology laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh during February 2009 to October 2009. Phenotyping for salinity screening of the rice genotypes was done using salinized (EC level 12 dS m-1 nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance on 1-9 scale based on seedling growth parameters following modified Standard Evaluation Scoring (SES of IRRI. Phenotypically, on the basis of SES and % total dry matter (TDM reduction of the genotypes viz. PBSAL-614, PBSAL-613, PBSAL-730, Horkuch, S-478/3 Pokkali and PBSAL (STL-15 were found to be salt tolerant; on the other hand Iratom-24, S-653/32, S-612/32, S-604/32, S-633/32, Charnock (DA6, BINA Dhan-6 and S-608/32 were identified as salt susceptible. For genotyping, ten SSR markers were used for polymorphism, where 3 primers (RM127, RM443 and RM140 were selected for evaluation of salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM127, 7 lines were found salt tolerant and 11 lines were moderately tolerant and 10 lines were susceptible. Nine tolerant, 9 moderately tolerant and 10 susceptible lines were found when the primer RM140 was used and primer RM443 identified 8 lines as tolerant, 9 lines as moderately tolerant and 11 lines as susceptible. Thus, the salt tolerant lines can be used in further evaluation for salinity tolerance and the SSR markers used in this study are proving valuable for identifying salt tolerant genes in marker assisted breeding.

  17. Copeptin – stable C-terminal fragment of pre-provasopressin as a new stress marker in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarosz-Lesz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress stimuli, including diseases, disturb homeostasis of the body and enhance secretion of various hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland hormones. One of the main hypothalamic hormones secreted in stress conditions is arginine vasopressin (AVP. Vasopressin concentration in the blood reflects the severity of disease and disorders of blood volume. Measurement of vasopressin is difficult and subjected to considerable laboratory error because of the short half-life in serum and its instability in withdrawn blood samples. This hormone and copeptin are peptides produced during the cleavage of a larger precursor polypeptide: pre-provasopressin. Both peptides are formed in equimolar amounts. Copeptin is a more stable peptide, measurement of which can be performed with higher accuracy. This paper presents the importance of copeptin as a marker of stress, with particular emphasis on the neonatal period, analyzing the impact of gestational age and the route of delivery. Its potential application for assessing the degree of hydration in the adaptation period is also discussed.

  18. Glucocorticoid metabolites in newborns: A marker for traffic noise related stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella; Usermann, Jakob; Proietti, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with an increased risk for several non-auditory health effects, which may be explained by a noise-induced release of stress hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids). Although several studies in children and adults have indicated an increased secretion of glucocorticoids...

  19. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  20. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in diameter (PM(2.5)) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM(2.5) and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 micro g/m(3) for personal PM(2.5...

  1. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mettte; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    wAmbient particulate air pollution assessed as outdoor concentrations of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 mum in diameter (PM2.5) in urban background has been associated with cardiovascular diseases at the population level. However, the significance of individual exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM2.5 and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 mug/m(3) for personal PM2.5 exposure...

  2. Oxidative stress mediated mitochondrial and vascular lesions as markers in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, G; Priyadarshini, M; Reddy, V P; Grieg, N H; Kaminsky, Y; Cacabelos, R; Ashraf, G Md; Jabir, N R; Kamal, M A; Nikolenko, V N; Zamyatnin, A A; Benberin, V V; Bachurin, S O

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plausibly underlies the aging-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in cellular bioenergetics and cell-survival. Oxidative stress consequent to chronic hypoperfusion induces mitochondrial damage, which is implicated as the primary cause of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) mediated Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mitochondrial function deteriorates with aging, and the mitochondrial damage correlates with increased intracellular production of oxidants and pro-oxidants. The prolonged oxidative stress and the resultant hypoperfusion in the brain tissues stimulate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, which further drives the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The ROS and RNS collectively contributes to the dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and damage to the brain parenchymal cells. Delineating the molecular mechanisms of these processes may provide clues for the novel therapeutic targets for CVA and AD patients.

  3. Role of PARP activity in lung cancer-induced cachexia: Effects on muscle oxidative stress, proteolysis, anabolic markers, and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Mateu-Jimenez, Mercè; Langohr, Klaus; Fermoselle, Clara; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L; Yelamos, Jose; Barreiro, Esther

    2017-12-01

    Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1 -/- ) and Parp-2 -/- mice. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of LC (LP07 adenocarcinoma) bearing mice (wild type, Parp-1 -/- , and Parp-2 -/- ), PARP activity (ADP-ribose polymers, pADPr), redox balance, muscle fiber phenotype, apoptotic nuclei, tyrosine release, protein ubiquitination, muscle-specific E3 ligases, NF-κB signaling pathway, markers of muscle anabolism (Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and mitochondrial DNA) were evaluated along with body and muscle weights, and limb muscle force. Compared to wild type cachectic animals, in both respiratory and limb muscles of Parp-1 -/- and Parp-2 -/- cachectic mice: cancer induced-muscle wasting characterized by increased PARP activity, protein oxidation, tyrosine release, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (total protein ubiquitination, atrogin-1, and 20S proteasome C8 subunit) were blunted, the reduction in contractile myosin and atrophy of the fibers was attenuated, while no effects were seen in other structural features (inflammatory cells, internal or apoptotic nuclei), and markers of muscle anabolism partly improved. Activation of either PARP-1 or -2 is likely to play a role in muscle protein catabolism via oxidative stress, NF-κB signaling, and enhanced proteasomal degradation in cancer-induced cachexia. Therapeutic potential of PARP activity inhibition deserves attention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Correlation between the serum and tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and the extent of inflammation in acute appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Birkan; Yildirim, Murat Baki; Ergin, Merve; Yalçin, Abdussamed; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and tissue levels of markers of impaired oxidative metabolism and correlate these levels with the histopathology and Alvarado score of acute appendicitis patients. METHOD: Sixty-five acute appendicitis patients (mean age, 31.4±12.06 years; male/female, 30/35) and 30 healthy control subjects were studied. The Alvarado score was recorded. Serum samples were obtained before surgery and 12 hours postoperatively to examine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase, stimulated paraoxonase, arylesterase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, ceruloplasmin, oxidative stress markers (advanced oxidized protein products and total thiol level) and ischemia-modified albumin. Surgical specimens were also evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n = 37), perforated appendicitis (n = 8), phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 12), perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 4), or no appendicitis (n = 4). The Alvarado score of the acute appendicitis group was significantly lower than that of the perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis group (p = 0.004). The serum total antioxidant status, total thiol level, advanced oxidized protein products, total oxidant status, catalase, arylesterase, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly different between the acute appendicitis and control groups. There was no correlation between the pathological extent of acute appendicitis and the tissue levels of the markers; additionally, there was no correlation between the tissue and serum levels of any of the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems plays a role in the pathogenesis acute appendicitis. The Alvarado score can successfully predict the presence and extent of acute appendicitis. PMID:25518019

  5. Vitamin C and fibre consumption from fruits and vegetables improves oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Barbosa, Kiriaque B F; Volp, Ana Carolina P; Puchau, Blanca; Bressan, Josefina; Zulet, M Ángeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and some oxidative stress markers in young adults, with particular emphasis on fibre and vitamin C intake. The study enrolled 246 healthy subjects (eighty-eight men and 158 women), with a mean age of 22 (sd 3) years and a mean BMI of 21·9 (sd 2·8) kg/m2. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features and blood biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. Those subjects in the highest tertile (T) of FV consumption ( ≥ 705 g/d) had statistically lower oxidised LDL (ox-LDL) concentrations as well as higher plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P for trend well as increased TAC and GPx activity in healthy young adults, with dietary fibre and vitamin C from FV clearly being implicated in this beneficial relationship.

  6. Acylated Ghrelin and Circulatory Oxidative Stress Markers Responses to Acute Resistance and Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteri, Randhall B; Lopes, André Luis; Schöler, Cinthia M; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Macedo, Rodrigo C; Gross, Júlia Silveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Since exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in different tissues, the objective of this study is to evaluate, compare and correlate the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in circulatory markers of oxidative stress and acylated ghrelin (AG) in postmenopausal women. Ten postmenopausal women completed different protocols: a control session (CON), an aerobic exercise session (AERO); and a single-set (SSR) or 3-set (MSR) resistance exercise protocol. After exercise, both MSR (P = .06) and AERO (P = .02) sessions showed significant increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline levels. CON and SSR sessions showed no differences after exercise. No differences were found between sessions at any time for total glutathione, glutathione dissulfide or AG concentrations. Exercise significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline values. As pro oxidant stimuli is necessary to promote chronic adaptations to the antioxidant defenses induced by exercise, our findings are important to consider when evaluating exercise programs prescription variables aiming quality of life in this population.

  7. Towards uranium dose-effects relationships for bio markers of oxidative stress in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buet, A.; Camilleri, V.; Simon, O.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Envirhom program, the bioavailability of uranium, a widely spread metal in fresh waters, has been studied in various organisms to gain understanding of metal-organisms interactions. Experiments are still in progress to establish a comprehensive basis of early and delayed involved toxicological mechanisms. Uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The cellular damage of radiation, but also of heavy metal exposure, is mainly associated with an oxidative injury due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the intensity of oxidative damages is dependant on the efficiency of antioxidant defense systems of the organism. In this context, short-term experiments were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) in order to (1) assess the response of some antioxidant parameters and other potential bio-markers and (2) to better characterize the kinetics of the responses in relation with U concentrations and exposure duration. Trout were exposed by direct pathway to a range of U concentrations in water (low, medium and high: 20, 100 and 500 μg U.L -1 respectively) during 10 days. Several antioxidant parameters were measured: the rate of reduced glutathione (GSH) that plays a major role in cellular detoxification and antioxidant defense, and the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase that are involved in the detoxification of oxygen reactive species. The activity of glutathione reductase (GR), that restores the pool of GSH was measured, as well as the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker of neurotoxicity. In parallel, U analysis were performed in gill, skin, muscle, skeleton, intestine, liver, kidneys and body residues of exposed trout in order to assess the dependence of biological responses with a potential uranium bioaccumulation in fish tissues. (author)

  8. Sleep characteristics as predictor variables of stress systems markers in insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floam, Samantha; Simpson, Norah; Nemeth, Emese; Scott-Sutherland, Jennifer; Gautam, Shiva; Haack, Monika

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the extent to which sleep characteristics serve as predictor variables for inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and autonomic systems markers. Twenty-nine participants with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (age 25.3 ± 1.6 years, insomnia duration 6.6 ± 0.8 years) and 19 healthy control sleepers (age 25.4 ± 1.4 years) underwent a 2-week at-home evaluation keeping a sleep diary and wearing an actigraph, followed by a visit to the Research Center to measure blood pressure, and collect blood and urine samples. The actigraphy- and diary-based variables of sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, wake after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation/number of night-time awakenings were averaged and entered as dependent variables in regression analyses. Composite scores were calculated for the autonomic (blood pressure, norepinephrine), inflammatory (monocyte counts, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems (cortisol), and used as predictor variables in regression models. Compared with controls, individuals with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P insomnia disorder, cortisol is upregulated and associated with actigraphy- and diary-based wake after sleep onset, suggesting that wake after sleep onset may serve as a marker to identify individuals at increased risks for disorders associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. The absence of autonomic and pro-inflammatory changes (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), despite a substantial decrease in actigraphic sleep duration, may relate to a higher resilience to the adverse biological consequences of insomnia in this young age group. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    presence of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is a peptide hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland . Thyroid stimulating hormone is 4...releasing hormone (TRH) challenges to characterize the activation of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary - thyroid (HPT...triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are responsible for regulating the metabolism of an animal and affect the activity of other stress

  10. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46. MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001 and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001. Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women. Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  11. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Enas A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and hemodialysis (HD on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total peroxide (TPX, pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI and lactate/pyruvate (L/P ratio were calculated. Results TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. Conclusions CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  12. Generating markers based on biotic stress of protein system in and tandem repeats sequence for Aquilaria sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Muhammad Hanif Azhari N; Siti Norhayati Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria sp. belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family and is well distributed in Asia region. The species has multipurpose use from root to shoot and is an economically important crop, which generates wide interest in understanding genetic diversity of the species. Knowledge on DNA-based markers has become a prerequisite for more effective application of molecular marker techniques in breeding and mapping programs. In this work, both targeted genes and tandem repeat sequences were used for DNA fingerprinting in Aquilaria sp. A total of 100 ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) primers and 50 combination pairs of specific primers derived from conserved region of a specific protein known as system in were optimized. 38 ISSR primers were found affirmative for polymorphism evaluation study and were generated from both specific and degenerate ISSR primers. And one utmost combination of system in primers showed significant results in distinguishing the Aquilaria sp. In conclusion, polymorphism derived from ISSR profiling and targeted stress genes of protein system in proved as a powerful approach for identification and molecular classification of Aquilaria sp. which will be useful for diversification in identifying any mutant lines derived from nature. (author)

  13. Exploring the heat-responsive chaperones and microsatellite markers associated with terminal heat stress tolerance in developing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Shamim, Mohammad; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Khushboo; Singh, Shweta; Kala, Yugal K; Niraj, Ravi R K; Sakhrey, Akshay; Singh, Gyanendra P; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Bhupinder; Rai, Gyanendra K; Rai, Anil K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-11-01

    Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food security, and in many cases the negative impacts are already apparent. Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops and is highly sensitive to the heat stress (HS) during reproductive and grain-filling stages. Here, whole transcriptome analysis of thermotolerant wheat cv. HD2985 was carried out at the post-anthesis stage under control (22 ± 3 °C) and HS-treated (42 °C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina Hiseq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled ~24 million (control) and ~23 million (HS-treated) high-quality trimmed reads using different assemblers with optimal parameters. De novo assembly yielded 52,567 (control) and 59,658 (HS-treated) unigenes. We observed 785 transcripts to be upregulated and 431 transcripts to be downregulated under HS; 78 transcripts showed >10-fold upregulation such as HSPs, metabolic pathway-related genes, etc. Maximum number of upregulated genes was observed to be associated with processes such as HS-response, protein-folding, oxidation-reduction and photosynthesis. We identified 2008 and 2483 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers from control and HS-treated samples; 243 SSRs were observed to be overlying on stress-associated genes. Polymorphic study validated four SSRs to be heat-responsive in nature. Expression analysis of identified differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) showed very high fold increase in the expression of catalytic chaperones (HSP26, HSP17, and Rca) in contrasting wheat cvs. HD2985 and HD2329 under HS. We observed positive correlation between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR expression data. The present study culminated in greater understanding of the heat-response of tolerant genotype and has provided good candidate genes for the marker development and screening of wheat germplasm for thermotolerance.

  14. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  15. Training Load, Physical Performance, Biochemical Markers, and Psychological Stress During A Short Preparatory Period in Brazilian Elite Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Thiago A G; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Miranda, R; Werneck, Francisco Z

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between training load (TL) and physical performance, biochemical markers, and psychological stress during a short preparatory period (PP) in Brazilian elite male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players from a team competing in the Brazilian Men's Volleyball Super League were enrolled (26.9 ± 4.6 years). Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Creatine Kinase (CK), Testosterone (T), Cortisol (Cr), T/Cr ratio, and Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were collected at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 week. TL was quantified daily using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Differences were noted between Total Weekly TL (TWTL) (F3,33 = 50.907; p = 0.0001), CK (F3,33 = 16.157; p = 0.0001), and T (F3,33 = 3.283; p = 0.03). No differences were seen in CMJ (F3,33 = 1.821; p = 0.16), Cr (F3,33 = 2.409; p = 0.08), or T/Cr ratio (F3,33 = 1.527; p = 0.23). The RESTQ-Sport demonstrated differences between moments in Social Stress (F3,33 = 2.297; p = 0.04; Eta = 0.25), Success (F3,33 = 4.350; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.19), General Well-being (F3,33 = 4.465; p = 0.01; Eta = 0.36), and Injury (F3,33 = 2.792; p = 0.05; Eta = 0.62). The results showed a significant correlations of small to moderate magnitude between TWTL and CK (r = 0.32; p = 0.05). In conclusion, a short PP in volleyball leads to increased TL, CK level, and psychological stress. TL was related with the increase of CK, suggesting muscle damage without increased of physical performance.

  16. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  17. Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Shokouhian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  18. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L.

    1991-01-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects

  19. Incapacity, Handicap, and Oxidative Stress Markers of Male Smokers With and Without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Moussa, Syrine; Rouatbi, Sonia; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2016-05-01

    Mechanisms of incapacity and quality of life (QOL) of smokers with COPD and those free from COPD (non-COPD) are still unclear. The aims of this work were to compare the submaximal exercise, the QOL, and the blood and lung oxidative stress biomarker data of smokers without and with COPD. Thirty-two male-smokers 40-60 y old were included (16 with COPD). QOL (Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire) and physical activity (Voorrips questionnaire) scores were determined. Blood sample levels of malondialdehyde, protein sulfhydryl, and glutathione were measured. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, plethysmographic data, and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were collected. All data are presented as mean ± SD, except oxidative stress biomarkers expressed as mean ± SE. Correlation coefficient (r) evaluated the association between oxidative stress biomarkers and 6MWD, QOL, and physical activity data. Two age- and amount of tobacco used-matched groups of smokers were included. Compared with the non-COPD group, the COPD group had significantly lower 6MWD (573 ± 63 vs 476 ± 53 m) and physical activity score (7.14 ± 1.50 vs 2.86 ± 1.50) and significantly worse QOL (19.47 ± 15.33 vs 47.70 ± 16.73) and lower glutathione level (39.44 ± 6.28 vs 24.67 ± 5.41 μg/mL). The COPD group malondialdehyde level was significantly correlated with 6MWD, symptoms, and QOL scores (good r value between 0.50 and 0.70). The non-COPD group fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and glutathione levels were significantly correlated with leisure activity score and 6MWD, respectively (good r value between 0.50 and 0.70). Compared with the non-COPD group, the COPD group had a marked decrease in submaximal exercise data and in QOL score. Oxidative stress could be one explanation of incapacity and handicap observed in the COPD group. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. OS090. Performance of candidate clinical and biochemical markers in screening early in pregnancy to detect women at high risk to develop preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, J-C; Massé, J; Bujold, E; Rousseau, F; Charland, M; Thériault, S; Lafond, J; Giguère, Y

    2012-07-01

    The advent of early preventive measures, such as low-dose aspirin targeting women at high risk of preeclampsia (PE), emphasizes the need for better detection. Despite the emergence of promising biochemical markers linked to the pathophysiological processes, systematic reviews have shown that, until now, no single tests fulfill the criteria set by WHO for biomarkers to screen for a disease. However, recent literature reveals that by combining various clinical, biophysical and biochemical markers into multivariate algorithms, one can envisage to estimate the risk of PE with a performance that would reach clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, but this remains to be demonstrated in various environments and health care settings. To investigate, in a prospective study, the clinical utility of candidate biomarkers and clinical data to detect, early in pregnancy, women at risk to develop PE and to propose a multivariate prediction algorithm combining clinical parameters to biochemical markers. 7929 pregnant women prospectively recruited at the first prenatal visit, provided blood samples, clinical and sociodemographic information. 214 pregnant women developed hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) of which 88 had PE (1.2%), including 44 with severe PE (0.6%). A nested case-control study was performed including for each case of HDP two normal pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age at recruitment, ethnicity, parity, and smoking status. Based on the literature we selected the most promising markers in a multivariate logistic regression model: mean arterial pressure (MAP), BMI, placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble Flt-1, inhibin A and PAPP-A. Biomarker results measured between 10-18 weeks gestation were expressed as multiples of the median. Medians were determined for each gestational week. When combined with MAP at the time of blood sampling and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy, the four biochemical markers discriminate normal pregnancies from those

  1. Dynamic of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers during the convalescent period of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Bogdan Nicolae; Berteanu, M; Oprea, E; Chiriac, N; Dumitru, L; Vladoiu, S; Popa, O; Ianas, O

    2011-07-01

    Stroke patients have a redox imbalance, a consequence of both the cerebrovascular event and the associated pathological conditions. Our study was aimed to investigate the dynamic of some oxidative and nitrosative markers during the convalescent phase of postacute stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. We assessed thiol, advanced oxidation protein product, protein carbonyl, 3-nitro-l-tyrosine, ceruloplasmin and oxidized LDL concentrations, as well as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) activity in 20 patients at the beginning of the hospitalization and at the discharge moment, respectively, and 24 apparently healthy controls. We found significantly increased values for GGT (P = 0.04), ceruloplasmin (P = 0.01) and protein carbonyl (P = 0.04) in stroke patients at the hospitalization moment when compared with healthy controls, while total thiols were significantly decreased (P = 0.002). Rehabilitation was associated with a significant decrease of protein carbonyl (P = 0.03) and oxidized LDL particle concentrations (P = 0.03), as well as GGT activity (P = 0.02). At the hospitalization moment, both GGT and ceruloplasmin were significantly negatively correlated with non-proteic thiols (r = -0.44, P = 0.049, and r = -0.53, P = 0.015, respectively) and significantly positively with protein carbonyls (r = +0.80, P stroke patients, and the possible benefits of an antioxidant-based therapy for the recovery of these patients.

  2. Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in prostate cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe L. Abdel-Messeih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The present study was carried out to investigate the radiation response of serum cytokines and oxidative markers to find out if these novel biomarkers have significant applications regarding radiation outcome in prostate cancer patients. Significant elevations of prostatic specific antigen (PSA, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA and nitric oxide (NO were recorded in cancer prostate patients at the time of diagnosis compared to controls. Patients were subjected to radiotherapy post prostatectomy with a total dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (5 sessions/week for 7 weeks. At the end of the seventh week post radiotherapy, ADMA levels were accentuated while the levels of PSA and NO were lower than before therapy. The level of inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-gamma in post radiation therapy patients were significantly elevated compared to both controls and prostate cancer patients. A significant inverse correlation was observed in prostate cancer patients between ADMA and NO. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation in post radiation therapy patients was observed between IL-5 and PSA. These results are highly suggestive that there is a specific cytokine response in patients undergoing curative radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  3. Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions in aquatic organisms in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovoy, A; Teh, C; Korzh, V; Escobar, M; Meglinski, I

    2012-01-01

    Bio-compatible polyelectrolyte sub-micron micro-capsules have been developed and applied to deliver fluorescent dyes into zebrafish larvae heart via direct injection in pericardium in vivo. The capsules shell performed as a membrane is impermeable for florescence dyes suspended within the capsules and is permeable for the external environment. Thus, the direct contact of fluorescence dyes with cells/tissues is excluded and the issues associated with the toxicity of fluorescence dyes and their bio-compatibility can be omitted. The hybrid laser-scanning imaging system combined with the fluorescent microscope has been used to monitor the paths of micro-capsules within zebrafish circulation system. We demonstrate that micro-capsules circulate in tissues, including brain and trunk, with no blood flow disruptions or any other deleterious effect on its cardiac function. The developed approach has a great potential to use of encapsulated bio-markers as a diagnostic tool in vascular biology and medicine as well as for monitoring of aquatic pollution and ecological risk assessment in eco-toxicological studies

  4. Increased levels of oxidative stress markers in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Wertel, Iwona; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Wiesława; Kotarski, Jan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane levels in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with endometriosis. One hundred and ten women with laparoscopically and histopathologically confirmed endometriosis and, as reference groups, 119 patients with simple serous (n=78) and dermoid (n=41) ovarian cysts were studied. Peritoneal fluid 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis compared with the reference groups. Higher PF 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were observed in patients with advanced stages of endometriosis. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid. Endometriosis induces greater oxidative stress and frequent DNA mutations in peritoneal fluid than nonendometriotic ovarian cysts. The most severe oxidative stress occurs in the peritoneal cavity of women with more advanced stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of left ventricular assist device speed adjustment on exercise tolerance and markers of wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christopher S; Salamonsen, Robert; Keogh, Anne M; Woodard, John; Ayre, Peter; Prichard, Roslyn; Kotlyar, Eugene; Macdonald, Peter S; Jansz, Paul; Spratt, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    Left ventricular assist devices are crucial in rehabilitation of patients with end-stage heart failure. Whether cardiopulmonary function is enhanced with higher pump output is unknown. 10 patients (aged 39±16 years, mean±SD) underwent monitored adjustment of pump speed to determine minimum safe low speed and maximum safe high speed at rest. Patients were then randomized to these speed settings and underwent three 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) and symptom-limited cardiopulmonary stress tests (CPX) on separate days. Pump speed settings (low, normal and high) resulted in significantly different resting pump flows of 4.43±0.6, 5.03±0.94, and 5.72±1.2 l/min (Pexercise (Pexercise time (p=.27). Maximum workload achieved and peak oxygen consumption were significantly different comparing low to high pump speed settings only (Prelease was significantly reduced at higher pump speed with exercise (Prelease consistent with lower myocardial wall stress. This did not, however, improve exercise tolerance.

  6. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  7. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise.

  8. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. METHO....... The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation....

  9. A cleanroom sleeping environment's impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Scott; Zinn, Gregory M; Boggess, Andrew; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Kern, John C; Kingston, H M Skip

    2015-03-19

    An emerging paradigm suggests children with autism display a unique pattern of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic triggers that make them susceptible to developing dysfunctional heavy metal and chemical detoxification systems. These abnormalities could be caused by alterations in the methylation, sulfation, and metalloprotein pathways. This study sought to evaluate the physiological and behavioral effects of children with autism sleeping in an International Organization for Standardization Class 5 cleanroom. Ten children with autism, ages 3-12, slept in a cleanroom for two weeks to evaluate changes in toxin levels, oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior. Before and after the children slept in the cleanroom, samples of blood and hair and rating scale scores were obtained to assess these changes. Five children significantly lowered their concentration of oxidized glutathione, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The younger cohort, age 5 and under, showed significantly greater mean decreases in two markers of immune dysregulation, CD3% and CD4%, than the older cohort. Changes in serum magnesium, influencing neuronal regulation, correlated negatively while changes in serum iron, affecting oxygenation of tissues, correlated positively with age. Changes in serum benzene and PCB 28 concentrations showed significant negative correlations with age. The younger children demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral rating scales compared to the older children. In a younger pair of identical twins, one twin showed significantly greater improvements in 4 out of 5 markers of oxidative stress, which corresponded with better overall behavioral rating scale scores than the other twin. Younger children who slept in the cleanroom altered elemental levels, decreased immune dysregulation, and improved behavioral rating scales, suggesting that their detoxification metabolism was briefly enhanced. The older children displayed a worsening in behavioral rating scale

  10. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers. Part I. Oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2008-07-03

    We investigated the seasonal variability of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of oxidative damage to DNA, in urine of 50 bus drivers and 50 controls in Prague, Czech Republic, in three seasons with different levels of air pollution: winter 2005, summer 2006 and winter 2006. The exposure to environmental pollutants (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, c-PAHs, particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) was monitored by personal and/or stationary monitors. For the analysis of 8-oxodG levels, the ELISA technique was used. Bus drivers were exposed to significantly higher levels of c-PAHs in winter 2006, while in the other two seasons the exposure of controls was unexpectedly higher than that of bus drivers. We did not see any difference in VOC exposure between both groups in summer 2006 and in winter 2006; VOC were not monitored in winter 2005. 8-OxodG levels were higher in bus drivers than in controls in all seasons. The median levels of 8-oxodG (nmol/mmol creatinine) in bus drivers vs. controls were as follows: winter 2005: 7.79 vs. 6.12 (p=0.01); summer 2006: 6.91 vs. 5.11 (p<0.01); winter 2006: 5.73 vs. 3.94 (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified PM2.5 and PM10 levels, measured by stationary monitors during a 3-day period before urine collection, as the only factors significantly affecting 8-oxodG levels, while the levels of c-PAHs had no significant influence.

