Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S
While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.
Backović Dušan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
1. The loss of an attachment to a loved person or of some other significant attachment leads to a prolonged period of distress and disability. 2. The upset feelings are usually associated with reduction in cognitive effectiveness and problem-solving capacity, the magnitude of which is dependent on the intensity and duration of emotional arousal. There is a reduced capacity for collecting and processing information and for access to relevant memories that associate significant meaning to perceptions. There is also a deterioration in the clarity of the person's self-concept and in his capacity to assess his ability to persevere in the face of discomfort, which weakens his will to struggle. 3. The disability following loss of an attachment is the product of three interlocking factors: (a) the pain of the rupture in the bond and the agony of coming to terms with this reality, (b) the handicapping privation of the missing assets previously derived from the lost person or resource, and (c) the cognitive erosion and reduction in problem-solving capacities and of the will to persevere. 4. These factors may lead to poor mental health in the form of an acute adjustment disorder, or else of chronic psychopathology if the individual uses maladaptive ways of trying to escape his burdens through alienation from reality or through the irrational mechanisms of psychoneurotic symptoms, or if prolonged emotional tension leads to malfunctioning of a bodily system. On the other hand, if the individual masters his problems by working out ways of effective coping, he may emerge from the experience with increased competence and resilience. 5. Eventual mastery of the burdensome experience involves reorganization of the individual's "assumptive world," namely of his intrapsychic maps of external reality and his internal system for guiding and motivating his behavior, which have been disorganized by the loss of their anchorage in the ruptured attachment. 6. This reorganization is helped by
Page, Kathryn M; Milner, Allison J; Martin, Angela; Turrell, Gavin; Giles-Corti, Billie; LaMontagne, Anthony D
To examine whether positive mental health (PMH)-a positively focused well-being construct-moderates the job stress-distress relationship. Longitudinal regression was used to test two waves of matched, population-level data from a sample of older, working Australian adults (n = 3291) to see whether PMH modified the relationship between work stress and later psychological distress. Time 1 work stress was positively associated with distress at both time points. Positive mental health was negatively associated with work stress at both time points. Positive mental health modified the impact of work stress on psychological distress. This effect only occurred for those with the highest levels of PMH. Positive mental health may help protect workers from the effect of workplace stress but only in a small proportion of the population. Therefore, to improve workplace mental health, workplaces need to both prevent stress and promote PMH.
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…
Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor
Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.
Since the Law of Equal Opportunity and Treatment between Men and Women in Employment took effect 20 years ago, equality of the sexes has been established as a social ideal. Naturally, there are now more places for women to succeed in the labor market. Another social issue has emerged, however, from this situation, that of mental health. This paper analyzes from a gender perspective the serious problem of emotional disorders（ mental health） in the workplace arising from the intensification of ...
Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre
This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng
To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.
Rao, Jakkula V; Chandraiah, K
Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employees collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex of Hyderabad City. A well developed sub-scales of Occupational Stress indicator like Mental Health, and Coping behavior were used in the present study. The shop floor workers experiencing more job stress and lower mental health. But these two groups did not differ in their coping behaviour. The executives are better with work home balance.
Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.
OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...
Full Text Available Objective: In the 1st year of the post-partum period, parenting stress, mental health, and dyadic adjustment are important for the wellbeing of both parents and the child. However, there are few studies that analyze the relationship among these three dimensions. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between parenting stress, mental health (depressive and anxiety symptoms, and dyadic adjustment among first-time parents.Method: We studied 268 parents (134 couples of healthy babies. At 12 months post-partum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the potential mediating effects of mental health on the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment.Results: Results showed the full mediation effect of mental health between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment. A multi-group analysis further found that the paths did not differ across mothers and fathers.Discussion: The results suggest that mental health is an important dimension that mediates the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment in the transition to parenthood.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S
Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.
Rao, Jakkula V.; Chandraiah, K.
Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...
As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge
BACKGROUND: Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms...... of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers before and after deployment to Afghanistan. METHODS: Prospectively, 703 Danish soldiers who deployed from January 2009 to August 2009 were followed up with 6 assessments from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment in 2012. At assessments, the soldiers...
Mann, S; Cowburn, J
For many within the nursing profession, the work role involves a great deal of emotional work or 'emotional labour'. Such emotional work can be performed through 'surface acting' in which the individual simply feigns an appropriate emotion, or through 'deep acting' in which they actually try to feel the required emotion. The current study aims to aid understanding of the complex relationship between components of emotional labour and stress within the mental health nursing sector. Thirty-five mental health nurses completed questionnaires relating to a total of 122 nurse-patient interactions. Data were collected in relation to: (1) the duration and intensity of the interaction; (2) the variety of emotions expressed; (3) the degree of surface or deep acting the nurse performed; and (4) the perceived level of stress the interaction involved. Nurses also completed Daily Stress Indicators. Results suggest that: (1) emotional labour is positively correlated with both 'interaction stress' and daily stress levels; (2) the deeper the intensity of interactions and the more variety of emotions experienced, the more emotional labour was reported; and (3) surface acting was a more important predictor of emotional labour than deep acting. Implications for mental health nurses are outlined.
Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M
To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nelson, K V; Smith, A P
Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří
In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.
deVries, Marten W; Wilkerson, Bill
The United Nations, WHO and the World Bank have called the current prevalence rate of neuro-psychiatric disorder approaches of 1 in 4 individuals worldwide and 'unheralded public health crisis'. Rates are driven by an early onset, high impairment and high chronicity of these disorders. Most importantly, detection and treatment rates are low, estimated at les than 10% worldwide resulting in 500 million people underserved. The related economic costs soared in 1999 to 120 billion dollars in Europe and North America, with over 60 billion dollars assigned to stress related disorders. Contributing factors are bio-psycho-social and include rapid social change as well as the time compression of modern life resulting in the experience of increased work-life stress that parallels a decade long intensification of activities in the workplace. Coping with the requirements of the new economy of mental performance has lagged behind at many individual and social levels as we cling to adjustments made during the industrial economy of the last century. A climate of transition, and more recently, terror and fear have stressed the landscape of mental health and work already ravaged by the destructive forces of stigma. This presentation will examine the other side of prosperity from the point of view of stress in the workplace as two global problems converge at this time in history, the escalation of neuro-psychiatric disorders and the increasing dependence on the mental faculties of the world's citizens. In this paper we also discuss how the international community can work together to help reduce the burden of mental disorders worldwide and sketch the implications for research and policy. Ultimately the media will need to be enlisted to educate the public on the value of investments in mental health.
Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.
Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…
Mérida-López, S; Extremera, N; Rey, L
Work-related stressors, including role ambiguity and role conflict, are related to psychological maladjustment and mental ill-health. However, to date, the role of personal resources such as emotion-regulation ability (ERA) in the prediction of mental health indicators has not been addressed. To examine whether ERA would contribute to explaining teachers' depression, anxiety and stress symptoms beyond role ambiguity and role conflict. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We used a correlation matrix and hierarchical regression models to analyse the data. Three hundred and thirty-six Spanish teachers (185 female) from several grade levels completed the surveys (40% response rate). Role ambiguity and role conflict were positively related to depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. ERA was negatively related to teachers' scores on depressive, anxious and stress symptoms, with predictive power above the main effects of role ambiguity and role conflict. An interaction between role ambiguity and ERA was also significant in predicting depression. Our study provides preliminary evidence suggesting the development of integrative models considering work-related stressors along with personal resources such as ERA aiming to prevent teachers' mental ill-health. Future studies should examine the influence of ERA on psychological symptoms using longitudinal designs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kopp, Maria S; Stauder, Adrienne; Purebl, György; Janszky, Imre; Skrabski, Arpád
The aim of this representative study in the Hungarian population was to analyse the association between work-related factors and self-reported mental and physical health after controlling for negative affect and hostility as personality traits. The effects of job related factors on Beck Depression Score, WHO well-being score and self-rated health (SRH) were analysed in a representative sample of 3153 male and 2710 female economically active Hungarians. In both genders negative affect was the most important correlate of depression, well-being and SRH, whereas hostility was closely associated only with depression. Job insecurity, low control and low social support at work, weekend work hours, job-related life events and dissatisfaction with work and with boss were independent mental health risk factors, but there were important gender differences. Job related factors seem to be equally important predictors of mental health as social support from family. The results of this large national representative study indicate that independent of negative affect and hostility, a cluster of stressful work-related psychosocial conditions accounts for a substantial part of variation in self-reported mental and physical health of the economically active population in Hungary.
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.
Hatch, P H; Winefield, H R; Christie, B A; Lievaart, J J
To determine the frequency of the states of depression, anxiety, stress and burnout using internationally validated methods and to relate these to the demographic characteristics of veterinarians in Australia. A postal survey of registered veterinarians with at least one year's experience and whose address was available; 1947 returned the questionnaire providing data for analysis. Overall, veterinarians describe higher levels of depression, anxiety, stress and burnout than the general population. The severity of these states was determined by gender, background, type of practice and years after graduation. Modifying the curricula of veterinary schools to include the teaching of personal cognitive and coping skills to undergraduate veterinary students, the provision of the opportunity to enhance these skills throughout their veterinary career and changes in the veterinary workplace could result in improved mental health, increased job engagement and work satisfaction. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.
Urzúa M, Alfonso; Heredia B, Osvaldo; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra
Coping with changes brought about by immigration and social circumstances that often characterize this process may cause mental health problems. To analyze the relationship between acculturation stress and mental health symptoms in South American immigrants residing in Antofagasta, Chile. The OQ questionnaire, which assesses mental health and the acculturation stress questionnaire from Ruiz, were answered by 431 immigrants (53.8% Colombian and 46.2% Peruvian) aged between 18 and 65 years old. The major source of acculturation stress was distance from origin, followed by difficulties in social relationships and perceived discrimination and rejection. About 50% of respondents had elevated levels of discomfort in their life, with mental health problems derived from their adjustment to social roles and relationships. There was a high correlation between acculturation stress levels and severity of mental health symptoms. Immigrants are exposed to high levels of stress resulting in a negative impact on their mental health.
Koenen, K C; Ratanatharathorn, A; Ng, L; McLaughlin, K A; Bromet, E J; Stein, D J; Karam, E G; Meron Ruscio, A; Benjet, C; Scott, K; Atwoli, L; Petukhova, M; Lim, C C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Degenhardt, L; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Huang, Y; Kawakami, N; Lee, S; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Sampson, N; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Williams, D; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C
Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.
Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.
Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…
Hollifield, Michael; Warner, Teddy D; Krakow, Barry; Westermeyer, Joseph
Information about the relative impact of stressful events across the lifespan on the mental health of refugees is needed. Cross-sectional data from a community sample of 135 Kurdish and 117 Vietnamese refugees were fit to a path model about the effects of non-war stress, war-related stress, and post-migration stress on mental health. Kurdish and Vietnamese data were generally consistent with the model. However, war-related stress produced no direct but a large indirect effect through post-migration stress on mental health in Kurds. Vietnamese data indicated a modest direct war-related stress effect but no indirect influence through post-migration stress. Different types of stressful events lead to adverse mental health of displaced refugees in a somewhat group-dependent manner. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
Full Text Available Information about the relative impact of stressful events across the lifespan on the mental health of refugees is needed. Cross-sectional data from a community sample of 135 Kurdish and 117 Vietnamese refugees were fit to a path model about the effects of non-war stress, war-related stress, and post-migration stress on mental health. Kurdish and Vietnamese data were generally consistent with the model. However, war-related stress produced no direct but a large indirect effect through post-migration stress on mental health in Kurds. Vietnamese data indicated a modest direct war-related stress effect but no indirect influence through post-migration stress. Different types of stressful events lead to adverse mental health of displaced refugees in a somewhat group-dependent manner. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Puskar, Kathryn; Yacoub, Mohammad; Marini, Anita
Changes in mental health services have an impact on the role and practice of mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' experiences of providing mental health care, their work-related stress, and organizational support received. A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. The result of this study revealed that mental health nurses shared a high level of agreement on the importance of most nursing tasks. Mental health nurses reported a moderate level of stress, with a lack of resources and relationship and conflict with other professionals being the most frequent stressors. Nurses perceived a low level of support for their work from their supervisors. Work stress and conflict with other professionals had a significant, negative correlation with the perception the nurses had of their immediate supervisors (r = -0.29, P work stress, organizational support, and the nurses' age, sex, or level of education. This study has clinical implications in terms of developing strategies for reducing stress and improving organizational support among mental health nurses, and it should help in future research. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Kuyper, L.; Fokkema, C.M.
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are
Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…
Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young
Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture.
Lecompte, Vanessa; Richard-Fortier, Zoé; Rousseau, Cécile
Despite empirical evidence on the numerous consequences associated with high migration stress and mental health problems during pregnancy, a psychosocial stress assessment is rarely done, leaving it largely unaddressed. This case illustration sheds light on the common multiple risk factors related to migration stress that have to be taken into consideration when addressing perinatal mental health, and highlights the importance of obstetric appointments as a unique opportunity to assess psychosocial stress and mobilize interdisciplinary interventions.
Arnetz, Bengt B; Lucas, Todd; Arnetz, Judith E
To determine whether the relationship between organizational climate and employee mental health is consistent (ie, invariant) or differs across four large hospitals, and whether organizational efficiency mediates this relationship. Participants (total N = 5316) completed validated measures of organizational climate variables (social climate, participatory management, goal clarity, and performance feedback), organizational efficiency, occupational stress, and mental health. Path analysis best supported a model in which organizational efficiency partially mediated relationships between organizational climate, occupational stress, and mental health. Focusing on improving both the psychosocial work environment and organizational efficiency might contribute to decreased employee stress, improved mental well-being, and organizational performance.
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…
Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 2, 2015 ... can be serious and permanent in mental health workers working with traumatized clients (Satkunanayagam,. Tunariu & Tribe, 2010). ... research approach. The study focused on developing a sense of self-care and wellness using personal and.
Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel
The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu
Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.
Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku
Despite the fact that the lifetime and yearly prevalence rates of mental illness continue rising, such diseases have only been acknowledged as involved in workplace health issue since the 2000s. Additionally, while the number of recognized cases of mental illnesses is rather low compared to their prevalence, they have a high likelihood of causing significant problems, including fatalities. Many workers are terrified of losing their jobs due to mental illness and therefore attempt to hide their mental health problems. For this reason, clinicians involved in occupational and environmental medicine should focus on interviews or screenings to identify such hidden mental health problems. More specifically, it would be helpful to evaluate job stress and depression in workplaces to ensure appropriate preventive actions and thereby reduce the prevalence of mental illness. Job stress not only causes mental illness and dissatisfaction with work, but also can increase the prevalence and morbidity of medical diseases, as well as other physical health problems. Depression is a major contributor to work loss and absence with effects surpassing almost all of the chronic medical disorder. These facts show why measure of job stress and depression should be highlighted in the occupational settings. This article introduces a variety of assessment tools to examine mental health, particularly stress and depression, in workplaces. These tools can be used by clinicians or professionals involved in the mental health, occupational safety, or health service fields for running diagnostics or screening tests.
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Ting, Julia Y
This study examines the impact of level of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian American college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to clarify the relation between level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and mental health outcomes (psychological distress and clinical depression). Being less identified with mainstream United States culture was associated with higher psychological distress and clinical depression, but lost significance when acculturative stress was introduced into the model. Retention or relinquishing of identification with one's heritage culture was not associated with mental health outcomes. Although understanding level of acculturation can help us identify those at risk, findings suggest that acculturative stress is a more proximal risk factor and increases risk for mental health problems independently of global perceptions of stress.
Izawa, Shuhei; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Yamada, Kosuke Chris
Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours. Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Web-based surveys were conducted twice with an interval of 1 year on 2359 Japanese male workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high baseline levels of 'overgeneralization of stress' and 'insensitivity to stress' were significantly associated with new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 2.66 [95 % CI, 1.54-4.59], p stress underestimation, including stress insensitivity and the overgeneralization of stress, could exert adverse effects on mental health.
Whealin, Julia M; Seibert-Hatalsky, L Alana; Howell, Jennifer Willett; Tsai, Jack
Mental health care practices supported by electronic communication, referred to as e-mental health, offer ways to increase access to mental health resources. In recent years, e-mental health interventions using clinical video teleconferencing, Internet-based interventions, social networking sites, and telephones have emerged as viable, cost-effective methods to augment traditional service delivery. Whereas some research evaluates attitudes about e-mental health, few studies have assessed interest in using these approaches in a contemporary sample of U.S. Veterans. This study sought to understand willingness to use e-mental health in a diverse group of Veterans residing in Hawaii. Mailed surveys were completed by 600 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans and National Guard members. Results suggest that overall willingness to use e-mental health ranged from 32.2% to 56.7% depending on modality type. Importantly, Veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were significantly less likely to report willingness to use each e-mental health modality than their peers without PTSD, despite their greater desire for mental health services. These results suggest that despite solutions to logistical barriers afforded via e-mental health services, certain barriers to mental health care may persist, especially among Veterans who screen positive for PTSD.
Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Holman, E Alison
We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental health, acute stress 9-23 days after 9/11, the quality of social environments 1 year post-9/11, economic stress 18 months post-9/11, and PTS symptoms and impaired functioning 2 and 3 years post-9/11. Interactions between negative social environments and economic stress were examined separately based on OXTR rs53576 genotype (GG vs. any A allele). For individuals with an A allele, a negative social environment significantly increased PTS symptoms without regard to the level of economic stress experienced. However, for respondents with a GG genotype, negative social environments predicted elevated PTS symptoms only for those also experiencing high economic stress. Gender moderated associations between negative social environments, economic stress, and impaired functioning. The functioning of females was most affected by negative social environments regardless of genotype and economic stress, whereas the functioning of males was differentially susceptible to economic stress depending on OXTR genotype and negative social environments. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the combined impact of gender and ongoing stress in different domains as moderators of genetic vulnerability following collective stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Amy E; Dishop, Christopher R; Aarons, Gregory A
Community mental health providers often operate within stressful work environments and are at high risk of emotional exhaustion, which can negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between organizational stress, provider adaptability, and organizational commitment. Variables were analyzed with moderated multilevel regression in a sample of 311 mental health providers from 49 community mental health programs. Stressful organizational climate, characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion, role conflict, and role overload, was negatively related to organizational commitment. Organizational stress moderated the relationship between provider adaptability and organizational commitment, such that those who were more adaptable had greater levels of organizational commitment when organizational stress was low but were less committed than those who were less adaptable when organizational stress was high. Providers higher in adaptability may perceive their organization as a greater fit when the work environment is less stressful; however, highly adaptable providers may also exercise choice that manifests in lower commitment to staying in an overly stressful work environment. Service systems and organizational contexts are becoming increasingly demanding and stressful for direct mental health service providers. Therefore, community mental health organizations should assess and understand their organizational climate and intervene with empirically based organizational strategies when necessary to reduce stressful climates and maintain adaptable employees.
Green, Amy E.; Dishop, Christopher; Aarons, Gregory A
Objective Community mental health providers often operate within stressful work environments and are at high risk for emotional exhaustion, which can negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. This cross-sectional study examines the relationships between organizational stress, provider adaptability, and organizational commitment. Methods Variables were analyzed using moderated multi-level regression in a sample of 311 mental health providers from 49 community mental health programs. Results Stressful organizational climate, characterized by high levels of emotional exhaustion, role conflict, and role overload, was negatively related to organizational commitment. Organizational stress moderated the relationship between provider adaptability and organizational commitment, such that those who were more adaptable had greater levels of organizational commitment when organizational stress was low, but were less committed than those who were less adaptable when organizational stress was high. Conclusions In the current study, providers higher in adaptability may perceive their organization as a greater fit when characterized by lower levels of stressfulness; however, highly adaptable providers may also exercise choice that manifests in lower commitment to staying in an overly stressful work environment. Service systems and organizational contexts are becoming increasingly demanding and stressful for direct mental health service providers. Therefore, community mental health organizations should assess and understand their organizational climate and intervene with empirically based organizational strategies when necessary to reduce stressful climates and maintain desirable employees. PMID:27301760
Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Izawa, Shuhei; Yamada, Kosuke Chris
Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3718 Japanese workers using a web-based questionnaire on stress underestimation, mental health literacy of depression (vignettes on people with depression), and covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, income, and worksite size). After adjusting for covariates, high stress underestimation was associated with greater odds of not recognizing depression (i.e., choosing anything other than depression). Furthermore, these individuals had greater odds of expecting the case to improve without treatment and not selecting useful sources of support (e.g. talk over with friends/family, see a psychiatrist, take medication, see a counselor) compared to those with moderate stress underestimation. These relationships were all stronger among males than among females. Stress underestimation was related to poorer mental health literacy of depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L
Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
This study used a two-wave longitudinal research design to explore the role of individual strengths, including interpersonal strength, intellectual strength, and temperance strength, in affecting the mental health of stressed college students. A total of 404 stressed Chinese college students were screened to participate in this 12-month longitudinal study. At the beginning of the study (Time 1), students who had not experienced stressful events within the last 12 months were invited to assess their strengths, psychological well-being, and psychological symptoms. After 12 months (Time 2), 404 students who reported stressful experiences completed the scales again and were retained for the final analyses. Academics-related stressors were the most endorsed life events among college students, whose states of mental health showed downward trends from Time 1 to Time 2. Three strengths had weak to modest correlations to mental health at both Time 1 and Time 2. Although the additional variances of mental health explained by the three strengths were very modest, the mediational roles of the strengths were identified. The perceived stress completely mediated the relationship between the strengths and the psychological symptoms and partly mediated the relationship between the strengths and psychological well-being. Individual strengths may function as a defense against perceived stress and are protective factors of mental health. These strengths maintain mental health by enhancing the psychological well-being and reducing the psychological symptoms of individuals.
Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
VanKim, Nicole A.; Nelson, Toben F.
Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. Design A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Setting Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. Subjects A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Measures Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Analysis Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Conclusion Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions. PMID:23470187
Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F
To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.
Jensen, Heidi AR; Rasmussen, Birgit; Ekholm, Ola
Background Noise exposure is a well-known risk factor for multiple adverse health effects. Annoyance is the most prevalent response to environmental noise and may result in negative emotional responses, including poor mental health and high levels of perceived stress. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the association between neighbour and traffic noise annoyance, and mental health and perceived stress. Methods Data were derived from the Danish Health and Morbidity surveys in 2010 and 2013. The study was based on a random sample of the adult population in Denmark living in multistorey housing (n...... = 7090). Information on neighbour and traffic noise annoyance during the past 2 weeks, and mental health and perceived stress, using Short Form-12 and Perceived Stress Scale instruments, respectively, was obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression models were used...
Wu, Hongtao; Xiao, Taiqin; Zou, Jianfang; Shan, Yongle; Li, Zijian
To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers and to provide a scientific basis for protection of their mental health. A total of 768 workers on offshore oil platform were surveyed with the Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The total score of Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) for the workers (160.27±24.63) was significantly lower than the national norm (166.52±27.01) (P 0.05), but the items of recreation, social support, and rational/cognitive found significant difference (P work seniority, education background, drinking, role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, responsibility, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct impacted the score of SCL-90 (P mental health of workers on offshore oil platform is related to occupational stress, and role overload, role ambiguity, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct, etc, are closely associated with the workers' mental health.
Chen, Wei-Qing; Wong, Tze-Wai; Yu, Tak-Sun
To explore the influence of occupational stress on mental health in off-shore oil production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 561 Chinese off-shore oil workers. The workers were invited to fill in a self-administered questionnaire exploring their socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stress levels, and 12-item general health questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression procedure was used to assess the effects of occupational stress on mental health. After controlling for age, educational level, marital status and years of off-shore work, poor mental health was found to have a significant positive association with seven of the nine identified sources of occupational stress. They were: conflict between job and family/social life, poor development of career and achievement at work, safety problems at work, management problems and poor relationship with others at work, poor physical environment of the work place, uncomfortable ergonomic factors at work, and poor organizational structure at work. All of these occupational stress sources together explained 19.9% of the total variance. The results confirmed that occupational stress was a major risk factor for poor mental health among Chinese off-shore oil workers. Reducing or eliminating occupational stressors at work would benefit workers' mental health.
Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A
The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1 month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T
The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.
This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…
Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman
High levels of stress and burnout have been reported among mental health professionals worldwide, including Singapore, with concerning potential implications for the quality of patient care. Mindfulness has been associated with decreased stress and burnout; however, associations between mindfulness, stress, and burnout have not been examined in Singapore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is associated with stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore. A total of 224 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey which included measures of: mindfulness (observe, describe, act with awareness, non-judge, and non-react), stress, and burnout (exhaustion and disengagement). Using multiple regression, significant negative associations were found between each of the mindfulness facets and: stress, exhaustion, and disengagement, while controlling for years of experience. Of the five mindfulness facets, act with awareness demonstrated the strongest negative association with all three variables. This study showed that mental health professionals in Singapore who have higher levels of mindfulness also have lower levels stress and burnout (disengagement and exhaustion). Future longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the directionality of these associations, with implications for the development of interventions aimed to reduce stress and burnout within this population.
Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman
International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Ningxi; Xu, Yayun; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue
Objectives: Engaging in sexual risk behaviour can be a maladaptive strategy for international students to deal with stress. This study examined the role of poor mental health in mediating the relationship between acculturative stress and condom-use intention among international students in Beijing, China. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional…
Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.
This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…
The relationship between work stressors and mental health outcomes has been demonstrated in a whole range of work stress models and studies. But less has been written about factors outside the work setting that might predict or moderate the relationship between work stressors and strain. In this exploratory study, we suggest a model linking work stressors and "time-based" work-family conflict (TWFC) with mental health, with the intention to contribute to the refinement of the traditional work...
Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)
Nurius, Paula S.; Uehara, Edwina; Zatzick, Douglas F.
This paper describes the intersection of converging lines of research on the social structural, psychosocial, and physiological factors involved in the production of stress and implications for the field of mental health. Of particular interest are the stress sensitization consequences stemming from exposure to adversity over the life course. Contemporary stress sensitization theory provides important clinical utility in articulating mechanisms through which these multiple levels exert influe...
Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita
The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…
Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui
Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p control group revealed no significant changes. Comparing the mean differences in pre- and posttest scores between yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.
Lucas-Thompson, RG; Holman, EA
We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental h...
Kaminer, Debra; Eagle, Gillian; Crawford-Browne, Sarah
This article discusses the condition of continuous traumatic stress as common on the African continent and in other international settings characterised by very high levels of ongoing violence and threat of community, political or war-related origin. Through consideration of three case studies from South Africa, contexts of continuous traumatic stress are described, and the mental health and physical health effects of living in such contexts are elaborated. Cautions are raised about attempting to transpose existing posttraumatic stress models onto individuals exposed to situations of continuous traumatic stress, and guidelines for optimal interventions with such cases are proposed.
Nurius, Paula S; Uehara, Edwina; Zatzick, Douglas F
This paper describes the intersection of converging lines of research on the social structural, psychosocial, and physiological factors involved in the production of stress and implications for the field of mental health. Of particular interest are the stress sensitization consequences stemming from exposure to adversity over the life course. Contemporary stress sensitization theory provides important clinical utility in articulating mechanisms through which these multiple levels exert influence on mental health. Stress sensitization models (a) extend understanding of neurobiological and functional contexts within which extreme stressors operate and (b) make clear how these can influence psychologically traumatic outcomes. The value of interventions that are sensitive to current contexts as well as life course profiles of cumulative stress are illustrated through recent treatment innovations.
Full Text Available "nObjective: "n The main goal of this study is to compare stressful life events and mental health in coronary heart disease (CHD patients and non-patients. "nMethod: In this research, 120 participants (n=68 male, n= 52 female were divided into two groups of patients (n=60 and non-patients (n=60. They were selected from Vali Asr Hospital of Meshginshahr (Iran and completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Stressful Life Events Inventory . "nResults: Data was analyzed using independent t-test. The results showed significant differences between CHD patients and non-patients in mental health and stressful life events. CHD patients showed high rates of physical symptoms and anxiety of GHQ . "nConclusion: CHD patients reported more stressful life events. Therefore, it can be inferred that psychological factors are important in coronary heart disease.
... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...
... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...
Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M
We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Ray, Dee C.
This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…
Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.
Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…
Sellers, Sherrill L.; Neighbors, Harold W.
Although many scholars have theorized about how responding to the stress of blocked opportunities can affect the well-being of black Americans, few scholars have empirically examined the relationships between striving efforts, personal goals, and mental health among black Americans. This investigation examines the relationship between…
Bercier, Melissa L.; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: A systematic review was conducted to examine effects of indicated interventions to reduce symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS) experienced by mental health workers. Method: Systematic review methods were employed to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies that met study inclusion criteria. Results: Over 4,000 citations…
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
This study compared the stress and mental health implications of caregiving to a spouse, children, siblings, other family members, friends, and others among middle-aged and older male and female caregivers. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2007 Canadian General Social Survey data collected on a subsample of caregivers aged 45 and older. Our analyses revealed that for women, caring for a spouse or children was more stressful and detrimental to mental health than caring for parents or others. Similarly, for men, caring for a spouse and for children was more stressful than caring for others but did not adversely affect overall mental health. The findings suggest that spousal and child caregiving tend to be more rather than less stressful and detrimental to middle-aged and older caregivers' mental health than is caregiving to most others but that gender differences need to be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wight, Richard G; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Detels, Roger
We investigated associations between stress and mental health (positive affect, depressive symptoms) among HIV-negative and HIV-positive midlife and older gay-identified men, along with the mediating and moderating effects of mastery and emotional support. We also studied the mental health effects of same-sex marriage. We obtained data from self-administered questionnaires completed in 2009 or 2010 by a subsample (n = 202; average age = 56.91 years; age range = 44-75 years) of participants in the University of California, Los Angeles component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, one of the largest and longest-running natural-history studies of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Both sexual minority stress (perceived gay-related stigma, excessive HIV bereavements) and aging-related stress (independence and fiscal concerns) appeared to have been detrimental to mental health. Sense of mastery partially mediated these associations. Being legally married was significantly protective net of all covariates, including having a domestic partner but not being married. Education, HIV status, and race/ethnicity had no significant effects. Sexual minority and aging-related stress significantly affected the emotional lives of these men. Personal sense of mastery may help to sustain them as they age. We observed specific mental health benefits of same-sex legal marriage.
Carder, Melanie; Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond
There is concern about the frequency of work-related mental ill-health and 'stress' within the UK. To provide a measure of the incidence of work-related mental ill-health reported by specialist psychiatrists and occupational physicians to UK voluntary reporting schemes during the period 2002-05. Additionally, an investigation of determinants, notably factors identified by reporters as precipitants in cases of work-related mental ill-health was undertaken. The study used data collected by The Health and Occupation Reporting Network (THOR) from 2002 to 2005. Cases were analysed by age, gender, industry and precipitating event. Estimated annual average incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses reported to THOR between 2002 and 2005 by psychiatrists were 89 (78, 101) per million and by occupational physicians were 1589 (1443, 1735) per million. For both groups of reporters, anxiety and depression continued to make up the largest proportion of diagnoses. The majority of cases were attributed to factors such as workload and difficulties with other workers. There was some suggestion that the type of factors associated with the mental ill-health case reports varied between industrial sectors. Work-related anxiety and depression and stress continue to constitute a significant proportion of all work-related mental ill-health diagnoses in the UK, with workload and interpersonal relationships reported as significant risk factors. Further investigations may determine whether guidance for employers and employees on work-related mental ill-health would benefit from being more industry specific.
Tian, Lili; Jiang, Siyi; Huebner, E Scott
Based on Greenspoon and Saklofske's (2001) dual-factor model of mental health, we defined adolescents' mental health as comprised of two distinguishable factors: positive and negative mental health. We tested the direct relations between the Eysenck's (1967) Big Two personality traits (Extraversion and Neuroticism) and positive and negative mental health, and explored the mediation effects of perceived school stress in accounting for the relations. Direct and indirect relations were estimated by using structural equation modeling with data from 1,009 Chinese adolescents in a 3-wave study. Results indicated that (a) adolescents' levels of neuroticism showed a positive relation to negative mental health and a negative relation to positive mental health, whereas levels of extraversion showed a negative relation to negative mental health and a positive relation to positive mental health; and (b) adolescents' perceived school stress (PSS) mediated the relation between neuroticism and mental health but not the relation between extraversion and mental health. The findings suggest that school professionals should consider adolescents' personality traits and school-based stress when planning and delivering mental health services. The findings of the relations between extraversion and PSS are also discussed in light of the face culture in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Richard J. Servatius
Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.
Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Martínez, David; Smith, Graham; Hurst, Gemma; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; van den Berg, Magdalena; Ambròs, Albert; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Dedele, Audrius; Ellis, Naomi; Grazulevicius, Tomas; Voorsmit, Martin; Cirach, Marta; Cirac-Claveras, Judith; Swart, Wim; Clasquin, Eddy; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Maas, Jolanda; Jerret, Michael; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in: Barcelona, Spain; Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Doetinchem, Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants' exposure to NOE (including both surrounding greenness and green and/or blue spaces) was measured in terms of (a) amount in their residential environment (using Geographical Information Systems) and (b) their contact with NOE (using smartphone data collected over seven days). Self-reported information was collected for mental health (psychological wellbeing, sleep quality, vitality, and somatisation), and potential effect modifiers (gender, age, education level, and city) and mediators (perceived stress and social contacts), with additional objective NOE physical activity (potential mediator) derived from smartphone accelerometers. Analysis of data from 406 participants showed no statistically significant associations linking mental health and residential NOE exposure. However, NOE contact, especially surrounding greenness, was statistically significantly tied to better mental health. There were indications that these relationships were stronger for males, younger people, low-medium educated, and Doetinchem residents. Perceived stress was a mediator of most associations, and physical activity and social contacts were not. Our findings indicate that contact with NOE benefits mental health. Our results also suggest that having contact with NOE that can facilitate stress reduction could be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola
Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the 'VI Reparto Mobile', a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI≥10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers.
Manimaran, S; Jayakumar, S; Lakshmi, K Bhagya
Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule. It's obviously significance to evaluate and appraise the stress stimulators as a challenge or threat. The theoretical framework for the study was designed for analyzing the stress stimulators, academic performance and EMIS accessibility. The sample examined in this study was stratified random sample from 75 students specifically all engineering college in Dindigul District of Tamilnadu. The primary factor is the academic stress stimulators that form one module of EMIS for each of the key variable such as curriculum & instruction related stressors, placement related, teamwork related and assessment related. The Mental Health related stress stimulators namely curriculum & syllabus, placement related, assessment related and team work related have a significant influence on academic performance by students in various institution. The important factor leading to the EMIS application in monitoring stress stimulators is curriculum & syllabus related and assessment related.
Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Weems, Carl F; Hansel, Tonya C; King, Lucy S
To examine the interactive effects of stress related to the Gulf oil spill on mental health of children and adolescents on the Gulf Coast who were also affected by previous hurricanes. A prospective design, with n = 1,577 youth (aged 3-18 years), evaluated pre-oil spill and again post-oil spill for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, previous hurricane exposure, and amount of oil spill stress. Stressors related to the spill were common and were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, there was an interactive effect such that those with high preexisting PTSD symptoms, high previous hurricane exposure, and high oil spill stress had the most elevated post-oil spill PTSD symptoms. This study provides initial evidence linking stress related to the Gulf oil spill to youth mental health symptoms. The effects of the oil spill on youth mental health were most evident among those with cumulative risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.
Suyi, Yang; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman
Stress and burnout have been shown to be a concern among mental health professionals in several countries including Singapore, and can affect quality of care and staff turnover. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness program in increasing mindfulness and compassion, and reducing stress and burnout, among mental health professionals in Singapore. The study utilized data from a prospective pre-post study design with follow-up. A total of 37 mental health professionals participated in the program, which was conducted in three cohorts over nine months. The program consisted of six, two-hour sessions offered once a week over six weeks, and used a range of mindfulness techniques to teach participants to cultivate compassionate and non-judgemental attitudes toward their inner experiences. Data were collected at three stages: pre- and post-intervention, and three months follow-up. Assessments considered mindfulness (five facets mindfulness questionnaire), compassion (self-compassion scale-SF and compassion scale), stress (perceived stress scale-10), and burnout (Oldenburg Burnout inventory). Participants demonstrated significant improvement in four of the five mindfulness facets (observe, describe, non-judge, and non-react) and in compassion levels, and a significant reduction in stress, following intervention. The gains in mindfulness and self-compassion scores were maintained at three months follow-up. No change was observed for burnout variables. Results suggest that mindfulness training was effective in reducing stress and improving mindfulness and compassion, but not decreasing burnout, for this group of mental health professionals in Singapore. Future experimental research with larger samples is warranted to validate the findings of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J
There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01-3.25; P health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23-4.51; P mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51-7.13; P stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37-4.43; P work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70-6.55; P stress. Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood.
Prosser, D; Johnson, S; Kuipers, E; Szmukler, G; Bebbington, P; Thornicroft, G
This questionnaire study examined perceived sources of stress and satisfaction at work among 121 mental health staff members. Five factors were derived from principal component analysis of sources of work stress items (stress from: role, poor support, clients, future, and overload), and accounted for 70% of the total variance. Four factors were derived from the items related to sources of job satisfaction (satisfaction from: career, working with people, management, and money), accounting for 68% of the variance. The associations of these factors with sociodemographic and job characteristics were examined, and they were entered as explanatory variables into regression models predicting mental health, burnout, and job satisfaction. Stress from "overload" was associated with being based outside an in-patient ward, and with emotional exhaustion and worse mental health. Stress related to the "future" was associated with not being white. Stress from "clients" was associated with the "depersonalization" component of burnout. Higher job satisfaction was associated with "management" and "working with people" as sources of satisfaction, whereas emotional exhaustion and poorer mental health were associated with less "career" satisfaction.
Lam, T H; Lee, P W; Ong, S G; Wong, C M; Chow, W K; Kleevens, J W
Mental health and work stress among 344 clerical (and secretarial) workers and 185 executives (96 managers and 89 executives) in Hong Kong was studied. No overall difference was found between clerical workers and executives in mental health and coping ability when sex was controlled for. Clerical workers, however, reported fewer interests, more problems in accepting others' values, and more dissatisfaction with work context. Female managers/executives were shown to be a high risk group, reporting more problems in mental health, coping, and work context than their male counterparts. Mental health was strongly associated with each of the work stress factors studied. A significant interaction between sex and nature of job was noted in predictors of mental health. The interaction of coping, context, and mental health is discussed.
Benoit, Anita C; Cotnam, Jasmine; Raboud, Janet; Greene, Saara; Beaver, Kerrigan; Zoccole, Art; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Balfour, Louise; Wu, Wei; Loutfy, Mona
We measured stress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) levels of urban Indigenous women living with and without HIV in Ontario, Canada, and identified correlates of depression. We recruited 30 Indigenous women living with HIV and 60 without HIV aged 18 years or older who completed socio-demographic and health questionnaires and validated scales assessing stress, depression and PTSD. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize variables and linear regression to identify correlates of depression. 85.6 % of Indigenous women self-identified as First Nation. Co-morbidities other than HIV were self-reported by 82.2 % (n = 74) of the sample. High levels of perceived stress were reported by 57.8 % (n = 52) of the sample and 84.2 % (n = 75) had moderate to high levels of urban stress. High median levels of race-related (51/88, IQR 42-68.5) and parental-related stress (40.5/90, IQR 35-49) scores were reported. 82.2 % (n = 74) reported severe depressive symptoms and 83.2 % (n = 74) severe PTSD. High levels of perceived stress was correlated with high depressive symptoms (estimate 1.28 (95 % CI 0.97-1.58), p stress and physical and mental health concerns. Interventions cutting across diverse health care settings are required for improving and preventing adverse health outcomes.
Galvin, J; Suominen, E; Morgan, C; O'Connell, E-J; Smith, A P
What is known on the subject? Stress can impact students on mental health nurse training. This can have implications at the individual level (e.g. their own mental health) and at the level of the organization (e.g. sickness absence and attrition). What this paper adds to existing knowledge? We interviewed 12 mental health nursing students regarding the stress they experienced during training. Participants described how the academic demands can at times be unbearable during clinical placements. There were also issues with 'being a student' on some placements, with participants describing negative attitudes towards them from staff. The younger participants reported feeling overwhelmed on their initial placements and described some of the main challenges of mental health work for them. Raising concerns about the quality of care on wards was also described as particularly challenging for the students. What are the implications for practice? This paper can be useful to help training providers support mental health nursing students. Recommendations include reducing academic demands during clinical placements and extending and promoting existing support services beyond normal 9 am-5 pm working hours, even if these services are limited. Younger students could be better supported by being allocated to the more well-resourced placements in the early stages of their training. Raising awareness among staff of the tasks students can and cannot perform can help improve staff/student relations. Finally, students should be educated about the issues around raising concerns on placements to help the government's drive for a more open and transparent National Health Service (NHS). Previous studies investigating stress in nursing students focus on general nursing students or adopt quantitative measures. A qualitative study focusing specifically on mental health nursing students is required. One-to-one interviews were carried out with mental health nursing students (n = 12). Data were
... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M
When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of nursing personnel, the consequent nurses’ work pressure within health care units and the particularities of nursing services provision in mental health institutions, render the examination of stress at work a necessity. Aim: The current study aims in presenting the stress levels among nurses in mental health institutions, their perceptions of the nursing role and the coping strategies they use. Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the population of 85 nurses in mental health open and closed units of two public hospitals of Attica, one psychiatric and one general. Participants filled in questionnaires on demographic characteristics, perceived stress, role conflict and ambiguity and ways of coping with stressful situations. Results: 57 women (67,1% and 28 men (32,9%, aged (mean 41,08 years, mostly married (74,1% and graduates of Technological institutions (29,4% participated in the study. Most were working 16-20 years (32,9%, were nurses (71,8% and were being occupied in a psychiatric structure for more than 21 years (27,1%. Female nurses had a greater amount of role ambiguity (p=0.048 and higher levels of stress (p=0.007. The same pattern was observed to those who worked for more years (p=0.038. Those who were not satisfied with their job suffered from greater role ambiguity (p<0.001 and conflict (p<0.001, while the graduates of secondary education and specialised nurses had higher levels of stress (p=0.004. Nurses with most working years in a psychiatric facility, experienced greater role conflict (p=0.034. Role ambiguity was positively associated with role conflict (p<0.001, perceived stress (p=0.006, positive approach strategy (negatively; p=0.003, self-rated health (negatively; p=0.003 and age (negatively; p=0.006. Perceived stress was negatively associated with positive approach (p=0.019 and self-rated health (p<0.001. Finally, positive approach was positively associated with social
Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R
Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.
Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S
The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.
Garcia, Hector A.; McGeary, Cindy A.; McGeary, Donald D.; Finley, Erin P.; Peterson, Alan L.
The purpose of this study was to conduct the first assessment of burnout among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health clinicians providing evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care. This study consisted of 138 participants and the sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.2). Recruitment was directed through VHA PTSD Clinical Teams (PCT) throughout the United States based on a nationwide mailing list of PCT Clinic Directors. Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, organizational work factors, absenteeism, and burnout (assessed through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS). Twelve percent of the sample reported low Professional Efficacy, 50% reported high levels of Exhaustion, and 47% reported high levels of Cynicism as determined by the MBI-GS cut-off scores. Only workplace characteristics were significantly associated with provider scores on all 3 scales. Exhaustion and Cynicism were most impacted by perceptions of organizational politics/bureaucracy, increased clinical workload and control over how work is done. Organizational factors were also significantly associated with provider absenteeism and intent to leave his/her job. Findings suggest that providers in VHA specialty PTSD care settings may benefit from programs or supports aimed at preventing and/or ameliorating burnout. PMID:24564443
Dickinson, Tommy; Wright, Karen M
Forensic mental health nurses who work with patients who have severe and enduring mental health needs have been identified as at risk of suffering from occupational stress, and even developing burnout syndrome. Therefore, this article reviews the available literature on stress and burnout in inpatient forensic mental health nursing to identify the stressors and to highlight recommendations. From the review, the main stressors placed on forensic nurses are identified as interprofessional conflicts, workload, and lack of involvement in decision-making. Recommendations to reduce stress and burnout for nurses within this specialty are highlighted. These are identified as follows: staff should have easy access to support systems including clinical supervision; managers should foster an open and honest culture to enable staff members to express their feelings openly or in confidence and learn how to deal with their frustrations; and staff should be encouraged to rotate wards to increase personal and professional development and reduce boredom and apathy. Furthermore, staff should be provided with, and encouraged to undertake, continuing professional development which may include psychosocial interventions training.
Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit
Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn
To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.
The present study highlights teacher stress related to student mental health promotion through the relationship between perceived competence, perceived responsibility and negative emotions. Data were derived from a mixed methods design, utilizing three focus group interviews (n = 15), followed by survey research (n = 771) amongst Norwegian K-12…
Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1,2 Kazuma Danjo,3 Hanako Furukori,4 Yasushi Sato,2,5 Tetsu Tomita,2,6 Akira Fujii,7 Taku Nakagami,2,8 Kazuyo Kitaoka,9 Norio Yasui-Furukori2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, 3Mizoguchi Mental Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 5Department of Psychiatry, Mutsu General Hospital, Mutsu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Kitazono, Hirosaki, 7Department of Psychiatry, Seihoku-Chuoh Hospital, Goshogawara, Aomori, 8Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Akita, 9Mental Health Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan Background: Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results: The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including
Besse, Christine; Poremski, Daniel; Laliberté, Vincent; Latimer, Eric
Many clinicians are concerned that competitive work may cause excessive stress for people with severe mental health problems. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is acknowledged as the most effective model of supported employment for this population. The manner in which IPS clients define and experience employment-related stress is poorly understood. This qualitative study aims to explore how people with mental health problems receiving IPS services define and experience employment-related stress. We purposively sampled and interviewed 16 clients of an IPS programme, who had been competitively employed for more than 1 month. Data were collected between September 2014 and July 2015 in Montreal, Canada. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analysed using grounded theory methodology. IPS clients often defined stress similar to its common understanding: the result of experiencing prolonged or/and cumulative strains, or of an incongruence between efforts and rewards, hopes and reality. Stress experienced in this way could exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, especially depression or psychotic symptoms. However, when maintained at a more manageable level, stress stimulated learning and improved planning of tasks. Participants described different coping mechanisms, such as sharing their experiences and difficulties with others, focusing on problem resolution and avoidance. The first two of these helped IPS clients remain at work and bolstered their confidence. Work-related stress has potentially positive as well as negative consequences for IPS clients. In order to maximise the potential beneficial effects of stress, employment specialists can help clients anticipate potential stressors and plan how they might cope with them. Further research on the most effective ways of helping clients cope with stress is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smith, Andrew P.
Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415
Schuh, Daniela; Hippler, Kathrin; Schubert, Maria Theresia
The aim of this study was to examine parental sense of coherence (SOC) as a resource for coming to terms with their children's disease. Furthermore we examined the interaction between parental stress experience and SOC while controlling for neuroticism. 3 groups were compared: parents of children with (1) cystic fibrosis (CF, n = 35), (2) juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, n = 31) and (3) mental health disorders (PSY, n = 34). Parents were asked to complete the "Heidelberger Sense of Coherence Questionnaire", the "Parenting Stress Index" and the Neuroticism Scale of the "Trierer Integriertes Persönlichkeitsinventar". There were no significant differences in SOC and neuroticism. Parents of children with mental health disorders showed significantly higher stress levels (M = 2.60; p = 0.001) than parents of children with CF (M = 2.13) and JIA (M = 1.99). In all groups, significant negative interactions between SOC and stress experience were found (r = - 0.46 to - 0.65). However, this effect decreased when controlling for neuroticism (r = - 0.26 to - 0.31). According to our results, the type of the child's disease is not relevant to the parents' SOC. A well developed SOC in parents is likely to be helpful in coping with the stress associated with a child's disease or disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan
Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to
Nash, William P
.... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...
Melissa L. Walls
Full Text Available American Indian (AI communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose–response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.
Walls, Melissa L; Sittner, Kelley J; Aronson, Benjamin D; Forsberg, Angie K; Whitbeck, Les B; al'Absi, Mustafa
American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose-response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.
Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N
This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María
This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health.
Zaki, Rania. A.
Nursing stress is considered a problem that affects the practice worldwide. Job stress is a harmful response physically and emotionally when the nurses' skills, resources, and needs could not fulfill the requirement of the job. This study was aimed to assess job stress and self-efficacy among psychiatric nursing working in mental health hospitals…
Nugrahaning Sani Dewi
Full Text Available The study focuses on psychological and physical effects of stress while performing community garden activities of various intensity levels. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological and physical effects in adults with (case group and without (control group mental disabilities. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels and the stress response scale (SRS-18 were used for the psychological analysis (n = 42. For physical assessment (n = 13, electrocardiogram (ECG, surface electromyogram (sEMG, and respiration rate were continuously measured while performing the activities using a multichannel telemetry system. The results showed that following the activities, the case group exhibited decreasing sAA levels while control group exhibited increasing sAA levels. However, both groups exhibited lower SRS-18 results following the activities. Compared with the control group, the case group had a significantly lower increase in the ratio of the heart rate (IRHR (5.5% during low-intensity work (filling pots with soil, but a significantly higher IRHR (16.7% during high-intensity work (turning over soil. The case group experienced significantly higher levels of fatigue during high-intensity work (digging than during the rest condition. These findings indicate that appropriate workload allocation, according to health, is necessary in the community garden setting because reducing the intensity of work assignments for people with mental disabilities will reduce their physical stress.
Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.
The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW
Yoon, Hyun-Suk; Cho, Young-Chae
The present study was intended to assess the mental health of nurses working for university hospitals and to establish which factors determine their mental health. Self-administered questionnaires were given to 1,486 nurses employed in six participating hospitals located in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province between July 1st and August 31st, 2006. The questionnaire items included sociodemographic, job-related, and psychosocial factors, with job stress factors (JCQ) as independent variables and indices of mental health status (PWI, SDS and MFS) as dependent variables. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables, with hierarchical multiple regression used for determining the factors effecting mental health. The influence of psychosocial and job-related factors on mental health status was assessed by covariance structure analysis. The statistical significance was set at pnurses included sociodemographic characteristics such as age, number of hours of sleep, number of hours of leisure, and subjective health status; job-related characteristics such as status, job satisfaction, job suitability, stresses such as demands of the job, autonomy, and coworker support; and psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, locus of control and type A behavior patterns. Psychosocial factors had the greatest impact on mental health. Covariance structure analysis determined that psychosocial factors affected job stress levels and mental health status, and that the lower job stress levels were associated with better mental health. Based on the study results, improvement of mental health status among nurses requires the development and application of programs to manage job stress factors and/or psychosocial factors as well as sociodemographic and job-related characteristics.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.
Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. ADHD can impair a mother's mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress.
Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress. PMID:29719522
Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work-family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women's perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work-family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.
Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.
Heerkens, Yvonne; Kuijer, Wietske; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Engels, Josephine
Objectives The purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain greater insight into the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the mental health of employees. Methods Using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL, we performed a systematic review in October 2015 of studies investigating the effects of MBSR and MBCT on various aspects of employees’ mental health. Studies with a pre-post design (i.e. without a control group) were excluded. Results 24 articles were identified, describing 23 studies: 22 on the effects of MBSR and 1 on the effects of MBSR in combination with some aspects of MBCT. Since no study focused exclusively on MBCT, its effects are not described in this systematic review. Of the 23 studies, 2 were of high methodological quality, 15 were of medium quality and 6 were of low quality. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the emergent and relatively uncharted nature of the topic of investigation, the exploratory character of this study, and the diversity of outcomes in the studies reviewed. Based on our analysis, the strongest outcomes were reduced levels of emotional exhaustion (a dimension of burnout), stress, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and occupational stress. Improvements were found in terms of mindfulness, personal accomplishment (a dimension of burnout), (occupational) self-compassion, quality of sleep, and relaxation. Conclusion The results of this systematic review suggest that MBSR may help to improve psychological functioning in employees. PMID:29364935
Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán
Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.
Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene
BACKGROUND: The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted...... as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental...... to measure mental health problems. RESULTS: In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial...
Jean D. Iyamuremye
Aim: To develop a comprehensive model to manage the effects of STS in mental health workers operating in Rwanda. Method: An action research project was initiated to develop this model and data for the model was collected through individual interviews with mental health workers (nurses, doctors, psychologists, trauma counsellors and social workers as well as a quantitative tool measuring secondary traumatic stress (Trauma Attachment Belief Scale in these health workers. Results: The Intervention Model to Manage Secondary Traumatic Stress (IMMSTS was synthesised from these findings and includes preventive, evaluative and curative strategies to manage STS in mental health workers in Rwanda at the individual, social and organisational levels. Conclusion: The model will offer mental health professionals an effective framework for addressing the issue of STS.
Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Malone, Carolyn A; Kernsmith, Poco D
Gender role discrepancy (GRD), or nonconformity to socially prescribed gender roles, has been linked to a multitude of adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Masculine discrepancy stress (MDS), stress about being perceived not to conform to one's gender role, may explain the relationship between GRD and deleterious health outcomes. However, research on MDS has primarily been restricted to adult males. This leaves a critical gap pertaining to the potential effect of MDS on adolescent boys, who may be more malleable and susceptible to the influence and pressures of gender socialization. In the current study, data are drawn from a sample of adolescent male students ( N = 592) who completed self-report questionnaires. We employed structural equation modeling to test the effects of GRD and MDS on psychosocial maladjustment measured via sexual behavior, substance use, violence, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. In addition, we controlled for critical risk factors including sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, trauma symptoms, and neighborhood disorganization. Findings indicate significant potentiating effects of MDS on maladjustment while there were direct protective effects of GRD. These data suggest that developing prevention strategies that incorporate social norms pertaining to gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.
Full Text Available If our time is stressful, than protecting and promoting of our mental health is imperative of the time that is coming.In modern literature there is a huge interest for the determination of the mental health of the emotional intelligence, which is treated as a factor for it’s keeping and development. This paper is based on the assumption that the emotional intelligence has considerable contribution for understanding the relationship between psychosocial stress and mental health, seen through three important variables: self-confidence, depression and aggressiveness. In the research were included 72 people, and for variables’ measurement are used: questionnaire for measuring emotional intelligence (PК-45, stress inventory and questionnaire for emotional structure of the person- Profile index of emotions. The results from the regressive analyses showed that stress is connected to the three indicators of the mental health. People with low emotional intelligence react with lower self-confidence and high depression and aggressiveness in stressful situations. The two competencies of emotional intelligence (EI - self consciousness and social consciousness statistically are different from the other relevant measures which show that EI is important thing in understanding the relationship between the stress and mental health.
Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress
Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella
A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly; Westrup, Darrah; Matano, Robert A
The relationships of drinking, stress, life satisfaction, coping style, and antidepressant use to mental health were examined in a highly educated workforce. This study used a one-time mail-out, mail-back cross-sectional survey design to examine the relationships of mental health with three kinds of stress (life events, work stress, home stress); two kinds of life satisfaction (work and home); use of avoidance coping; and antidepressant use. This study was conducted at a large worksite in northern California in which the workforce was comprised of predominantly highly educated employees. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 10% of 8567 employees, and 504 were completed and returned by participants (59%). Complete data were provided by 460 participants (53%). Respondents completed the Mental Health Index, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of coping style, work and home stress and satisfaction, stressful life events, and antidepressant use. Mean Mental Health Index scores were at the 32nd percentile of the U.S. population-based norms, with low percentile values associated with worse mental health. Using multiple regression analysis, the factors examined in this study were significantly related to Mental Health Index scores as the dependent variable [F(16, 443) = 27.41, p stress at work (p home (p work (p home life (p = .01); engaging in avoidance coping (p stress, home satisfaction and work stress, home satisfaction and avoidance coping, and home satisfaction and use of antidepressants. Mental health status was poorer on average in a highly educated workforce compared with general U.S. norms. Most of the factors that were found to be associated with poorer mental health were ones that are potentially modifiable, such as experiencing more stress and less satisfaction in work and home life and engaging in current hazardous or harmful drinking. The findings that mental health is worse among individual employees who exhibit
Low Nancy CP
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.
Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola; Cupelli, Vincenzo
Since 2008, a deep financial crisis, which started in the United States, has widely spread around the world. Scientists expressed their worry about this crisis by pointing out that potential negative health effects can be created by collective fear and panic. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study on the fear of the crisis has been to examine its impact on mental health through the use of structural equation modeling. In the trial a new model of economic stress we were also interested in identifying if fear of the crisis has an indirect relationship with employees' health (e.g. related to a poor social support or to work-related stress). Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether a full or a partial mediation model best fits the data. Data collection took place between 2010 and 2011. During this period several private organizations that comprised of 1236 employees participated in the study. It was found that social support and job stress fully mediated the relationship between fear of the crisis and health, with all fit indices meeting their respective criteria, and with all path coefficients being significant. Implications for discussion of the crisis among employees were presented. In conclusion, fear of the crisis appeared to be an important innovative construct for organizational wellbeing.
Frank A Sattler
Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna
According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David
The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J
This study examined the role of nonevent stress--in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work--as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indicators nonevent stress. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the hypothesis that nonevent stress contributes to the association between sexual orientation and two indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. LGB individuals had significantly more depressive symptoms and lower levels of psychological well-being than heterosexuals. Indicators of nonevent stress were significantly associated with mental health outcomes and their inclusion in models attenuated sexual orientation differences in mental health. The critical indirect pathway leading from sexual minority status to mental health occurred via barriers to relationship projects from interpersonal sources. This research suggests that nonevent stress because of structural and interpersonal stigma may contribute to mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals. The findings have important implications for policy reform around same-sex relationship recognition and workplace discrimination. Future research and clinical work will benefit by expanding existing foci on stress to include nonevent stressors to better understand and address mental health problems, particularly in LGB populations.
Profissionais de saúde mental: estresse e estressores ocupacionais stress e estressores ocupacionais em saúde mental Profesionales de la salud mental: estrés y estresores ocupacionalesestrés y estresores ocupacionales en salud mental Mental health professionals: stress and occupational stressors stress and occupational stressors of mental health
Ana Flávia de Oliveira Santos
ón en el trabajo fueron los factores más frecuentemente asociados a la percepción de estar bajo estrés. Se concluye que los profesionales vivencian estresores asociados a los cambios relativos al paradigma psicosocial de atención, apuntando a la necesidad de intervención dirigida al desarrollo de estrategias de enfrentamiento de las situaciones ocupacionales estresoras.Mental health professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress, considering the characteristics of the work they develop. The purpose of this study was to assess the manifestation of stress, self-perception of stress, and stressing work factors in substitutive mental health service professionals. Twenty-five workers, working for at least six months, took part in the study. The instruments employed were Lipp's Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults and a Complementary Script. Quantitative data were treated by descriptive statistics, and the remaining data were analyzed qualitatively. It was observed that 36.0% of the professional had stress manifestations, and 44.0% perceived they were under stress. Work conditions and relationships at work were the most frequent factors associated to the perception of being under stress. In conclusion, professionals experience stressors associated with the changes implied in the psychosocial paradigm of care. Thus, there is a need to make direct interventions toward the development of coping strategies in stressing occupational situations.
mothers of mentally-retarded children to know themselves better, recognize their strength and weak points, and reach a level of self-recognition that proceed improving their weak points and promoting their strong points. As a result, parents accept better the reality of their mentally-retarded child and better adapt to this situation. This will in turn reduce the mental stress and increase their health status.
van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.
It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato
Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.
Lee, Joyce; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P; Martin, Trish
In their daily work, mental health nurses (MHN) are often exposed to stressful events, including patient-perpetrated aggression and violence. Personal safety and health concerns, as well as concern for the physical and psychological well-being of patients, dominate; these concerns have a profound impact on nurses. This cross-sectional study explored and compared the psychological well-being of 196 hospital-based MHN (97 forensic and 99 mainstream registered psychiatric nurses or psychiatric state enrolled nurses). The aim was to examine exposure to inpatient aggression and work stress, and identify factors contributing to the development of post-traumatic stress reactions and general distress. Multiple regression analyses indicated that working in a mainstream setting is associated with increased work stress; however, mainstream and forensic nurses experienced similar psychological well-being. As a group, 14-17% of mainstream and forensic nurses met the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 36% scored above the threshold for psychiatric caseness. A tentative model of post-traumatic stress and general distress in nurses was developed, illustrating the impact of aggression and stress on well-being. The present study affirms that mental health nursing is a challenging and stressful occupation. Implications for organizations, managers, and individual nurses are discussed. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Lincoln, Alisa K; Cabral, Howard J
The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S. Participants were administered an interview battery comprising self-report instruments that included the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Index, the War Trauma Screening Scale, the Every Day Discrimination scale, the Adolescent Post-War Adversities Scale, and the Acculturative Hassles Inventory. Results indicated that cumulative trauma was related to PTSD and depression symptoms. Further, post-resettlement stressors, acculturative stressors, and perceived discrimination were also associated with greater PTSD symptoms after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Number of years since resettlement in the US and perceived discrimination were significantly related to depressive symptoms, after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Further research elucidating the relations between post-resettlement stressors, discrimination, and mental health of refugee adolescents may inform intervention development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.
Vhuhwavho M. Maselesele
Full Text Available Background: Some life-event experiences such as injuries in car accidents, gun shots and the like, can be life changing and traumatic. Objectives: The article investigated the relationship between mental health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms after orthopaedic trauma, and attempted to understand whether social support moderates the relationship between mental health and PTSD. Method: A cross-sectional research model was used. Two hundred participants were selected using simple randomisation within a hospital complex in Gauteng, South Africa. The sample consisted of 110 men and 90 women (x̄ = 37.8 years, s.d. = 12.9 years. Data were collected using the Revised Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, and the General Health Questionnaire version 28. Results: The findings of the study indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between mental health and PTSD after orthopaedic trauma, and a positive correlation between poor mental health and PTSD (r = 0.52, n = 200, p < 0.05. However, perceived social support did not moderate mental health or PTSD, indicating that perceived social support did not significantly influence mental health or PTSD, (MSPSS B = 0.07, p = 0.66. Those with high scores on social support had a lower regression coefficient (B = 0.19 for mental health and PTSD than those who reported low social support (B = 0.26.Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between mental health and PTSD of orthopaedic patients, and social support did not moderate the relationship between mental health and PTSD.
Vhuhwavho M. Maselesele
Full Text Available Background: Some life-event experiences such as injuries in car accidents, gun shots and the like, can be life changing and traumatic. Objectives: The article investigated the relationship between mental health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms after orthopaedic trauma, and attempted to understand whether social support moderates the relationship between mental health and PTSD. Method: A cross-sectional research model was used. Two hundred participants were selected using simple randomisation within a hospital complex in Gauteng, South Africa. The sample consisted of 110 men and 90 women (x̄ = 37.8 years, s.d. = 12.9 years. Data were collected using the Revised Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, and the General Health Questionnaire version 28. Results: The findings of the study indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between mental health and PTSD after orthopaedic trauma, and a positive correlation between poor mental health and PTSD (r = 0.52, n = 200, p < 0.05. However, perceived social support did not moderate mental health or PTSD, indicating that perceived social support did not significantly influence mental health or PTSD, (MSPSS B = 0.07, p = 0.66. Those with high scores on social support had a lower regression coefficient (B = 0.19 for mental health and PTSD than those who reported low social support (B = 0.26. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between mental health and PTSD of orthopaedic patients, and social support did not moderate the relationship between mental health and PTSD.
Lindencrona, Fredrik; Ekblad, Solvig; Hauff, Edvard
The pathways to symptoms of common mental disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms among refugees during resettlement need to be better specified. We aim to identify models of these different mental health outcomes among refugees during resettlement, taking pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress conditions, a person's capacity to handle such stress and socio-demographic variables into consideration. A new questionnaire developed to better cover resettlement stress, as well as pre-resettlement trauma exposures and different measures of a person's capacity to handle stress, was administered to 124 Middle Eastern refugees that had been granted permanent residency in Sweden only a few months before responding. We found four dimensions of resettlement stress: social and economic strain, alienation, discrimination and status loss and violence and threats in Sweden, that account for 62% of the total variance in resettlement stress. Social and economic strain and alienation are important for explaining symptoms of common mental disorder. In the model of core post-traumatic stress symptoms, pre-resettlement trauma exposure seems to have the strongest impact. A person's capacity to handle stress plays significant, direct and mediating roles in both models. The impact of resettlement stressors in the context of the whole migration process for different mental health outcomes is discussed.
Lucchetti, G; Lucchetti, A L G; Oliveira, G R; Crispim, D; Pires, S L; Gorzoni, M L; Panicio, C R G; Koenig, H G
Despite the high number of studies on family caregivers, there is little research on the impact of religiosity on formal caregiving (paid providers). We examine the role of religiousness in the mental health, quality of life and stress of nurse aides (NA) who provide care for patients in a nursing home. NA in a Brazilian nursing home were invited to participate. Because of its coping function, we hypothesized that religiousness was related to better mental health and quality of life. Linear regression was used to test this hypothesis and control for confounders. Compared with the Brazilian general population, NA scored higher on measures of religious involvement. Intrinsic religiosity was associated with better mental health and quality of life. Organizational religiosity was associated with better social functioning, better general mental health and fewer anxiety symptoms. Non-organizational religiosity (prayer), however, was associated with negative outcomes, such as higher stress, poorer general health perceptions and more anxiety symptoms. Most NA indicated that they had prayed for and with their patients. In conclusion, paid caregivers (NA) have a strong sense of religiousness, which plays an important role in many ways, including the type of care they provide, their mental health and their quality of life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muzdalifah M. Rahman
The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...