  11. Estimation of tissue and crevicular fluid oxidative stress marker in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Sailaja, Sistla; Reddy, Aileni Amarender

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tissue and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis and menopause induces oxidative stress. According to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria, women diagnosed with periodontitis were subdivided into three groups of 31 participants each 1. Premenopausal 2. Perimenopausal and 3. Postmenopausal. GCF and gingival tissue samples were collected from sites with maximum probing depth. Tissue DNA was extracted from the gingival sample and 8-OHdG in the extracted DNA, and GCF samples were measured using ELISA. There was a highly significant difference in the overall GCF 8-OHdG levels among the three groups with the pairwise difference being highly significant between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups. However, no overall significant differences in tissue 8-OHdG levels were found among the three groups. Pairwise, highly significant differences were found between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups for tissue 8-OHdG levels. No significant correlations were found between various measure of periodontal disease and GCF/tissue 8-OHdG levels among all the groups. Premenopausal-postmenopausal and perimenopausal-postmenopausal transition resulted in significant increase in tissue and GCF 8-OHdG levels. However, no association was found between stages of reproductive ageing and tissue levels of 8-OHdG. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cys34-cysteinylated human serum albumin is a sensitive plasma marker in oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nagumo

    Full Text Available The degree of oxidized cysteine (Cys 34 in human serum albumin (HSA, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, is correlated with oxidative stress related pathological conditions. In order to further characterize the oxidation of Cys34-HSA at the molecular level and to develop a suitable analytical method for a rapid and sensitive clinical laboratory analysis, the use of electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOFMS was evaluated. A marked increase in the cysteinylation of Cys34 occurs in chronic liver and kidney diseases and diabetes mellitus. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction of plasma samples obtained from 229 patients, as determined by ESI-TOFMS, and the degree of oxidized Cys34-HSA determined by HPLC. The Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction was significantly increased with the progression of liver cirrhosis, and was reduced by branched chain amino acids (BCAA treatment. The changes in the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction were significantly correlated with the alternations of the plasma levels of advanced oxidized protein products, an oxidative stress marker for proteins. The binding ability of endogenous substances (bilirubin and tryptophan and drugs (warfarin and diazepam to HSA purified from chronic liver disease patients were significantly suppressed but significantly improved by BCAA supplementation. Interestingly, the changes in this physiological function of HSA in chronic liver disease were correlated with the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction. In conclusion, ESI-TOFMS is a suitable high throughput method for the rapid and sensitive quantification of Cys-Cys34-HSA in a large number of samples for evaluating oxidative stress related chronic disease progression or in response to a treatment.

  13. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30 is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1 higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2 severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3 higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4 decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion.

  14. Relationship of antioxidant and oxidative stress markers in different organs following copper toxicity in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Kalita, Jayantee, E-mail: jayanteek@yahoo.com [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Bora, Himangsu K. [National Laboratory Animal Centre, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2016-02-15

    Copper (Cu) at a higher level becomes toxic and it can catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radical. We report the vulnerability of liver, kidney and brain to different dose of copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) induced oxidative stress at different time duration. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (weight range = 205 ± 10 g) were equally divided into three groups. CuSO{sub 4} was administered orally to the experimental groups (Group-II and III) up to 90 days in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight per day. Saline water was given to the control group (Group-I). At the end of 30, 60 and 90 days of administration, neurobehavioral studies were done and six rats from each group were sacrificed. Their liver, kidney and brain tissues were subjected for Cu, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, bilirubin and transaminases were measured. GSH, TAC and MDA levels were correlated with the markers of respective organ dysfunction. Administration of CuSO{sub 4} resulted in increased free Cu and MDA level, and decrease GSH and TAC levels in group-II and III compared with group-I. In experimental groups, the reduction in TAC and GSH levels was maximum in liver tissue followed by brain and kidney; whereas increase in MDA level was highest in liver followed by brain and kidney at 30, 60 and 90 days. TAC and GSH levels in the liver inversely correlated with serum transaminases and bilirubin, and tissue free Cu, and positively correlated with MDA levels. Free Cu level in kidney tissue and BUN inversely correlated with TAC and GSH, and positively with MDA level. Grip-strength, rotarod and Y-maze findings were inversely correlated with brain free Cu and MDA levels and positively with GSH and TAC levels. The oxidative stress was highest in liver followed by brain and kidney after oral CuSO{sub 4} exposure in a rat model. These levels correlated with the respective organ dysfunction and tissue

  15. Estudo da relação entre o stress e os estilos de vida nos estudantes de Medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro,Elizabete Maria Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação mestrado Psicologia, área de especialização de Psicologia da Saúde O presente trabalho pretende (1) caracterizar as principais fontes de stress académico dos estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina do Porto (FMUP) e a intensidade com que são experienciadas, (2) investigar as variações com o sexo, ciclo de formação e deslocação da residência de origem, no stress académico e variáveis psicossociais associadas e, (3) contribuir, pela primeira vez, para o estudo aprofundado do stress e...

  16. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Burgos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6±1.6 years were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH training (n=6 and normobaric normoxic (NN training (n=6 groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid, plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX], arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE, and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and peak power output (PPO were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players.

  17. Peripheral markers of central fatigue in trained and untrained during uncompensable heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather E; Selkirk, Glen A; Rhind, Shawn G; McLellan, Tom M

    2012-03-01

    The development of fatigue is more pronounced in the heat than thermoneutral environments; however, it is unclear whether biomarkers of central fatigue are consistent with the higher core temperature (T (c)) tolerated by endurance trained (TR) versus untrained (UT) during exertional heat stress (EHS). The purpose of this study was to examine the indicators of central fatigue during EHS in TR versus UT. Twelve TR and 11 UT males (mean ± SE [Formula: see text] = 70 ± 2 and 50 ± 1 mL kg LBM(-1) min(-1), respectively) walked on a treadmill to exhaustion (EXH) in 40°C (dry) wearing protective clothing. Venous blood was obtained at PRE and 0.5°C T (c) increments from 38 to 40°C/EXH. Free tryptophan (f-TRP) decreased dramatically at 39.5°C for the TR. Branch chain amino acids decreased with T (c) and were greater for UT than TR at EXH. Tyrosine and phenylalanine remained unchanged. Serum S100β was undetectable (fatigue.

  18. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2 levels in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerik, Sema; Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Celec, Peter; Kamodyova, Natalia; Atilla, Gül; Emingil, Gülnur

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Polydatin administration improves serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers during chronic alcoholism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Pontos marcados na superfície da pele representam os processos espinhosos quando a postura é modificada? Can skin markers represent spinous process when the posture is changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silveira Furlanetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar radiograficamente se a posição dos marcadores de superfície, identificados por palpação em ortostase, é alterada com a modificação da postura para o decúbito lateral. Dez indivíduos foram: palpados e marcados com adesivos de superfície, os processos espinhosos das vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 e S2; submetidos a um exame radiológico da coluna vertebral na posição ortostática e em decúbito lateral direito para verificar se o marcador de superfície colocado sobre o processo espinhoso estava condizente com o processo espinhoso da imagem radiográfica. Uma ANOVA two-way mostrou diferenças significativas para o deslocamento do marcador de superfície entre as posições para as vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 e S2 (pThe objective was to radiographically verify if the position of skin markers, identified by palpation in orthostasis posture, changes when the subject position shifts to lying posture. Ten subjects underwent two X-ray tests, first, in orthostasis and right lying posture. Ten subjects were palpated and marked with skin markers in the orthostasis posture, in the spinous process of the vertebrae C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 and S2 . After palpation, subjects underwent X-ray exams in orthostasis and lying postures to verify if the surface marker matched the spinous process shown on X-ray. A two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences for the displacement of the skin markers, for the C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 and S2 spinous processes (p<0.001. The T12 and L4 spinous processes did not indicate significant differences. The skin markers locations were not consistent with the spinous processes identified in X-rays for both positions. The skin movement may have displaced the skin markers when the subject changed from orthostasis to lying posture.

  1. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekiya O. Abdulmalik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S1 lines derived from the original (C0 and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well-watered (WW conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C0, C1, C2, C3 were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga, improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S1 lines from 114 in C0 to 124 in C3. The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  2. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Rekiya O; Menkir, Abebe; Meseka, Silvestro K; Unachukwu, Nnanna; Ado, Shehu G; Olarewaju, Joseph D; Aba, Daniel A; Hearne, Sarah; Crossa, Jose; Gedil, Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S 1 lines derived from the original (C 0 ) and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S 1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C 0 , C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga , improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S 1 lines from 114 in C 0 to 124 in C 3 . The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  3. Induction, by thymidylate stress, of genetic recombination as evidenced by deletion of a transferred genetic marker in mouse FM3A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayusawa, D.; Koyama, H.; Shimizu, K.; Kaneda, S.; Takeishi, K.; Seno, T.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were made on the genetic consequences of methotrexate-directed thymidylate stress, focusing attention on a human thymidylate synthase gene that was introduced as a heterologous genetic marker into mouse thymidylate synthase-negative mutant cells. Thymidylate stress induced thymidylate synthase-negative segregants with concomitant loss of human thymidylate synthase activity with frequencies 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the uninduced spontaneous level in some but not all transformant lines. Induction of the segregants was suppressed almost completely by cycloheximide and partially by caffeine. Thymidylate stress did not, however, induce mutations, as determined by measuring resistance to ouabain or 6-thioguanine. Thymidylate synthase-negative segregants were also induced by other means such as bromodeoxyuridine treatment and X-ray irradiation. In each of the synthase-negative segregants induced by thymidylate stress, a DNA segment including almost the whole coding region of the transferred human thymidylate synthase gene was deleted in a very specific manner, as shown by Southern blot analysis with a human Alu sequence and a human thymidylate synthase cDNA as probes. In the segregants that emerged spontaneously at low frequency, the entire transferred genetic marker was lost. In the segregants induced by X-ray irradiation, structural alterations of the genetic marker were random. These results show that thymidylate stress is a physiological factor that provokes the instability of this exogenously incorporated DNA in some specific manner and produces nonrandom genetic recombination in mammalian cells

  4. Oxidative stress provokes distinct transcriptional responses in the stress-tolerant atr7 and stress-sensitive loh2 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants as revealed by multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ROS marker and antioxidant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehterov, Nikolay; Balazadeh, Salma; Hille, Jacques; Toneva, Valentina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko

    2012-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana atr7 mutant is tolerant to oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ) or the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (AT), while its original background loh2 and wild-type plants are sensitive. Both, AT and PQ, which stimulate the intracellular formation of H₂O₂ or superoxide anions, respectively, trigger cell death in loh2 but do not lead to visible damage in atr7. To study gene expression during oxidative stress and ROS-induced programmed cell death, two platforms for multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 217 antioxidant and 180 ROS marker genes were employed. The qRT-PCR analyses revealed AT- and PQ-induced expression of many ROS-responsive genes mainly in loh2, confirming that an oxidative burst plays a role in the activation of the cell death in this mutant. Some of the genes were specifically regulated by either AT or PQ, serving as markers for particular types of ROS. Genes significantly induced by both AT and PQ in loh2 included transcription factors (ANAC042/JUB1, ANAC102, DREB19, HSFA2, RRTF1, ZAT10, ZAT12, ethylene-responsive factors), signaling compounds, ferritins, alternative oxidases, and antioxidant enzymes. Many of these genes were upregulated in atr7 compared to loh2 under non-stress conditions at the first time point, indicating that higher basal levels of ROS and higher antioxidant capacity in atr7 are responsible for the enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress and suggesting a possible tolerance against multiple stresses of this mutant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Haggstrom, J.; Moller, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determin...... with clinical stage of MMVD. Conclusions In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD.......Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determine...... whether clinical stage of MMVD is associated with changes in the plasma concentrations of certain markers of oxidative stress in clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Animals Seventy five privately owned dogs: 59 cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different severities of MMVD and 16 dogs...

  6. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program.

  7. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  8. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  9. Correlation of the acute oxidative stress markers with radiation induced late lung disease response of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers which predict for the occurrence of radiation-induced lung responses of pneumonitis and/or fibrosis are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated whether markers of oxidative stress and intracellular antioxidants, measured within days of radiation exposure, correlated with the lung tissue injury response occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J, CBA/J, NZW/LacJ) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10-23 weeks) were studied. Mice were unirradiated (controls) or received whole thorax irradiation (18 Gy) and were euthanized at 6h, 1d, 7d, 8w and upon presentation of respiratory distress. Pulmonary levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione, and of oxidative damage (reactive oxygen species (ROS), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and numbers of γH2AX foci), were assessed

  10. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargans, Alan R.; Sharma, Kumar; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2017-01-01

    that is associated with elevated atherosclerosis risk factors. METHODS: In the space-flown twin, a panel of biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress were measured in venous blood samples and in 24-h (in-flight) and 48-h (pre- and post-flight) urine pools collected twice before flight, six times during the mission (FD15, 75, 180, 240, 300, 335), and early in the post-flight recovery phase (3-5 days after landing). We also measured metabolomic (targeted and untargeted approaches) and genomic markers (DNA methylation, mRNA gene expression, telomere length) in these samples. Arterial structure, assessed from measures of intima-media thickness, also were measured using standard clinical ultrasound at the same time points. Arterial function was assessed using brachial flow-mediated dilation, a well-validated measure used to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilation and a sensitive predictor of atherosclerotic risk, only before and after spaceflight. All of the same measures were obtained in the ground-based twin, but less frequently. DISCUSSION: All data collection has been completed for both the space-flown twin and the ground-based twin. Vascular structure and function measures have been analyzed, blood and urine samples have been batch-processed. Results from these individuals will be compared to each other, to data from other Twin Study investigations, and to the larger complement of subjects participating in the companion study currently ongoing in ISS astronauts.

  11. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Samocha-Bonet

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding induces insulin resistance and increases skeletal muscle oxidative stress in rodents, but there is controversy as to whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function is altered.Forty (37 ± 2 y non-obese (25.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 sedentary men (n = 20 and women (n = 20 were overfed (+1040 ± 100 kcal/day, 46 ± 1% of energy from fat for 28 days. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at baseline and day 28 of overfeeding and skeletal muscle biopsies taken at baseline, day 3 and day 28 of overfeeding in a sub cohort of 26 individuals (13 men and 13 women that consented to having all 3 biopsies performed. Weight increased on average in the whole cohort by 0.6 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 kg at days 3 and 28, respectively (P<0.0001, without a significant difference in the response between men and women (P = 0.4. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased from 54.8 ± 2.8 at baseline to 50.3 ± 2.5 µmol/min/kg FFM at day 28 of overfeeding (P = 0.03 without a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.4. Skeletal muscle protein carbonyls and urinary F2-isoprostanes increased with overfeeding (P<0.05. Protein levels of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α and subunits from complex I, II and V of the electron transport chain were increased at day 3 (all P<0.05 and returned to basal levels at day 28. No changes were detected in muscle citrate synthase activity or ex vivo CO(2 production at either time point.Peripheral insulin resistance was induced by overfeeding, without reducing any of the markers of mitochondrial content that were examined. Oxidative stress was however increased, and may have contributed to the reduction in insulin sensitivity observed.

  12. Advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde - the new biological markers of oxidative stress - are elevated in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Tansel; Goktas, Bulent; Mutlu, Mehmet F; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as markers for oxidative stress to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre- and postmenopausal women and to compare the results with malondialde-hyde (MDA) levels. Twenty premenopausal women and 84 naturally postmenopausal patients were enrolled in the study. AOPP and MDA plasma levels were measured. The postmenopausal group was further subdivided into two groups: postmenopausal age of 40-49 and of 50-59 years. AOPP and MDA levels were compared between premenopausal, 40-49 and 50-59 year old menopausal women. Plasma AOPP and MDA levels in postmenopausal women were increased when compared with their premeno-pausal peers (123.83 ± 55.51 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.05 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). Mean plasma AOPP levels in the two menopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (118.64 ± 59.1 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L; respectively). No significant difference was found in mean AOPP levels between postmenopausal subjects of 40-49 and 50-59 years age (118.64 ± 59.12 μmol/L vs. 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L). Mean plasma MDA levels of each of two postmenopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). However, no statistically significant difference between the two postmenopausal age groups (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L) was found. AOPP and MDA levels are elevated in postmenopausal women as compared to their premenopausal peers, suggesting they can be used as markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  13. Biochemical Study of Oxidative Stress Markers in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeman Saad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of diseases. Aim To induce rat obesity using high fat diet (HFD and to estimate oxidative stress markers in their liver, heart and kidney tissues in order to shed the light on the effect of obesity on these organs. Materials and methods Sixty white albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: received high fat diet for 16 weeks, and group II (control group: received only normal diet (rat chow for 16 weeks. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, tissue samples from liver, heart and kidney were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PCO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, and the activities of glutathione S- transferase (GST glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and paraoxonase1 (PON1 enzymes. Results Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Also our results showed a significant increase MDA and PCO levels in the hepatic, heart and renal tissues of obese rats, as well as a significant decrease in the activity of GST, GPx and PON 1 enzymes. On the other hand CAT enzyme activity showed significant decrease only in renal tissues of obese rats with non significant difference in hepatic and heart tissues. GSH levels showed significant decrease in both renal and hepatic tissues of obese animals and significant increase in their heart tissues. Correlation studies in obese animals showed a negative correlation between MDA and PCO tissue levels and the activities of GPx, GST and PON1 in all tissues and also with CAT enzyme activity in renal tissues. Also a negative correlation was detected between MDA & PCO tissues levels and GSH levels in both hepatic and renal tissues. While positive correlation was found between them and GSH levels in heart tissues. Conclusion High fat

  14. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  15. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss.) extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Ražná; Nishonoy Khasanova; Eva Ivanišová; Davranov Qahramon; Miroslav Habán

    2018-01-01

    Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective im...

  16. Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial Alireza Esteghamati, Delaram Eskandari, Hossein Mirmiranpour, Sina Noshad, Mostafa Mousavizadeh, Mehdi Hedayati, Manouchehr Nakhjavan//Clinical Nutrition xxx (2012 1-7 Tehran, Iran

  17. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection and localization of markers of oxidative stress by in situ methods: application in the study of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paula I; Sayre, Lawrence M; Zhu, Xiongwei; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD), and it is well documented that free radical oxidative damage, particularly of neuronal lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and sugars, is extensive in brains of AD patients. The complex chemistry of peroxynitrite has been the subject of intense study and is now evident that there are two principal pathways for protein modification: the first one involves homolytic hydroxyl radical-like chemistry that results in protein-based carbonyls and the second involves electrophilic nitration of vulnerable side chains, in particular the electron-rich aromatic rings of Tyr and Trp. In the presence of buffering bicarbonate, peroxynitrite forms a CO(2) adduct, which augments its reactivity. Formation of 3-nitrotyrosine by this route has become the classical protein marker specifically for the presence of peroxynitrite. Protein-based carbonyls can be detected by two methods: (i) derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and detection of the protein-bound hydrazones using an enzyme-linked anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibody and (ii) derivatization with biotin-hydrazide and detection of the protein-bound acyl hydrazone with enzyme-linked avidin or streptavidin. Glycation of proteins by reducing sugars (Maillard reaction) results in a profile of time-dependent adduct evolution rendering susceptibility to oxidative elaboration. In addition, oxidative stress can result in oxidized sugar derivatives which can subsequently modify protein through a process known as glycoxidation. Of more general importance, oxidative stress results in lipid peroxidation and the production of a range of electrophilic and mostly bifunctional aldehydes that modify numerous proteins. The more important protein modifications are referred to as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs). Protein modification can result in both non-cross-link and cross-link AGEs

  19. Zinc supplementation alleviates the progression of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the overexpression of oxidative-stress-mediated molecular markers in streptozotocin-induced experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Susmita; Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2018-04-01

    Zinc deficiency during diabetes projects a role for zinc nutrition in the management of diabetic nephropathy. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney oxidative stress and stress-induced expression related to the inflammatory process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were exposed to dietary interventions for 6 weeks with zinc supplementation (5 times and 10 times the normal level). Supplemental-zinc-fed diabetic groups showed a significant reversal of increased kidney weight and creatinine clearance. There was a significant reduction in hyperlipidemic condition along with improved PUFA:SFA ratio in the renal tissue. Expression of the lipid oxidative marker and expression of inflammatory markers, cytokines, fibrosis factors and apoptotic regulatory proteins observed in diabetic kidney were beneficially modulated by zinc supplementation, the ameliorative effect being concomitant with elevated antiapoptosis. There was a significant reduction in advanced glycation, expression of the receptor of the glycated products and oxidative stress markers. Zinc supplementation countered the higher activity and expression of polyol pathway enzymes in the kidney. Overexpression of the glucose transporters, as an adaptation to the increased need for glucose transport in diabetic condition, was minimized by zinc treatment. The pathological abnormalities in the renal architecture of diabetic animals were corrected by zinc intervention. Thus, dietary zinc supplementation has a significant beneficial effect in the control of diabetic nephropathy. This was exerted through a protective influence on oxidative-stress-induced cytokines, inflammatory proliferation and consequent renal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A single blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) portion does not affect markers of antioxidant defence and oxidative stress in healthy volunteers following cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Campolo, Jonica; Parolini, Marina; Lanti, Claudia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported that a portion of blueberries reversed endothelial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking. Since smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with a condition of oxidative stress, we evaluated whether the observed effect was mediated by modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. Fourteen out of 16 male healthy smokers previously enrolled, participated in a three-armed randomized controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300g of blueberries) + smoking (one cigarette); control treatment (300ml of water with sugar) + smoking (one cigarette). The cigarette was smoked 100min after blueberry/control/water consumption. Each treatment was separated by 1 week of washout period. Plasma vitamin (C, B12 and folate) and aminothiol concentrations, endogenous [formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites] and oxidatively induced DNA damage (resistance to H2O2-induced DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured at baseline and 20, 60, 90, 120min and 24h after smoking. On the whole, analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of treatment on the modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence but revealed an effect of time for plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P = 0.003), B12 (P 0.05) and H2O2-induced DNA damage (P > 0.05) in PBMCs. In conclusion, the consumption of a single blueberry portion failed to modulate markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence investigated in our experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this finding and help clarifying the mechanisms of protection of blueberries against smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Protective Role of Dietary Curcumin in the Prevention of the Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Alcohol with respect to Hepatic Injury and Antiatherogenic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Varatharajalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an antioxidant compound found in Asian spices, was evaluated for its protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis, liver injury, antiatherogenic markers, and antioxidant status in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli low menhaden (2.7% of total calories from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and Lieber-deCarli high menhaden (13.8% of total calories from ω-3 PUFA alcohol-liquid (5% diets supplemented with or without curcumin (150 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with curcumin protected against high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and increase in liver injury markers, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Curcumin upregulated paraoxonase 1 (PON1 mRNA and caused significant increase in serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities as compared to high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol group. Moreover, treatment with curcumin protected against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant glutathione and decreasing the lipid peroxidation adduct 4-hydroxynonenal. These results strongly suggest that chronic ethanol in combination with high ω-3 PUFA exacerbated hepatosteatosis and liver injury and adversely decreases antiatherogenic markers due to increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione. Curcumin supplementation significantly prevented these deleterious actions of chronic ethanol and high ω-3 PUFA. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin may have therapeutic potential to protect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and atherosclerosis.

  2. Independent and co-morbid HIV infection and Meth use disorders on oxidative stress markers in the cerebrospinal fluid and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun; Pang, Xiaosha; Munsaka, Sody; Berry, Marla J; Chang, Linda

    2015-03-01

    Both HIV infection and Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorders are associated with greater depressive symptoms and oxidative stress; whether the two conditions would show additive or interactive effects on the severity of depressive symptoms, and whether this is related to the level of oxidative stress in the CNS is unknown. 123 participants were evaluated, which included 41 HIV-seronegative subjects without substance use disorders (Control), 25 with recent (HIV-seropositive subjects without substance use disorders (HIV) and 23 HIV+Meth subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated with glutathione (GSH), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with Controls, HIV subjects had higher levels of HNE (+350%) and GGT (+27%), and lower level of GSH (-34%), while Meth users had higher levels of GPx activity (+23%) and GSH (+30 %). GGT correlated with GPx, and with age, across all subjects (p HIV groups, but not in Meth and HIV+Meth groups. HIV and Meth use had an interactive effects on depressive symptoms, but did not show additive or interactive effects on oxidative stress. The differential relationship between depressive symptoms and oxidative stress response amongst the four groups suggest that depressive symptoms in these groups are mediated through different mechanisms which are not always related to oxidative stress.

  3. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (Pstress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Gains in Yield and Yield Related Traits under Drought Stress and Favorable Environments in a Maize Population Improved Using Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folusho Bankole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2 of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1 were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well watered (WW well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne per locus decreased from C0 (1.93 to C2 (1.87. Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition.

  5. Identification of new SSR markers linked to leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf senescence and cell membrane stability traits in wheat under water stressed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Mohamed N; Saleh, Mohamed; Al-Doss, Abdullah A; Moustafa, Khaled A; Elshafei, Adel A; Al-Qurainy, Fahed H

    2015-03-01

    Segregating F4 families from the cross between drought sensitive (Yecora Rojo) and drought tolerant (Pavon 76) genotypes were made to identify SSR markers linked to leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf senescence and cell membrane stability traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-stressed condition and to map quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the three physiological traits. The parents and 150 F4 families were evaluated phenotypically for drought tolerance using two irrigation treatments (2500 and 7500 m3/ha). Using 400 SSR primers tested for polymorphism in testing parental and F4 families genotypes, the results revealed that QTL for leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf senescence and cell membrane stability traits were associated with 12, 5 and 12 SSR markers, respectively and explained phenotypic variation ranged from 6 to 42%. The SSR markers for physiological traits had genetic distances ranged from 12.5 to 25.5 cM. These SSR markers can be further used in breeding programs for drought tolerance in wheat.

  6. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  7. Differential expression of molecular markers of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Halonen, Joshua D; Salim, Samina; Alzoubi, Karem H; Srivareerat, Marisa; Fleshner, Monika; Alkadhi, Karim A; Diamond, David M

    2012-03-01

    We have studied the effects of spatial learning and predator stress-induced amnesia on the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcineurin in the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala (BLA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Adult male rats were given a single training session in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) composed of 12 trials followed by a 30-min delay period, during which rats were either returned to their home cages or given inescapable exposure to a cat. Immediately following the 30-min delay period, the rats were given a single test trial in the RAWM to assess their memory for the hidden platform location. Under control (no stress) conditions, rats exhibited intact spatial memory and an increase in phosphorylated CaMKII (p-CaMKII), total CaMKII, and BDNF in dorsal CA1. Under stress conditions, rats exhibited impaired spatial memory and a suppression of all measured markers of molecular plasticity in dorsal CA1. The molecular profiles observed in the BLA, mPFC, and ventral CA1 were markedly different from those observed in dorsal CA1. Stress exposure increased p-CaMKII in the BLA, decreased p-CaMKII in the mPFC, and had no effect on any of the markers of molecular plasticity in ventral CA1. These findings provide novel observations regarding rapidly induced changes in the expression of molecular plasticity in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia in brainregions involved in different aspects of memory processing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  9. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Evaluation of rice genotypes under salt stress at the seedling and reproductive stages using phenotypic and molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.H.; Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity screening for 27 rice genotypes was performed at the seedling and reproductive stages respectively, in the hydroponic system and in sustained water bath. Three selected SSR markers were used to determine salinity tolerance in rice genotypes. Phenotyping of the germplasm was done at EC 12dS/m and 6dS/m at seedling and reproductive stages, respectively. Based on modified standard evaluation score for visual salt injury at seedling stage, eight genotypes were salt tolerant, four were moderately tolerant and the rest fifteen were susceptible. At the reproductive stage, six genotypes were tolerant to EC 6dS/m whereas eleven of them were susceptible. SSR based marker identified seven genotypes as tolerant but ten of them were susceptible for all three markers compared to two checks. Six genotypes were tolerant in both phenotypic and SSR screening. The indentified salt tolerant genotypes can be potential germplasm sources for future breeding program. (author)

  11. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-08-07

    Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. A cohort of 36304 non-retired individuals aged 16-64 years at 31.12.2004 with at-least one sickness absence spell due to stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) initiated in 2005 in Sweden was followed-up with regard to disability pension (2006-2010) by linkage of registers. Uni- and multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, were estimated using Cox regression for several risk markers. During the follow-up period, 2735 individuals (7.5%) were granted a disability pension, predominantly due to mental diagnoses (n = 2004, 73.3%). In the multivariate analyses, female sex, age exceeding 35 years, low educational level, being born in a country outside EU25 and Northern Europe, residing outside big cities, living alone, having had a long duration of the first spell due to SRMD (>90 days); mental disorders necessitating frequent specialised health care as well as comorbid somatic disorders were found to be predictive of granting disability pension. Some different patterns emerged for risk factors related to diagnosis-specific disability pension and for younger and older individuals. Several predictors could be identified as risk markers for disability pension. The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation.

  12. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurilind, Eve; Brosché, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.

  13. Carotid intima-media thickness and oxidative stress markers for assessment of atherosclerosis in children with β thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Jindal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT in children with β thalassemia major to assess atherosclerosis and its relation to the underlying proposed causative mechanisms via lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized lowdensity lipoproteins (LDL, total antioxidant level, and lipid profile. A cross sectional study was conducted on 62 children (31 cases and 31 controls. CIMT by high resolution ultrasound and biochemical parameters i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, LDL, Oxidized LDL, lipoprotein (a, lipid peroxidation product MDA and total antioxidant were measured in enrolled subjects and compared. In our study, CIMT was significantly increased in β thalassemia major patients’ as compared to healthy controls. Mean CIMT in cases was 0.69±0.11 mm and in controls 0.51±0.07 mm. Mean oxidized LDL (EU/mL in cases 39.3±34.4 (range 14.4 to 160 was significantly raised (P=0.02, t test as compared to controls 23.9±13.4 (range 12 to 70. In our study we found MDA levels (nmol/mL to be increased in β thalassemia patients as compared to controls. Mean MDA was 10.0±3.27 (4.41 to 17.48 in cases while in controls was 6.87±4.55 (1.5 to 17.9. Our study results show CIMT as an early marker of atherogenesis in β thalassemia major. Oxidative stress markers are also increased in β thalassemia major patients and lipoprotein (a shows a positive correlation with CIMT. The present study points towards various atherogenetic mechanisms in β thalassemia major. 本研究评价β重型地中海贫血患儿颈动脉内膜中层厚度(CIMT),以评估动脉粥样硬化,以及与潜在通过血脂过氧化反应产物丙二醛(MDA)、氧化低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、总抗氧化水平和血脂谱所提出致病机制之间的关系。 在62名儿童(31例病例和31例对照)中进行了一项横断面研究。 在入组受试者中通过高分辨率超声和生化指标(

  14. Neuroprotection via Reduction in Stress: Altered Menstrual Patterns as a Marker for Stress and Implications for Long-Term Neurologic Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prokai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a phenotypically recognizable form of stress, is due to stress-induced suppression of endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. Reversal of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea includes restoration of ovulatory ovarian function and fertility and amelioration of hypercortisolism and hypothyroidism. Taken together, recovery from functional hypothalamic amenorrhea putatively offers neuroprotection and ameliorates stress-induced premature brain aging and possibly syndromic Alzheimer’s disease. Amenorrhea may be viewed as a sentinel indicator of stress. Hypothalamic hypogonadism is less clinically evident in men and the diagnosis is difficult to establish. Whether there are other sex differences in the impact of stress on brain aging remains to be better investigated, but it is likely that both low estradiol from stress-induced anovulation and low testosterone from stress-induced hypogonadism compromise brain health.

  15. Effects of Fat and Sugar, Either Consumed or Infused toward the Brain, on Hypothalamic ER Stress Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belegri, Evita; Rijnsburger, Merel; Eggels, Leslie; Unmehopa, Unga; Scheper, Wiep; Boelen, Anita; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Protein-folding stress at the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) occurs in the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) and is linked to metabolic disease development. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a controlled network of pathways inducing a set of

  16. Serum Peroxiredoxin 4 : A Marker of Oxidative Stress Associated with Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (ZODIAC-28)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Esther G.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W. D.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Struck, Joachim; Schulte, Janin; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an underlying pathophysiologic role in the development of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to investigate peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), a proposed novel biomarker of oxidative stress, and its association with and capability as a biomarker in predicting

  17. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.

  18. Study of the impact of radionuclides discharges from nuclear industry in the northern Cotentin area on the oyster Crassostrea gigas: expression of cellular stress molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, E.

    2006-11-01

    This thesis explores the potential radiological impact of radionuclide discharges from the nuclear industry on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. One of the major goals of this research was to identify markers that could be used to monitor the effects of low-level chronic irradiation. We decided to focalize on the expression of stress-induced genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, focusing on transcription. First, homology cloning was used to identify four new cDNAs encoding stress markers. Then data collected at various sites enabled to evidence that mRNA levels for each of the genes of interest naturally vary to a significant degree, based on individual differences and seasonal factors. Comparing oysters from exposed sites with those from a reference site located on the Atlantic coast did not suggest any relationship between mRNA levels changes and the oysters exposure to liquid radioactive waste from the A.R.E.V.A. reprocessing plant. In the environment, we found that those radionuclide releases resulted in a very small increase in radioactivity in oysters, especially compared with their natural radioactivity. In the laboratory, by exposing the oysters to higher radionuclide concentrations than those found in the environment, we were able to identify two genes as potential candidates for studying the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations in the oyster: genes encoding MT and MXR. We confirmed that transcriptional induction of these two genes occurs in response to high doses of acute irradiation. Finally, the comparison between environmental results and the laboratory results underlined the complementarity of these two approaches. In particular, it revealed that seasonal variations in mRNA levels probably have a significant effect on the stress response. (author)

  19. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus Terrestris Fruit on Some Markers of Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diabetes mellitus in the long run accompanies enhanced oxidative stress burden and decreases activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of these factors in development of some neurological disorders and with regard to antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of its oral administration on brain tissue level of some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into 4 groups, i.e. control, TT-treated control, diabetic, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60mg/Kg. In addition, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 3% for 5 weeks. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitrite as well as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in brain tissue were measured at the end of the study. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in tissue level of MDA (p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.01 and a non-significant reduction of SOD activity. Furthermore, TT treatment significantly reduced level of MDA p<0.01 and nitrite (p<0.05. Also, SOD activity in treated-diabetic group was non-significantly higher as compared to diabetics. Conclusion: Chronic oral treatment with TT could attenuate some markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in brain tissue in diabetic rats which this could possibly prevent some neurological disorders due to enhanced oxidative stress.

  20. Improvement of fetus growth restriction diagnostics in pregnant women by means of biochemical markers that characterize the disorder of stress-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kolokot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the work. Regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus” state determination and detection of pregnant women adaptive capabilities specific features in case of fetus growth restriction based on a number of the blood plasma biochemical indicators. Materials and methods. Markers of oxidative stress were detected spectrophotometrically in the blood plasma according to generally accepted methods: oxidative modification of proteins, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxide, L-arginine, malondialdehyde, thiol compounds and reduced glutathione. Statistical processing of data was made by methods of variational statistics with Microsoft Office Excel 2010, Statistica 6.0. Results. The use applicability of the number of biochemical markers which are predictors of perinatal complications has been scientifically substantiated. Using biochemical diagnostic technique it has been shown that fetus growth restriction syndrome is accompanied by disorders of regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus”. In particular, the level of proteins and lipids oxidative modification increases, nitric oxide synthase activity decreases and reserves of L-arginine and thiol compounds decrease in the blood plasma. Conclusions. Comparative analysis of a number of biochemical markers determination results of stress-realizing system activity in pregnant women with fetus growth restriction and in women with a physiological pregnancy has revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in markers of protein oxidative modification blood levels (the level of dinitrophenylhydrazones of aliphatic aldehyd of basic amino acid residues and dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds of basic amino acid residues in the spontaneous sample increased by 14.2 % and 16.3 %, respectively, and in the stimulated sample by 46.6 % and 43.0 %, the level of malondialdehyde increased by 42.9 %. Reduction of the stress

  1. Time course of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers for five days after a soccer match: effects of sex and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souglis, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Chryssanthopoulos, Costas; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Geladas, Nikos D

    2018-01-03

    This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 male and 30 female) were divided into three groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for five days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and playing positions, as shown by the 3-way interaction, for creatine kinase (CK), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase, fibrinogen (FIB), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p position, for all oxidative, inflammatory and muscle damage indices (psexes, midfielders had higher peaks in all indices compared with defenders (p sex and playing position influence the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer game. This information should be taken into account by practitioners for the design of training programs following match play.

  2. Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Abbasi, Behnoud

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may be caused by elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia. The phytochemicals in several herbal medicines are reported to effectively improve diabetes and to ameliorate diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger as supplementary remedies in T2D. This randomized controlled, clinical trial included 204 T2D patients. The participants were randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 glasses of black tea and either 3 g cardamom, or cinnamon, or ginger, or 1 g saffron and one control group which consumed only 3 tea glasses without any herbal medicine for 8 weeks. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures were evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and saffron consumption had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels (p < 0.05) compared with controls. However, the herbal products did not have significant effects on measures of glycemic control, anthropometry, inflammation, and oxidative stress. In within-group comparisons only, cinnamon intake significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS). The herbal remedies examined had significantly beneficial effects on cholesterol, but not on measures of glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Based on the contradictory results reported in the literature, the effects of herbal medicine in diabetic patients should undergo further detailed investigation.

  3. Salivary α-amylase as a marker of stress reduction in individuals with intellectual disability and autism in response to occupational and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquérusse, J; Azhari, A; Setoh, P; Cainelli, S; Ripoli, C; Venuti, P; Esposito, G

    2018-02-01

    Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Pre-session and post-session levels of sAA were compared in both groups in response to therapy and control sessions. In comparison to control sessions, occupational therapy significantly dampened rises in sAA levels while music therapy significantly decreased baseline sAA levels, highlighting the ability of both types of therapy to reduce stress and by proxy contribute to enhancing overall well-being. Not only do these results confirm the stress-reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non-clinical care for individuals with disabilities. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increased plasma peroxides as a marker of oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background There is evidence that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. The present study was carried out in order to examine whether ME/CFS is accompanied by increased levels of plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, two biomarkers of oxidative stress. Material/Methods Blood was collected from 56 patients with ME/CFS and 37 normal volun...

  5. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers in Wistar rats after 2?months on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, St?phanie; Bietiger, William; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard-Pedracini, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Val?rie; Sigrist, S?verine

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hepatic complications. Oxidative stress in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities. We aimed to develop a rapidly and easily induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats to evaluate its impact on plasma and tissue oxidative stress. Materials and methods Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), and these rats were compared ...

  6. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss. extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Ražná

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective impact indicates that cumin antioxidant properties can efficiently quench free radicals induced by sonication. On the other side, ultrasound-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species did induce the DNA polymorphism of lettuce samples which was detected by miRNAs-based markers. The range of sonication impact was time-dependent. Markers based of miRNA-DNA sequences has proven to be an effective tool. We have confirmed statistically significant differences (p ≤0.01 in miRNAs markers ability to detect the polymorphism due to sonication treatment.  The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin - Ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid with aluminium-chloride mehod and total phenolic acid with Arnova reagent. Results showed that cumin is rich for biologically active substances and can be used more in different kind of industry as a cheap source of these substances. Antioxidant activity with DPPH method was 1.18 mg TEAC.g-1 (TEAC - Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method 45.23 mg TEAC.g-1. Total polyphenol content achieved value 4.22 mg GAE.g-1 (GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of sample, total flavonoid content value 10.91 mg QE.g-1 (QE - quercetin equivalent per g of sample and total phenolic acid content value 5.07 mg CAE.g-1 (CAE - caffeic acid equivalent per g of sample.

  7. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  8. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Romanian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picu, Ariana; Petcu, Laura; Ştefan, Simona; Mitu, Manuela; Lixandru, Daniela; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, Constantin; Pîrcălăbioru, Grațiela Grădișteanu; Ciulu-Costinescu, Felicia; Bubulica, Maria-Viorica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity. The adipose tissue secretes bioactive adipokines leading to low grade inflammation, amplified by oxidative stress, which promotes the formation of advanced glycation end products and eventually leads to dyslipidemia and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to correlate anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM patients and to investigate the role of oxidative stress in T2DM associated with obesity. A group of 115 ND- T2DM patients was compared to a group of 32 healthy subjects in terms of clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. ND-T2DM patients had significantly lower adiponectin, glutathione (GSH) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) and elevated insulin, proinsulin, HOMA-IR index, proinsulin/insulin (P/I) and proinsulin/adiponectin (P/A) ratio, fructosamine, and total oxidant status (TOS). The total body fat mass was positively correlated with total oxidant status (TOS). Positive correlations were found between TOS and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and between TOS and glycaemia. Negative correlations were identified between: GPx and glycaemia, GPx and HbA1c, and also between GSH and fructosamine. The total antioxidant status was negatively correlated with the respiratory burst. The identified correlations suggest the existence of a complex interplay between diabetes, obesity and oxidative stress.

  9. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers in Wistar rats after 2 months on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard-Pedracini, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hepatic complications. Oxidative stress in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities. We aimed to develop a rapidly and easily induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats to evaluate its impact on plasma and tissue oxidative stress. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats using a high-fat diet (HFD), and these rats were compared to rats fed a normal diet (ND) for 2 months. Metabolic control was determined by measuring body weight, blood glucose, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in plasma. Insulinemia was evaluated through the measure of C-peptide. Histological analysis was performed on the pancreas, liver and blood vessels. After 2 months, the HFD induced an increase in body weight, insulin and triglycerides. Liver steatosis was also observed in the HFD group, which was associated with an increase in glycogen storage. In the pancreas, the HFD induced islet hyperplasia. Tissue oxidative stress was also increased in the liver, pancreas and blood vessels, but plasma oxidative stress remained unchanged. This paper reports the development of a fast and easy model of rat metabolic syndrome associated with tissue oxidative stress. This model may be a good tool for the biological validation of drugs or antioxidants to limit or prevent the complications of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Li

    Full Text Available The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  11. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  12. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  13. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of L-ornithine on stress markers and sleep quality in healthy workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Mika; Kirisako, Takayoshi; Kokubo, Takeshi; Miura, Yutaka; Morishita, Koji; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Background L-ornithine is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid. Although L-ornithine is contained in various foods, the amount is usually small. Recently, studies have shown that orally administered L-ornithine reduced the stress response in animals. From these findings, we speculated that L-ornithine may play a role in the relieve of stress and improve sleep and fatigue symptoms in humans. Through a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we asked if L-ornithine could...

  14. Acute effects of video-game playing versus television viewing on stress markers and food intake in overweight and obese young men: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Gan, Jason; Fewtrell, Mary S; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Sedentary or near-sedentary activities are associated with overweight/obesity in epidemiological studies. This has traditionally been attributed to physical activity displacement. A little-explored area is whether behavioural stresses alter sensations of appetite and eating behaviour. We examined whether behaviours conducted seated (television viewing, video gaming) induce different eating patterns, associated with differential levels of stress response. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 72 overweight/obese adult males, assigned to three groups (24 per group): (i) non-violent television (control group); (ii) non-violent game (FIFA); (iii) violent game (Call of Duty). Following a standardized breakfast, the 1-h intervention was followed by 25-min rest, with sweet and savoury snacks and drinks available ad libitum. Stress markers (heart rate, blood pressure, visual analogue scale (VAS)) were measured throughout. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and stress by VAS were significantly higher (p games than watching non-violent television, though the two game groups did not differ. Considered separately, only the violent video game group consumed more energy (Δ = 208.3 kcal, 95%CI 16, 400), sweet foods (Δ = 25.9 g, 95%CI 9.9, 41.9) and saturated fat (Δ = 4.36 g, 95%CI 0.76, 7.96) than controls. Playing video games in overweight/obese adult males is associated with an acute stress response relative to watching non-violent television, associated with greater subsequent food intake. These findings highlight the need to focus on the metabolic effects, as well as the energy costs, of activities involving sitting in relation to obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20 or slow cooling (SC; n = 20 responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α, markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  16. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Myoungryoul

    2010-09-28

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-12-01

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Prolonged non-metabolic heart rate variability reduction as a physiological marker of psychological stress in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Lane, R.D.; Thayer, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prolonged cardiac activity that exceeds metabolic needs can be detrimental for somatic health. Psychological stress could result in such "additional cardiac activity." PURPOSE In this study, we examined whether prolonged additional reductions in heart rate variability (AddHRVr) can be

  19. Effects of an Exercise Intervention on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Its Relationship to Markers of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Chris P; Hayward, Reid

    2018-06-01

    Although the underlying mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are not fully characterized, treatment-associated oxidative stress may play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an exercise intervention on the relationship between CRF and oxidative stress. Upon cessation of radiation or chemotherapy, 8 cancer patients participated in a 10-week exercise intervention (EX), while 7 continued standard care (CON). Blood draws and fatigue questionnaires were administered to cancer patients before and after the intervention as well as to 7 age-matched individuals with no cancer history. Changes in plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyls, antioxidant capacity, and fatigue were compared between groups. Correlations between CRF and oxidative stress were evaluated. Mean total fatigue scores decreased significantly (5.0 ± 2.2 to 2.6 ± 1.5, P fatigue ( r = -.58). Changes in total ( r = .46) and affective ( r = .47) fatigue exhibited significant correlations with changes in 8-OHdG over time, while behavioral ( r = .46) and sensory ( r = .47) fatigue changes were significantly correlated with protein carbonyls. Oxidative stress may be implicated in CRF, while improved antioxidant capacity following an exercise intervention may play a role in mitigating CRF in cancer survivors.

  20. Endothelial function and cardiovascular stress markers after a single dive in aging rats (ApoE knockout rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenji Ardestani, Simin; Pedersen, Michael

    Diving exposes body to a variety of stressors during the dive itself, and gas bubbles that develop during the decompression (ascent) phase. The compressed gas breath augments partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) causing the oxygen concentration of the blood to increase above normal (hyperoxia) likely...... causing excessive oxidative stress, including transient endothelial dysfunction in venous and arterial vessels....

  1. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and membrane properties in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, Sven; Hass, Ulla; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2002-01-01

    for the experiments, Synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene exhibited an increased level of oxidative stress when incubated with toluene in vitro compared to synaptosomes from unexposed offspring. Also the cell membrane was affected, as the calcium leakage was more increased from exposed synaptosomes...

  2. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. MATERIALS: Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health...

  3. Oxidative Stress Markers Are Elevated in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Workers Exposed to Nanoparticles during Iron Oxide Pigment Production.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Kačer, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Barošová, H.; Turci, F.; Komarc, M.; Pelcl, T.; Běláček, J.; Kukutschová, J.; Zakharov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 016004 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * exhaled breath condensate * oxidative stress * urine * occupational exposure * Fe2O3 * Fe3O4 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2016

  4. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers – Part II: Oxidative damage to lipids and proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 642, 1-2 (2008), s. 21-27 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Air pollution * Oxidative stress * Bus drivers Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  5. Seasonal variability of oxidative stress markers in city bus drivers – Part I: Oxidative damage to DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 642, 1-2 (2008), s. 14-20 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aair pollution * Bus drivers * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  6. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control. After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1. Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06. Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  7. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of L-ornithine on stress markers and sleep quality in healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Mika; Kirisako, Takayoshi; Kokubo, Takeshi; Miura, Yutaka; Morishita, Koji; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Akira

    2014-06-03

    L-ornithine is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid. Although L-ornithine is contained in various foods, the amount is usually small.Recently, studies have shown that orally administered L-ornithine reduced the stress response in animals.From these findings, we speculated that L-ornithine may play a role in the relieve of stress and improve sleep and fatigue symptoms in humans. Through a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we asked if L-ornithine could be beneficial to stress and sleep in healthy workers. Fifty-two apparently healthy Japanese adults who had previously felt slight stress as well as fatigue were recruited to be study participants and were randomly divided into either the L-ornithine (400 mg/day) or placebo group. They orally consumed the respective test substance every day for 8 weeks. Serum was collected for the assessment of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S). Perceived mood and quality of sleep were measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and Ogri-Shirakawa-Azumi sleep inventory MA version (OSA-MA). Serum cortisol levels and the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio were significantly decreased in the L-ornithine group in comparison with the placebo group. Also, anger was reduced and perceived sleep quality was improved in the L-ornithine group. L-ornithine supplementation has the potential to relieve stress and improve sleep quality related to fatigue, both objectively and subjectively.

  8. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  9. The impact of a prospective survey-based workplace intervention program on employee health, biologic stress markers, and organizational productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzén, Ingrid; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2005-07-01

    To study whether knowledge about psychosocial work indicators and a structured method to implement changes based on such knowledge comprise an effective management tool for enhancing organizational as well as employee health and well-being. White- collar employees representing 22 different work units were assessed before and after a 1-year intervention program. Subjective ratings on health and work environment, biologic markers, absenteeism, and productivity were measured. Significant improvements in performance feedback, participatory management, employeeship, skills development, efficiency, leadership, employee well-being, and work-related exhaustion were identified. The restorative hormone testosterone increased during the intervention and changes correlated with increased overall organizational well-being. Absenteeism decreased and productivity improved. Fact-based psychosocial workplace interventions are suggested to be an important process for enhancing employee well-being as well as organizational performance.

  10. The impact of drought stress on monoterpene biosynthesis in sage (Salvia officinalis): Dehydrins and monoterpene synthases as molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Radwan, Alzahraa Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Die Produktqualität von Arzneipflanzen hängt von der Qualität und Quantität der jeweiligen Naturstoffe ab. Eine gezielte Beeinflussung setzt ein umfassendes Wissen über die Biosynthese und deren Regulation voraus. Dabei kommt den komplexen Wechselwirkungen zwischen Stress- und Sekundärstoffwechsel eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Diese Untersuchung zielte darauf ab, exemplarisch die Auswirkungen von Trockenstress auf die Biosynthese und Akkumulation von Monoterpenen in Salbei zu erfassen. Dabei w...

  11. Use of MSAP markers to analyse the effects of salt stress on DNA methylation in rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Marconi

    Full Text Available Excessive soil salinity is a major ecological and agronomical problem, the adverse effects of which are becoming a serious issue in regions where saline water is used for irrigation. Plants can employ regulatory strategies, such as DNA methylation, to enable relatively rapid adaptation to new conditions. In this regard, cytosine methylation might play an integral role in the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Rapeseed, which is the most important oilseed crop in Europe, is classified as being tolerant of salinity, although cultivars can vary substantially in their levels of tolerance. In this study, the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP approach was used to assess the extent of cytosine methylation under salinity stress in salinity-tolerant (Exagone and salinity-sensitive (Toccata rapeseed cultivars. Our data show that salinity affected the level of DNA methylation. In particular methylation decreased in Exagone and increased in Toccata. Nineteen DNA fragments showing polymorphisms related to differences in methylation were sequenced. In particular, two of these were highly similar to genes involved in stress responses (Lacerata and trehalose-6-phosphatase synthase S4 and were chosen to further characterization. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of selected MSAP loci showed that cytosine methylation changes under salinity as well as gene expression varied. In particular, our data show that salinity stress influences the expression of the two stress-related genes. Moreover, we quantified the level of trehalose in Exagone shoots and found that it was correlated to TPS4 expression and, therefore, to DNA methylation. In conclusion, we found that salinity could induce genome-wide changes in DNA methylation status, and that these changes, when averaged across different genotypes and developmental stages, accounted for 16.8% of the total site

  12. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine level - the DNA oxidative stress marker - recognized by fluorescence image analysis in sporadic uterine adenocarcinomas in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawski, Krzysztof; Przadka-Rabaniuk, Dorota; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    In the case of carcinogenesis in human endometrium no information exists on tissue concentration of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, the DNA oxidative stress marker This was the main reason to undertake the investigation of this DNA modification in human uterine estrogen-dependent tissue cancers. In order to estimate the level of oxidative damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine was determined directly in cells of tissue microscope slides using OxyDNA Assay Kit, Fluorometric. Cells were investigated under confocal microscope. Images of individual cells were captured by computer-interfaced digital photography and analyzed for fluorescence intensities (continuous inverted 8-bit gray-scale = 0 [black]-255 [white]). Fluorescence scores were calculated for each of 13 normal endometrial samples and 31 uterine adenocarcinoma specimens. Finally the level of the oxidative stress marker was also analyzed according to histological and clinical features of the neoplasms. The obtained data revealed that: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine levels were higher in uterine adenocarcinomas than in normal endometrial samples (48,32 vs. 38,64; p<0,001); in contrast to normal endometrium there was no correlation between age and DNA oxidative modification content in uterine cancer; highest mean fluorescence intensity was recognized in G2 endometrial adenocarcinomas; level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine does not depend on Body Mass Index (BMI) and cancer uterine wall infiltration or tumor FIGO stage. Our study indicates that accumulation of the oxidized DNA base may contribute to the development of endometrial neoplasia, however oxidative DNA damage does not seem to increase with tumor progression.

  13. Effects of exercise on markers of oxidative stress: an Ancillary analysis of the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Pialoux, Vincent; Wang, Qinggang; Shaw, Eileen; Brenner, Darren R; Waltz, Xavier; Conroy, Shannon M; Johnson, Rhys; Woolcott, Christy G; Poulin, Marc J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress may contribute to cancer aetiology through several mechanisms involving damage to DNA, proteins and lipids leading to genetic mutations and genomic instability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes in postmenopausal women. Methods The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (ALPHA) was a two-centre, two-armed randomised trial of 320 inactive, healthy, postmenopausal women aged 50–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to a year-long exercise intervention (225 min/week) or a control group while being asked to maintain a normal diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained and plasma concentrations of two oxidative damage markers (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-Iso-PGF2α)) and two antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were performed using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline biomarker concentrations. A further exercise adherence analysis, based on mean minutes of exercise per week, was also performed. Results In the ITT and per-protocol analyses, the exercise intervention did not have any statistically significant effect on either oxidative damage biomarkers or antioxidant enzyme activity. Conclusions A year-long aerobic exercise intervention did not have a significant impact on oxidative stress in healthy, postmenopausal women. Trial registration number NCT00522262. PMID:27900199

  14. A Clinical Trial about a Food Supplement Containing α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-10-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L -carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial-glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-index (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA). There was a reduction of FPG, PPG, and HbA 1c with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid compared with a baseline, and with the placebo. Concerning lipid profile, we observed a reduction of LDL-C, and Tg with the food supplement, compared with both the baseline, and the placebo. There was a reduction of Hs-CRP with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. An increase of SOD, and GSH-Px, and a decrease of MDA were reached by the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. We can conclude that the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, L -carnosin, zinc, and vitamins of group B improved glycemic control, lipid profile, and anti-oxidative stress markers.

  15. A Clinical Trial about a Food Supplement Containing α-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Derosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, post-prandial-glucose (PPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma insulin (FPI, HOMA-index (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, malondialdehyde (MDA. There was a reduction of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid compared with a baseline, and with the placebo. Concerning lipid profile, we observed a reduction of LDL-C, and Tg with the food supplement, compared with both the baseline, and the placebo. There was a reduction of Hs-CRP with the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. An increase of SOD, and GSH-Px, and a decrease of MDA were reached by the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, both compared with the baseline and the placebo. We can conclude that the food supplement containing α-lipoic acid, L-carnosin, zinc, and vitamins of group B improved glycemic control, lipid profile, and anti-oxidative stress markers.

  16. Increased plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) as a marker for oxidative stress in patients with active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagozlu, Hakan; Gorgul, Ahmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Tuncer, Candan; Unal, Selahattin

    2013-02-01

    After NADPH oxidase mediated radical formation, hypochloric acid (HOCl) is formed when Cl is used as a substrate by the myeloperoxidase enzyme. Myeloperoxidase is secreted from H2O2 activated leukocytes with polymorphic nuclei. The generation of HOCl also causes the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) through damage to normal tissue and protein oxidation. AOPP has been identified as a marker of inflammation in many diseases. However, AOPP has not been investigated in ulcerative colitis. As a result of mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis, oxidative stress can occur. We aimed to determine whether plasma AOPP and oxidative stress markers are detectable in active ulcerative colitis. The patient group consisted of 59 patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in the clinic by histology and endoscopy. The patients were hospitalised and treated in the Gastroenterology Department of Gazi University Medical Facility. The 59 patients were separated into active and inactive groups according to the endoscopic activation index (EAI). Group I consisted of 33 active ulcerative colitis patients, Group II consisted of 26 inactive ulcerative colitis patients and Group III consisted of healthy control subjects. The disease activity of these patients were measured using the Rachmilewitz EAI based on rectosigmoidoscopic or colonoscopic findings. Patients with EAI scores greater than 4 were scored as having active disease (Group I). Patients with EAI0.05). The EAI value was 8.84±0.31 in Group I and 2.76±0.08 in Group II. There were statistically significant differences for EAI between groups (P<0.05). The correlation between AOPP and EAI in all patients with ulcerative colitis were statistically significant (P<0.05, r=0.61). The regression model in this correlation was statistically significant (y=49.68+10.75x, P<0.05). Based on our results, we suggest that AOPP could be used as a non invasive activation marker for ulcerative colitis patients

  17. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshiri M.H.; Fattahi. M.

    2014-01-01

    The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus mosseae ) in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m -1) for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots a...