Herr, Raphael M; Barrech, Amira; Riedel, Natalie; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian
The reduction of stress reactivity resulting from stress management interventions prevents disorders and improves mental health, however, its long-term sustainability has been little examined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the effectiveness of a stress management intervention, designed to improve stress reactivity, for mental health and sleep problems seven years later, using longitudinal data from 101 male industrial workers. Linear regressions estimated the adjusted effects of the changes in stress reactivity in general as well as in its six subdimensions (work overload, social conflict, social stress, failure at work, and anticipatory and prolonged reactivity) on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems seven years later. The improvement of the prolonged reactivity had positive effects on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems (unstandardized regression coefficients [ Bs ] ≥ 0.35, all p -values ≤ 0.01). Depression and sleep problems were further improved by a reduction of the reactivity to social conflicts ( Bs ≥ 0.29, p -values stress reactivity resulting from a work stress intervention was effective and generally long-lasting in preventing mental health and sleep problems. The reduction of the prolonged reactivity seems of particular importance and efficient in inhibiting negative stress manifestations.
Berger, Maximus; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán
Mental health, well-being, and social life are intimately related as is evident from the higher incidence of psychiatric illness in individuals exposed to social stress and adversity. Several biological pathways linking social adversity to health outcomes are heavily investigated in the aims of facilitating early identification and prevention of adverse health outcomes. We provide a practice-orientated overview of the allostatic load model and how it relates to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. Allostatic load brings together a set of neuroendocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular biomarkers that are elevated in individuals with adverse early life experiences and are predictive of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in psychiatric illness of critical importance for Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.
This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from
Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationships of stressful events with self-reported mental health problems in the general population, comparing non-western immigrants with Danish nationals. 11.500 individuals aged 18-64 years from eight ethnic groups were invited to participat...
caregivers have been actively and productively engaged long before the attacks of 9/11, having provided mental health and spiritual care to military...Secondary Traumatic Stress or Simply Burnout ? Effect of Trauma Therapy on Mental Health Professionals,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry...24. 77 Ibid., 24. 78 Ben-Zeev et al., “DSM-V and the Stigma of Mental Illness ,” 319. 79 Britt et al., “The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in
McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin
This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…
Full Text Available Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstudies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University ofOccupational and Environmental Health, Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December.Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement andwork-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental
In Australia and comparable countries, case management has become the dominant process by which public mental health services provide outpatient clinical services to people with severe mental illness. There is recognition that caseload size impacts on service provision and that management of caseloads is an important dimension of overall service management. There has been little empirical investigation, however, of caseload and its management. The present study was undertaken in the context of an industrial agreement in Victoria, Australia that required services to introduce standardized approaches to caseload management. The aims of the present study were therefore to (i) investigate caseload size and approaches to caseload management in Victoria's mental health services; and (ii) determine whether caseload size and/or approach to caseload management is associated with work-related stress or case manager self-efficacy among community mental health professionals employed in Victoria's mental health services. A total of 188 case managers responded to an online cross-sectional survey with both purpose-developed items investigating methods of case allocation and caseload monitoring, and standard measures of work-related stress and case manager personal efficacy. The mean caseload size was 20 per full-time case manager. Both work-related stress scores and case manager personal efficacy scores were broadly comparable with those reported in previous studies. Higher caseloads were associated with higher levels of work-related stress and lower levels of case manager personal efficacy. Active monitoring of caseload was associated with lower scores for work-related stress and higher scores for case manager personal efficacy, regardless of size of caseload. Although caseloads were most frequently monitored by the case manager, there was evidence that monitoring by a supervisor was more beneficial than self-monitoring. Routine monitoring of caseload, especially by a workplace
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Liles, Brandi D; Tett, Robert P; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal
In the last decade, the development of community-based and clinical interventions to assist children and adolescents after a disaster has become an international priority. Clinicians and researchers have begun to scientifically evaluate these interventions despite challenging conditions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress. This scientifically rigorous analysis used standards for methodological rigor of psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to examine 29 intervention studies. This analysis revealed that further refinement of methodology is needed to determine if certain intervention approaches are superior to other approaches and if they provide benefit beyond natural recovery. Most studies (93.1%) clearly described the interventions being tested or used manuals to guide application and most (89.7%) used standardized instruments to measure outcomes, and many used random assignment (69.0%) and provided assessor training (65.5%). Fewer studies used blinded assessment (44.8%) or measured treatment adherence (48.3%), and sample size in most studies (82.8%) was not adequate to detect small effects generally expected when comparing two active interventions. Moreover, it is unclear what constitutes meaningful change in relation to treatment especially for the numerous interventions administered to children in the general population. Overall, the results are inconclusive about which children, what settings, and what approaches are most likely to be beneficial. © 2014.
Itzhaki, Michal; Bluvstein, Irit; Peles Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Bar Noy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Theilla, Miriam
Professional quality of life (ProQOL) reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F) who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6%) experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1%) experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV). Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a) factors affecting ProQOL and (b) the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.
Yang, Xue; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Ma, Yee-Ling; Lau, Mason C M
Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed. Levels of masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, self-esteem, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed by using validated scales. Results of structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the proposed model fit the sample well. (χ 2 (118) = 832.34, p masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, and emotional/mental health problems. We found that discrepancy stress significantly mediated the association between masculine role discrepancy and social anxiety, while self-esteem significantly mediated the associations between masculine role discrepancy and both social anxiety and depression. Study limitations mainly included the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-reported questionnaires. The associations between masculine discrepancy and social anxiety/depressive symptoms among men may be explained by the increase in discrepancy stress and decrease in self-esteem. The findings suggest needs and directions for future research for the relationship between masculine role discrepancy and men's mental health, mechanisms involved, and interventions for improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gunnarsdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Hensing, Gunnel; Povlsen, Lene; Petzold, Max
The Nordic welfare system has been acknowledged as favourable for children, successfully contributing to low child mortality and poverty rates. Nevertheless, mental health problems among children and adolescents are common and the economic situation of the family has been highlighted as an important determinant. In spite of similar social, political and cultural structures, the Nordic countries differ; Iceland was most affected by the global financial crisis in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in parental financial stress and the associations to child mental health between the Nordic countries as well as age and gender differences. The study sample consisted of 6330 children aged 4-16 years old included in the 2011 version of the Nordic Study of Children's Health, Wellbeing and Quality of life. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems. In Iceland, 47.7% of the parents reported financial stress while ≤20% did so in the other countries except for Finland (33.5%). However, in case of parental financial stress the OR of mental health problems comparing children to parents with and without financial stress was significantly lower among the Icelandic children (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15-2.24) than among the others: Denmark OR 3.07 (95% CI 2.15-4.39), Finland OR 2.28 (95% CI 1.60-3.25), Norway OR 2.77 (95% CI 1.86-4.12), Sweden OR 3.31(95% CI 2.26-4.86). No significant age or gender differences in the ORs were observed. Besides socioeconomic situation, relative deprivation should be considered an important determinant of child mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M
This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.
This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…
Nagatomo, I; Takigawa, M
One hundred and ninety elderly people receiving home health service were investigated. The intellectual levels, depressive state evaluated by the Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) scale, abnormal behaviors evaluated by the dementia behavior disturbance (DBD) scale, and activities of daily living (ADL) were examined. These assessments were performed by 72 skilled home helpers who also assessed the severity of their own level of stress using the Burnout scale. The intellectual level and mood-related signs, based on the CSDD scale, of the elderly living with families or with a spouse were diminished significantly as compared to the elderly living alone. The elderly living with families also performed worse on all ADL categories except for visual acuity as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone. There was no significant correlation between the Burnout scale score and age or frequency of working as a home helper. These results suggest that elderly people living with families as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone have greater mental health needs as well as more profound physical limitations.
... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...
Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstud...
Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904
Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.
Bøe, Tormod; Serlachius, Anna Sofia; Sivertsen, Børge; Petrie, Keith J; Hysing, Mari
Numerous studies have documented that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mental health problems in children. One proposed pathway for this association has been differential exposure to accumulated risk factors in children of lower SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of exposure to negative life events and family stress and to examine the direct and interactive association between lower SES and exposure to life events and family stress in relation with mental health problems. Using cross-sectional data from the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (conducted in 2006), the current study investigated the association between lower SES and exposure to negative life events, family life stressors, and mental health problems in a sample of 2043 Norwegian 11-13 years and their parents. Information about mental health was self-reported by the children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas information about SES and exposure to negative life events and family stressors were provided by their parents. The findings showed that lower SES was associated with more symptoms of emotional-, conduct-, hyperactivity/inattention-, and peer problems and that exposure to life events and family stress explained some of this association (10-29% of the total effects). Low SES and higher prevalence of negative life events and family stressors were associated with more symptoms of mental health problems. Overall, the effect sizes were smaller than previous investigations (f 2 s = 0.015-0.031), perhaps suggesting a buffering effect of the social safety net in place in Norway.
Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Shahly, Victoria; Spiegel, David; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Matschinger, Herbert; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Tachimori, Hisateru; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Although the proposal for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 is supported by considerable clinical and neurobiological evidence, this evidence comes mostly from referred samples in Western countries. Cross-national population epidemiologic surveys were analyzed to evaluate generalizability of the subtype in more diverse samples. Methods Interviews were administered to 25,018 respondents in 16 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess 12-month DSM-IV PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Items from a checklist of past-month nonspecific psychological distress were used to assess dissociative symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. Differences between PTSD with and without these dissociative symptoms were examined across a variety of domains, including index trauma characteristics, prior trauma history, childhood adversity, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, functional impairment, and treatment seeking. Results Dissociative symptoms were present in 14.4% of respondents with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview PTSD and did not differ between high and low/middle income countries. Symptoms of dissociation in PTSD were associated with high counts of re-experiencing symptoms and net of these symptom counts with male sex, childhood onset of PTSD, high exposure to prior (to the onset of PTSD) traumatic events and childhood adversities, prior histories of separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia, severe role impairment, and suicidality. Conclusion These results provide community epidemiologic data documenting the value of the dissociative subtype in distinguishing a meaningful proportion of severe and impairing cases of PTSD that have distinct correlates across a diverse set of countries. PMID:23059051
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Omidi, Leila; Hosseini, Seyed Sodabeh Seyed; Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl
Many nurses have reported experiencing high levels of occupational stress in their work environment. Stress, as an outcome of stressful workplaces and tasks, affects nursing behavior in hospital wards. The objectives of this research were to determine the prevalence of occupational stress and mental health problems in nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2013 and to determine the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on all of the nurses working in ICU at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Seventy-two nurses were selected as the population for this study, and all of them were female. Two questionnaires were used in this study, i.e., General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) for assessing mental health and an occupational stress test for assessing job stress. Furthermore, the relationship between occupational stress and mental health was examined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-test, and Pearson's product-moment correlation test were used to analyze the data. High and moderate levels of occupational stress were experienced by 83.9% and 10.7% of ICU nurses, respectively. The prevalence of mental disorders, somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression were 58.9, 60.7, 62.5, 71.4, and 10.7%, respectively. The findings of the independent samples t-test showed that somatic symptoms had significant relationships with age and working experience (p = 0.01). According to the independent samples t-test, there were no significant differences between somatic symptoms and working different shifts (p > 0.05). There was a high prevalence of occupational stress among ICU nurses. There was a significant relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Future interventions are needed to codify a comprehensive health program in this field to reduce occupational stress and enhance nurses
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren
Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…
Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C
identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...
Schneeberger, Andres R; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi; Muenzenmaier, Kristina H; Lang, Undine E; Castille, Dorothy; Larkin, Stefan; Link, Bruce G
People who suffer from severe mental illness often present with histories of abuse during childhood. Alcohol use disorders is a common co-morbidity of survivors of childhood abuse and neglect. This study analyzes the effects of stressful childhood experiences, a proxy for trauma, on the frequency of alcohol consumption and the utilization of health care services in a population of people with severe mental illness. There were 111 men (mean age: 35 years) and 72 women (mean age: 40.0 years) with severe mental illness that were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. The analysis focused on lifetime prevalence of stressful childhood experiences, alcohol consumption, and utilization of health care services over time. The longitudinal data were analyzed over 12 months with a level-2 model (multilevel modeling). Out of the participants, 41.5% reported a history of more than four types of abusive experiences. There were 33.3% that had a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 27.3% qualified for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of alcohol dependence throughout their lives. Stressful childhood experiences predicted an increased frequency of alcohol consumption over time. People with histories of childhood abuse had more often been to outpatient clinics and 12-step programs, but at the same time showed lower frequency rates of psychiatrist visits and visits to outpatient clinics. Childhood abuse is prevalent in people with severe mental illness and is related to an increased alcohol consumption. Despite an increased need of health care services, affected persons might encounter more barriers to access them.
This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...
Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don
Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (nontransgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one's romantic affiliation) were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (n = 191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Dyadic analyses using actor-partner interdependence models were conducted to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner's higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner's greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners.
Yang, Bei; Qin, Qi-zhong; Han, Ling-li; Lin, Jing; Chen, Yu
To investigate the relieving effects of hot spring balneotherapy on mental stress, sleep disorder, general health problems, and women's health problems in sub-healthy people, we recruited 500 volunteers in sub-health in Chongqing, and 362 volunteers completed the project, including 223 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group. The intervention group underwent hot spring balneotherapy for 5 months, while the control group did not. The two groups took questionnaire investigation (general data, mental stress, emotional status, sleep quality, general health problems, as well as some women's health problems) and physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood sugar) 5 months before and after the intervention, respectively. After intervention, sleep disorder (difficulty in falling asleep ( P = 0.017); dreaminess, nightmare suffering, and restless sleep ( P = 0.013); easy awakening ( P = 0.003) and difficulty in falling into sleep again after awakening( P = 0.016); and mental stress ( P = 0.031) and problems of general health (head pain ( P = 0.026), joint pain( P = 0.009), leg or foot cramps ( P = 0.001), blurred vision ( P = 0.009)) were relieved significantly in the intervention group, as compared with the control group. While other indicators (fatigue, eye tiredness, limb numbness, constipation, skin allergy) and women's health problems (breast distending pain; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation) were relieved significantly in the self-comparison of the intervention group before and after intervention ( P 0.05). All indications (except bad mood, low mood, and worry or irritability) in the intervention group significantly improved, with effect size from 0.096 to 1.302. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency, length, and location of balneotherapy in the intervention group were the factors influencing emotion, sleep, and health condition ( P Physical examination found that waist
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes
This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…
Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R
This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.
Lanza di Scalea, Teresa; Matthews, Karen A; Avis, Nancy E; Thurston, Rebecca C; Brown, Charlotte; Harlow, Sioban; Bromberger, Joyce T
Little is known about the independent associations of reward and stress within specific roles with multiple measures of mental health in an ethnically diverse community sample of midlife women. The objective of this study is to examine if (1) role reward (within each role and across roles) contributes directly to mental health and buffers the negative impact of role stress and (2) associations among role occupancy, role stress, and role reward and mental health vary by race/ethnicity. With separate logistic regression analysis, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between role stress and role reward with presence/absence of high depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D≥16]), anxiety symptoms (feeling tense or nervous, irritable or grouchy, fearful for no reason, and heart pounding or racing total score≥4), or low social functioning (bottom 25th percentile of the Short-Form-36 [SF-36] social functioning subscale) in 2549 women participating in the third visit of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal population-based study of menopause. High reward across roles attenuated the negative impact of role stress on social functioning but not on anxiety or depression. High reward marriage buffered the impact of marital stress on depression, and high reward mothering buffered the effect of maternal stress on depression and social functioning. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics and Chinese with high stress across roles had better social functioning, and African American mothers had lower odds of high depressive symptoms. Role reward buffers the negative impact of stress on social functioning and depression, but not on anxiety. Minorities may respond to role stress by seeking social support.
Mall, Sumaya; Lund, Crick; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J
Both mental and physical disorders can result in role limitation, such as 'days out of role', which have an important impact on national productivity losses. This paper analyses data from the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) on the association of both mental and physical disorders with days out of role. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 4,351 adult South Africans. The World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess the presence of 21 mental and physical disorders that were grouped into 10 disorder categories for the analysis: major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorders, any substance abuse disorders, headaches or migraine, arthritis, chronic pain, cardiovascular, respiratory, diabetes and digestive disorders. Multiple regression techniques were used to explore associations between individual disorders, comorbid conditions, and annual days spent out of role. The estimated societal effects of the disorders [population attributable risk proportion (PARP)] were obtained. The majority of respondents who reported a mental or physical disorder also reported another disorder (62.98 %). The average number of disorders reported by respondents who had at least one disorder was 2.3. Overall 12.4 % of respondents reported any days out of role due to mental or physical disorder. Anxiety disorders and depression were associated with highest days out of role (28.2 and 27.2, respectively) followed closely by arthritis and pain (24.7 and 21.7, respectively). Any mental disorder was associated with 23.6 days out of role, while any physical disorder was associated with 15.5 days out of role. Of the mental disorders, anxiety disorders had the highest PARP in relation to days out of role (9.0 %) followed by depression (4.8 %) and substance disorder (3.3. %). More than one-third (37.6 %) of days out of role are attributable to physical disorders and 16.1 % to mental
Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.
Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034
Gleeson, John; Lederman, Reeva; Koval, Peter; Wadley, Greg; Bendall, Sarah; Cotton, Sue; Herrman, Helen; Crisp, Kingsley; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Family members caring for a young person diagnosed with the onset of mental health problems face heightened stress, depression, and social isolation. Despite evidence for the effectiveness of family based interventions, sustaining access to specialist family interventions is a major challenge. The availability of the Internet provides possibilities to expand and sustain access to evidence-based psychoeducation and personal support for family members. In this paper we describe the therapeutic model and the components of our purpose-built moderated online social therapy (MOST) program for families. We outline the background to its development, beginning with our face-to-face EPISODE II family intervention, which informed our selection of therapeutic content, and the integration of recent developments in positive psychology. Our online interventions for carers integrate online therapy, online social networking, peer and expert support, and online social problem solving which has been designed to reduce stress in carers. The initial version of our application entitled Meridian was shown to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in a feasibility study of carers of youth diagnosed with depression and anxiety. There was a significant reduction in self-reported levels of stress in caregivers and change in stress was significantly correlated with use of the system. We have subsequently launched a cluster RCT for caregivers with a relative diagnosed with first-episode psychosis. Our intervention has the potential to improve access to effective specialist support for families facing the onset of serious mental health problems in their young relative.
Daniel T.L. Shek
Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.
Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi
Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.
Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C
The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zarei, Shekufe; Alavi Shooshtari, Ali; Vossoughi, Mehrdad
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program using cognitive behavior approach on mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this interventional study, 90 mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were randomly allocated into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The general health questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Besides, stress was assessed through the depression-anxiety-stress scale. The two instruments were completed at baseline, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the mothers. Afterwards, within group comparisons were made using one-sample repeated measurement ANOVA. One-way ANOVA was used for inter group comparisons. Mothers in the placebo group only participated in meetings to talk and express feelings without receiving any interventions. At the baseline, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding the means of stress, anxiety, depression, and mental health. However, a significant difference was observed in the mean score of stress immediately after the intervention (P = 0.033). The results also showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean score of mental health (P mental health score remained significant only in the intervention group (P mental health of the mothers of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...
Cigrang, J A; Todd, S L; Carbone, E G
A significant proportion of people entering the military are discharged within the first 6 months of enlistment. Mental health related problems are often cited as the cause of discharge. This study evaluated the utility of stress inoculation training in helping reduce the attrition of a sample of Air Force trainees at risk for discharge from basic military training. Participants were 178 trainees referred for a psychological evaluation from basic training. Participants were randomly assigned to a 2-session stress management group or a usual-care control condition. Compared with past studies that used less rigorous methodology, this study did not find that exposure to stress management information increased the probability of graduating basic military training. Results are discussed in terms of possible reasons for the lack of treatment effects and directions for future research.
Sano, Akane; Phillips, Andrew J; Yu, Amy Z; McHill, Andrew W; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Czeisler, Charles A; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Picard, Rosalind W
What can wearable sensors and usage of smart phones tell us about academic performance, self-reported sleep quality, stress and mental health condition? To answer this question, we collected extensive subjective and objective data using mobile phones, surveys, and wearable sensors worn day and night from 66 participants, for 30 days each, totaling 1,980 days of data. We analyzed daily and monthly behavioral and physiological patterns and identified factors that affect academic performance (GPA), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score, perceived stress scale (PSS), and mental health composite score (MCS) from SF-12, using these month-long data. We also examined how accurately the collected data classified the participants into groups of high/low GPA, good/poor sleep quality, high/low self-reported stress, high/low MCS using feature selection and machine learning techniques. We found associations among PSQI, PSS, MCS, and GPA and personality types. Classification accuracies using the objective data from wearable sensors and mobile phones ranged from 67-92%.
Gibb, J; Cameron, I M; Hamilton, R; Murphy, E; Naji, S
Higher rates of stress-related sickness are found in health care professionals when compared with other sectors. The annual direct cost of absence to the National Health Service is £1.7 billion. Increased clinical demand, long hours, low staffing and a lack of support from colleagues and management are contributing to absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Mental health work is inherently stressful and levels of work stress experienced by mental health nurses are especially high. The study investigated mental health nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) awareness and knowledge of the service provided by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) and identified work-related stress and self-care strategies within these two groups. Nurses and AHP staff employed in mental health services in a Scottish healthboard area were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Results demonstrated that staff found their contact with the OHS to be a positive experience. They considered direct patient care to be less stressful than the organizational constraints they work under, and they reported a lack of support from both their peer groups and management. There should be recognition of the increased stress that hospital-based nurses and AHPs experience. These areas should be scrutinized and reviewed further to support staff within these environments in accordance with organizational objectives. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.
Life stress and mental disorders in the South African Stress and Health study. ... Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the ... life stress and sociodemographic predictors of 12-month and lifetime disorder.
Rod, Naja Hulvej
and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress......’s disease patients. Results The combined evidence of this dissertation shows a moderately higher risk of some common chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and atopic disorders among individuals exposed to work-related stressors and perceived stress. Most empirical studies also report higher...... of pathways. The physiological stress response has the ability to directly affect vital body systems including the cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic systems. Further, stress can lead to unfavorable changes in health-related behavior, impaired sleep and poor mental health. An increasing number of well...
Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan
Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.
Examining the Links between Challenging Behaviors in Youth with ASD and Parental Stress, Mental Health, and Involvement: Applying an Adaptation of the Family Stress Model to Families of Youth with ASD
Schiltz, Hillary K.; McVey, Alana J.; Magnus, Brooke; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses unique challenges that may impact parents' mental health and parenting experiences. The current study analyzed self-report data from 77 parents of youth with ASD. A serial multiple mediation model revealed that parenting stress (SIPA) and parental mental health (BAI and BDI-II) appears to…
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The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual
Full Text Available People with intellectual disabilities (ID are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable population. Two promising areas of research when thinking about mental health promotion and ID are stress and social support, which are reviewed here.Las personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI están más expuestas a sufrir problemas de salud mental que la población general. Las razones son tanto biológicas como sociales. El tratamiento actual para los problemas de salud mental tiende a ser reactivo por naturaleza, poniendo menor énfasis en la prevención. Una mejor comprensión de los contribuyentes sociales en la salud mental de los individuos con DI debería llevar a la prevención de problemas de salud mental en esta población particularmente vulnerable. Dos áreas de investigación promisorias cuando se piensa en promoción de la salud mental y DI son el estrés y el apoyo social, que aquí se revisan.
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Han, Ah-Reum; Park, Sin-Ae; Ahn, Byung-Eun
This study aimed to determine the effects of a plant cultivation-based horticultural therapy program for elderly people with mental health problems. Pre- and post-test design with experimental and control groups. Twenty-eight elderly Korean people with mental health problems participated from April to June 2017 at a farm located in Suwon, South Korea. The participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 14) or horticultural therapy group (n = 14); the latter participated in once-weekly sessions of a previously designed 10-session horticultural therapy program. The pre-test occurred 1 week before starting the horticultural therapy program. The post-test was completed within 1 week after finishing the final program session. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples collected from both groups. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess physical functional ability in both groups. In the horticultural therapy group, the cortisol levels decreased significantly from before to after the horticultural therapy program, and the post-test scores for six subtests of the Senior Fitness Test improved significantly. No significant improvements were seen in either measure in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential ability of horticultural therapy to improve the stress levels and physical functional abilities of elderly people with mental health problems. In future studies, it would be interesting to verify the long-term effects of this horticultural therapy program and to compare its effects with regard to sex, age, and various mental symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bromet, E. J.; Atwoli, L.; Kawakami, N.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Piotrowski, P.; King, A. J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Alonso, J.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gluzman, S.; Haro, J. M.; de Jonge, P.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Mneimneh, Z.; Pennell, B.-E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Salmerón, D.; Takeshima, T.; Kessler, R. C.
Background Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20–40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3–5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Method Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Results Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0–3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Conclusion Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions. PMID:27573281
Bromet, E J; Atwoli, L; Kawakami, N; Navarro-Mateu, F; Piotrowski, P; King, A J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S; Haro, J M; de Jonge, P; Karam, E G; Lee, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Medina-Mora, M E; Mneimneh, Z; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Salmerón, D; Takeshima, T; Kessler, R C
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20-40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3-5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0-3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions.
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...
Lim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeon, Yeongju; Yoo, Rankyung; Jung, Hee-Yeon
Increases in unemployment and suicide in the young Korean population have recently become major social concerns in the country. The purpose of this study was to examine mental health status in young job seekers and identify sociodemographic factors related to job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We also explored the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation and examined whether social support moderated this effect. In total, 124 university graduates completed the Job-Seeking Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Descriptive statistics were calculated for participants' general characteristics, and t-tests or analyses of variance, correlation analysis, simple mediation analysis, and mediated moderation analysis were performed. Of the 124 participants, 39.5% and 15.3% exhibited clinical levels of depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., sex, academic major, educational expenses loan, and willingness to accept irregular employment) were associated with job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Women and graduates who were willing to accept irregular employment exhibited high levels of job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Job-seeking stress affected suicidal ideation via depression, and perceived social support moderated the effect of job-seeking stress on depression and the effect of depression on suicidal ideation. The results suggest that depression management and interventions are urgently required for young job seekers, and social support should be provided to assist them both emotionally and economically.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. Methods 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. Results When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Conclusion Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.
Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Broom, Dorothy H; Strazdins, Lyndall; D' Souza, Rennie M
This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.
Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap
Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National
Richard A Bryant, ProfPhD
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Children and adolescents, who account for most of the world's refugees, have an increased prevalence of psychological disorders. The mental health of refugee children is often associated with the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in their caregivers. Despite the potential for refugee caregivers' PTSD to affect child mental health, little evidence exists concerning the underlying mechanisms of this association. This study tested the effect of refugee caregivers' previous trauma and levels of ongoing stressors on current PTSD, and in turn how this influences parenting behaviour and consequent child psychological health. Methods: This cohort study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia study, a population-based prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to 11 sites in Australia between October, 2013, and February, 2014. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and the principal or secondary applicant (ie, the refugee applicant within a migrating family unit for a humanitarian visa awarded between May, 2013, and December, 2013. Primary caregiver PTSD and postmigration difficulties were assessed at Wave 1 (in 2013, and caregiver PTSD was reassessed at Wave 2 (in 2014. At Wave 3, between October, 2015, and February, 2016, primary caregivers repeated measures of trauma history, postmigration difficulties, probable PTSD, and harsh and warm parenting style, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their child. We used path analysis to investigate temporal patterns in PTSD, trauma history, postmigration stressors, parenting style, and children's psychological difficulties. Findings: The current data comprised 411 primary caregivers who provided responses in relation to at least one child (660 children. 394 primary caregivers with 639 children had data on independent variables and were included in the final model. Path analyses revealed that caregivers' trauma
Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.
Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…
Jiang, Ting; Ge, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Rong; Han, Rui; Liu, Jiwen
At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29%) in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR) = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI): = 0.269-0.771, odds ratio (OR) = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.716). AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR) 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.433-5.195; odds ratio (OR) 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.221-5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.
Full Text Available At present, there is growing interest in research examining the relationship between occupational stress and mental health. Owing to the socioeconomic impact of occupational stress and the unique environment of petroleum workers in Xinjiang, a cross-sectional study was carried out between April and December 2015 to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A genotype, and mental health. A total of 1485 workers were selected. The Symptom Checklist 90 was used to assess nine classes of psychological symptoms. Work-related stressors were evaluated using the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. Levels of 5-HTR2A (the Tl02C and A-1438G single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HTR2A gene were measured by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The findings of the present study revealed a high prevalence rate of mental health problems (40.29% in petroleum workers stationed in the arid desert, and suggested a strong correlation between occupational stress and mental health. The TC and CC genotype of Tl02C were found to be protective factors against mental health problems (odds ratio (OR = 0.455, 95% confidence interval (CI: = 0.269–0.771, odds ratio (OR = 0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.162–0.716. AG and GG genotype of A-1438G [odds ratio (OR 1 = 2.729, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.433–5.195; odds ratio (OR 2 = 2.480, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.221–5.037] were revealed as risk factors. These data provide evidence that occupational stress and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the incidence of mental health problems.
Assana, Supat; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Rangseekajee, Poonsri
Majority of high school students in Thailand aim to study at universities. Therefore, they spend a lot of time studying in both classrooms and tutorial classes, that could cause stress, health problems and deteriorate their Quality Of Life (QOL). However, there has been no study on these issues in Thai context. To describe the status of QOL, mental health, educational stress, well-being and determine factors associated with QOL among high school students in the Northeast of Thailand. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northeast of Thailand among 1,112 students of grade 10 th , 11 th and 12 th . Multistage random sampling was used to select high schools in 5 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess QOL, educational stress, anxiety, depression and well-being. The association between the covariates was observed by using Generalized Linear Mixed (logistic regression) Model (GLMM). The prevalence of high level of QOL was 36% (95%CI: 32.30 to 41.69); whereas, 26.18% (95% CI: 16.72 to 35.63) had high level of educational stress and 16.41% (95% CI: 2.20 to 30.71) had severe anxiety. Prevalence of depression was 18.55% (95%CI: 9.86 to 27.23) and low level of well-being was 13.41% (95% CI: 0.18 to 27.14). The factors significantly associated with high QOL were; not having depression (Adj. OR= 3.07; 95%CI: (2.23 to 4.22); peducational stress and anxiety. Depression, anxiety and general well-being had influences on QOL of high school students.
Wells, Samantha; Tremblay, Paul F; Flynn, Andrea; Russell, Evan; Kennedy, James; Rehm, Jürgen; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon; Graham, Kathryn
A pooled database from diverse community samples was used to examine the associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) with self-reported stress and stress-linked mental health measures, including depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug use, disability and experiences with aggression. As part of innovative research using a mobile laboratory to study community mental health, data were pooled from five sub-studies: a random sample of the general population (n = 70), people who had received treatment for a mental health and/or substance use problem (n = 78), family members of people treated for mental health and/or substance use problems (n = 49), community volunteers who sometimes felt sad or blue or thought they drank too much (n = 83) and young adults in intimate partner relationships (n = 44). All participants completed a computerized questionnaire including standard measures of perceived stress, chronic stress, depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, tobacco use, prescription drug use, illicit drug use, disability and intimate partner aggression. HCC was significantly associated with use of antidepressants, hazardous drinking, smoking and disability after adjusting for sub-study and potential confounders (sex, body-mass index, use of glucocorticoids and hair dyed). In addition, preliminary analyses suggest a significant curvilinear relationship between HCC and perceived stress; specifically, HCC increased with higher perceived stress but decreased at the highest level of stress. Overall, HCC was associated with mental health-related variables mainly reflecting substance use or experiencing a disability. The relationship between HCC and self-reported stress is unclear and needs further research.
van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K
It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...
Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C
Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).
Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L
A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...
Lupien, S J; Sasseville, M; François, N; Giguère, C E; Boissonneault, J; Plusquellec, P; Godbout, R; Xiong, L; Potvin, S; Kouassi, E; Lesage, A
In 2008, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) announced that in the next few decades, it will be essential to study the various biological, psychological and social "signatures" of mental disorders. Along with this new "signature" approach to mental health disorders, modifications of DSM were introduced. One major modification consisted of incorporating a dimensional approach to mental disorders, which involved analyzing, using a transnosological approach, various factors that are commonly observed across different types of mental disorders. Although this new methodology led to interesting discussions of the DSM5 working groups, it has not been incorporated in the last version of the DSM5. Consequently, the NIMH launched the "Research Domain Criteria" (RDoC) framework in order to provide new ways of classifying mental illnesses based on dimensions of observable behavioral and neurobiological measures. The NIMH emphasizes that it is important to consider the benefits of dimensional measures from the perspective of psychopathology and environmental influences, and it is also important to build these dimensions on neurobiological data. The goal of this paper is to present the perspectives of DSM5 and RDoC to the science of mental health disorders and the impact of this debate on the future of human stress research. The second goal is to present the "Signature Bank" developed by the Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) that has been developed in line with a dimensional and transnosological approach to mental illness.
... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...
Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars
Refugees have often been exposed to multiple traumas making them prone to mental health problems later. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and symptom load of psychiatric disorders in refugees admitted to psychiatric outpatient clinics and to investigate the relationship between multiple exposure to traumatic events, the severity of traumatic symptoms and post-migration stressors. A clinical sample of 61 refugee outpatients from psychiatric clinics in Southern Norway was cross-sectionally examined using three structured clinical interviews (SCID-PTSD, SIDES and MINI) and self-report psychometric instruments (HSCL-25, IES-R). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed in 82% of the patients, while Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) was present in 16% of them. Comorbidity was considerable; 64% of the patients had both PTSD and major depression disorder (MDD) and 80% of those who had PTSD had three or more additional diagnoses. Multi-traumatized refugees in outpatient clinics have high prevalence of PTSD, DESNOS, comorbid depression and anxiety disorders. A more severe symptomatology was found in patients diagnosed with both PTSD and DESNOS, than in those diagnosed with only PTSD. Higher rates of unemployment, weak social network and weak social integration were also prevalent in these outpatients, and related to increased psychiatric comorbidity and severity of symptoms. Further research may clarify the existence of a cumulative relationship between pre-resettlement traumas and post-resettlement stressors in the mental health of refugees, which in turn may help to improve therapeutic interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Karam, Elie G.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Hill, Eric D.; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Although only a minority of people exposed to a traumatic event (TE) develops PTSD, symptoms not meeting full PTSD criteria are common and often clinically significant. Individuals with these symptoms have sometimes been characterized as having sub-threshold PTSD, but no consensus exists on the optimal definition of this term. Data from a large cross-national epidemiological survey are used to provide a principled basis for such a definition. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys administered fully-structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews to community samples in 13 countries containing assessments of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs. Focusing on the 23,936 respondents reporting lifetime TE exposure, associations of approximated DSM-5 PTSD symptom profiles with six outcomes (distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbid fear-distress disorders, PTSD symptom duration) were examined to investigate implications of different sub-threshold definitions. Results Although consistently highest distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbidity, and symptom duration were observed among the 3.0% of respondents with DSM-5 PTSD than other symptom profiles, the additional 3.6% of respondents meeting two or three of DSM-5 Criteria BE also had significantly elevated scores for most outcomes. The proportion of cases with threshold versus sub-threshold PTSD varied depending on TE type, with threshold PTSD more common following interpersonal violence and sub-threshold PTSD more common following events happening to loved ones. Conclusions Sub-threshold DSM-5 PTSD is most usefully defined as meeting two or three of the DSM-5 Criteria B-E. Use of a consistent definition is critical to advance understanding of the prevalence, predictors, and clinical significance of sub-threshold PTSD. PMID:24842116
Mental illness left untreated in adolescence and young adulthood can readily become a chronic illness in adulthood, seriously hampering the capacity of individuals to become healthy contributing members of society. Mental health challenges are of paramount importance to the health and well-being of Canadian adolescents and young adults, with 18% of Canadian youth, ages 15-24, reporting a mental illness (Leitch 2007). However, it is unlikely that this statistic accounts for those invisible youth (Rachlis et al. 2009) who are disconnected from families and caregivers, bereft of stable housing and familial support - in other words, youth who are street-involved. Mental health risk is amplified in street-involved youth and, as such, must be recognized as a priority for policy development that commits to accessible mental health programming, in order to realize the potential of these vulnerable youth.
... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...
Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.
Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi
It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greer, Tawanda M.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…
Dijk, I. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Weel, C. van; Speckens, A.E.M.
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction training (MBSR) on the mental health of medical students during clinical clerkships. METHOD: Between February 2011 and May 2014, the authors conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of clerkships as usual (CAU) and
Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap
We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Full Text Available El estrés cotidiano, en comparación con acontecimientos traumáticos, es reconocidocada vez más como un importante factor de riesgo para la salud mental. El papel de laautoeficacia general en la relación entre estrés diario y aspectos de la salud mental todavíano se ha examinado. Teniendo en cuenta el modelo de dos factores, que postula que la saludmental es más que la ausencia de síntomas psicopatológicos, examinamos la mediación de la autoeficacia separadamente para la salud mental positiva y negativa. Efectos totales, directose indirectos fueron evaluados, utilizando datos de una muestra de la población alemana representativa(N = 1.031. La autoeficacia es un mediador de los efectos del estrés cotidiano, conefectos superiores para la salud mental positiva. Los resultados fueron replicados en muestrasde estudiantes de Alemania (N = 394, Rusia (N = 604 y China (N = 8.669. La autoeficacia actúacomo un búfer para el estrés cotidiano. Un modelo de mediación completo no fue apoyado conmúltiples recursos psicológicos que pueden tener efectos protectores. Es la primera evidenciatransnacional para diferentes efectos del búfer-estrés para las dos dimensiones de saludmental.
Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Professional quality of life (ProQOL reflects how individuals feel about their work as helpers. Psychiatric ward nurses cope with significant psychological and physical challenges, including exposure to verbal and physical violence. This study was based on two aspects of ProQOL, the positive compassion satisfaction, and the negative compassion fatigue, with the aim of investigating the relation of ProQOL to job stress and violence exposure at a large mental health center. Data were collected from 114 mental health nurses (49/63 M/F who completed a self-administered questionnaire examining violence exposure, ProQOL, and job stress. The results showed that during the last year, almost all nurses (88.6% experienced verbal violence, and more than half (56.1% experienced physical violence. Only 2.6% experienced no violence. ProQOL was not associated with violence exposure but was reduced by work stress and by previous exposure to violence; nurses who perceived their work as more stressful had lower satisfaction from their work. In conclusion, although most mental health nurses are exposed to physical and verbal violence, their ProQOL is more related to job stress than to workplace violence (WPV. Hospital managements should conduct work stress reduction intervention programs and promote strategizes to reduce WPV. Further exploration of (a factors affecting ProQOL and (b the effect of violence coping workshops on ProQOL is warranted.
Ziaei, Shirin; Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women's levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28-32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women's levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women's experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the extent of the negative impacts of domestic violence
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Bryant, Richard A; Edwards, Ben; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; Felmingham, Kim L; Silove, Derrick; Steel, Zachary; Nickerson, Angela; McFarlane, Alexander C; Van Hooff, Miranda; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan
Children and adolescents, who account for most of the world's refugees, have an increased prevalence of psychological disorders. The mental health of refugee children is often associated with the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their caregivers. Despite the potential for refugee caregivers' PTSD to affect child mental health, little evidence exists concerning the underlying mechanisms of this association. This study tested the effect of refugee caregivers' previous trauma and levels of ongoing stressors on current PTSD, and in turn how this influences parenting behaviour and consequent child psychological health. This cohort study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia study, a population-based prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to 11 sites in Australia between October, 2013, and February, 2014. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and the principal or secondary applicant (ie, the refugee applicant within a migrating family unit) for a humanitarian visa awarded between May, 2013, and December, 2013. Primary caregiver PTSD and postmigration difficulties were assessed at Wave 1 (in 2013), and caregiver PTSD was reassessed at Wave 2 (in 2014). At Wave 3, between October, 2015, and February, 2016, primary caregivers repeated measures of trauma history, postmigration difficulties, probable PTSD, and harsh and warm parenting style, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for their child. We used path analysis to investigate temporal patterns in PTSD, trauma history, postmigration stressors, parenting style, and children's psychological difficulties. The current data comprised 411 primary caregivers who provided responses in relation to at least one child (660 children). 394 primary caregivers with 639 children had data on independent variables and were included in the final model. Path analyses revealed that caregivers' trauma history and postmigration difficulties were associated
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waladkhani, A R; Hellhammer, J
Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by different food ingredients, and how stress affects health behavior, for example food choice. It becomes obvious that nutrition is closely linked to food choice and that food ingredients affect a broad range of neuroendocrine and related psychological processes, which regulate adaptation to chronic stress. Thus, dietary modification may become a valuable tool to modify the susceptibility to stress and stress-related disorders.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Valentine, Sarah E; Shipherd, Jillian C
Transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) populations, including those who do not identify with gender binary constructs (man or woman) are increasingly recognized in health care settings. Research on the health of TGNC people is growing, and disparities are often noted. In this review, we examine 77 studies published between January 1, 1997 and March 22, 2017 which reported mental health outcomes in TGNC populations to (a) characterize what is known about mental health outcomes and (b) describe what gaps persist in this literature. In general, depressive symptoms, suicidality, interpersonal trauma exposure, substance use disorders, anxiety, and general distress have been consistently elevated among TGNC adults. We also used the minority stress model as a framework for summarizing existing literature. While no studies included all elements of the Minority Stress Model, this summary gives an overview of which studies have looked at each element. Findings suggest that TGNC people are exposed to a variety of social stressors, including stigma, discrimination, and bias events that contribute to mental health problems. Social support, community connectedness, and effective coping strategies appear beneficial. We argue that routine collection of gender identity data could advance our understanding mental health risk and resilience factors among TGNC populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.
History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…
Hinds, Erika D.
Job dissatisfaction in American public school teachers is at its lowest in 20 years. Workplace stress is a primary factor associated with job dissatisfaction, and teachers are exposed to a range of potential stressors including student problem behavior, difficult interpersonal interactions, and job insecurity. Research has shown significant and…
Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.
Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.
Koreki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Abe, Akiko; Ikeuchi, Hidetsugu; Okubo, Jo; Oguri, Atsushi; Orimo, Keisuke; Katayama, Nariko; Sato, Hiroyo; Shikimoto, Ryo; Nishiyama, Go; Nogami, Waka; Haki, Kazuma; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Fukagawa, Yuko; Funaki, Kei; Matsuzawa, Mia; Matsumoto, Ayako; Mimura, Masaru
Psychiatrists in clinical practice face a number of stressors related to patient care, such as overwork. On the other hand, they gain satisfaction from their work. We quantified and assessed the potential relationship between levels of occupational stress, satisfaction, and depressive symptoms among Japanese clinical psychiatrists. We surveyed 206 psychiatrists with up to 15 years of clinical experience who primarily worked in patient care. Levels of occupational stress and occupational satisfaction were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Workplace stressors and satisfiers were also evaluated. Out of 206 psychiatrists, 154 (74.8%) responded to the survey. The respondents' mean (SD) age was 34.3 (5.2) years. The estimated prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was 34.4% (n = 53), and the experienced frequent violence was 14.9% (n = 23). The level of depressive symptoms was inversely correlated with the level of occupational satisfaction. In respondents who reported a moderate level of occupational stress, having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction, but this association was not significant in those who reported a high level of stress. In addition, high occupational satisfaction was associated with interest towards work content, ability to work at one's discretion, opportunities for growth and career development, and ease of communication with supervisors and colleagues. Nearly one-third of the psychiatrists screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. Having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction in those who reported a moderate level of stress. Implications from the present findings may be to enhance occupational satisfaction by discussing work interests with a supervisor, as well as increased opportunities for career development, which may
Walls, Melissa L.; Sittner, Kelley J.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Forsberg, Angie K.; Whitbeck, Les B.; al’Absi, Mustafa
American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical...
Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.
Christodoulou-Fella, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.
Work-related moral distress (MD) and secondary traumatic stress syndrome (STSS) may be associated with compromised health status among health professionals, reduced productivity, and inadequate safety of care. We explored the association of MD with the severity of STSS symptoms, along with the mediating role of mental distress symptoms. Associations with emotional exhaustion and professional satisfaction were also assessed. This cross-sectional survey conducted in 206 mental health nurses (MHNs) was employed across public sector community and hospital settings in Cyprus. The analysis revealed that MD (measured by the modified Moral Distress Scale) was positively associated with both STSS (measured by the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale) and mental distress symptoms (assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28). The association of MD with STSS symptoms was partially mediated by mental distress symptoms. This association remained largely unchanged after adjusting for gender, age, education, rank, and intention to quit the job. Our findings provide preliminary evidence on the association between MD and STSS symptomatology in MHNs. Situations that may lead health professionals to be in moral distress seem to be mainly related to the work environment; thus interventions related to organizational empowerment of MHNs need to be developed. PMID:29209622
Full Text Available Work-related moral distress (MD and secondary traumatic stress syndrome (STSS may be associated with compromised health status among health professionals, reduced productivity, and inadequate safety of care. We explored the association of MD with the severity of STSS symptoms, along with the mediating role of mental distress symptoms. Associations with emotional exhaustion and professional satisfaction were also assessed. This cross-sectional survey conducted in 206 mental health nurses (MHNs was employed across public sector community and hospital settings in Cyprus. The analysis revealed that MD (measured by the modified Moral Distress Scale was positively associated with both STSS (measured by the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale and mental distress symptoms (assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28. The association of MD with STSS symptoms was partially mediated by mental distress symptoms. This association remained largely unchanged after adjusting for gender, age, education, rank, and intention to quit the job. Our findings provide preliminary evidence on the association between MD and STSS symptomatology in MHNs. Situations that may lead health professionals to be in moral distress seem to be mainly related to the work environment; thus interventions related to organizational empowerment of MHNs need to be developed.
Sano, Akane; Taylor, Sara; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Barger, Laura K; Klerman, Elizabeth; Picard, Rosalind
Wearable and mobile devices that capture multimodal data have the potential to identify risk factors for high stress and poor mental health and to provide information to improve health and well-being. We developed new tools that provide objective physiological and behavioral measures using wearable sensors and mobile phones, together with methods that improve their data integrity. The aim of this study was to examine, using machine learning, how accurately these measures could identify conditions of self-reported high stress and poor mental health and which of the underlying modalities and measures were most accurate in identifying those conditions. We designed and conducted the 1-month SNAPSHOT study that investigated how daily behaviors and social networks influence self-reported stress, mood, and other health or well-being-related factors. We collected over 145,000 hours of data from 201 college students (age: 18-25 years, male:female=1.8:1) at one university, all recruited within self-identified social groups. Each student filled out standardized pre- and postquestionnaires on stress and mental health; during the month, each student completed twice-daily electronic diaries (e-diaries), wore two wrist-based sensors that recorded continuous physical activity and autonomic physiology, and installed an app on their mobile phone that recorded phone usage and geolocation patterns. We developed tools to make data collection more efficient, including data-check systems for sensor and mobile phone data and an e-diary administrative module for study investigators to locate possible errors in the e-diaries and communicate with participants to correct their entries promptly, which reduced the time taken to clean e-diary data by 69%. We constructed features and applied machine learning to the multimodal data to identify factors associated with self-reported poststudy stress and mental health, including behaviors that can be possibly modified by the individual to improve
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ali, Lilas; Krevers, Barbro; Skärsäter, Ingela
This study compared the caring situation, health, self-efficacy, and stress of young (16-25) informal carers (YICs) supporting a family member with mental illness with that of YICs supporting a friend. A sample of 225 carers, assigned to a family group (n = 97) or a friend group (n = 128) completed the questionnaire. It was found that the family group experiences a lower level of support and friends experienced a lower positive value of caring. No other differences in health, general self-efficacy and stress were found. YICs endure different social situations, which is why further study of the needs of YICs, especially those supporting friends, is urgently needed.
Duan, Wenjie; Mu, Wenlong
Although stress emerges when environmental demands exceed personal resources, existing measurement methods for stress focus only on one aspect. The newly-developed Short Stress Overload Scale (SOS-S) assesses the extent of stress by assessing both event load (i.e., environmental demands) and personal vulnerability (i.e., personal resources). The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Stress Overload Scale-Short (SOS-SC), and further examine its roles in screening mental health status. A total of 1364 participants were recruited from communities and colleges for scale validation. Reliabilities were good throughout the subsamples (ω > 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the acceptable goodness-of-fit for the two-factor correlated model (Sample 1: 560 community residents). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed measurement invariance across community residents (Sample 1) and college students (Sample 2 and Sample 3). Criterion validity and convergent validity were established (Sample 2: 554 college students). Latent moderated structural equations demonstrated that the relationship between SOS-SC and depression is moderated by social support (Sample 2), further validating the SOS-SC. In addition, the SOS-SC effectively screened individuals in a population at different levels of mental health status (i.e., "at risk" vs. "at low risk" for depression symptoms and/or wellbeing). The SOS-SC exhibits acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese context. That said, the two aspects of stress can be differentiated by the Chinese context, therefore, the SOS-SC can be used to measure stress and screen mental health status among the Chinese population, and monitor and evaluate health-promoting interventions.
Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan
Purpose: Previous cross-sectional research has examined effect of loneliness on mental health. This study aimed to examine longitudinal relationships in students. Design/Methodology: 454 British undergraduate students completed measures of loneliness and mental health at four time points.Findings: After controlling for demographics and baseline mental health, greater loneliness predicted greater anxiety, stress, depression and general mental health over time. There was no evidence that mental...