  18. [3-nitrotyrosine determination as nitrosative stress marker and health attitudes of medical students considering exposure to environmental tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, Magdalena; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Tyrpień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1

  19. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk

  20. Memory decline in Down syndrome and its relationship to iPF2alpha, a urinary marker of oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Zis

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation may be a marker of free-radical-mediated injury associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. We aimed to investigate whether changes in lipid peroxidation is associated with cognitive decline in individuals with Down syndrome over a 4-year period.Thirty-two adults with DS participated in a longitudinal study with urinary isoprostane 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha (iPF2alpha assays at baseline and four years follow-up. Informants rated their functional ability and memory function and the adults with DS attempted assessments of language skills and memory. Twenty-six individuals completed assessments of memory (Modified Memory Object Task, MOMT, adaptive behavior (ABAS, and receptive vocabulary (British Picture vocabulary, BPVS at both time-points.Overall change in iPF2alpha level was negatively correlated with change in the MOMT score (Spearman's Rho =  -0.576, p = 0.006, i.e., increased lipid peroxidation was correlated with worse memory functioning over time. An increase of ≥ 0.02 ng/mg creatinine iPF2α had good sensitivity (85.7%, positive predictive value (75%,, specificity (85.7% and negative predictive value (92.3% for memory decline.Change in iPF2alpha over time may have potential as a biomarker for memory decline in Down syndrome and potentially also help to track progression of MCI to AD in the general population.

  1. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence markers in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri

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    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the influence of vaccination against enteric redmouth disease on oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defence in the muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri in the first and second month after immunisation. Material and Methods: Healthy fish were vaccinated orally with inactivated whole cells of a virulent strain of Y. ruckeri. One and two months after immunisation the muscle samples were collected. Results: No significant difference was noted in lipid peroxidation level in either the first or second month after vaccination, while aldehydic and ketonic derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins (OMB in the vaccinated group were significantly lower in the second month compared to those in the first month after vaccination (P < 0.05. The content of ketonic derivatives of OMB in muscles in the first month after immunisation was higher compared to untreated control. All these culminated in a depletion of glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity and low level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Conclusion: Correlations between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation and TAC confirmed the pivotal role of catalase in antioxidant defence during immunisation. From a broader perspective, it is suggested that immunisation of fish with Yersinia vaccine is associated with induced free radical formation and oxidative stress. Free radicals would therefore be at least partially responsible for the induction of both humoral and cellular elements of the immunity and increased protective immunity against Y. ruckeri infection.

  2. Effects of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, and hormonal response following level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, K; Abedelmalek, S; Chtourou, H; Wong, D P; Boussetta, N; Souissi, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage parameters, and hormonal responses following the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). A total of 11 healthy subjects performed an intermittent test (YYIRT) at two times-of-day (i.e., 07:00 h and 17:00 h), with a recovery period of ≥36 h in-between, in a randomized order. Blood samples were taken at the rest (baseline) and immediately (post-YYIRT) after the YYIRT for measuring oxidative stress, biochemical markers, and hormonal response. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way and two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni test at p creatine kinase (p  0.05) were similar for the morning and evening test. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aerobic performance presents diurnal variation with great result observed in the evening accompanied by an improvement of hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative responses. These data may help to guide athletes and coaches and contribute to public health recommendations on exercise and muscle damage particularly in the competitive periods.

  3. The biochemical effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood of glazers in tile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nakhaee, Alireza; Izadi, Shahrokh; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38.10 µg/L) of glazers showed a significant increase compared with the control group. In the serum of glazers, the level of MDA was significantly higher and the level of TAC was significantly lower than the control group. We have noted a disturbance in the levels of antioxidants by a significant increase in the CAT activity and a significant decrease in the activities of SOD and GPx in the serum of glazers compared with the controls. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the serum MDA level and CAT activity were positively associated with the blood levels of Pb and Cd. Also, GPx and SOD were negatively correlated with blood Cd levels. The study clearly indicated that co-exposure to Cd and Pb can induce oxidative stress in glazers, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation and altered antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products positively correlate with iron overload and oxidative stress markers in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Maryam Sadat; Yaghooti, Hamid; Shirali, Saeed; Aminasnafi, Ali; Olapour, Samaneh

    2018-04-01

    The impaired biosynthesis of the β-globin chain in β-thalassemia leads to the accumulation of unpaired alpha globin chains, failure in hemoglobin formation, and iron overload due to frequent blood transfusion. Iron excess causes oxidative stress and massive tissue injuries. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful agents, and their production accelerates in oxidative conditions. This study was conducted on 45 patients with major β-thalassemia who received frequent blood transfusions and chelation therapy and were compared to 40 healthy subjects. Metabolic parameters including glycemic and iron indices, hepatic and renal functions tests, oxidative stress markers, and AGEs (carboxymethyl-lysine and pentosidine) levels were measured. All parameters were significantly increased in β-thalassemia compared to the control except for glutathione levels. Blood glucose, iron, serum ferritin, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), MDA, soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor, glutathione peroxidase, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and AGE levels were significantly higher in the β-thalassemia patients. Iron and ferritin showed a significant positive correlation with pentosidine (P overload in β-thalassemia major patients and highlight the enhanced formation of AGEs, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of β-thalassemia major.

  5. Mental health consequences of stress and trauma: allostatic load markers for practice and policy with a focus on Indigenous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Maximus; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Mental health, well-being, and social life are intimately related as is evident from the higher incidence of psychiatric illness in individuals exposed to social stress and adversity. Several biological pathways linking social adversity to health outcomes are heavily investigated in the aims of facilitating early identification and prevention of adverse health outcomes. We provide a practice-orientated overview of the allostatic load model and how it relates to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. Allostatic load brings together a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular biomarkers that are elevated in individuals with adverse early life experiences and are predictive of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in psychiatric illness of critical importance for Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Effect of Piper betle on cardiac function, marker enzymes, and oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Arora, Sachin; Malik, Salma; Nepal, Saroj; Kumari, Santosh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2010-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Piper betle (P. betle) against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups viz. control, ISP, P. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and P. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) + ISP treated group. P. betle leaf extract (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or saline was orally administered for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at an interval of 24 h on the 28(th) and 29(th) day and on day 30 the functional and biochemical parameters were measured. ISP administration showed a significant decrease in systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), heart rate (HR), contractility (+LVdP/dt), and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). ISP also caused significant decrease in myocardial antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and myocyte injury marker enzymes; creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) along with enhanced lipid peroxidation; thiobarbituric acid reacting species (TBARS) in heart. Pre-treatment with P. betle favorably modulated hemodynamic (SAP, DAP, and MAP) and ventricular function parameters (-LVdP/dt and LVEDP). P. betle pre-treatment also restored SOD, CAT, GSH, and GPx, reduced the leakage of CK-MB isoenzyme and LDH along with decreased lipid peroxidation in the heart. Taken together, the biochemical and functional parameters indicate that P. betle 150 and 300 mg/kg has a significant cardioprotective effect against ISP-induced myocardial infarction. Results of the present study suggest the cardioprotective potential of P. betle.

  7. Serum peroxiredoxin 4: a marker of oxidative stress associated with mortality in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther G Gerrits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an underlying pathophysiologic role in the development of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to investigate peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4, a proposed novel biomarker of oxidative stress, and its association with and capability as a biomarker in predicting (cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Prx4 was assessed in baseline serum samples of 1161 type 2 diabetes patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the relationship between Prx4 and (cardiovascular mortality. Risk prediction capabilities of Prx4 for (cardiovascular mortality were assessed with Harrell's C statistic, the integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Mean age was 67 and the median diabetes duration was 4.0 years. After a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, 327 patients died; 137 cardiovascular deaths. Prx4 was associated with (cardiovascular mortality. The Cox proportional hazard models added the variables: Prx4 (model 1; age and gender (model 2, and BMI, creatinine, smoking, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol-HDL ratio, history of macrovascular complications, and albuminuria (model 3. Hazard ratios (HR (95% CI for cardiovascular mortality were 1.93 (1.57 - 2.38, 1.75 (1.39 - 2.20, and 1.63 (1.28 - 2.09 for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. HR for all-cause mortality were 1.73 (1.50 - 1.99, 1.50 (1.29 - 1.75, and 1.44 (1.23 - 1.67 for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors slightly improved risk prediction of (cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prx4 is independently associated with (cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes patients. After addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors, there was a slightly improvement in risk prediction of (cardiovascular mortality in this patient group.

  8. Serum peroxiredoxin 4: a marker of oxidative stress associated with mortality in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-28).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Esther G; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W D; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Groenier, Klaas H; Struck, Joachim; Schulte, Janin; Gans, Reinold O B; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J G

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an underlying pathophysiologic role in the development of diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to investigate peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), a proposed novel biomarker of oxidative stress, and its association with and capability as a biomarker in predicting (cardiovascular) mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prx4 was assessed in baseline serum samples of 1161 type 2 diabetes patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the relationship between Prx4 and (cardiovascular) mortality. Risk prediction capabilities of Prx4 for (cardiovascular) mortality were assessed with Harrell's C statistic, the integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement. Mean age was 67 and the median diabetes duration was 4.0 years. After a median follow-up period of 5.8 years, 327 patients died; 137 cardiovascular deaths. Prx4 was associated with (cardiovascular) mortality. The Cox proportional hazard models added the variables: Prx4 (model 1); age and gender (model 2), and BMI, creatinine, smoking, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol-HDL ratio, history of macrovascular complications, and albuminuria (model 3). Hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 1.93 (1.57 - 2.38), 1.75 (1.39 - 2.20), and 1.63 (1.28 - 2.09) for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. HR for all-cause mortality were 1.73 (1.50 - 1.99), 1.50 (1.29 - 1.75), and 1.44 (1.23 - 1.67) for models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors slightly improved risk prediction of (cardiovascular) mortality. Prx4 is independently associated with (cardiovascular) mortality in type 2 diabetes patients. After addition of Prx4 to the traditional risk factors, there was a slightly improvement in risk prediction of (cardiovascular) mortality in this patient group.

  9. The effects of resveratrol on markers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Seyyedebrahimi, ShadiSadat; Khodabandehloo, Hadi; Nasli Esfahani, Ensieh; Meshkani, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In vitro and animal studies have shown that resveratrol exerts an antioxidant effect, but clinical trials addressing this effect in patients with T2D are limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol supplementation affects oxidative stress markers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. A total of 48 patients with T2D randomly were assigned to receive 800 mg/day resveratrol or placebo for 2 months. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde concentration, protein carbonyl and total thiol contents, intracellular superoxide anion (O 2 - ·) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in PBMCs, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses (Nrf2, SOD, Cat, HO-1, RAGE, NOS) in PBMCs, and metabolic and anthropometric parameters were measured at the baseline and at the trial end. Compared with the placebo group, resveratrol reduced plasma protein carbonyl content and PBMCs O 2 - · level and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity and total thiol content. Furthermore, the expression of Nrf2 and SOD was significantly increased after resveratrol consumption. Resveratrol had no significant effects on the metabolic and anthropometric parameters except for a significant reduction in weight, BMI, and blood pressure levels. Resveratrol was well tolerated, and no serious adverse event was occurred. Our study demonstrated that 8 weeks of supplementation with 800 mg/day resveratrol has an antioxidant effect in the blood and PBMCs of patients with T2D. Clinical Trial Registry number and website IRCT registration number: IRCT2015072523336N1 and http://en.search.irct.ir/view/24752 .

  10. Influencia de la fuerza muscular isométrica de las extremidades superiores en el estrés oxidativo en niños. (Influence of handgrip strength in oxidative stress in children.

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    Manuel Guillén-del Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl ejercicio físico puede producir estrés oxidativo en el individuo lo que pueden condicionar el riesgo cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes. Este estudio pretende analizar el estrés oxidativo según la fuerza muscular isométrica de las extremidades superiores en la edad pediátrica. Se estudiaron 70 niños sanos con edades entre 10 y 14 años, y se analizaron en saliva los lipoperóxidos (LPO, el glutatión reducido (GSH, la ratio GSH/LPO y la catalasa, como marcadores de estrés oxidativo. La muestra se dividió en dos grupos según una condición física superior o inferior medida a través de dinamometría manual (TKK 5110; se diferenció la serie en sujetos prepuberales y puberales. Se encontraron niveles significativamente inferiores de GSH y GSH/LPO en el grupo de niños con fuerza superior, y en los puberales con la mismas características; estos resultados podrían indicar la existencia de un mayor estrés oxidativo en esta situación. En conclusión, los mayores niveles de fuerza músculo esquelética, medida a través de dinamometría manual, posiblemente pueden estar asociados a un mayor estrés oxidativo en niños púberes con condición física musculoesquelética superior.AbstractPhysical exercise can produce oxidative stress, this situation could contribute cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents. The following study tries to evaluate the oxidative stress produced according to the handgrip strength in infancy. 70 healthy male subjects, ages 10 to 14 years, were studied. In the saliva samples, lipoperoxides (LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione/lipoperoxides ratio and catalase were analyzed as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Children were divided into two groups according to their handgrip strength (high or low measured by handgrip strength (TKK 5110. The groups were also divided into prepubertal and pubertal subjects. We found GSH’s significantly low levels and of GSH/LPO in pubertal group with high

  11. Post-stress recovery of pituitary-adrenal hormones and glucose, but not the response during exposure to the stressor, is a marker of stress intensity in highly stressful situations.

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    Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio

    2002-02-01

    Acute immobilization in male rats elicited the same ACTH, corticosterone and glucose response as foot shock when measured immediately after stress. However, post-stress recovery of plasma ACTH, corticosterone and glucose levels were delayed in immobilized versus shocked rats. Similarly, stress-induced anorexia was much greater in the former animals. All these data suggest that post-stress speed of recovery of some physiological variables is positively related to stressor intensity and could be used to evaluate it.

  12. Association of stressful life events with accelerated bone loss in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

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    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Taylor, Brent C.; Schousboe, John T.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Introduction Prior studies suggest that stressful life events may increase adverse health outcomes, including falls and possibly fractures. The current study builds on these findings and examines whether stressful life events are associated with increased bone loss. Methods 4388 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study completed total hip bone mineral density (BMD) measures at baseline and visit 2, approximately 4.6 years later, and self-reported stressful life events data mid-way between baseline and visit 2, and at visit 2. We used linear regression to model the association of stressful life events with concurrent annualized total hip BMD loss, and log binomial regression or Poisson regression to model risk of concurrent accelerated BMD loss (>1 SD more than mean annualized change). Results 75.3% of men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event, including 43.3% with ≥2 types of stressful life events. Mean annualized BMD loss was −0.36% (SD 0.88) and 13.9% of men were categorized with accelerated BMD loss (about 5.7% or more total loss). Rate of annualized BMD loss increased with the number of types of stressful life events after adjustment for age (pstressful life events (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.16]) per increase of 1 type of stressful life event). Fracture risk was not significantly different between stressful life event-accelerated bone loss subgroups (p=0.08). Conclusions In these older men, stressful life events were associated with a small, dose-related increase in risk of concurrent accelerated hip bone loss. Low frequency of fractures limited assessment of whether rapid bone loss mediates any association of stressful life events with incident fractures. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the mechanism that may underlie this association. PMID:25169421

  13. Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

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    da Silva, Cícera Simoni; de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Rita; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Tsopmo, Appolinaire; Lukong, Kiven Erique; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2018-02-25

    The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo correlation of olive leaves extract on some oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

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    A. M.R. Afify

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type two (T2DM is one of the most extensive diseases in the world. Herbal therapy remains a possible adjunct therapy to sustain better glycemic control and reduce complications arising from diabetes. In order to evaluate the curative impacts of olive leaf extract (OLE on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats, twenty-four Wistar male adult rats were divided into four equal groups; control, diabetic control (45 mg/kg STZ, normal rats treated with OLE (17.8 mg/kg b.wt., and diabetic rats treated with OLE (45 mg/kg STZ + 17.8 mg/kg b.wt.. The OLE extract was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH• assay. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents were determined. The activity of GPX, SOD, and GSH in RBC lysate, CAT in plasma and MDA in serum were measured. The OLE prevented the decrease in GSH and kept MDA around the normal range in the treated diabetic rats. The current study suggests that OLE might be used safely to ameliorate T2DM and its accompanying oxidative stress.

  15. Effects of Open versus Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Techniques on Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, the activity of selected antioxidant and lysosomal enzymes, and protease inhibitor in patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radical nephrectomy. The studied group included 44 patients: 21 of them underwent open surgery, while 23 underwent laparoscopy. Blood samples were collected three times: before treatment and 12 hours and five days after nephrectomy. In blood of participants, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and the activity of acid phosphatase (AcP, arylsulfatase (ASA, cathepsin D (CTSD, and α1-antitrypsin (AAT were assayed. No statistically significant differences in investigated parameters were found between studied groups. Moreover, TBARS concentration and CAT, SOD, and GPx activity were not altered in the course of both types of surgery. Five days after both open and laparoscopic nephrectomy techniques, AAT activity was higher than its activity 12 hours after the procedure. The obtained results suggest that laparoscopy may be used for nephrectomy as effectively as open surgery without creating greater oxidative stress. Reduced period of convalescence at patients treated with laparoscopy may be due to less severe response of acute-phase proteins.

  16. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

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    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  17. Dietary supplementation with fruit polyphenolics ameliorates age-related deficits in behavior and neuronal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Galli, Rachel L; Meterko, Vanessa; Carey, Amanda; Bielinski, Donna F; McGhie, Tony; Joseph, James A

    2005-03-01

    Dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts can ameliorate age-related declines in measures of learning, memory, motor performance, and neuronal signal transduction in a rat model. To date, blueberries have proved most effective at improving measures of motor performance, spatial learning and memory, and neuronal functioning in old rats. In an effort to further characterize the bioactive properties of fruits rich in color and correspondingly high in anthocyanins and other polyphenolics, 19-month-old male Fischer rats were fed a well-balanced control diet, or the diet supplemented with 2% extract from either blueberry, cranberry, blackcurrant, or Boysenberry fruit for eight weeks before testing began. The blackcurrant and cranberry diets enhanced neuronal signal transduction as measured by striatal dopamine release, while the blueberry and cranberry diets were effective in ameliorating deficits in motor performance and hippocampal HSP70 neuroprotection; these changes in HSP70 were positively correlated with performance on the inclined screen. It appears that the polyphenols in blueberries and cranberries have the ability to improve muscle tone, strength and balance in aging rats, whereas polyphenols in blueberries, cranberries and blackcurrants have the ability to enhance neuronal functioning and restore the brain's ability to generate a neuroprotective response to stress.

  18. Is Vitamin D Deficiency Related to Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products, Markers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Subjects?

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    K. Šebeková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In diabetes accumulated advanced glycation end products (AGEs are involved in the striking cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. We asked whether a hypovitaminosis D associates with an increased formation and toxicity of AGEs in diabetes. Methods. In 276 diabetics (160 M/116 F, age: 65.0±13.4; 43 type 1,T1DM, and 233 type 2 patients, T2DM and 121 nondiabetic controls (60 M/61 F; age: 58.6±15.5 years routine biochemistry, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OHD, skin autofluorescence (SAF, plasma AGE-associated fluorescence (AGE-FL, Nε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML, soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE, soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (sVAP-1, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and renal function (eGFR were determined. Results. In the diabetics SAF and AGE-Fl were higher than those of the controls and correlated with age, duration of diabetes, and degree of renal impairment. In T2DM patients but not in T1DM the age-dependent rise of SAF directly correlated with hs-CRP and sVAP-1. 25-(OHD levels in diabetics and nondiabetics were lowered to a similar degree averaging 22.5 ng/mL. No relationship between 25-(OHD and studied markers except for sVAP-1 was observed in the diabetics. Conclusion. In diabetics hypovitaminosis D does not augment accumulation of AGEs and studied markers of microinflammation and oxidative stress except for sVAP-1.

  19. Co-overexpression of OsSIZ1 and AVP1 in cotton substantially improves cotton growth and development under multiple-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat cause significant losses in crop production. Our laboratories employ genetic engineering to modify gene expression of selected genes to improve plant performance under environmental stress conditions. Previous studies by our group have shown tha...

  20. Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with 24-Epibrassinolide Ameliorates Pesticide Stress in Brassica juncea L. through the Modulation of Stress Markers

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    Parvaiz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was designed to assess the effects of seed soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR on the physiology of Brassica juncea L. seedlings grown under imidacloprid (IMI toxicity. Application of EBR increased the length of seedlings, dry weight, and pigment contents, polyphenols, total phenols and organic acids under IMI toxicity. The expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigment, phenols, polyphenols and organic acid biosynthetic pathways was also studied including CHLASE (chlorophyllase, PSY (phytoene synthase, CHS (chalcone synthase and PAL (phenylalanine ammonialyase, CS (citrate synthase, SUCLG1 (succinyl Co-A ligase,, SDH (succinate dehydrogenase, FH (fumarate hydratase, MS (malate synthase. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that IMI application regressed negatively on seedling length, dry weight and total chlorophyll content. However, EBR seed treatment regressed positively on all of the parameters studied. Moreover, interaction between IMI and EBR showed positive regression for growth parameters, content of pigments, total polyphenol, total phenol and malate, and expression of PSY and PAL. Negative interactions were noticed for the contents of fumarate, succinate and citrate, and expression of CHS and all genes studied related to organic acid metabolism. In conclusion, EBR enhanced the growth and contents of all studied metabolites by regulating the gene expression of B. juncea seedlings under IMI stress.

  1. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF, hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods. DCM patients (n=109, aged 45.97±10.82 years, NYHA class IIV, and LVEF 2.94±7.1% were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (n=28. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD, concentrations of uric acid (UA, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD (P<0.05 and CuZnSOD activity (P<0.01. Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., P<0.01 and P<0.05 and CuZnSOD P<0.05; P<0.05. UA positively correlated with MnSOD (P<0.05, mPAP (P<0.05, and PVRI (P<0.05. The negative correlation between LVEF and UA (P<0.01 was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure.

  2. Aggregate risk score based on markers of inflammation, cell stress, and coagulation is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Patel, Riyaz S; Hammadah, Muhammad; Veledar, Emir; Wassel, Christina; Nanjundappa, Ravi A; Sikora, Sergey; Malayter, Dylan; Wilson, Peter W F; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Epstein, Stephen E

    2013-07-23

    This study sought to determine an aggregate, pathway-specific risk score for enhanced prediction of death and myocardial infarction (MI). Activation of inflammatory, coagulation, and cellular stress pathways contribute to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. We hypothesized that an aggregate risk score comprised of biomarkers involved in these different pathways-high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrin degradation products (FDP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels-would be a powerful predictor of death and MI. Serum levels of CRP, FDP, and HSP70 were measured in 3,415 consecutive patients with suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization. Survival analyses were performed with models adjusted for established risk factors. Median follow-up was 2.3 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause death and MI based on cutpoints were as follows: CRP ≥3.0 mg/l, HR: 1.61; HSP70 >0.625 ng/ml, HR; 2.26; and FDP ≥1.0 μg/ml, HR: 1.62 (p statistic and net reclassification improved (p < 0.0001) with the addition of the biomarker score. An aggregate score based on serum levels of CRP, FDP, and HSP70 is a predictor of future risk of death and MI in patients with suspected or known CAD. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats

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    Kephart, Wesley C.; Mumford, Petey W.; Mao, Xuansong; Romero, Matthew A.; Hyatt, Hayden W.; Zhang, Yufeng; Mobley, Christopher B.; Quindry, John C.; Young, Kaelin C.; Beck, Darren T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the

  4. Oxidative stress markers and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase T1, M1, and P1 in a subset of children with autism spectrum disorder in Lagos, Nigeria.

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    Oshodi, Y; Ojewunmi, O; Oshodi, T A; Ijarogbe, G T; Ogun, O C; Aina, O F; Lesi, Fea

    2017-09-01

    The role of oxidative stress has been identified in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase have been associated with some diseases linked to oxidative stress. Hence, we evaluated the serum levels of oxidative stress markers and investigated genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase associated with autism. Forty-two children clinically diagnosed with ASD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and a clinical interview were included in the study. Twenty-three age-matched controls without any known genetic/developmental disorder were also recruited. Oxidative stress markers along with the genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase were determined. Reduced glutathione in ASD patients was significantly lower than the control (P = 0.008), whereas other oxidative stress markers measured were not significantly different in both the control and case populations. The frequencies of GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes were lower among the controls compared with the cases, however, no association risk was observed. The observed risk of carrying Val/Val genotype among the cases was approximately six times that of the controls. Individuals with ASD showed a significant diminished level of reduced glutathione, however, the distribution of GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms was not found to be associated with autism in this study population.

  5. Stress

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    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  6. Effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Supplementation on Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Oxidative Stress Markers, and Aerobic Capacity in Semi-Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carlos V da Silva; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Massa, Nayara M L; de Sousa, Yasmim R F; da Costa, Whyara K A; Silva, Ayice C; Delatorre, Plínio; Carvalho, Rhayane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional intervention with antioxidants rich foods has been considered a strategy to minimize the effects of overtraining in athletes. This experimental, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of consumption of sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Twenty athletes were randomly assigned to groups that received 40 g (two tablespoons) per day of sesame or a placebo during 28 days of regular training (exposed to routine training that includes loads of heavy training in the final half of the season). Before and after intervention, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Before intervention, a physiologic imbalance was noted in both groups related to CK and LDH levels. Sesame intake caused a reduction of CK (19%, p < 0.05), LDH (37%, p < 0.05), MDA (55%, p < 0.05) and hs-CRP (53%, p < 0.05) and increased SOD (14%, p < 0.05), vitamin A (25%, p < 0.05), and vitamin E (65%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. These phenomena were accompanied by increased aerobic capacity (17%, p < 0.05). The placebo group showed an increase in CK (5%, p < 0.05) and no significant change in LDH, SOD or vitamin A. MDA levels decreased (21%, p < 0.05) and vitamin E increased (14%, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but to a much lesser extent than in the experimental group. These results show that sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving the aerobic capacity in soccer players.

  7. Effect of a single dose of green tea polyphenols on the blood markers of exercise-induced oxidative stress in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasinska, Bozena; Wilczak, Jacek; Charmas, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Robert

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute ingestion of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer players exposed to intense exercise. This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 16 players during a general preparation period, when all athletes participated in a strength-training program focused on the development of strength endurance. After ingestion of a single dose of GTP (640 mg) or placebo, all athletes performed an intense muscle-endurance test consisting of 3 sets of 2 strength exercises (bench press, back squat) performed to exhaustion, with a load at 60% 1-repetition maximum and 1-min rests between sets. Blood samples were collected preexercise, 5 min after the muscle-endurance test, and after 24 hr of recovery. Blood plasma was analyzed for the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA), total catechins, total antioxidant status (TAS), and activity of creatine kinase (CK); at the same time, erythrocytes were assayed for the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In both groups, plasma TBARS, UA, and TAS increased significantly postexercise and remained elevated after a 24-hr recovery period. SOD activity in erythrocytes did not change significantly in response to the muscle-endurance test, whereas in both groups plasma CK activity increased significantly after 24 hr of recovery. Acute intake of GTP cased a slight but significant increase in total plasma catechins. However, GTP was found not to exert a significant effect on measured parameters. Acute ingestion of GTP (640 mg) does not attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage.

  8. Evaluation of cytokines, oxidative stress markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with fibromyalgia - A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzolin, Aline; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Bredemeier, Markus; da Costa Neto, Cláudio Antônio; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Xavier, Ricardo Machado

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies measuring serum levels of biomarkers of inflammation/oxidative stress and neurotrophins levels in fibromyalgia (FM) have rendered inconsistent results. In the present study, our aim was to explore the levels of interleukins, oxidative stress markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with FM in relation to depression and severity of disease. In a prospective controlled cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl and BDNF were measured in 69 FM patients and 61 healthy controls (all women). In the FM group, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied. Mann Whitney's and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analysis. The FM patients demonstrated a significant impact of the disease on quality of life (FIQ 70.2±17.8) and most of them had depression at some level (82.6% and 87.0% as assessed by BDI and HDRS, respectively). Most biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, TBARS and protein carbonyl) and BDNF did not differ significantly between patients and controls, but the IL-10 levels were higher in FM patients (adjusted p=0.041). Among FM patients, there was no correlation of HDRS, FIQ, and BDI scores with any biomarker tested here. We observed no significant differences in biomarkers between FM patients and controls, except for higher levels of IL-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) in patients. The levels of biomarkers were not correlated with parameters of disease and depression severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defo, Michel A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  10. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut De Biologie Intégrative Et Des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  11. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecí lia; Alexandre, Bruno M.; Rosa, Margarida T.G.; Sapeta, Helena; Leitã o, Antó nio E.; Ramalho, José C.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Negrã o, Só nia; Abreu, Isabel A.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here

  12. Association of stressful life events with incident falls and fractures in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: small, retrospective studies suggest that major life events and/or sudden emotional stress may increase fall and fracture risk. The current study examines these associations prospectively. Methods: a total of 5,152 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study self-reported data on stressful life events for 1 year prior to study Visit 2. Incident falls and fractures were ascertained for 1 year after Visit 2. Fractures were centrally confirmed. Results: a total of 2,932 (56.9%) men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event. In men with complete stressful life event, fall and covariate data (n = 3,949), any stressful life event was associated with a 33% increased risk of incident fall [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.49] and 68% increased risk of multiple falls (RR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.40–2.01) in the year following Visit 2 after adjustment for age, education, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, stroke, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment, chair stand time, walk speed, multiple past falls, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use. Risk increased with the number of types of stressful life events. Though any stressful life event was associated with a 58% increased age-adjusted risk for incident fracture, this association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after additional adjustment for total hip bone mineral density, fracture after age 50, Parkinson's disease, stroke and IADL impairment. Conclusions: in this cohort of older men, stressful life events significantly increased risk of incident falls independent of other explanatory variables, but did not independently increase incident fracture risk. PMID:24002237

  13. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  14. Serum concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde as markers of oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juracy Petrola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting from the (9:22(q34,11 translocation. The tyrosine kinase abl fusion protein,the initial leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia, is constitutively activated thus inducing the production of reactive oxygen species. Of particular relevance is the fact that an increase in reactive oxygen species can facilitate genomic instability and may contribute to disease progression. OBJETIVE: To evaluate oxidative stress by determining the levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite in chronic myeloid leukemia patients under treatment with 1st and 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors monitored at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of 64 male and female adults. Patients were stratified according to treatment. The levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical differences between groups were observed using the Student t-test and Fisher's exact test. The results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. The significance level was set for a p-value < 0.05 in all analyses. RESULTS: The results show significantly higher mean concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde in chronic myeloid leukemia patients using second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared to patients on imatinib. Conclusion: It follows that chronic myeloid leukemia patients present higher oxidative activity and that the increases in oxidative damage markers can indicate resistance to 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  15. Chronic Exposure of Early Stages of Development of Japanese Oyster to Contaminants from the Industry in the English Channel. Stress Markers at Integrated and Molecular Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of pollutants from the industry in the English Channel, in particular radionuclides, on the early stages of development of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. Original experimental devices were designed to study in laboratory controlled conditions the growth of a large number of larvae and spats. Emphasis was given to a joint use of stress markers at integrated and molecular levels. First exposures to non-radioactive pollutants revealed a highly sensitive response of the growth of juveniles exposed to a metal (zinc). Thereafter, juveniles were exposed for several weeks to dose rates of ionizing radiation and radionuclide activities several orders of magnitude higher than the levels likely to be encountered in the marine environment. An eco-geno-toxicological approach contributed to the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiations on DNA. The results strongly suggest that biochemical mechanisms act efficiently against radio-induced damages as early as the first days of life of the Japanese oyster. It still remains a lack of information about the long-term effects of DNA damages to higher level of biological organization. (author) [fr

  16. The effect of submaximal exercise preceded by single whole-body cryotherapy on the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in blood of volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Jurecka, Alicja; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (-130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  17. Effects of graded exercise-induced dehydration and rehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative stress across the resting and exercising human leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, Orlando; Kalsi, Kameljit Kaur; Pearson, James; Lotlikar, Makra; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; González-Alonso, José

    2012-05-01

    Exercise in the heat enhances oxidative stress markers in the human circulation, but the contribution of active skeletal muscle and the influence of hydration status remain unknown. To address this question, we measured leg exchange of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and isoprostanes in seven males at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee extensor exercise in the following four conditions: (1) control euhydration (0% reduction in body mass), (2) mild-dehydration (2%), (3) moderate-dehydration (3.5%), (4) rehydration (0%). In all resting and control exercise conditions, a net GSH uptake was observed across the leg. In contrast, a significant leg release of GSH into the circulation (-354 ± 221 μmol/min, P exercise with moderate-dehydration, which was still present following full rehydration (-206 ± 122 μmol/min, P exercise, mild and moderate-dehydration decreased both femoral venous erythrocyte SOD activity (195 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 5 U/L, P release GSH into the circulation under moderate dehydration and subsequent rehydration, possibly to enhance the antioxidant defense.

  18. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  19. Association of polymorphisms in FADS gene with age-related changes in serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged nonobese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Seul Hee Hong,1,* Jung Hyun Kwak,2,* Jean Kyung Paik,3 Jey Sook Chae,2 Jong Ho Lee1,21National Research Laboratory for Clinical Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics, 2Research Institute of Science for Aging, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: To investigate the association of FADS gene polymorphisms with age-related changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in serum phospholipids and oxidative stress markers.Methods: We genotyped 122 nonobese men aged 35–59 years without any known diseases at baseline for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1 rs174537G > T, FADS2 (rs174575, rs2727270, and FADS3 (rs1000778, and followed them for 3 years.Results: Among the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the minor variants of rs174537 and rs2727270 were significantly associated with lower concentrations of long-chain PUFAs. However, rs174537G > T showed stronger association. At baseline, men with the rs174537T allele had lower arachidonic acid (AA and AA/linoleic acid (LA, and higher interleukin (IL-6 levels than rs174537GG counterparts. After 3 years, rs174537GG men had significantly increased AA (P = 0.022, AA/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA (P = 0.007, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL, but decreased eicosatrienoic acid. The rs174537T group showed significantly increased γ-linolenic acid and ox-LDL, and decreased eicosadienoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/α-linolenic acid (ALA, and IL-6. After 3 years, the rs174537T group had lower AA (P < 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.019, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α (P = 0.011 than rs174537GG. Changes in AA (P = 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.017, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-PGF2α (P < 0.001 were significantly different between the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Overall, changes in AA

  20. Are cutaneous hypersensitivity tests to inhalant allergens a severity marker for vernal keratoconjunctivitis? Os testes de hipersensibilidade cutânea contra alérgenos inalantes são marcadores de gravidade da ceratoconjuntivite vernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the cutaneous sensitivity to a variety of allergens in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC and to demonstrate the relation between skin response and clinical aspects of the disease. METHODS: Twenty patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis were randomly chosen from the External Disease and Cornea Sector. They were clinically evaluated, and a score ranging from 0 to 20 was applied based on signs and symptoms on ophthalmic examination. All subjects underwent a skin prick test against standardized allergens, such as house dust mites D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Blomia tropicalis, as well as allergens from cat, dog, fungi and feather. RESULTS: Seventy-five per cent of patients were positive for at least one of the allergens tested. House dust mites were responsible for the majority of the cases (75%. There was a poor correlation between the clinical score and sensitivity to allergens (r= - 0.119 for fungi; r= - 0.174 for dog; r= - 0.243 for house dust mites; r= - 0.090 for feather. A significant correlation was found only for cat allergen extract (r = - 0.510; p=0.024. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated poor correlation between cutaneous hypersensitivity tests and clinical findings in patients with vernal keratoconjuntivitis. We concluded that skin response to inhalant allergens is not a useful test to identify clinical severity and chronicity of inflammatory process in this disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da sensibilização cutânea a diferentes aeroalérgenos em pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite vernal e a correlação entre esta e os aspectos clínicos da doença. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes do setor de doenças externas e córnea foram aleatoriamente convidados para participar deste estudo. Os pacientes foram avaliados e a eles foi atribuído um escore clínico variando de 0 a 20 de acordo com sinais e sintomas presentes no exame oftalmológico. Todos os pacientes foram

  1. Attenuation of dermal wounds via downregulating oxidative stress and inflammatory markers by protocatechuic acid rich n-butanol fraction of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. in wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ekta; Singh, Deepika; Yadav, Pankajkumar; Verma, Amita

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute as a key factor for retarding the process of dermal wound healing. Trianthema portulcastrum Linn. (TP) leaves reported to possess antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which could make TP a promising wound healing agent. The current study was aimed to estimate the antioxidant potential of the fractionated hydroethanolic extract of TP leaves and evaluate wound healing activity by excision and incision wound models along with the assessment of possible underlying mechanism. Ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-butanol fractions of the hydroethanolic extract of TP leaves were examined for in vitro antioxidant ability by DPPH method. Strongest antioxidant activity bearing n-butanol fraction (nBuTP) was further analyzed quantitatively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). Wound healing potential of nBUTP using excision and incision wound model was studied. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, containing six animals in each group; group I served as control treated with simple ointment base, group II was standard group, treated with povidone-iodine ointment USP (5%), group III treated with nBuTP 5% w/w ointment, and group IV treated with nBuTP 10%w/w ointment. All the groups were topically applied their respective ointments, once daily, till the complete healing achieved. Wound healing was assessed by analyzing % wound closure, hydroxyproline content, epithelialization period, tensile strength, enzymatic antioxidative status and inflammatory markers. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract was estimated to be 112.32±1.12 and 84.42±0.47mg/g, respectively. HPLC-DAD of nBuTP confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid (20.74±0.03), protocatechuic acid (34.45±0.02mg/g), caffeic acid (4.31±0.03mg/g) and ferulic acid (1.43±0.01mg/g). 5% and 10%w/w nBuTP ointment significantly accelerated the wound healing process

  2. Effects of pomegranate juice in circulating parameters, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in endurance-based athletes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-Muñoz, E; Roche, E; Funes, L; Martínez-Peinado, P; Sempere, J M; Vicente-Salar, N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of pomegranate juice on the level of oxidative stress in the blood of endurance-based athletes. Pomegranate juice is rich in polyphenols, conferring it a higher antioxidant capacity than other beverages with polyphenolic antioxidants. A randomized double-blind, multicenter trial was performed in athletes from three different sport clubs located in southeastern of Spain. Plasma oxidative stress markers (protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as C-reactive protein and sE-selectin were measured. Thirty-one athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into three groups. The first group was supplemented with 200 mL/d pomegranate juice (PJ; n = 10) over a 21-d period, the second with 200 mL/d pomegranate juice diluted 1:1 with water (PJD; n = 11), and a control group that did not consume pomegranate juice (C; n = 10). Nine athletes were excluded due to protocol violations (n = 4 in the PJ group and n = 5 in the PJD group) because they did not observe the 24 h of rest before the last blood test. The control group increased levels of carbonyls (+0.7 ± 0.3 nmols/mg protein) and MDA (+3.2 ± 1.0 nmols/g protein), whereas the PJ and PJD groups maintained or decreased their levels, respectively. On the other hand, lactate levels increased in the PJ group (from 10.3 at day 0 to 21.2 mg/dL at day 22). A nonsignificant decrease was detected in sE-selectin and C-reactive protein in the groups consuming pomegranate juice. Consumption of pomegranate juice over a 21-d period improved MDA levels and carbonyls, and thus decreased the oxidative damage caused by exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on Serum Glucose, Lipids and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vosough-Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satureja khuzestanica is an endemic plant of Iran that is widely distributed in the Southern part of the country. It has antioxidant properties and thus it seems to be useful in diseases related to oxidative stress such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The present study investigates the effect of S. khuzestanica supplement in metabolic parameters of hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-one hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized in a double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial to receive either S. khuzestanica (tablets contain 250 mg dried leaves or placebo once a day for 60 days. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Samples were analyzed for levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing ability (total antioxidant power, TAP. Treatment of patients by S. khuzestanica for 60 days induced significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.008 and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03 while increased HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 and TAP (P = 0.007 in comparison with the baseline values. S. khuzestanica did not alter blood glucose, triglyceride, creatinin and TBARS levels. In comparison with baseline values, no significant change was observed in blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, TBARS and TAP in placebo-treated group. Usage of S. khuzestanica as a supplement to drug regimen of diabetic type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia is recommended.

  4. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marín-Prida, Javier [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy [International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN), Ave. 25 e/ 158 y 160, Playa, PO Box: 11300, Havana (Cuba); Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R. [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Delgado-Roche, Liván [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L. [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Polentarutti, Nadia [Istituto Clinico Humanitas (IRCCS), Rozzano (Italy); Riva, Federica [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health (DIVET), University of Milano (Italy); Pentón-Arias, Eduardo [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pentón-Rol, Giselle [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba)

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.

  5. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R.; Delgado-Roche, Liván; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L.; Polentarutti, Nadia; Riva, Federica; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo; Pentón-Rol, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H 2 O 2 and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H 2 O 2 and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy

  6. The Association Between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Markers of Inflammation and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected Individuals With Controlled Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan Julnes, Peter; Auh, Sungyoung; Krakora, Rebecca; Withers, Keenan; Nora, Diana; Matthews, Lindsay; Steinbach, Sally; Snow, Joseph; Smith, Bryan; Nath, Avindra; Morse, Caryn; Kapetanovic, Suad

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with chronic immune dysregulation and a proinflammatory state. Among HIV-infected individuals, PTSD is associated with greater morbidity and mortality, but the association with immune dysfunction has not been evaluated. This study explores the association between PTSD and selected markers of inflammation and immune activation in a cohort of HIV-infected, virally-suppressed individuals. HIV-infected adults who were virologically controlled on antiretroviral medications were recruited through a screening protocol for studies of HIV-related neurocognitive disorders. Each participant underwent blood draws, urine toxicology screen, and completed the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire, a semistructured psychiatric interview. Of 114 eligible volunteers, 72 (63%) were male, 77 (68%) African American, and 34 (30%) participants met criteria for PTSD. Participants with PTSD were more likely to be current smokers (79%) than those without (60%) (p = 0.05). The PTSD cohort had significantly higher total white blood cell counts (5318 and 6404 cells/uL, p = 0.03), absolute neutrophil count (2767 and 3577 cells/uL, p = 0.02), CD8% (43 and 48, p = 0.05), and memory CD8% (70 and 78%, p = 0.04); lower naïve CD8% (30 and 22%, p = 0.04) and higher rate of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >3mg/L (29 and 20, p = 0.03). A high prevalence of PTSD was identified in this cohort of HIV-infected adults who were virally suppressed. These results suggest that PTSD may be associated with immune dysregulation even among antiretroviral therapy-adherent HIV-infected individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Radiologic evaluation of os odontoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Hyoung Chun; Oh, Soung Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    We took an analysis on the clinical and radiologic findings of os odontoideum, which had been regarded as relatively uncommon disease, on 5 patients whom we have recently experienced. Our results were as follows: 1. Os odontoideums were incidentally discovered during the radiologic evaluation of traumatised 4 cases, who had been well being. Another one case of os odontoideum was associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. 2. General radiologic findings of os odontoideum were a round or oval and hypoplastic ossicle separated from the base of odontoid process by wise gap. 3. Alanto-Axial instability was developed in 5 cases of os odontoideum by flexion and extension stress view of lateral cervical spine. 4. Flexion views of lateral cervical spine showed narrowing of anteroposterior diameter of spinal canal which were available at atlantoaxial level on 5 cases of os odontoidum. 5. CT myelogram and cervical myelogram showed anteriorly compressed dural sac and deformed spinal cord by body of axis at the atlanto-axial level.

  8. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  9. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  10. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  11. Oxidative stress provokes distinct transcriptional responses in the stress-tolerant atr7 and stress-sensitive loh2 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants as revealed by multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ROS marker and antioxidant genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehterov, Nikolay; Balazadeh, Salma; Hille, Jacques; Toneva, Valentina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana atr7 mutant is tolerant to oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ) or the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (AT), while its original background loh2 and wild-type plants are sensitive. Both, AT and PQ which stimulate the intracellular formation of H2O2 or superoxide anions,

  12. Marcadores de inflamación y disfunción endotelial en niños con diabetes tipo 1 Inflammation markers and endothelial disfunction in children with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Velarde

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Se ha hallado un estado inflamatorio subclínico ha sido informado en la fase temprana de la diabetes, el cual incrementa los niveles séricos de citoquinas que inducen la síntesis de proteínas de fase aguda como la proteína C reactiva (PCR y el fibrinógeno (Fg, y estimula la expresión endotelial de moléculas de adhesión. Se estudiaron 30 pacientes (15 varones y 15 mujeres con diabetes tipo 1 (DT1, de 11.8 ± 2.1 años de edad y 3.9 ± 3.2 años de evolución de la enfermedad, sin complicaciones vasculares. Se realizó recuento de leucocitos, velocidad de sedimentación globular (VSG, glucemia en ayunas, hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c, Fg, PCR ultrasensible (uPCR, determinación E-selectina soluble (sE-S, molécula de adhesión vascular celular 1 (VCAM-1 y microalbuminuria. Se encontraron niveles aumentados de uPCR, sE-S y VCAM-1 en los pacientes diabéticos comparados con el grupo control [0.60 (0.30-1.25 vs. 0.20 (0.20-0.65 mg/l, p = 0.013], [108 (60-150 vs. 68 (56-82 ng/ml, p = 0.0031] y [750 (708-826 vs. 721 (674-751 ng/ml, p = 0.039] respectivamente. Al agrupar a los diabéticos de acuerdo a la duración de la enfermedad (= 3 y > de 3 años, los valores de uPCR fueron mayores en el segundo grupo. La uPCR se correlacionó con sE-S (r = 0.44, p = 0.03 y con VCAM-1 (r = 0.49, p = 0.02. Estos resultados sugieren la presencia de un estado proinflamatorio y de activación endotelial estrechamente asociados en la DT1.A subclinical inflammation state was detected in the early step of diabetes, which increases the serum levels of cytokines that induce acute-phase protein synthesis as C-reactive protein (PCR and fibrinogen (Fg, stimulating the endothelial disfunction of adhesion molecules. Thirty patients (15 boys, 15 girls with type 1 diabetes (DT1, without vascular complications, were studied. Their mean age and duration of diabetes were 11.8 ± 2.1 and 3.9 ± 3.2 years, respectively. The laboratory parameters evaluated were: blood

  13. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  14. A cytochrome P450, OsDSS1, is involved in growth and drought stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Undan, Jerwin R; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yoshida, Kakoto; Undan, Jesusa Q; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya; Yokota, Takao; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2015-05-01

    Cytochrome P450s are among the largest protein coding gene families in plant genomes. However, majority of the genes remain uncharacterized. Here, we report the characterization of dss1, a rice mutant showing dwarfism and reduced grain size. The dss1 phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous point mutation we identified in DSS1, which is member of a P450 gene cluster located on rice chromosome 3 and corresponds to the previously reported CYP96B4/SD37 gene. Phenotypes of several dwarf mutants characterized in rice are associated with defects in the biosynthesis or perception of the phytohormones gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs). However, both GA and BR failed to rescue the dss1 phenotype. Hormone profiling revealed the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, as well as significant reductions in GA19 and GA53 levels, precursors of the bioactive GA1, in the mutant. The dss1 contents of cytokinin and auxins were not significantly different from wild-type plants. Consistent with the accumulation of ABA and metabolites, germination and early growth was delayed in dss1, which also exhibited an enhanced tolerance to drought. Additionally, expressions of members of the DSS1/CYP96B gene cluster were regulated by drought stress and exogenous ABA. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling revealed, among others, that cell wall-related genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were up- and down-regulated in dss1, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that DSS1 mediates growth and stress responses in rice by fine-tuning GA-to-ABA balance, and might as well play a role in lipid metabolism.

  15. EVALUATION OF PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS, ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION AND VASCULAR REGULATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNFAVORABLE OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Klychnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the significant infectious complications mortality, the search for prognostic biochemical markers of sepsis development in critically ill patients is relevant.Material and methods. The study involved 57 patients; in 40 cases sepsis developed. The control group included 17 patients where sepsis did not develop. The study was performed on day 1–2, 5–7 and 10–12 after admission. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant activity of blood serum (TAA. The endogenous intoxication was assessed by the concentration of medium molecular weight peptides (MMWPs, total and effective albumin concentration (TAC, EAC in serum. The disturbance of endogenous vascular regulation was assessed by the level of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx in serum and the concentration of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE.Results. It has been found that MDA may be a prognostic index of poor outcome on day 5–7 after admission (relative risk (RR=1.141, confidence interval (CI 95% (1.033; 1.259, р=0.09; NOx level may be a predictor of a poor outcome on day 1–2 (RR=1.026, CI 95% (0.999; 1.055, р=0.064, as well as on day 10–12 (RR=1.012, CI 95% (1.000; 1.023, р=0.098 together with ACE concentration (RR=1.034, CI 95% (1.007; 1.062, р=0.015; MMWP254 level (RR=11.195, CI 95% (1.571; 79.771, р=0.016 and MMWP280 level (RR=17.370, CI 95% (1.568; 192.455, р=0.02 are significant predictors of a poor outcome on day 1–2 and 5–7 as well (MMWP254 — RR=4626.791, CI 95% (7.903; 27808.629, р=0.009 and MMWP280 — RR=1331.590, CI 95% (5.006; 354179.342, р=0.012.Conclusion. We identified prognostically significant signs of unfavorable outcomes of septic process: decrease in NOx; growth of ACE concentration; increase in MDA and decrease in TAA; increase in MMWPs; decrease in TAC and EAC.

  16. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  17. INFLUENCE OF “VAQUEJADA” COMPETITIONS ON STRESS PARAMETERS IN EQUINES INFLUÊNCIA DAS COMPETIÇÕES DE VAQUEJADA SOBRE OS PARÂMETROS INDICADORES DE ESTRESSE EM EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Soto-Blanco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate some stress parameters of horses submitted to competitions of “vaquejada” and inherent to ambient conditions of these places of competition. The experiment was carried out in the city of Mossoró-RN, using ten crossbred Quarter Horses, six females and four castrated males, aging from six to eleven years, body weight from 358 to 450 kg and height of 135 to 150 cm. Blood samples were collected at two moments: in the bay, in the morning with animals at rest (M1, the second immediately after race “vaquejada” (M2. The heart rate, the respiratory frequency and the retal temperature were evaluated immediately before the blood collections. All the clinical and biochemical parameters presented significant difference (P <0.05 between the evaluated moments, except total proteins and creatin kinase. All hemogram parameters, except mean corpuscular volume and number of eosinophils and monocytes, were also affected. Thus, it is feasible to suggest that equines evaluated during the “vaquejada” presented physical, biochemical and hematological alterations in result of stress associated with physical exercise, lack of a routine adjusted by training, and inhospitable ambient conditions “vaquejada” locales.

    KEY WORDS: Animal welfare, horses, sports.

    O presente estudo procurou avaliar alguns dos parâmetros indicadores de estresse dos equinos submetidos às competições de vaquejada e às condições ambientais inerentes dos locais das competições. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Mossoró, RN, utilizando dez equinos mestiços da raça quarto de milha, sendo seis fêmeas e quatro machos castrados, com idade entre seis a onze anos, peso vivo de 368 a 450 Kg e altura de 135 a 150 cm. Realizaram-se coletas de sangue em dois momentos: a primeira, na baia, pela manhã, com animais em repouso (M1; a segunda imediatamente após a corrida no parque de vaquejada (M2. A frequ

  18. Marcadores séricos de estresse oxidativo e resultados dos procedimentos de reprodução assistida em pacientes inférteis com síndrome dos ovários policísticos e controles Serum markers of oxidative stress and assisted reproduction procedures results in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhenifer Kliemchen Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    of five markers of oxidative stress and assisted reproduction (AR outcomes among infertile patients, with tubal and/or male factor and with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. METHODS: 70 patients were included, 58 with tubal and/or male factor infertility and 12 with PCOS, who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation to perform intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. A blood sample was collected between the third and fifth day of the menstrual cycle in the month prior to ovarian stimulation. We analyzed the levels of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, protein oxidation products, glutathione and vitamin E, by reading the absorbance with a spectrophotometer and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were analyzed statistically by the Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: significant increases in the body mass index, ovarian volume and number of antral follicles were observed in PCOS patients, as well as the use of a lower total dose of follicle stimulating hormone for these patients. There were no differences in the response to ovarian stimulation, in the results of AR or serum levels of malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, advanced oxidation protein products, glutathione and vitamin E between groups. CONCLUSIONS: the present data did not demonstrate a difference in the levels of serum markers of oxidative stress or in AR results when comparing non-obese infertile patients with PCOS and controls. These data suggest that the results of AR may not be compromised in this specific subgroup of patients with PCOS. However, interpretations of the action of oxidative stress on the results of AR are still not clear and the reproductive implications of oxidative stress need to be better evaluated.

  19. Os pacientes invisíveis: transtorno de estresse pós-traumático em pais de pacientes com fibrose cística The invisible patients: posttraumatic stress disorder in parents of individuals with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabizuca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Apesar do crescente reconhecimento da relevância do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT secundário a doenças médicas, ainda não existem estudos em fibrose cística. OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de TEPT e dos três grupos de sintomas de estresse pós-traumático em pais de pacientes com fibrose cística. MÉTODOS: Pais de pacientes com fibrose cística (idade média: 2 a 33 anos foram recrutados da Associação Carioca de Mucoviscidose. Neste estudo transversal, os pais preencheram um questionário sociodemográfico e foram entrevistados por meio do módulo de TEPT do Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTADOS: A amostra era composta de 62 indivíduos (46 mães e 16 pais. A prevalência atual de TEPT foi 6,5% e de TEPT parcial, de 19,4%. Os pais com e sem sintomas de TEPT diferiram significativamente em dois aspectos psicossociais: os primeiros relataram mais problemas emocionais (p = 0,001 e reconheceram mais frequentemente a necessidade de tratamento psiquiátrico ou psicológico (p = 0,002 que os últimos. Entretanto, somente 6,3% dos pais com sintomas de TEPT estavam em tratamento psiquiátrico/psicológico. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo preliminar demonstrou que a frequência dos sintomas de TEPT é bem elevada em pais de pacientes com fibrose cística e, apesar de esses pais reconheceram que tem problemas emocionais e precisam de tratamento psiquiátrico/psicológico, seu sofrimento permanece invisível para o sistema médico, levando ao subdiagnóstico e ao subtratamento.BACKGROUND: Besides the growing acknowledgment of the relevance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD related to medical illness, there is no study in cystic fibrosis yet. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of PTSD and the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS in parents of patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Parents of patients with cystic fibrosis (age range: 2 to 33 years were drawn from the Cystic Fibrosis

  20. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  1. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... analysis was in general agreement with PCoA in discrimi- nating the cultivars. Conclusions. Estimation of morphological diversity may provide addi- tional information on the present finding. Nonetheless, the 29 SSR markers provided considerable genetic reso- lution and this genetic diversity analysis ...

  2. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... India and the country is currently the leading producer, consumer and exporter of ... registration with the competent authority for plant variety protection. Conventionally ... detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in .... allelic patterns as revealed by the current set of SSR markers.

  3. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  4. Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts : An overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; Van de Water, Tara; Lutgers, Helen L.; Graaff, Reindert; Gans, Rijk O.; Zijlstra, Felix; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGES) predict long-term complications in age-related diseases. However, there are no clinically applicable markers for measuring AGES in vivo. Methods: We have recently introduced the AGE-Reader (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands) to

  5. Alleviating exercise-induced muscular stress using neat and processed bee pollen: oxidative markers, mitochondrial enzymes, and myostatin expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Ketkar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The study establishes the antioxidant, mitochondrial upregulatory, and myostatin inhibitory effects of both MIMBP and PMIMBP in exercise-induced oxidative stress conditions, suggesting their usefulness in effective management of exercise-induced muscular stress. Further, processing of MIMBP with an edible lipid-surfactant mixture was found to improve the therapeutic efficiency of pollen.

  6. Marker lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    A marker lamp is described which consists of a block of transparent plastics material encapsulated in which is a radioactive light source. These lights comprise a small sealed glass capsule, the hollow inside surface of which is coated with phosphor and which contains tritium or similar radioactive gas. The use of such lamps for identification marking of routes, for example roads, and for identification of underwater oil pipelines is envisaged. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jenni Suen; Jolene Thomas; Amelia Kranz; Simon Vun; Michelle Miller

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SC...

  8. Whole-Body Cryotherapy Decreases the Levels of Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress, and Atherosclerosis Plaque Markers in Male Patients with Active-Phase Ankylosing Spondylitis in the Absence of Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Material and Methods. We investigated the effect of WBC with subsequent kinesiotherapy on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis plaque in male AS patients (WBC group. To assess the disease activity, the BASDAI and BASFI were also calculated. The results from the WBC group were compared with results from the kinesiotherapy (KT group. Results. The results showed that in the WBC group, the plasma hsCRP level decreased without change to the IL-6 level. The ICAM-1 level showed a decreasing tendency. The CER concentration, as well as the BASDAI and BASFI, decreased in both groups, but the index changes of disease activity were higher in the WBC than KT patients. Additionally, in the WBC group, we observed a decrease in oxidative stress markers, changes in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters. In both groups, the total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, sCD40L, PAPP-A, and PLGF levels decreased, but the parameter changes were higher in the WBC group. Conclusion. WBC appears to be a useful method of atherosclerosis prevention in AS patients.

  9. Impact of Combined Prenatal Ethanol and Prenatal Stress Exposures on Markers of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Miranda C.; Porch, Morgan W.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress can each cause long-lasting deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and disrupt learning and memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these perturbations following a learning event are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress exposure, either alone or in combination, on the cytosolic expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) protein and the synaptosomal expression o...

  10. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  11. Comparison of Os-Os and Re-Os dating results of molybdenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhi; Sun Weidong; Chen Jiangfeng

    2002-01-01

    Two molybdenite samples from the Middle-Low Reaches of the Yangtze River were dated by both Os-Os and Re-Os methods. Os-Os and Re-Os dating give identical age results for the two samples. An experiment of step distillation of Os-Os method suggests that no isotopic fractionation is observed between fractions obtained by the experiment. The results prove that the Os-Os method can avoid the problems in the Re-Os method, simplify the experimental procedure, give creditable age data, and have unique advantage that no quantitative extracting of Os is required

  12. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  13. Effect of the consumption of a fruit and vegetable soup with high in vitro carotenoid bioaccessibility on serum carotenoid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tomás, Rebeca; Larqué, Elvira; González-Silvera, Daniel; Sánchez-Campillo, María; Burgos, María Isabel; Wellner, Anna; Parra, Soledad; Bialek, Lucy; Alminger, Marie; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of the daily intake of a fruit & vegetable soup with high in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids on β-carotene and lycopene serum concentrations. Fourteen healthy young men (24 ± 1 years) received 300 mL/day of a carrot, tomato, and broccoli soup, containing 3.9 mg β-carotene and 4 mg lycopene, for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The serum carotenoid response and oxidative markers were analyzed after 3 and 4 weeks of soup consumption and after a 4-week washout. The in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene and lycopene was 55 and 43%, respectively, in the soup. Serum β-carotene concentrations were significantly higher than baseline (0.33 ± 0.05 μmol/L) after 3 weeks (0.69 ± 0.06 μmol/L) and 4 weeks (0.78 ± 0.10 μmol/L) of soup consumption (P soup supplementation compared with baseline, while superoxide dismutase was significantly lower only after 3 weeks. Glutathione reductase, lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative markers remained unchanged. The soup contributed to increasing the concentration of each carotenoid by more than 100% after 3 and 4 weeks of consumption, the maximum increase being observed after 4 weeks. Oxidative markers did not show any variation except for GPx. Serum lycopene half-life was longer than that of β-carotene, which may be important for studies evaluating both carotenoids.

  14. Stress-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory markers observed after common laboratory stressors are not seen following acute social defeat of the Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, Cara M; Barnum, Christopher J; Eberle, Jaime A; Ferraioli, Frank J; Buck, Hollin M; Deak, Terrence

    2011-08-03

    Exposure to acute stress has been shown to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain, blood and peripheral organs. However, the nature of the inflammatory response evoked by acute stress varies depending on the stressor used and species examined. The goal of the following series of studies was to characterize the consequences of social defeat in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat using three different social defeat paradigms. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male SD rats were exposed to a typical acute resident-intruder paradigm of social defeat (60 min) by placement into the home cage of a larger, aggressive Long Evans rat and brain tissue was collected at multiple time points for analysis of IL-1β protein and gene expression changes in the PVN, BNST and adrenal glands. In subsequent experiments, rats were exposed to once daily social defeat for 7 or 21 days (Experiment 3) or housed continuously with an aggressive partner (separated by a partition) for 7 days (Experiment 4) to assess the impact of chronic social stress on inflammatory measures. Despite the fact that social defeat produced a comparable corticosterone response as other stressors (restraint, forced swim and footshock; Experiment 5), acute social defeat did not affect inflammatory measures. A small but reliable increase in IL-1 gene expression was observed immediately after the 7th exposure to social defeat, while other inflammatory measures were unaffected. In contrast, restraint, forced swim and footshock all significantly increased IL-1 gene expression in the PVN; other inflammatory factors (IL-6, cox-2) were unaffected in this structure. These findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of stress-dependent inflammatory changes in the SD rat, raising intriguing questions regarding the features of the stress challenge that may be predictive of stress-dependent neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diferenças entre os Sexos no Aproveitamento Escolar, na Sintomatologia de Stress e na Qualidade do Sono em um Grupo de Adolescentes The Differences between the Gender in School Performance, in the Symptoms of Stress and Sleep Quality in a Group of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Galgani de Mesquita Duarte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo, pioneiro no Brasil, apresentado à Faculdade de Ciências Médicas (UNICAMP, em caráter dissertativo, transversal descritivo, teve por objetivo relacionar as variáveis: aproveitamento escolar, stress e qualidade do sono em um grupo de adolescentes do ensino médio. Materiais e métodos: amostra de 160 adolescentes, ambos os gêneros, entre 15 a 18 anos, estudantes do ensino médio na cidade de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se dos instrumentos: 1 Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP; 2 Inventário de sintomas de stress para adultos de Lipp (ISSL; 3 Boletins dos alunos, por meio dos quais foram recolhidas as faltas e as notas. Resultados: Dentre os participantes, 65,63% são do gênero feminino. Em se tratando do aproveitamento escolar, observaram-se as médias 0,64 para o grupo feminino (F e 0,60 para o masculino (M (p=0,04. Para o número de faltas, têm-se as médias de 28,1 (F e de 30,3 (M (p=0,7440. Em relação à sintomatologia de stress, 65,71% (F e 29,09% (M foram classificados estressados e 34,29% (F e 70,91% (M não apresentaram sintomas de estresse (p< 0,001. Referente à qualidade do sono, observou-se que as mulheres apresentaram pior qualidade, sendo a média 6,0 (F e de 5,3 (M (p=0,27; na classificação do sono, 68,57% (F e 61,82% (M não dormem bem. Conclusão: O grupo feminino apresentou melhor aproveitamento nas atividades escolares, com notas mais elevadas e maior assiduidade, maior sintomatologia de stress e pior qualidade do sono. Objective: This dissertational, transversal and descriptive study, presented at the School of Medical Sciences of UNICAMP, aims at establishing a connection between the variables “school learning”, “stress” and “sleep quality” in high school adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 160 high-school students of both genders, aged 15-18 years, in Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For data collection, the following

  16. Comparison of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness between incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients – an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanjee Sharad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients on peritoneal and hemodialysis have accelerated atherosclerosis associated with an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The atherosclerosis is associated with increased arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of peritoneal and hemodialysis on arterial stiffness, vascular function, myocardial structure and function, oxidative stress and inflammation in incident patients with end stage kidney disease. Methods This is an observational study. Eighty stage five CKD patients will be enrolled and followed for one-year. Primary outcome measures will be changes in 1 arterial stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity, 2 oxidative stress assessed by plasma F2 isoprostanes and 3 inflammation measured by plasma pentraxin-3. Secondary outcomes will include additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, changes in vascular function assessed using the brachial artery reactivity technique, carotid artery intimal medial thickness, augmentation index and trans thoracic echocardiography to assess left ventricular geometry, and systolic and diastolic function. Patients will undergo these measures at baseline (6–8 weeks prior to starting dialysis therapy, then at six and 12 months after starting dialysis. Discussion The results of this study may guide the choice of dialysis modality in the first year of treatment. It may also lead to a larger study prospectively assessing the effect of dialysis modality on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000049279

  17. The developing relationship between recently placed foster infants and toddlers and their foster carers: Do demographic factors, placement characteristics and biological stress markers matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, H.W.H.; Post, W.J.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Kamphuis, J.S.; v.d. Gaag, R.J.; Knorth, E.J.; Grietens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infants and toddlers often react to a foster family placement with avoidant behavior. Foster carers may interpret this as if the child is adapting quite well to the new family. This misunderstanding may lead to stress in the child and create a risk for an enduring relationship.

  18. Advanced OS deployment system

    OpenAIRE

    Galiano Molina, Sebastián

    2007-01-01

    The main project’s objective is to design and build an OS deployment system taking advantage of the Linux OS and the Open Source community developments. This means to use existing technologies that modularize the system. With this philosophy in mind, the number of developed code lines within the project is keeping as small as possible. As REMBO, the OS deployment system to develop has to be transparent to the user. This means a system with a friendly user interface and no te...

  19. Firefox OS Overview

    OpenAIRE

    JANCZUKOWICZ , Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Firefox OS is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. It is developed by Mozilla but it aims to be free from any proprietary technology. It lets users run applications developed entirely using web technologies, like HTML5, JavaScript, CSS. It is not directly competing with iOS. It has some common target markets with Android. For now Firefox OS targets specific type of clients - people that don't have smartphones yet. Available devices are low-end and as a resul...

  20. Identifying Objective Physiological Markers and Modifiable Behaviors for Self-Reported Stress and Mental Health Status Using Wearable Sensors and Mobile Phones: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akane; Taylor, Sara; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Barger, Laura K; Klerman, Elizabeth; Picard, Rosalind

    2018-06-08

    Wearable and mobile devices that capture multimodal data have the potential to identify risk factors for high stress and poor mental health and to provide information to improve health and well-being. We developed new tools that provide objective physiological and behavioral measures using wearable sensors and mobile phones, together with methods that improve their data integrity. The aim of this study was to examine, using machine learning, how accurately these measures could identify conditions of self-reported high stress and poor mental health and which of the underlying modalities and measures were most accurate in identifying those conditions. We designed and conducted the 1-month SNAPSHOT study that investigated how daily behaviors and social networks influence self-reported stress, mood, and other health or well-being-related factors. We collected over 145,000 hours of data from 201 college students (age: 18-25 years, male:female=1.8:1) at one university, all recruited within self-identified social groups. Each student filled out standardized pre- and postquestionnaires on stress and mental health; during the month, each student completed twice-daily electronic diaries (e-diaries), wore two wrist-based sensors that recorded continuous physical activity and autonomic physiology, and installed an app on their mobile phone that recorded phone usage and geolocation patterns. We developed tools to make data collection more efficient, including data-check systems for sensor and mobile phone data and an e-diary administrative module for study investigators to locate possible errors in the e-diaries and communicate with participants to correct their entries promptly, which reduced the time taken to clean e-diary data by 69%. We constructed features and applied machine learning to the multimodal data to identify factors associated with self-reported poststudy stress and mental health, including behaviors that can be possibly modified by the individual to improve

  1. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  2. Mouse social stress induces increased fear conditioning, helplessness and fatigue to physical challenge together with markers of altered immune and dopamine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzinnari, Damiano; Sigrist, Hannes; Staehli, Simon; Palme, Rupert; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Leparc, German; Hengerer, Bastian; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    In neuropsychiatry, animal studies demonstrating causal effects of environmental manipulations relevant to human aetiology on behaviours relevant to human psychopathologies are valuable. Such valid models can improve understanding of aetio-pathophysiology and preclinical discovery and development of new treatments. In depression, specific uncontrollable stressful life events are major aetiological factors, and subsequent generalized increases in fearfulness, helplessness and fatigue are core symptoms or features. Here we exposed adult male C57BL/6 mice to 15-day psychosocial stress with loss of social control but minimal physical wounding. One cohort was assessed in a 3-day test paradigm of motor activity, fear conditioning and 2-way avoid-escape behaviour on days 16-18, and a second cohort was assessed in a treadmill fatigue paradigm on days 19 and 29, followed by the 3-day paradigm on days 30-32. All tests used a physical aversive stimulus, namely mild, brief electroshocks. Socially stressed mice displayed decreased motor activity, increased fear acquisition, decreased 2-way avoid-escape responding (increased helplessness) and increased fatigue. They also displayed increased plasma TNF and spleen hypertrophy, and adrenal hypertrophy without hyper-corticoidism. In a third cohort, psychosocial stress effects on brain gene expression were assessed using next generation sequencing. Gene expression was altered in pathways of inflammation and G-protein coupled receptors in prefrontal cortex and amygdala; in the latter, expression of genes important in dopamine function were de-regulated including down-regulated Drd2, Adora2a and Darpp-32. This model can be applied to identify targets for treating psychopathologies such as helplessness or fatigue, and to screen compounds/biologics developed to act at these targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational food restriction decreases placental interleukin-10 expression and markers of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in murine intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Ganguly, Amit; Wadehra, Madhuri; Pellegrini, Matteo; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2016-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects up to 10% of pregnancies and often results in short- and long-term sequelae for offspring. The mechanisms underlying IUGR are poorly understood, but it is known that healthy placentation is essential for nutrient provision to fuel fetal growth, and is regulated by immunologic inputs. We hypothesized that in pregnancy, maternal food restriction (FR) resulting in IUGR would decrease the overall immunotolerant milieu in the placenta, leading to increased cellular stress and death. Our specific objectives were to evaluate (1) key cytokines (eg, IL-10) that regulate maternal-fetal tolerance, (2) cellular processes (autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress) that are immunologically mediated and important for cellular survival and functioning, and (3) the resulting IUGR phenotype and placental histopathology in this animal model. After subjecting pregnant mice to mild and moderate FR from gestational day 10 to 19, we collected placentas and embryos at gestational day 19. We examined RNA sequencing data to identify immunologic pathways affected in IUGR-associated placentas and validated messenger RNA expression changes of genes important in cellular integrity. We also evaluated histopathologic changes in vascular and trophoblastic structures as well as protein expression changes in autophagy, ER stress, and apoptosis in the mouse placentas. Several differentially expressed genes were identified in FR compared with control mice, including a considerable subset that regulates immune tolerance, inflammation, and cellular integrity. In summary, maternal FR decreases the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-10 and suppresses placental autophagic and ER stress responses, despite evidence of dysregulated vascular and trophoblast structures leading to IUGR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  5. Is the Level of Nitric Oxide in the Dental Follicular Tissues of Impacted Third Molars With a History of Recurrent Pericoronitis a True Marker of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka; Şenses, Fatma; Kisa, Üçler; Aksoy, Nurkan; Tekin, Umut

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an indicator of oxidative stress in several tissues. Its role in dental follicular (DF) tissues of impacted third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis is not well elucidated. The present study compared NO levels between inflamed and noninflamed DF tissues of impacted third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study sample included inflamed DF tissues (test group) with certain local inflammatory symptoms, such as pain, tenderness, swelling, and erythema and noninflamed DF tissues (control group) without local inflammatory symptoms of impacted mandibular third molars. Each patient contributed only 1 specimen to the samples. All tissues samples were biochemically investigated for NO levels as an indicator of oxidative stress. The primary predictor variable was inflammatory status; secondary predictor variables were age and gender. The primary outcome variable was NO level. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. The test group consisted of 57 patients (28 men, 29 women; mean age, 23.28 ± 5.16 yr) and the control group consisted of 57 patients (30 men, 27 women; mean age, 23.02 ± 5.42 yr). No relevant intergroup differences were noted for demographic findings such as age and gender. NO levels were significantly higher in inflamed DF tissues of impacted third molars than in noninflamed DF tissues (P stress and the necessity to remove impacted mandibular third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative stress markers in fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to urban and agricultural effluents in the Brazilian Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, M E M; Wallau, G L; Martins, I K; Zemolin, A P P; Cruz, L C; Rodrigues, N R; Lopes, A R; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are under constant risk due to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities, compromising water quality and preservation of aquatic biota. The assessment of toxicological impacts caused by pollutants to aquatic environment using biomarker measurements in fish can provide reliable data to estimate sublethal effects posed by chemicals in contaminated areas. In this study, fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to agricultural and urban effluents at the Vacacaí River, Brazil, were tested for potential signs of aquatic contamination. This river comprehends one of the main watercourses of the Brazilian Pampa, a biome with a large biodiversity that has been neglected in terms of environmental and social-economic development. Sites S1 and S2 were chosen by their proximity to crops and wastewater discharge points, while reference site was located upstream of S1 and S2, in an apparently non-degraded area. Fish muscle and brain tissues were processed for determination of acetylcholinesterase as well as oxidative stress-related biomarkers. The results showed signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant changes in cholinesterase activity, expression of metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant/cell stress response signaling pathways in fish exposed to contaminated sites when compared to reference. Based on these results, it is evidenced that urban and agricultural activities are posing risk to the environmental quality of water resources at the studied area. It is also demonstrated that cell stress biomarkers may serve as important tools for biomonitoring and development of risk assessment protocols in the Pampa biome.

  7. Biomonitoring role of some cellular markers during heat stress-induced changes in highly representative fresh water mollusc, Bellamya bengalensis: Implication in climate change and biological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Raha, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar

    2018-08-15

    Owing to increasing concern of global climate-change, temperature rise is of great interest which can be primarily evaluated from the seasonal variations in some organisms. Aquatic environment can be extremely stressful to its inhabitants because most of them are poikilothermous. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the biological effects of oxidative-stress and adaptive/antioxidant capacities during temperature variations (36-40 °C for 24hrs to 72hrs) in Bellamya bengalensis both in environmental and laboratory conditions by testing some biomarkers like HSP70, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). The biomarker potency of the molecules and the anti-oxidative metabolic-network was postulated and extrapolated to find its resemblance to the climate-change associated organismal variations. In a natural and eco-restored environment in the Eastern part of India, 10-20 fold increases in CAT, SOD and HSP70 protein expressions (Western blot results) were noticed in Bellamya paralleling to their increased enzymatic activities (gel zymogram studies) due to the seasonal (summer versus winter) temperature variation. It is evident from the consecutive three years' study that this variation resulted in the unfavorable physico-chemical changes of water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and consequently decreased the animal density in summer. And that was revived due to their higher reproduction-rate in post rainy/winter season when temperature normalizes resulting in a restoration of favorable environment. In laboratory condition, the reduced GR and increased GPx indicated the oxidative damage as evident by higher tissue MDA level following to higher mortality. Changes in SOD and CAT activities suggest activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. However, when mortality increased at different time points (36

  8. [Airway oxidative stress and inflammation markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) patients are linked with exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a panel study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhao, Q; Liu, B B; Wang, J; Xu, H B; Zhang, Y; Song, X M; He, B; Huang, W

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on airway oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients. A panel of forty-five diagnosed COPD patients were recruited and followed with repeated measurements of biomarkers reflecting airway oxidative stress and inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), including nitrate and nitrite, 8-isoprostane, interleukin-8 and acidity of EBC (pH), between 5(th) September in 2014 and 26(th) May in 2015. The associations between air pollution and biomarkers were analyzed with mixed-effects models, controlling for confounding covariates. The concentration of PM2.5, black carbon, NO2 and number concentration of particles with diameter less than 100 nm (PNC100), and particles in size ranges between 100 nm to 200 nm (PNC100-200) during the first follow-up were (156.5±117.7), (10.7±0.7), (165.9±66.0)μg/m(3) and 397 521±96 712, 79 421±44 090 per cubic meter, respectively; the concentration were (67.9±29.6), (3.4±1.3), (126.1±10.9) μg/m(3) and (295 682±39 430), (24 693±12 369) per cubic meter, respectively during the second follow-up. The differences were of significance, with t value being 3.10, 4.42, 2.61, 4.02, 5.12, respectively and P value being 0.005,stress. For an IQR increase in PM2.5, black carbon and PNC100-200, respective increases of 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.02-0.33), 0.12 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.01-0.24) and 0.13 ng/ml (95% CI:0.02-0.24) in interleukin-8 in EBC reflecting airway inflammation were also observed. An IQR increase in ozone was also associated with a 0.24 (95%CI: 0.05-0.42) decrease in pH of EBC reflecting increased airway inflammation. No significant association observed between air pollution and 8-isoprostane in EBC in COPD patients. Our results suggested that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was responsible for exacerbation of airway oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD patients.

  9. Advanced oxidation protein products — biological marker of oxidative stress = Zaawansowane produkty utleniania białek – biologiczne markery stresu oksydacyjnego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cwynar

    2016-09-01

      ABSTRACT Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs are mostly derivatives of oxidatively modified albumin. The results of many experimental studies confirm intensification of oxidative modifications of proteins and an increase in concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs in different pathological conditions, particularly those with well documented involvement of oxidative stress in their etiopathogenesis, but also those where its role is not yet well understood. Currently intensive research is carried out on the possibility of using AOPPs as useful indicators for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of diseases.   Keywords: advanced oxidation protein products, autoimmune disease, oxidative stress   STRESZCZENIE Zaawansowane produkty utleniania białek (AOPPs, to najczęściej pochodne zmodyfikowanej oksydacyjnie albuminy. Wyniki licznych badań doświadczalnych potwierdzają nasilenie oksydacyjnych modyfikacji białek i wzrost stężenia zaawansowanych produktów utleniania białek (AOPPs w różnych stanach patologicznych, szczególnie tych o dobrze udokumentowanym udziale stresu oksydacyjnego w ich etiopatogenezie, ale także takich, w których jego rola nie jest jeszcze dobrze poznana.. Obecnie trwają intensywne badania nad możliwością wykorzystania AOPPs, jako użytecznych wskaźników do diagnozowania, prognozowania oraz monitorowania chorób.   Słowa kluczowe: zaawansowane produkty utleniania białek, choroby autoimmunologiczne, stres oksydacyjny

  10. Evaluating Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell’s Survival, Migration, and Expression of Wound Repair Markers under Conditions of Ischemia-Like Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Himal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy is currently limited by low retention and poor survival of transplanted cells as demonstrated by clinical studies. This is mainly due to the harsh microenvironment created by oxygen and nutrient deprivation and inflammation at the injured sites. The choice of MSC source could be critical in determining fate and cellular function of MSCs under stress. Our objective here was to investigate the influence of ischemia-like stress on Wharton’s jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs from human umbilical cord to assess their therapeutic relevance in ischemic diseases. We simulated conditions of ischemia in vitro by culturing WJ-MSCs in 2% oxygen in serum deprived and low glucose medium. Under these conditions, WJ-MSCs retained viable population of greater than 80%. They expressed the characteristic MSC surface antigens at levels comparable to the control WJ-MSCs and were negative for the expression of costimulatory molecules. An upregulation of many ECM and adhesion molecules and growth and angiogenic factors contributing to wound healing and regeneration was noted in the ischemic WJ-MSC population by a PCR array. Their migration ability, however, got impaired. Our findings provide evidence that WJ-MSCs might be therapeutically beneficial and potent in healing wounds under ischemic conditions.

  11. Randomized controlled trial in advance stage breast cancer patients for the effectiveness on stress marker and pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a cognitive, behavioral stress management module of Sudarshan Kriya (SK and P on levels of serum cortisol and pain among the women suffering from advanced stage breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 147 were screened and randomized to receive standard care (n = 69 versus standard along with SK and Pranayam (P intervention (n = 78 imparted in one 18 hrs workshop spread during 3 days. Participants were expected to practice it at home 20 min daily as adjuvant to standard pharmacological treatment for pain. Results: There was a significant difference in blood cortisol levels after 3 months of practice of SK and P. Mean blood levels in the intervention arm were 341.2 ng/ml against 549.2 ng/ml in the control arm (P ≤ 0.002. Pain perception in comparison to control arm reduced by 3 points in SK and P arm on 0-10 verbal scale of pain. Conclusion: SK and P is an effective intervention in reducing stress and pain among advance stage patients of breast cancer.

  12. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genic presence/absence variants (PAVs) correlate closely to the phenotypic variation, impacting plant genome sizes and the adaption to the environment. To shed more light on their genome-wide patterns, functions and to test the possibility of using them as molecular markers, we analyzed...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...

  13. Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, S; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Parveen, M; Li, S A; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2013-03-05

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER- breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood. DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLE(HRAS) xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLE(HRAS) cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours. Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation.

  14. Study of the impact of radionuclides discharges from nuclear industry in the northern Cotentin area on the oyster Crassostrea gigas: expression of cellular stress molecular markers; Etude de l'impact des radionucleides rejetes par les installations nucleaires du Nord Cotentin sur l'huitre creuse Crassostrea gigas: analyse de l'expression de marqueurs moleculaires de stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcy, E

    2006-11-15

    This thesis explores the potential radiological impact of radionuclide discharges from the nuclear industry on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. One of the major goals of this research was to identify markers that could be used to monitor the effects of low-level chronic irradiation. We decided to focalize on the expression of stress-induced genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, focusing on transcription. First, homology cloning was used to identify four new cDNAs encoding stress markers. Then data collected at various sites enabled to evidence that mRNA levels for each of the genes of interest naturally vary to a significant degree, based on individual differences and seasonal factors. Comparing oysters from exposed sites with those from a reference site located on the Atlantic coast did not suggest any relationship between mRNA levels changes and the oysters exposure to liquid radioactive waste from the A.R.E.V.A. reprocessing plant. In the environment, we found that those radionuclide releases resulted in a very small increase in radioactivity in oysters, especially compared with their natural radioactivity. In the laboratory, by exposing the oysters to higher radionuclide concentrations than those found in the environment, we were able to identify two genes as potential candidates for studying the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations in the oyster: genes encoding MT and MXR. We confirmed that transcriptional induction of these two genes occurs in response to high doses of acute irradiation. Finally, the comparison between environmental results and the laboratory results underlined the complementarity of these two approaches. In particular, it revealed that seasonal variations in mRNA levels probably have a significant effect on the stress response. (author)

  15. Protective effect of bioactivity guided fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation via inhibiting inflammatory markers and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Kandimalla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF, chloroform (ZJCF, ethyl acetate (ZJEAF, water (ZJWF and residue (ZJMR. In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD and CAT and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β and Il-10 in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of Z. jujuba root bark as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

  16. The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica juice supplementation on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, and biochemical markers following yo-yo Intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouloud, Aloui; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a flavonoid-rich fresh fruit juice on cardiovascular, oxidative stress, and biochemical parameters during the yo-yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). Twenty-two healthy males subjects participated in this study divided into two groups: An experimental group (EG: n  = 11) who consumed the antioxidant supplement and a control group (CG: n  = 11). All participants performed two test sessions at 07:00 hr before and after 2 weeks of supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. Blood samples were taken before (P1) and immediately (P2) after the YYIRT. Our results showed that following the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ) test, the Opuntia ficus-indica juice has an antioxidant capacity for capturing free radicals ( p  Opuntia ficus-indica juice before and immediately after YYIRT. However, no significant effect on HDL ( p  > .05), GLC ( p  > .05) levels nor the SBP and DBP ( p  > .05) was observed after supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The supplementation leads to an improvement on YYIRT performance (The total distance covered during the YYIRT, V O 2max , VMA) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Opuntia ficus-indica juice has a potent antioxidant activity that reduces total and LDL-cholesterol with only a moderate lowering of HDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress. Moreover, supplementation decreases muscle damage caused by the endurance exercise.

  17. Bioavailability of catechins from guaraná (Paullinia cupana) and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative stress markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Lina; Martins, Carolina Aguiar; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; César, Luiz Antônio Machado; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Mori, Clara Satsuki; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Arçari, Demetrius Paiva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2016-07-13

    We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL oxidation, plasma total antioxidant status and ORAC, and lymphocyte single cell gel electrophoresis) in healthy overweight subjects. Twelve participants completed a 15-day run-in period followed by a 15-day intervention with a daily intake of 3 g guaraná seed powder containing 90 mg (+)-catechin and 60 mg (-)-epicatechin. Blood samples were taken on the first and last day of the intervention period, fasting and 1 h post-dose. The administration of guaraná increased plasma ORAC, while reducing ex vivo LDL oxidation (only in the first study day) and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, at 1 h post-dose. Plasma catechin (0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.44 ± 0.18 nmol mL(-1)), epicatechin (0.59 ± 0.18 and 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol mL(-1)) and their methylated metabolites were observed at 1 h post-dose but were almost negligible after overnight fasting. The activities of catalase (in both study days) and glutathione peroxidase (in the last intervention day) increased at 1 h post-dose. Furthermore, the activity of both enzymes remained higher than the basal levels in overnight-fasting individuals on the last intervention day, suggesting a prolonged effect of guaraná that continues even after plasma catechin clearance. In conclusion, guaraná catechins are bioavailable and contribute to reduce the oxidative stress of clinically healthy individuals, by direct antioxidant action of the absorbed phytochemicals and up-regulation of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes.

  18. The role of biomarkers and MEG-based imaging markers in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder and blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingxiong; Risling, Mårten; Baker, Dewleen G

    2016-01-01

    % for the mild TBI, group (blast-induced plus non-blast causes) and 100% for the moderate group. Among the mild TBI patients, the rates of abnormalities are 96% and 77% for the blast and non-blast TBI groups, respectively. There is emerging evidence based on fMRI and MEG studies showing hyper-activity in the amygdala and hypo-activity in pre-frontal cortex in individuals with PTSD. MEG signal may serve as a sensitive imaging marker for mTBI, distinguishable from abnormalities generated in association with PTSD. More work is needed to fully describe physiological mechanisms of post-concussive symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and matrix metalloproteinases as novel stress markers in children and young adults on chronic dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Kinga; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2011-03-01

    Phenomena related to chronic kidney disease, such as atherosclerosis, aggravate with the introduction of dialysis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and factors modifying their activity, such as their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), take part in the matrix turnover and the endothelial damage characteristic for atherogenesis. However, there are no data on the associations between these parameters and other known pro-atherogenic factors, or on the impact of various dialysis modalities on them. The aim of our study was to assess the serum concentrations of NGAL, MMP-7, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as their correlations with human heat shock proteins (Hsp90α, anti-Hsp60), endothelial dysfunction (sE-selectin), and inflammation (hsCRP) in pediatric patients chronically dialyzed. Twenty-two children on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), 17 patients on hemodialysis (HD) and 24 controls were examined. The serum concentrations of NGAL, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, Hsp90α, anti-Hsp60, and sE-selectin were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median values of NGAL, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and MMP-9/NGAL ratio were significantly elevated in all dialyzed children vs. controls and were higher in HD than in APD. The values of MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-7/TIMP-1 ratios in the HD subjects were lower than those in the APD children. Hsp90α and anti-Hsp60 predicted the values of NGAL, MMPs, and TIMP-1. Additionally, sE-selectin was a predictor of NGAL levels, whereas NGAL predicted the MMP and TIMP-1 concentrations. The increased concentrations of examined parameters indicate the dysfunction of MMP/TIMP/NGAL system in the dialyzed children, more pronounced on hemodialysis. The discrepancies between dialysis modalities and correlations with heat shock proteins (HSPs) suggest that NGAL may be considered a novel stress protein, whereas MMP-7, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 may be regarded as indicators of stress response in the pediatric

  20. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin-Hua Yang,1 Su-Qi Song,2 Yun Xu3 1Department of Pharmacy, Hefei Eighth People’s Hospital, Hefei, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China Abstract: Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES, a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased

  1. De como os alunos entendem os textos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peronard Th, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosso interesse na compreensão do texto escrito apresenta uma tendência pedagógica. Tal perspectiva guiou a seleção de nossa estrutura teórica, os limites de nosso trabalho experimental e a natureza dos instrumentos que usamos, tanto durante a avaliação das habilidades de compreensão dos alunos como durante as aplicações instrucionais. Nosso foco tem se localizado na compreensão inferencial, a qual medimos pedindo aos estudantes que verbalizassem as inferências necessárias para conbstruir uma interpretação coerente. Para garantir uma sanidade ecológica, temos nos mantido o mais próximo possível de uma situação escolar, um fato que, em resumo, parece ter sido autodestruidor. Nossos resultados mostram fracas habilidades de compreensão por parte dos sujeitos (aproximadamente 2600 alunos. Suas respostas manifestam pouco raciocínio inferencial e suas estratégias, baixa adaptação à estrutura ou conteúdo do texto. De fato a estratégia mais comum parece ser a que nós chamamos de "estratégia lexical restrita", que é mais uma "estratégia de resposta" do que uma estratégia de compreensão

  2. Effect of water soluble vitamins on Zn transport of Caco-2 cells and their implications under oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi Santosh; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2010-02-01

    The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored. Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated. Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 muM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS. Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved. Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.

  3. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  4. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions, such as an Achilles tendon injury, ankle sprain or talus fracture. Diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome begins with questions from the doctor about the development of symptoms. After the foot and ankle are examined, x-rays or other imaging tests ...

  5. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  6. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the definition of threshold levels to diagnose coronary artery disease on electrocardiographic stress testing. Part II: the use of ROC curves in the choice of electrocardiographic stress test markers of ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazìa, Stefania; Barnabei, Luca; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in diagnostic medicine, when performing a diagnostic test, is to obtain an accurate discrimination between 'normal' cases and cases with disease, owing to the overlapping distributions of these populations. In clinical practice, it is exceedingly rare that a chosen cut point will achieve perfect discrimination between normal cases and those with disease, and one has to select the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity by comparing the diagnostic performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria available. Receiver operating characteristic (or receiver operator characteristic, ROC) curves allow systematic and intuitively appealing descriptions of the diagnostic performance of a test and a comparison of the performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria. This review will analyse the basic principles underlying ROC curves and their specific application to the choice of optimal parameters on exercise electrocardiographic stress testing. Part II will be devoted to the comparative analysis of various parameters derived from exercise stress testing for the diagnosis of underlying coronary artery disease.

  7. Effects of L-glutamine on rectal temperature and some markers of oxidative stress in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheja, Ohiemi Benjamin; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Aluwong, Tagang; Minka, Ndazo Salka

    2017-08-01

    The experiment investigated the ameliorative effects of L-glutamine administration on rectal temperature (RT), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), serum antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Red Sokoto goats during the hot-dry season. Twenty eight healthy Red Sokoto goats, comprising 14 experimental (administered 0.2 g/kg of L-glutamine dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water, once daily for 21 days) and 14 control (administered equivalent of distilled water) goats served as subjects. Rectal temperature (measured at 6:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h) and blood samples (taken at 8:00 h) were obtained from all subjects weekly, before, during and after L-glutamine administration. Data obtained were compared using one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity and temperature-humidity index for the study period ranged between 24.0 and 37.5 °C, 26.0 and 84.0% and 73.0 and 86.3, respectively. L-glutamine administration decreased (P heat-stressed goats during the hot-dry season.

  8. Protective Effects of Combined Selenium and Punica granatum Treatment on Some Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Arsenic-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, Noha M; El Batsh, Maha M

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Punica granatum is known by its free radical scavenging properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of combined selenium and P. granatum against arsenic-induced liver injury. Seventy-five female albino rats were divided into five groups (of 15 rats each). Toxicity was induced by oral sodium arsenite (5.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) daily) (group ІІ). Treatment of arsenic-intoxicated rats was induced by daily oral administration of sodium selenite (3 mg/kg bw) (group ІІІ), 100 mg of P. granatum ethanol extract per kilogram body weight dissolved in 300 mL distilled water in three divided doses (100 mL of this suspension every 8 h) (group IV), and combined daily oral treatment with both selenite and P. granatum ethanol extract (group V). After 3 weeks, serum and liver tissues were obtained from the decapitated rats for different estimations. Hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by significant elevation in liver weights and activities of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decrease in serum total proteins and albumin (p granatum and selenium. It was concluded that combined P. granatum and selenium treatment had a synergistic hepatoprotective effect against arsenic toxicity through activation of Nrf2 anti-oxidant pathway.

  9. Work-family life courses and markers of stress and inflammation in mid-life: evidence from the National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Sacker, Amanda; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Booker, Cara; McMunn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study investigated associations between work-family life courses and biomarkers of inflammation and stress in mid-life among British men and women. Gender differences in these associations were also explored. Methods: A novel statistical method—multi-channel sequence analysis—defined work-family life courses between the ages of 16 and 42 years, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood. Associations between work-family life courses and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor] and cortisol at age 44/45 years were tested using multivariate linear regression using multiply-imputed data on almost 6500 participants from the National Child Development Study 1958 British birth cohort. Results: Compared with those who combined strong ties to paid work with later transitions to stable family lives (‘Work, later family’ group), ‘Teen parents’ had higher CRP [40.6% higher, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.6, 87.0] and fibrinogen (7.8% higher, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.5) levels, and homemakers (‘No paid work, early family’) had raised fibrinogen levels (4.7% higher, 95% CI: 0.7, 9.0), independent of childhood health and socioeconomic position, adult socioeconomic position, health behaviours and body mass index (BMI). Those who combined later transitions to stable family ties with a career break for childrearing had higher post-waking cortisol than the ‘Work, later family’ group; however, no associations were seen for other work-family types, therefore suggesting a null finding with cortisol. No statistically significant gender interactions in associations between work-family types and inflammatory or cortisol outcomes were found. Conclusions: Work-family life courses characterised by early parenthood or weak work ties were associated with a raised risk profile in relation to chronic inflammation. PMID:26467761

  10. Seasonal changes in mRNA encoding for cell stress markers in the oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to radioactive discharges in their natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, Emilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The North Cotentin area (Normandy, France) hosts several nuclear facilities among which the AREVA reprocessing plant of La Hague is responsible for controlled discharges of liquid radioactive wastes into the marine environment. The resulting increase in radioactivity is very small compared to natural radioactivity. However, concerns about environment protection prompted the scientific community to focus on the effects of the chronic exposure to low concentrations of radionuclides in non-human biota. This study contributes to the evaluation of the possible impact of radioactive discharges on the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the field. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of genes involved in cell stress in the oyster. They included members of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70, Hsc72, Hsp90), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metallothionein (MT). Times series measurements were built from periodic samplings in the natural environment in order to characterize the natural variability as well as possible seasonal fluctuations. The genes studied exhibited a general seasonal expression pattern with a peak value in winter. The data inversely correlated with seawater temperature and the nature of the relationship between gene expression and temperature is discussed. In parallel, oysters were collected in four locations on the French shores, exposed or not to radioactive liquid wastes from the nuclear facilities hosted in the North Cotentin. The comparison of data obtained in the reference location on the Atlantic coast (not exposed) and data from oysters of the English Channel (exposed) gave no evidence for any statistical difference. However, because of the complexity of the natural environment, we cannot rule out the possibility that other parameters may have masked the impact of radioactive discharges. This dense set of data is a basis for the use of the expression levels of those genes as biomarkers to address the question of the

  11. Work-family life courses and markers of stress and inflammation in mid-life: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Sacker, Amanda; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Booker, Cara; McMunn, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated associations between work-family life courses and biomarkers of inflammation and stress in mid-life among British men and women. Gender differences in these associations were also explored. A novel statistical method-multi-channel sequence analysis-defined work-family life courses between the ages of 16 and 42 years, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood. Associations between work-family life courses and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor] and cortisol at age 44/45 years were tested using multivariate linear regression using multiply-imputed data on almost 6500 participants from the National Child Development Study 1958 British birth cohort. Compared with those who combined strong ties to paid work with later transitions to stable family lives ('Work, later family' group), 'Teen parents' had higher CRP [40.6% higher, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.6, 87.0] and fibrinogen (7.8% higher, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.5) levels, and homemakers ('No paid work, early family') had raised fibrinogen levels (4.7% higher, 95% CI: 0.7, 9.0), independent of childhood health and socioeconomic position, adult socioeconomic position, health behaviours and body mass index (BMI). Those who combined later transitions to stable family ties with a career break for childrearing had higher post-waking cortisol than the 'Work, later family' group; however, no associations were seen for other work-family types, therefore suggesting a null finding with cortisol. No statistically significant gender interactions in associations between work-family types and inflammatory or cortisol outcomes were found. Work-family life courses characterised by early parenthood or weak work ties were associated with a raised risk profile in relation to chronic inflammation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Arsenic and nicotine co-exposure lead to some synergistic effects on oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in young rat blood, liver, kidneys and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and nicotine exposure has been a major health concern globally. Individually both these toxicants increase the risk to various diseases including cancers. However, limited information exists on the co-exposure. In this study, we evaluate the effects of their individual and combined exposure and if co-exposure to these toxicants might have a synergism or antagonism. Male rats were exposed to a very low dose of arsenic (25 ppm in drinking water or nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, sub-cutaneously for a period of 5 months and post exposure various biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress and apoptosis evaluated. Almost all glutathione linked enzymes showed marked alteration in individual as well as co-exposure treated groups. While serum creatinine and apoptosis indicator, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly increased in both treatments, an additive effect was noted in co-exposure group. A similar trend was also seen in brain and liver but not in kidneys. Gene expression studies showed marked reduction in catalase, Cu-Zn SOD, GST, there was a significant up regulation in Bax, caspase 3 in various tissues along with urinary 8-OHdG levels, indicative of DNA damage and apoptosis. Interestingly, a decrease in liver arsenic concentration was noted in co-exposed group compared to arsenic alone exposed group. In conclusion, the present study suggests that arsenic and nicotine exhibited significant toxicity during individual exposure whereas co-exposure to these toxins showed variable conditions (indicative of both synergism and antagonism in male rats.

  13. Effect of Short-term Quercetin, Caloric Restriction and Combined Treatment on Age-related Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugoju, Phaniendra; Swamy, Vkd Krishan; Periyasamy, Latha

    2018-03-14

    Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male Wistar rats. 21 months aged rats were divided into four groups (n=6-8) such as group 1-fed ad libitum (AL); group 2-quercetin supplementation of 50 mg/kg b.w/day for 45 days fed ad libitum (QUER); group 3: caloric restricted (CR) (fed 40% reduced AL for 45 days); group 4-fed 40% CR and 50 mg/kg b.w/day QUER for 45 days (CR + QUER). Group 5-three month age old rats served as young control (YOUNG). Our results demonstrate that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin significantly improved the age associated decline in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes [such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and glutathione (GSH) content and attenuated elevated levels of protein carbonyl content (PCC), lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, it is also observed that combined treatment ameliorated age associated alterations in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) such as Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca+2-ATPase (but not Mg+2- ATPase) enzyme activities. Finally, we conclude that combined treatment of caloric restriction and quercetin (but not either treatment alone) in late life is an effective anti-aging therapy to counteract the age related accumulation of oxidative macromolecular damage

  14. Macrophage mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atherosclerosis and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Gary Z; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-31

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to correlate with the progression of human atherosclerosis. However, definitive cell type-specific causation studies in vivo are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms of potential proatherogenic effects remain to be determined. Our aims were to assess the importance of macrophage mitoOS in atherogenesis and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first validated Western diet-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model of human mitoOS-atherosclerosis association by showing that non-nuclear oxidative DNA damage, a marker of mitoOS in lesional macrophages, correlates with aortic root lesion development. To investigate the importance of macrophage mitoOS, we used a genetic engineering strategy in which the OS suppressor catalase was ectopically expressed in mitochondria (mCAT) in macrophages. MitoOS in lesional macrophages was successfully suppressed in these mice, and this led to a significant reduction in aortic root lesional area. The mCAT lesions had less monocyte-derived cells, less Ly6c(hi) monocyte infiltration into lesions, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The decrease in lesional monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was associated with the suppression of other markers of inflammation and with decreased phosphorylation of RelA (NF-κB p65), indicating decreased activation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. Using models of mitoOS in cultured macrophages, we showed that mCAT suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by decreasing the activation of the IκB-kinase β-RelA NF-κB pathway. MitoOS in lesional macrophages amplifies atherosclerotic lesion development by promoting NF-κB-mediated entry of monocytes and other inflammatory processes. In view of the mitoOS-atherosclerosis link in human atheromata, these findings reveal a potentially new therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Song, Su-Qi; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations. Furthermore, RES treatment upregulated the hippocampal protein levels of BDNF and the relative ratio of p-β-catenin/β-catenin while downregulating the relative ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that RES improved

  16. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Myoungryoul; Yun, Kilyoung; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Yun, Songjoong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G.

    2010-01-01

    acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co

  17. Os primeiros Folhetins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Maschio Cardozo Chaga

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Num texto anterior - publicado no Boletim Nelic, n. 1 -, destaquei os pressupostos editoriais que visavam a execução do "Projeto Folhetim", apontando também as razões pedagógicas e a veia esclarecedora que a publicação pretendia atingir. Neste sentido, o imperativo deveria ser a formação de um suplemento com a finalidade principal de proporcionar ao leitor uma massa de textos capazes de refletir e questionar a recente história brasileira.

  18. CtOS Enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cepeda, Rodrigo; El Yamri El Khatibi, Meriem; Carrera García, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Las Smart Cities son, indudablemente, el futuro próximo de la tecnología al que nos acercamos cada día, lo que se puede observar en la abundancia de dispositivos móviles entre la población, que informatizan la vida cotidiana mediante el uso de la geolocalización y la información. Pretendemos unir estos dos ámbitos con CtOS Enabler para crear un estándar de uso que englobe todos los sistemas de Smart Cities y facilite a los desarrolladores de dicho software la creación de nuevas herramientas. ...

  19. Os limites da cidade

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Abel, António

    2008-01-01

    A porta, na sua qualidade de fronteira entre espaços e como elemento fundamental na definição do "dentro" e do "fora", do caos e do Cosmos, na definição do "círculo fronteiriço" e, consequentemente, do "ser fronteiriço". Morfologias urbanas: Évora como estudo de caso. Propostas genéricas de desenvolvimento/crescimento urbano, tendo como princípio orientador a relação dicotómica com o território.

  20. TinyOS Alliance Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Culler, David; Estrin, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This memo describes the goals and organization structure of the TinyOS Alliance. It covers membership, the working group forums for contribution, intellectual property, source licensing, and the TinyOS Steering Committee (TSC)....

  1. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation and influence of BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene of the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency: Vitamin D3 megadose reduces inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros Cavalcante, Isa Gabriela; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Costa, Maria José Carvalho; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Issa, Chahira Taha Mahd Ibrahim; Issa, ChariraTahaMad Ibraim; de Luna Freire, Tiago Lima; da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 megadose supplementation and influence of BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene on the inflammatory profile and oxidative stress in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 40 elderly women (aged 68±6 years) diagnosed with vitamin D insufficiency (24.7±3.1 ng/mL). Participants were distributed into a supplementation group that received 200,000 IU of vitamin D3 (SG; n=20) and a placebo group (PG; n=20). Blood samples were collected at baseline and after intervention to analyse the 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP-A), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as the renal and hepatic function, and genotyping was performed for BsmI polymorphism. Four weeks after supplementation, elderly women in the SG group showed a significant increase in the serum concentration of 25(OH)D (25.29±2.8 to 31.48±6.0; p=0.0001), which was followed by increased TAC (65.25±15.66 to 71.83±10.71; p=0.03) and decreased serum PTH (46.32±13.2 to 35.45±11.0; p=0.009), us-CRP (0.38±0.3 to 0.19±0.1; p=0.007) and AGP-A levels (75.3±15.4 to 61.1±5.9; p=0.005). Changes in BP, ANAC and MDA were not observed. The 25(OH)D and PTH, us-CRP and AGP-A levels of participants with the BB/Bb genotype were more responsive to supplementation, but their other markers did not change. Supplementation with a vitamin D3 megadose reduced inflammatory markers and increased the total antioxidant capacity in elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency. The 25(OH)D, PTH, us-CRP and AGP-A levels of elderly patients with the BB/Bb genotype were more responsive to supplementation compared with those with the bb genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Coping in Moderating the Relationship between Racism-Related Stress and Self-Reported General Health among Asians and Latinas/os in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Denise Carina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between racism-related stress and negative health outcomes among African Americans and the moderating effect of coping strategies on this relationship. Yet, scant attention has been paid to this relationship for two of the largest minority groups in the United States: Asians and Latinos/as. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and a framework derived from stress process and biopsychosocial models, this study examines the relation...

  3. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT on oxidative stress (OS in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW and MetS women (MSW were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%, their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05 and OS was also reduced (44%, this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%. In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women.

  4. Brain rust: recent discoveries on the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Ferreira Lima, Rute Maria; El-Bachá, Ramon Santos

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and damages due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common causes of injuries to cells and organisms. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) increases with aging and much of the research involving ROS and OS has emerged from works in this field. This text reviews some recent published articles about the role of OS in ND. Since there are many reviews in this field, the focus was centered in articles published recently. The Scientific Journals Directory supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Education Office for the Coordination of Higher Educational Personnel Improvement (CAPES) was used to search, download, and review articles. The search engine looked for the terms 'oxidative stress AND neurodegenerative diseases AND nutrition' in 10 different scientific collections. Biochemical markers for ND lack sensitivity or specificity for diagnosis or for tracking response to therapy today. OS has an intimate connection with ND, albeit low levels of ROS seem to protect the brain. Deleterious changes in mitochondria, OS, calcium, glucocorticoids, inflammation, trace metals, insulin, cell cycle, protein aggregation, and hundreds to thousands of genes occur in ND. The interaction of genes with their environment, may explain ND. Although OS has received much attention over the years, which increased the number of scientific works on antioxidant interventions, no one knows how to stop or delay ND at present. Interventions in vitro, in vivo, and in humans will continue to contribute for a better understanding of these pathologies.

  5. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Suen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. Randomised controlled trials in a Western country providing a food-based flavonoid intervention to participants with one or two modifiable risk factors for CVD measuring a marker of OS and/or inflammation, were included. Reference lists were hand-searched. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. The search strategy retrieved 1248 articles. Nineteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Eight studies were considered at low risk of bias. Cocoa flavonoids provided to Type 2 diabetics and olive oil flavonoids to mildly-hypertensive women reduced OS and inflammation. Other food sources had weaker effects. No consistent effect on OS and inflammation across patients with varied CVD risk factors was observed. Study heterogeneity posed a challenge for inter-study comparisons. Rigorously designed studies will assist in determining the effectiveness of flavonoid interventions for reducing OS and inflammation in patients at risk of CVD.

  6. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Jenni; Thomas, Jolene; Kranz, Amelia; Vun, Simon; Miller, Michelle

    2016-09-14

    Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. Randomised controlled trials in a Western country providing a food-based flavonoid intervention to participants with one or two modifiable risk factors for CVD measuring a marker of OS and/or inflammation, were included. Reference lists were hand-searched. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. The search strategy retrieved 1248 articles. Nineteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Eight studies were considered at low risk of bias. Cocoa flavonoids provided to Type 2 diabetics and olive oil flavonoids to mildly-hypertensive women reduced OS and inflammation. Other food sources had weaker effects. No consistent effect on OS and inflammation across patients with varied CVD risk factors was observed. Study heterogeneity posed a challenge for inter-study comparisons. Rigorously designed studies will assist in determining the effectiveness of flavonoid interventions for reducing OS and inflammation in patients at risk of CVD.

  7. Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabchi, Abbas E; McDaniel, Kristin A; Wan, Jim Y; Tylavsky, Frances A; Jacovino, Crystal A; Sands, Chris W; Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Stentz, Frankie B

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 years with no diabetes or prediabetes who were randomized to HC (55% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 15% protein) or HP (40% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 30% protein) diets for 6 months. The diets were provided in prepackaged food, which provided 500 kcal restrictions per day. The above metabolic end points were measured with HP and HC diet at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. After 6 months of the HP versus HC diet (12 in each group), the following changes were significantly different by Wilcoxon rank sum test for the following parameters: dichlorofluorescein (-0.8 vs. -0.3 µmol/L, P vs. -0.2 μmol/L, P = 0.0004), C-reactive protein (-2.1 vs. -0.8 mg/L, P = 0.0003), E-selectin (-8.6 vs. -3.7 ng/mL, P = 0.0007), adiponectin (1,284 vs. 504 ng/mL, P = 0.0011), tumor necrosis factor-α (-1.8 vs. -0.9 pg/mL, P vs. -0.4 pg/mL, P vs. 0.16 mmol/L, P = 0.0002), REE (259 vs. 26 kcal, P vs. 0.9, P vs. 2.1, P < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes.

  8. Palm webOS

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  9. os interesses comuns

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Maria Helena

    2008-01-01

    Os interesses comuns da União Europeia e da América Latina em matéria de integração bi-regional emanam, em grande medida, de factores exógenos, e em particular da crescente concorrência económica a nível global, do impasse negocial do Ciclo de Doha e da política de bilateralismo dos Estados Unidos da América. Com base numa abordagem de cariz sistémico argumenta-se que uma parceria entre as duas regiões é instrumental para enfrentar a concorrência global, sustenta-se que tal ...

  10. Pesquisa de marcadores para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína C de ligação à miosina em familiares de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Research of markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and myosin binding protein C in relatives of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Tirone

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os marcadores moleculares para os genes da cadeia pesada da beta-miosina cardíaca e da proteína-C de ligação à miosina em familiares de portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 12 famílias que realizaram anamnese, exame físico, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiograma e coleta de sangue para o estudo genético através da reação em cadeia da polimerasse. RESULTADOS: Dos 227 familiares 25% eram acometidos, sendo 51% do sexo masculino com idade média de 35±19 (2 a 95 anos. A análise genética mostrou ligação com o gene da b-miosina cardíaca em uma família e, em outra, ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. Em cinco famílias foram excluídas ligações com os dois genes; em duas, a ligação com o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina, porém para o gene da b-miosina os resultados foram inconclusivos; em duas famílias os resultados foram inconclusivos para os dois genes e em uma foi excluída ligação para o gene da b-miosina mas ficou inconclusivo para o gene da proteína C de ligação à miosina. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso meio, talvez predominem outros genes que não aqueles descritos na literatura, ou que existam outras diferenças genéticas relacionadas com a origem de nossa população e/ou fatores ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular markers for the genes of the heavy chain of cardiac beta-myosin and the myosin binding protein C in relatives of carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Twelve families who had anamnesis, physical exam, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood collection for the genetic study through the chain reaction of polymerase. RESULTS: From the 227 relatives, 25% were ill-taken, with 51% men, with an average age of 35±19 (2 to 95 years old. The genetic analysis showed a connection with the gene of the cardiac b-myosin in a family and, in another, a connection with the gene of the myosin-binding protein C. In five

  11. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  12. Os perigos da utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Hufford

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A utopia pode ter um lado que eleva e um lado sinistro, mas geralmente o lado sinistro acaba destruindo o idealismo inicial. A razão para isto é que os utópicos inevitavelmente adotam uma imagem messiânica do mundo. As três revoluções messiânicas na história—a americana, a francesa e a bolchevique—foram lideradas por homens que pensavem que suas idéias eram universais. Este ensaio examina os escritos do existencialista francês Albert Camus, que argumenta que não existem valores transcendentais, ao mesmo tempo que ele não aceita o niilismo. Camus faz uma distinção entre um rebelde e um revolucionário, e conclui que uma rebelião tentará terminar com uma opressão espedífica, enquanto que uma revolução tentará criar “um novo

  13. Os limites da competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Costuma-se destacar os aspectos aparentemente positivos e as vantagens hipotéticas da concorrência e da competitividade entre empresas e também entre nações. Não se pode negar que a concorrência nos mercados tenha exercido uma função central e fundamental na gênese e na expansão do sistema de produção capitalista. Ela contribuiu para a geração e acumulação de riquezas materiais. Também estimulou e fortaleceu as aspirações de seus principais atores sociais, os empreendedores, de exigir uma organização política mais democrática em oposição ao regime feudal ou absolutista, em determinado período da história do mundo ocidental.

  14. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Ole Henry

    2011-01-01

    OS X and iOS Kernel Programming combines essential operating system and kernel architecture knowledge with a highly practical approach that will help you write effective kernel-level code. You'll learn fundamental concepts such as memory management and thread synchronization, as well as the I/O Kit framework. You'll also learn how to write your own kernel-level extensions, such as device drivers for USB and Thunderbolt devices, including networking, storage and audio drivers. OS X and iOS Kernel Programming provides an incisive and complete introduction to the XNU kernel, which runs iPhones, i

  15. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress

  16. Os (descaminhos da identidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Cardoso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A conferência procurou apresentar uma interpretação das vicissitudes da identidade étnica e/ou nacional quando observada em situações de ambigüidade. É quando o processo identitário expressa crises reais ou virtuais, como as que têm lugar entre imigrantes latino-americanos nos Estados Unidos, entre povos de diferentes regiões da Espanha emigrados para Barcelona, entre catalães espanhóis, franceses e andorranos residentes em Andorra, e entre povos indígenas em regiões de fronteira do Brasil com países vizinhos. O exame do processo identitário que tem lugar em diferentes latitudes, nas Américas e na Europa, sugere que os fenômenos socioculturais de etnicidade e de nacionalidade possuem em comum características tais como a busca de reconhecimento da pessoa moral, o respeito à diferença e, como corolário ético, a elevação do que se pode definir como "taxa de consideração".

  17. Desvíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Doblado, Manuel

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish connections between the general circulation tracks, and between these and station tracks, devices must be installed on the track which are able to move in a crosswise direction, there by permitting the choice of the appropriate path for the treads. This device in general, is complex and its complexity increases at high speeds (> 200 km/h. Following this, the article deals briefly with some of the solutions adopted to ensure movement on the shunts under optimal safety and comfort conditions, along with the extended useful life of this device in comparison with the conventional railroad.

    Para el establecimiento de las comunicaciones entre las vías generales de circulación, y entre éstas y las del apartado de estaciones, se requiere la instalación de unos aparatos de vía que, dotados de movimiento transversal, permiten establecer adecuadamente la elección del camino de rodadura. El aparato, en general, es complejo, y dicha complejidad se incrementa con la circulación a alta velocidad (V > 200 km/h. A continuación se abordan, de forma sucinta, algunas de las soluciones adoptadas que permiten la circulación por los desvíos en condiciones de seguridad y confort elevados, junto con el alargamiento de su vida útil respecto al ferrocarril convencional.

  18. Os usos da diversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Geertz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Ao discorrer sobre o “Futuro do Etnocentrismo”, este artigo parte da premissa de que a globalização, apesar de ter – em muitos casos – diminuído as diferenças entre povos, não tem amenizado os preconceitos e as formas de discriminação que ocorrem em nome dessas diferenças. Ele resgata a importância do antropólogo neste cenário lembrando que a diversidade cultural faz parte da sociedade complexa, remetendo-se não apenas a grupos étnicos ou nacionais bem delimitados, mas também a diferenças de geração, gênero, sexo e classe, entre outros. Neste contexto, a tolerância passiva de modos distantes de vida assim como a aceitação pragmática de nosso próprio paroquialismo são atitudes não somente intelectualmente desonestas mas também moralmente repreensíveis. É no encontro incômodo de subjetividades variantes na sua própria sociedade que o antropólogo define seu lugar.

  19. Woman's body symmetry and oxidative stress in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Nowak, Judyta; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    High level of oxidative stress (OS) during the first weeks of pregnancy is related to many serious pregnancy complications. Previous studies showed that body fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is related to OS level in men, suggesting that FA is a marker of oxidative balance in an individual. The aim of this study was to analyze if body FA was related to the level of biomarkers of OS in the first trimester of pregnancy. The sample included 34 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, not smoking, and not exposed to toxins in their work environment. The composite FA and levels of two biomarkers of OS, 8-iso-ProstaglandinF2α (an indicator of oxidative damage to lipids) and 8-OH-dG (an indicator of oxidative damage to DNA) were measured. Factors that may affect the level of OS (vitamin supplementation, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and health condition) were controlled. The levels of OS markers in the first trimester of pregnancy correlated positively with women's FA (r = 0.52, P = 0.002 for 8-OH-dG; r = 0.50; P = 0.003 for 8-iso-PGF2α level) and positively with body height (r = 0.37, P = 0.03 for 8-OH-dG level). The level of OS is likely to be a substantial and important fitness trait, and FA may convey information on the level of OS in women. The result confirms that FA is an indicator of biological condition, as suggested by an evolutionary approach to morphological human traits perceived as attractive. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preparação psicológica e o estresse de crianças submetidas a cirurgias Preparación psicológica y el estrés de los niños sometidos a cirugía Psychological preparation and stress of children undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Volpato Broering

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma pesquisa que avaliou os efeitos da preparação psicológica pré-cirúrgica sobre o estresse de crianças submetidas a cirurgias eletivas em que foram utilizados dois programas distintos de preparação. A pesquisa foi realizada com 30 participantes, divididos em dois grupos, usuários de um hospital infantil, e nela utilizou-se a Escala de Estresse Infantil (ESI. A pesquisa compreendeu três etapas distintas: a aplicação da ESI antes da preparação, no dia anterior à cirurgia; b a preparação propriamente dita, sendo ambos os grupos submetidos aos diferentes programas de preparação; e c a reaplicação da ESI, depois da preparação. Os resultados mostraram que há significativa redução do nível de estresse depois da preparação, embora não tenha havido diferença significativa quanto ao tipo de programa utilizado. Há implicações práticas no atendimento psicológico das crianças em situação pré-cirúrgica e limitações a serem consideradas quando se pesquisa esta área da psicologia pediátrica.Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar un estudio que evaluó los efectos de la preparación psicológica pre-quirúrgica sobre el estrés en niños sometidos a cirugía electiva, con dos programas de preparación. La investigación se llevó a cabo con 30 participantes, divididos en dos grupos, los usuarios de un hospital de niños y se utiliza la Escala de Estrés infantil (ESI. Hubo tres fases distintas: a Aplicación de ESI antes de la preparación, el día antes de la cirugía, b la preparación en sí, en ambos grupos presentaron a diferentes programas de preparación, y c una reaplicación de ESI, después de la preparación. Los resultados mostraron que la reducción significativa en el nivel de estrés después de la preparación, aunque no hubo diferencias significativas en el tipo de programa utilizado. Hay implicaciones prácticas para la situación psicológica de los niños

  1. Overexpression of rice glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 reduces intracellular arsenic accumulation and increases tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (Grxs are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice, the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops.

  2. Java and Mac OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T Gene

    2010-01-01

    Learn the guidelines of integrating Java with native Mac OS X applications with this Devloper Reference book. Java is used to create nearly every type of application that exists and is one of the most required skills of employers seeking computer programmers. Java code and its libraries can be integrated with Mac OS X features, and this book shows you how to do just that. You'll learn to write Java programs on OS X and you'll even discover how to integrate them with the Cocoa APIs.: Shows how Java programs can be integrated with any Mac OS X feature, such as NSView widgets or screen savers; Re

  3. OS X Mavericks for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    LeVitus, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Coast through OS X Mavericks with help from Dr. Mac and For Dummies Ready to make friends with Mavericks? Then, Dr. Mac's your man. Author and longtime Mac guru, Bob "Dr. Mac" LeVitus shares his witty insights and helpful tips in this full-color update to his bestselling OS X guide. You'll learn the basics of working with the Dock, Launchpad, and Mission Control before moving on to setting up your e-mail, surfing with Safari, organizing your files, and customizing OS X Mavericks for all you need your Mac to do. Familiarizes you with OS X essentials like navigating the desktop, connecting to

  4. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  5. Estresse em cuidadores de crianças com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade = Stress in caregivers of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder = Estrés en cuidadores de niños con trastorno del déficit de atención e hiperactividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria, Ana Maria Del Bianco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o estresse, auto-percepção de estresse e de fatores estressantes em cuidadores de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH. Participaram 40 cuidadores, divididos em: Grupo clínico (G1 – 20 cuidadores de crianças diagnosticadas com TDAH; Grupo de comparação (G2 – 20 cuidadores de crianças sem TDAH. Utilizaram-se os instrumentos: Questionário de Capacidades e Dificuldades, Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp, Questionário de Auto-Percepção de estresse. Os resultados apontaram percentual de cuidadores com indicadores de estresse significativamente maior no G1 do que encontrado no G2 (p=0,001. No G1 houve maior percepção de estresse no convívio com a criança (p<0,001, no cuidado com a criança (p<0,001 e maior percepção de estresse (p=0,003 quando comparados ao G2. Destaca-se a necessidade de cuidado ao cuidador, pois a vivência de estresse afeta a qualidade de vida, bem como a relação e o vínculo entre este e a criança

  6. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concepto, métodos y características de una cohorte de donantes de sangre en Bucaramanga, Colombia / “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concept, Methods and Characteristics of a Cohort of Blood Donors in Bucaramanga, Colombia / "Pesquisa de Saúde Cardiovascular e Colaboração para avaliar os marcadores e os resultados da doença de Chagas" (CHICAMOCHA: conceito, métodos e características de um grupo de doadores de sangue em Bucaramanga, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villar-Centeno, MD., Esp., MSc., PhD.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Colombia está expuesta simultáneamente a las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores como la Enfermedad de Chagas (ECHA, así como a la carga creciente de la enfermedad cardiovascular de origen aterosclerótico (ECV. Objetivo: Estudiar a través del ensamblaje de un estudio de cohorte de adultos jóvenes de Bucaramanga, el desarrollo de la ECHA y la ECV. Metodología: Se diseñó un estudio a partir de donantes de sangre con tamización serológica para T. cruzi. Se construyó una base de datos de donantes consecutivos con estatus positivo (T[+] apareada (en relación 1:4, estratificada por banco y mes de donación con donantes T[-]. Los participantes fueron clasificados por estado serológico y electrocardiograma y evaluados clínicamente (realizando pruebas adicionales de función cardiovascular a los T[+] y a una muestra aleatoria de T[-]. En los siguientes años se iniciaron ensayos clínicos en los participantes T[+] y mediciones repetidas en los T[-] para estudios de riesgo de ECV. Resultados: De 6,228 donantes (18 a 50 años de edad registrados en la base (1997-2003, 2,130 donantes de sangre (edad media 36.4 [DE 8.4] años, 64.0% hombres, 73.4% residentes en los estratos 1-3, 486 T[+] consintieron participar. El protocolo de contacto, seguimiento y recuperación de participantes ha logrado que se obtengan mediciones repetidas en al menos el 80% de los participantes. Conclusiones: CHICAMOCHA constituye un activo de valor social que aumenta las capacidades locales de investigación. Se requieren esfuerzos continuados para ensanchar sus posibilidades de formación de investigadores, generación de productos de conocimiento y recomendaciones para el sistema de salud. [Villar JC, Herrera VM, Cháves-Neira AM, Martínez-Contreras LX, Villar-Centeno LA, Ardila E, Marcell-Vásquez S, Vásquez SM. “Cardiovascular Health Investigation and Collaboration to Assess the Markers and Outcomes of Chagas disease” (CHICAMOCHA: Concepto

  7. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  8. Oxidative Stress in Cystinosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Vaisbich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephropathic cystinosis (NC is a severe systemic disease and cysteamine improves its prognosis. Lysosomal cystine accumulation is the hallmark of cystinosis and is regarded as the primary defect due to mutations in the CTNS gene. However, there is great evidence that cystine accumulation itself is not responsible for all abnormalities observed in NC. Studies have demonstrated altered ATP metabolism, increased apoptosis, and cell oxidation. An increased number of autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles have been observed in cystinotic fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells, suggesting that altered autophagy plays a role in NC, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cystinosis patients can be more susceptible to oxidative stress (OS and it can contribute to the progression of the renal disease. Our goal was to evaluate a marker of OS (serum TBARS in NC children, and to compare the results with those observed in healthy controls and correlated with renal function parameters. Methods: The study included patients aged under 18 years, with good adherence to the treatment and out of renal replacement therapy. The following parameters were evaluated: serum creatinine, BUN, creatinine clearance estimated by stature and serum TBARS levels. Results: We selected 20 patients aged 8.0 ±3.6 years and observed serum TBARS levels of 4.03 ±1.02 nmol/ml. Serum TBARS levels in the 43 healthy controls, aged 7.4 ±1.1 years, were 1.60 ±0.04 nmol/ml. There was a significant difference between the plasma TBARS levels among the 2 groups (p Conclusion: An increased level of serum TBARS in patients with NC was observed and this abnormality was not correlated with the renal function status degree. This is the first report that shows increased oxidative stress in serum of NC patients.

  9. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  10. OS X Mavericks portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2013-01-01

    Plenty of tips, tricks, and shortcuts help you make the most of Apple's newest OS X OS X Mavericks is Apple's newest operating system, with great new ways to enhance your digital lifestyle. This hip, straightforward guide focuses on helping you get everything you want from your Mac. You'll discover how to customize your computer and workspace, troubleshoot and maintain OS X, and have fun browsing and manipulating images and multimedia. You'll listen to music and podcasts, discover how to work with and connect peripherals, copy music to an iPod, add a printer, sync your Mac to other devices, an

  11. Oxidative stress mediates the pathogenic effect of different Alzheimer's disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Guglielmotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population. Mechanistically, the major cause of the disease bases on the altered processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein (APP, resulting in the accumulation and aggregation of neurotoxic forms of Aβ. Aβ derives from the sequential proteolytic cleavage of the β- and γ-secretases on APP. The causes of Aβ accumulation in the common sporadic form of Alzheimer’s disease are not completely known, but they are likely to include oxidative stress (OS. OS and Aβ are linked to each other since Aβ aggregation induces OS in vivo and in vitro, and oxidant agents increase the production of Aβ. Moreover, OS produces several effects that may contribute to synaptic function and cell death in AD. We and others have shown that the expression and activity of β-secretase (named BACE1; β-site APP cleaving enzyme is increased by oxidant agents and by lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal and that there is a significant correlation between BACE1 activity and oxidative markers in sporadic AD. OS results from several cellular insults such as aging, hyperglycaemia, hypoxic insults that are all well known risk factors for AD development. Thus, our data strengthen the hypothesis that OS is a basic common pathway of Aβ accumulation, common to different AD risk factors.

  12. Espaços Livres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Soares Macedo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um painel sobre os conceitos básicos que dirigem o entendimento do paisagismo urbano, tendo como elemento de referência os espaços livres. Discute-se a questão das áreas verdes, das áreas de circulação, da qualificação dos espaços livres e da composição de suas estruturas morfológicas e de alguns dos principais padrões de organização espacial das cidades brasileiras contemporâneas - das quadras, jardins às áreas verticalizadas

  13. Fri os fra det onde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Johs. Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj......Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  14. Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krushna Pal

    Full Text Available Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects.Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104.BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group.SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.

  15. Heterogeneity of Systemic Oxidative Stress Profiles in COPD: A Potential Role of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS plays a key role in the muscle impairment and exercise capacity of COPD patients. However, the literature reveals that systemic OS markers show great heterogeneity, which may hinder the prescription of effective antioxidant supplementation. This study therefore aimed to identify OS markers imbalance of COPD patients, relative to validated normal reference values, and to investigate the possibility of systemic OS profiles. We measured systemic enzymatic/nonenzymatic antioxidant and lipid peroxidation (LP levels in 54 stable COPD patients referred for a rehabilitation program. The main systemic antioxidant deficits in these patients concerned vitamins and trace elements. Fully 89% of the COPD patients showed a systemic antioxidant imbalance which may have caused the elevated systemic LP levels in 69% of them. Interestingly, two patient profiles (clusters 3 and 4 had a more elevated increase in LP combined with increased copper and/or decreased vitamin C, GSH, and GPx. Further analysis revealed that the systemic LP level was higher in COPD women and associated with exercise capacity. Our present data therefore support future supplementations with antioxidant vitamins and trace elements to improve exercise capacity, but COPD patients will probably show different positive responses.

  16. Electro-oxidation of borohydride on colloidal Os and Os-alloys (Os-Sn, Os-Mo and Os-V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H.; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering; Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Preliminary experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of using sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) oxidation catalysis by osmium (Os) in 2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in the presence of thiourea as an inhibitor to hydrogen (H{sub 2}) evolution. The usefulness of this information for low-temperature direct fuel cells involving the anodic oxidation of fuels such as methanol, ethanol and sodium borohydride was discussed with reference to the challenge of high anode surface overpotential affecting the power output of direct fuel cells. This study examined the cyclic voltammetry features of supported colloidal Os and Os alloys with molybdenum, vanadium and tin, in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}. It also examined the potential for electrocatalysis in direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC). Colloidal Os and Os alloys were tested for their use as electrocatalysts for oxidation of borohydride. The features of an Os cyclic voltammogram in alkaline media with and without BH{sub 4} were discussed along with the redox mediated oxidation of BH{sub 4}. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry tests showed that colloidal Os 20 per cent weight supported on Vulcan XC-72R possessed electrocatalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation while the investigated Os-alloys were catalytically inactive. Chronopotentiometry experiments also showed that the 20 per cent weight Os gave the lowest anodic potential, and is therefore recommended as the anode electrocatalyst in direct borohydride fuel cells. 29 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. Multiple marker abundance profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooper, Cornelia M.; Stevens, Tim J.; Saukkonen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    proteins and the scoring accuracy of lower-abundance proteins in Arabidopsis. NPAS was combined with subcellular protein localization data, facilitating quantitative estimations of organelle abundance during routine experimental procedures. A suite of targeted proteomics markers for subcellular compartment...

  18. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Industry and Investment and Charles Sturt. University), P. O. Box 588 Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. 3Guangxi .... and obtain marker statistics. The exact order of the ...

  19. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  20. Determination of molecular markers associated with anthesis-silking interval in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Maize lines contrasting in anthesis-silking, interval (ASI), a trait strongly linked to drought tolerance, have been analyzed under different water stress conditions in the field and with molecular markers. Correlation of marker and field data has revealed molecular markers strongly associated with flowering and yield traits. (author)

  1. iOS and OS X network programming cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a recipe-based approach that will heavily focus on the code and how to integrate the samples with the reader's projects.Each recipe consists of one or more methods that you can put directly into your app and use.This book is ideal for developers that want to create network applications for the Apple OS X or iOS platforms. All examples are written in Objective-C using XCode as the IDE. Knowledge of Objective-C and X-Code is essential.

  2. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  3. Vitamina C restaura pressão arterial e a resposta vasodilatadora no antebraço em crianças obesas Vitamina C restaura presión arterial y respuesta vasodilatadora en el antebrazo en niños obesos Vitamin C restores blood pressure and vasodilator response during mental stress in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricilla Regina Oliveira Fernandes Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    ónico de la suplementación de vitamina C (VitC sobre la presión arterial y en la respuesta vasodilatadora al estrés mental. MÉTODOS: En este estudio prospectivo, randomizado y doble ciego fueron evaluados niños obesos, de ambos géneros, con edades entre 8 y 12 años divididos en 2 grupos: 1 grupo de niños suplementados con 500 mg de vitamina C (n = 11 y, 2 substancia placebo (n = 10 durante 45 días. Ocho niños eutróficos, pareados por edad también fueron incluidos en el estudio. Fueron evaluados la presión arterial media (PAM, la frecuencia cardíaca (ECG y el flujo sanguíneo en el antebrazo por plestimografía de oclusión venosa. La conductancia vascular en el antebrazo (CVA fue obtenida por medio de la relación entre el flujo sanguíneo en el antebrazo y la PAM (X100. RESULTADOS: Antes de la intervención, los niños obesos presentaron PAM mayor y CVA menor cuando fueron comparados con el Grupo C. Post intervención, el Grupo VitC presentó reducción de la PAM en reposo (81 ± 2 vs 75 ± 1 mmHg, p = 0,01, mientras en el Grupo Placebo no hubo alteración de la PAM (p = 0,58. Adicionalmente, VitC promovió un aumento de la CVA en reposo (3,40 ± 0,5 vs 5,09 ± 0,6 un, p = 0,04 y durante el estrés mental (3,92 ± 0,5 vs 6,68 ± 0,9 un, p = 0,03. Además de eso, post suplementación con VitC, los niveles de la CVA fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los del Grupo C en reposo (5,09 ± 0,6 vs 5,82 ± 0,4 un, p > 0,05 y durante el estrés mental (6,68 ± 0,9 vs 7,35 ± 0,5 un, p > 0,05. CONCLUSIÓN: Suplementación con VitC redujo la presión arterial y restableció la respuesta vasodilatadora periférica en niños obesos.BACKGROUND: Peripheral vasodilation response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity and heart disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the chronic effect of vitamin C (VitC supplementation on blood pressure and on vasodilation response to mental stress. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized and prospective study we evaluated obese

  4. Os efeitos do estresse na função do eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal em indivíduos com esquizofrenia The effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, têm surgido evidências sugerindo que a patogênese de desordens psiquiátricas, tais como a esquizofrenia, pode envolver perturbações no eixo hipotalâmico-pituitário-adrenal (HPA. Variações na manifestação desses efeitos poderiam estar relacionadas a diferenças em sintomas clínicos entre os indivíduos afetados, assim como a diferenças na resposta ao tratamento. Tais efeitos podem também ser originados de complexas interações entre genes e fatores ambientais. Aqui, revisamos os efeitos do estresse maternal em anormalidades na regulação do eixo HPA e desenvolvimento de desordens psiquiátricas, incluindo a esquizofrenia. Estudos nessa área podem gerar o aumento do nosso entendimento da natureza multidimensional da esquizofrenia. Posterior pesquisa nesse campo poderia, em última instância, levar ao desenvolvimento de melhores diagnósticos e novas abordagens terapêuticas para essa debilitante condição psiquiátrica.Over the last few decades, evidence has been emerging that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to the differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals as well as to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of schizophrenia. Further research in this area could ultimately lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating this debilitating psychiatric condition.

  5. iOS 6 foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    A practical introduction for using iOS 6 to create universal apps If you have prior experience programming in an object-oriented language and are eager to start building universal apps for iPad and iPhone (including the iPod touch), then this is the book for you! Using the latest version of iOS (iOS 6) along with the latest version of Xcode (Xcode 4.5), this book is a practical introduction rather than just a catalog of components. Full-color and packed with groundbreaking, innovative designs, this book teaches you how to create eye-catching, unique apps. Teaches you the va

  6. Os acromiale causing shoulder impingement syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, I.; Rodriguez, A.; Roca, M.; Garcia, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Shoulder impingement syndrome is caused by repeated mechanical trauma to the rotator cuff due to encroachment of the coracoacromial ligament; in most cases, it is a primary lesion. Os acromiale, an anatomic variant of the shoulder structures, is one of the predisposing factors for the development of this entity. We present a case of os acromiale complicated by complete rupture of the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle and luxation of the long head of the biceps tendon. We stress the importance of magnetic resonance in the study of this anatomic variant and in the detection of complications or associated lesions. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer patients: A systematic review of case control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsang Oh

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Upregulated OS profiles and impairment of antioxidant defense systems may play a role in men with PCa. To confirm these findings, robust clinical trials utilizing a personalized approach which monitors both OS and antioxidant markers during therapy are warranted.

  8. Os ciganos e os processos de exclusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Andrade Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrar em contato com os ciganos e seu mundo de significações e práticas que podemos chamar de cultura cigana ou 'ciganidade', mesmo correndo o risco das generalizações, é estar em contato com um tema que insiste em escapar entre nossos dedos. Deparamo-nos com um povo que ao longo da história acabou se adaptando a cada novo encontro e a cada nova região, buscando sobreviver em um mundo que busca e valoriza os seus contrários. Mesmo assim, esse povo manteve muitas de suas tradições intactas durante séculos de nomadismo. Para os ciganos nômades, a barraca é o seu lugar. Durante séculos as adjetivações negativas em relação aos ciganos aparecem em leis, decretos, matérias jornalísticas, processos criminais e também nas artes. Esses processos de exclusão fizeram e fazem parte da dinâmica dos Estados que veem os grupos ciganos como perigosos e desnecessários.

  9. Os animais na fraseologia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Ferreira Guerra

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2011v45n2p461 Os animais são utilizados como referência para desenvolver o comportamento, aspecto físico, personalidade e estados subjetivos de uma pessoa (e. g., mosca: pessoa importuna ou insistente; cacarejar: palrar monotonamente, tagarelar). Foram analisados os substantivos, verbos e frases (clichês, gírias e provérbios) usados pela população brasileira, de acordo com as descrições mencionadas nos dicionários e livros sobre folclore. A maior parte ...

  10. Rutes amb iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nofuentes Azcárate, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Projecte de l'implementació d'una aplicació per registrar i gestionar recorreguts basada al sistema operatiu iOS amb la possibilitat de sincronitzar amb un servei web sobre la plataforma Google App Engine. Proyecto de implementación de una aplicación para registrar y gestionar recorridos basada en el sistema operativo iOS con la posibilidad de sincronizar con un servicio web sobre la plataforma Google App Engine. Implementation project for an application to record and manage routes, bas...

  11. iOS 5 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    Each chapter will take you through a new major feature of iOS 5. You will learn how to integrate each feature into your applications. If you ever wanted to learn about the latest features of iOS 5 and learn how to incorporate Twitter, iCloud and Core Image framework effects functionality into your applications, then this book is for you. You should have a good knowledge of programming experience with Objective-C, and have used Xcode 4. iPhone programming experience is not required.

  12. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in

  13. Os Avanços e os Limites da Queda Recente da Desigualdade no Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Andrade de Oliveira e Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar os avanços e os limites na análise da queda recente verificada na desigualdade no Brasil. É sabido que durante os anos 2000, a alteração verificada no Índice de Gini teve como efeitos a redução expressiva da pobreza extrema, com um crescimento de quase 20% na renda desses indivíduos. No entanto, apesar da melhora nos rendimentos - derivado da conjugação entre o aquecimento da economia nacional (com expansão do consumo, melhora dos preços relativos e maior atuação das políticas sociais e internacional - alguns trabalhos argumentam que a desigualdade deve ser vista por um prisma multidimensional. Nesse sentido, pretende-se sintetizar e analisar a literatura acerca do tema, demonstrando as suas limitações e propondo novos enfoques para o estudo da realidade brasileira.

  14. Molecular markers in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  15. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  16. Ocena częstości występowania stresu, objawów mu towarzyszących, przyczyn oraz sposobów radzenia sobie w sytuacjach stresowych wśród osób uczących się = Estimation of the frequency of occurrence of stress and its symptoms and evaluation of causes and management of stress among students / learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2016-05-01

    4Instytut Filologii Angielskiej, KUL w Lublinie   Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie ul. W. Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin e-mail: piotr7176@gmail.com   Streszczenie Celem pracy była ocena częstości występowania stresu, przyczyny oraz sposoby radzenia sobie w sytuacjach trudnych wśród osób uczących się. Badaniem objęto 102 osoby. Kobiety stanowiły 57,8% respondentów, natomiast mężczyźni 42,2%. Wiek ankietowanych zawierał się w przedziale od 18 do 30 lat. Badanie przeprowadzono w okresie od września do października 2015 roku metodą wywiadu standaryzowanego. Narzędziem użytym do zebrania danych, był autorski, anonimowy kwestionariusz. Kwestionariusz zawierał 25 pytań z możliwością jednokrotnego wyboru w tym trzy pytania z możliwością wielokrotnego wyboru. Przeprowadzono analizę statystyczną z wykorzystaniem testu chi- kwadrat. Wszystkie wartości w których p<0,05 uznano za istotne statystycznie. Wśród ankietowanych niespełna połowa (47,1% znajdowała się w sytuacji stresowej kilka razy w tygodniu. Natomiast stres odczuwało kilka razy dziennie aż 21,6% ankietowanych. Respondenci to osoby młode, kształcące się to też jako główny powód stresu wskazany został związek ze szkołą bądź studiami (74,5%. Problemy rodzinne wywołują stres u 59,8%. Wśród objawów stresu ankietowani wskazywali rozdrażnienie, gniew, ból brzucha, uczucie bezradności, problemy z koncentracją oraz zaburzenia łaknienia. Blisko połowa ankietowanych (47,5% deklaruje, że po przejściu okresu stresu objawy z nim związane mijają. Nie ma istotnych statystycznie różnic dotyczących długości występowania objawów biorąc pod uwagę płeć. Najskuteczniejszą metodą radzenia sobie ze stresem jest wsparcie drugiej osoby, odpowiedź tą wybrała prawie polowa respondentów (49,5%. Większość ankietowanych (62,4% dzieli się swoimi problemami z rodziną i bliskimi. Mężczyźni istotnie statystycznie (p<0,05 częściej nie mówią o swoich

  17. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  18. COMO EVOLUEM OS MODELOS MENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tarciso Borges

    Full Text Available Resumo: Após revisão da literatura onde se define o conceito de modelo mental, apresentamos resultados de estudo sobre os modelos mentais de eletricidade, magnetismo e eletromagnetismo de seis grupos de indivíduos. Entre estudantes e profissionais com experiências de escolarização diversificadas, foram entrevistadas 56 pessoas. As entrevistas ocorreram enquanto se realizaram experimentos com imãs, eletroímãs e circuitos elétricos simples. Foram identificados quatro modelos de eletricidade, cinco de magnetismo e três para explicar o magnetismo no eletroímã. Apresentamos os dados desse estudo centrando atenção na evolução dos modelos identificados. Em nossa análise, destacamos quais aspectos dos modelos sofrem mudanças significativas à medida que os sujeitos ganham maior compreensão conceituai e experiência com os fenômenos estudados.

  19. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  20. High basal metabolic rate does not elevate oxidative stress during reproduction in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.

  1. Determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by ICP-MS with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W; Du, A; Zhao, D

    2001-10-31

    The article describes a method for the determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spike. The spike used in the present work was prepared in line with the principle by which artificial nuclides are produced in a nuclear reaction. The concentration and isotopic composition of osmium in the prepared spike were evaluated accurately with the isotope dilution method, using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). The advantage of this method is that using (186)Os and (188)Os double spikes can effectively compensate for the mass discrimination effects of ICP-MS. Thus, the common correction practice for mass bias in the isotope dilution method with a single spike is unnecessary. In addition, the method enables one to reduce the determined error arising from instrumental instability. The precision for the (187)Os/((186)Os+(188)Os) ratio was approximately 2% (2sigma, RSD), but in the case of (187)Os/(186)Os, (187)Os/(188)Os and (186)Os/(188)Os, precision ranged from 2.0 to 8% (2sigma, RSD). The results for (187)Os concentration in a molybdenite sample determined with this method showed good agreement with reference values.

  2. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  3. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (Un