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Holmgren, Kristina; Fjällström-Lundgren, Malin; Hensing, Gunnel
The objectives were to identify work-related stress, and to analyse whether or not work-related stress served to predict sick-leave in a population of employed women who saw a doctor due to musculoskeletal or mental disorder at primary health care centres. This prospective study was based on data collected with the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ) at baseline 2008 and at follow-up 2009 in the primary health care centres in western Sweden. A total of 198 women participated. High perceived stress owing to indistinct organization and conflicts at baseline increased the risk for sick-leave 8 days or longer at follow-up. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 2.50 (1.14-5.49). The combination of high stress perception owing to indistinct organization and high stress perception owing to individual demands and commitment increased the risk for sickness absence of 8 days or longer with an adjusted RR of 4.34 (1.72-10.99). Work-related stress predicted sick-leave during the follow-up at 12 months. The WSQ seemed to be useful in identifying women at risk of future sick-leave. Thus, it can be recommended to introduce questions and questionnaires on work-related stress in primary health care settings to early identify women with the need for preventive measures in order to decrease risk for sick-leave due to work-related stress.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hrabe, David P; Szalacha, Laura A
Although nurses are educated to take outstanding care of others, they themselves often have poor health outcomes, including high rates of depression and obesity, which are associated with stressful work environments. Furthermore, a high percentage of new graduate nurses leave their positions in the first year of employment, resulting in exorbitant costs to health care systems. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among key variables that influence job satisfaction and healthy lifestyle behaviors of new graduate nurses, including workplace stress, work environment, lifestyle beliefs, and mental health. A descriptive correlational design was used with baseline data from 61 new graduate nurses attending the 2-day Nurse Athlete program, a workshop that focuses on nutrition, energy management, and physical activity. Higher levels of workplace stress were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety as well as lower levels of resiliency, job satisfaction, and healthy lifestyle beliefs. Nurse leaders and managers must invest in creating healthy work environments for new and experienced nurses as well as provide mental health screening, resources, and intervention programs that focus on education and skills-building in health promoting behaviors, including emotional regulation of stress, anxiety, and depression.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Atkinson, M; Hornby, G
This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.
The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p family caregivers and time since diagnosis. Investigating stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
Ramchand, Rajeev; Rudavsky, Rena; Grant, Sean; Tanielian, Terri; Jaycox, Lisa
This review summarizes the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems among persons who served in the armed forces during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, as reflected in the literature published between 2009 and 2014. One-hundred and sixteen research studies are reviewed, most of which are among non-treatment-seeking US service members or treatment-seeking US veterans. Evidence is provided for demographic, military, and deployment-related risk factors for PTSD, though most derive from cross-sectional studies and few control for combat exposure, which is a primary risk factor for mental health problems in this cohort. Evidence is also provided linking PTSD with outcomes in the following domains: physical health, suicide, housing and homelessness, employment and economic well-being, social well-being, and aggression, violence, and criminality. Also included is evidence about the prevalence of mental health service use in this cohort. In many instances, the current suite of studies replicates findings observed in civilian samples, but new findings emerge of relevance to both military and civilian populations, such as the link between PTSD and suicide. Future research should make effort to control for combat exposure and use longitudinal study designs; promising areas for investigation are in non-treatment-seeking samples of US veterans and the role of social support in preventing or mitigating mental health problems in this group.
Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Edgar Gerardo Alejo
Full Text Available The following document pretends to describe the mentalhealth problematic on displaced people, presenting the modelof Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as a possiblediagnose . It includes the characteristics of the experiencesrelated to forced displacement, the previous studies relatedto the assessment of the impact of the stressful experiencesand the need to identify the existing problem in relation tothe psychological impact of the violence presented in thispeople. Thesis in favour and against the application of thePTSD model are discussed and its implications on the studyof the mental health in this population.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Emotional stress acutely and repetitively causing blood pressure increase or aggravating existing hypertension is usually not reflected by norepinephrine and epinephrine increase but by a sudden rise of dopamine, the third "defensive" catecholamine coping with the damaging neuropsychological and cardiovascular actions of the first two. This double-edged sympathetic response to emotional stress evolves during human lifespan and long-term evolution of hypertension. In the course of philogenesis it carries a potential mismatch between the normal physiology of the human dopaminergic system and current environmental (emotional particularly) conditions in industrialized countries. This offers a rational support to a mental stress-cardiovascular diseases relationship proposed 40 years ago in a WHO report which followed a memorable 1960 Prague Hypertension Meeting.
O'Toole, Brian I; Catts, Stanley V; Outram, Sue; Pierse, Katherine R; Cockburn, Jill
The long-term health consequences of war service remain unclear, despite burgeoning scientific interest. A longitudinal cohort study of a random sample of Australian Vietnam veterans was designed to assess veterans' postwar physical and mental health 36 years after the war (2005-2006) and to examine its relation to Army service, combat, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed 14 years previously (1990-1993). Prevalences in veterans (n = 450) were compared with those in the Australian general population. Veterans' Army service and data from the first assessments were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression prediction modeling. Veterans' general health and some health risk factors were poorer and medical consultation rates were higher than Australian population expectations. Of 67 long-term conditions, the prevalences of 47 were higher and the prevalences of 4 were lower when compared with population expectations. Half of all veterans took some form of medication for mental well-being. The prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses exceeded Australian population expectations. Military and war service characteristics and age were the most frequent predictors of physical health endpoints, while PTSD was most strongly associated with psychiatric diagnoses. Draftees had better physical health than regular enlistees but no better mental health. Army service and war-related PTSD are associated with risk of illness in later life among Australian Vietnam veterans.
van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Akkermans, Reinier P; van Engelen, Baziel G M; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M
To examine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction training (MBSR) on the mental health of medical students during clinical clerkships. Between February 2011 and May 2014, the authors conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of clerkships as usual (CAU) and clerkships with additional MBSR in medical students during their first year of clinical clerkships at a Dutch university medical center. MBSR consisted of eight weekly two-hour sessions, comprising didactic teaching, meditation exercises, and group dialogues. Students completed online assessments at baseline and after 3, 7, 12, 15, and 20 months. Outcome measures were psychological distress, positive mental health, life satisfaction, physician empathy, mindfulness skills, and dysfunctional cognitions as measured by validated tools. Of 232 eligible students, 167 students (72%) participated and were randomized by clerkship group into MBSR (n = 83) or CAU (n = 84). The MBSR group reported a small reduction of psychological distress (P = .03, Cohen's d = 0.20) and dysfunctional cognitions (P = .05, Cohen's d = 0.18) and a moderate increase of positive mental health (P = .002, Cohen's d = 0.44), life satisfaction (P = .01, Cohen's d = 0.51), and mindfulness skills (P = .05, Cohen's d = 0.35) compared with CAU during the 20-month follow-up. The authors detected no significant effect on physician empathy (P = .18, Cohen's d = 0.27). MBSR appeared feasible and acceptable to medical clerkship students and resulted in a small to moderate improvement of mental health compared with CAU over the 20-month follow-up.
Ennis, Edel; O'Neill, S; Murphy, S; Bunting, B
Days out of role due to health problems are a major source of lost human capital. We examined the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders in accounting for days out of role in Northern Ireland using the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS) WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 4340 respondents (68.4 % response rate). Multiple regression analysis estimated associations of specific chronic physical disorders and mental disorders conditions and comorbidities with days out of role controlling for basic socio-demographics. Overall, 16.8 % of respondents had at least one day totally out of role in the previous year. The strongest population-level effect was associated with arthritis, which accounted for 23.5 % of all days out of role. The strongest individual-level effects (days out of role per year) were associated with any anxiety disorder (32.3) arthritis (26.1) and pain (22.0). The 11 conditions accounted for 93 % of all days out of role, as measured by population attributable risk proportions (PARPs). Common health conditions, including mental disorders, make up a large proportion of the number of days out of role and should be addressed to substantially increase overall productivity.
The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable po...
DIFERENCIAS EN ESTRÉS PERCIBIDO, SALUD MENTAL Y FÍSICA DE ACUERDO AL TIPO DE RELACIÓN HUMANO-PERRO / DIFFERENCES IN PERCEIVED STRESS, MENTAL HEALTH, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ACCORDING TO TYPES OF HUMAN-PET DOG RELATIONSHIPS
MÓNICA TERESA GONZÁLEZ RAMÍREZ
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess whether the levelsof perceived stress and health differed depending on typesof human-pet dog relationships, and to evaluate the correlationbetween perceived stress and health and the frequencywith which activities are carried out with the dogs. Self-reportquestionnaires were filled out by 247 volunteers owning atleast one dog. The results show lower levels of perceived stressand higher levels of mental health in those individuals whoconsider the dog a member of the family. Furthermore, significantcorrelations were found between dog-training activitiesand stress and mental health, between playing with the dogand vitality and mental health, and between walking the dogand vitality. The conclusion was that those individuals whoconsider their dogs as members of the family and carry outmore activities with them have better physical and mentalhealth, as well as lower levels of perceived stress.
Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.
Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Ansara Donna; Glynn Keva; Maclean Heather
Abstract Health Issue Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our study explored the moderating affects of different role combinations on women's mental health by examining associations with socioeconomic status and differences in women's distress (depressive symptoms, personal stress (role strain) and chronic stress (role strain plus...
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Holloway, Ian W; Padilla, Mark B; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent
Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women.
Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca
Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.
Inoue, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji
The number of workers with precarious employment has increased globally; however, few studies have used validated measures to investigate the relationship of job status to stress and mental health. Thus, we conducted a study to compare differential job stress experienced by permanent and fixed-term workers using an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire, and by evaluating depressive complaints and clinic utilization. Subjects were permanent or fixed-term male workers at a Japanese research institute (n=756). Baseline data on job stress and depressive complaints were collected in 2007. We followed up with the same population over a 1-year period to assess their utilization of the company clinic for mental health concerns. The ERI ratio was higher among permanent workers than among fixed-term workers. More permanent workers presented with more than two depressive complaints, which is the standard used for the diagnosis of depression. ERI scores indicated that the effort component of permanent work was associated with distress, whereas distress in fixed-term work was related to job promotion and job insecurity. Moreover, over the one-year follow-up period, fixed-term workers visited the on-site clinic for mental concerns 4.04 times more often than permanent workers even after adjusting for age, lifestyle, ERI, and depressive complaints. These contrasting findings reflect the differential workloads and working conditions encountered by permanent and fixed-term workers. The occupational setting where employment status was intermingled, may have contributed to the high numbers of mental health-related issues experienced by workers with different employment status.
Saghaei, Mozhdeh; Omidi, Pouya; Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Safavi, Parvin
The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, before and after holding the course, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) test was done on both groups of children, and also some information was collected from the mothers through interview and the DASS (depression, anxiety, stress scale) and PSI (parenting stress index) questionnaires. After the intervention, HbA1c level decreased in the experimental group. Feeling of depression, anxiety and stress was significantly lower than the control group. Furthermore, training for parenting stress management positively affected on the sense of demanding, reinforcement, and adaptability in child domain and also on attachment, competence, depression, relationship with spouse and family health in parent domain. The intervention program was significantly effective in reducing the amount of HbA1c in diabetic children, and also reduced the intensity of psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety and stress in the mothers caring for children with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...
Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.
Villodas, Miguel T; Cromer, Kelly D; Moses, Jacqueline O; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P
Although researchers have found that child welfare placement disruptions are associated with elevated youth physical and mental health problems, the mechanisms that explain this association have not been previously studied. The present study built on a previous investigation of the physical and behavioral consequences of long-term permanent placement patterns among youth who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The current investigation (n=251) aimed to (a) report the early adolescent living situations of youth with different long-term placement patterns, and (b) to delineate the roles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions in the association between unstable long-term placement patterns and physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Information about youth's living situations, ACEs, and physical and mental health was gathered prospectively from child protective services records and biannual caregiver and youth interviews when youth were 4-14 years old. The majority of youth remained with the same caregiver during early adolescence, but youth with chronically unstable permanent placement patterns continued to experience instability. Path analyses revealed that ACEs mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and elevated mental, but not physical, health problems during late childhood. Additionally, late childhood PTS mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and subsequent escalations in physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Findings highlight the importance of long-term permanency planning for youth who enter the child welfare system and emphasize the importance of trauma-focused assessment and intervention for these youth. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neece, Cameron L
Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.
The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member
Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.
The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member.
Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza
This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.
Sorgaard, Knut W; Ryan, Peter; Dawson, Ian
Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. A total of 196 nursing staff --124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds--working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures addressed towards N-R Cs in general with regard
Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean
Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.
Kim, Hyun Hanna K; Viner-Brown, Samara I; Garcia, Jorge
Our objectives were to (a) estimate the prevalence of children's mental health problems, (b) assess family functioning, and (c) investigate the relationship between children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island. From the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, Rhode Island data for children 6 to 17 years of age were used for the analyses (N = 1326). Two aspects of family functioning measures, parental stress and parental involvement, were constructed and were examined by children's mental health problems, as well as other child and family characteristics (child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, parent's education, income, employment, family structure, number of children, and mother's general and mental health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship. Among Rhode Island children, nearly 1 (19.0%) in 5 had mental health problems, 1 (15.6%) in 6 lived with a highly stressed parent, and one third (32.7%) had parents with low involvement. Bivariate analyses showed that high parental stress and low parental involvement were higher among parents of children with mental health problems than parents of children without those problems (33.2% vs 11.0% and 41.0% vs 30.3%, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, parents of children with mental health problems had nearly 4 times the odds of high stress compared with parents of children without those problems. When children's mental health problems were severe, the odds of high parental stress were elevated. However, children's mental health was not associated with parental involvement. Children's mental health was strongly associated with parental stress, but it was not associated with parental involvement. The findings indicate that when examining the mental health issues of children, parental mental health and stress must be considered.
VanderVoort, Debra J
The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.
Edwards, R B
Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.
Cherry, Nicola M; Chen, Yiqun; McDonald, J Corbett
Work-related mental ill-health appears to be increasing. Population-based data on incidence are scarce but in the United Kingdom occupational physicians and psychiatrists report these conditions to voluntary surveillance schemes. To estimate the incidence of work-related stress and mental illness reported 1996-2001 by occupational physicians and 1999-2001 by psychiatrists. Estimated annual average incidence rates were calculated by sex, occupation and industry against appropriate populations at risk. An in-house coding scheme was used to classify and analyse data on precipitating events. An estimated annual average of 3,624 new cases were reported by psychiatrists, and 2,718 by occupational physicians; the rates were higher for men in reports based on the former and for women on the latter. Most diagnoses were of anxiety/depression or work-related stress, with post-traumatic stress accounting for approximately 10% of cases reported by psychiatrists. High rates of ill-health were seen among professional and associated workers and in those in personal and protective services. Factors (such as work overload) intrinsic to the job and issues with interpersonal relations were the most common causes overall. The steep increase in new cases of work-related mental ill-health reported by occupational physicians since 1996 may reflect a greater willingness by workers to seek help but may also signify an increasing dissonance between workers' expectations and the work environment. Greater expertise is needed to improve the workplace by adjustment of job demands, improvement of working relations, increasing workers' capacities and management of organizational change.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were examined in order to compare the profile in clients of an Australian Public Mental Health Service with that reported in the international literature for clients with major mental illness and to explore the effect of this on client health outcomes. Potential factors contributing to increased levels of trauma/PTSD in this group of clients and the issue of causality between PTSD and subsequent mental illness was also explored. Methods A convenience sample of 29 clients was screened for trauma and PTSD using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale™ (PDS and selected outcome measures. Paired and independent samples t-test and ANOVA were applied to the data. Results High levels of undocumented trauma and PTSD were found. Twenty clients, (74% reported exposure to multiple traumatic events; 33.3% (9 met DSM IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Significant difference was found for PTSD symptomatology, severity and impairment and for client and clinician-rated scores of Quality of Life (QOL outcomes in the PTSD group. No effect for PTSD symptomatology on the Working Alliance (WA was found. Factors that may influence higher rates of PTSD in this group were identified and included issues associated with the population studied, the predominance of assaultive violence found, and vulnerability and risks factors associated with re-traumatisation within the social and treating environments. Conclusion A similar trauma and PTSD profile to that reported in the international literature, including greater levels of trauma and PTSD and a poorer QOL, was found in this small sample of clients. It is postulated that the increased levels of trauma/PTSD as reported for persons with major mental illness, including those found in the current study, are primarily related to the characteristics of the population that access public mainstream psychiatric services and that these factors have
Carmel, Tamar C; Erickson-Schroth, Laura
Although research into the physical and mental health disparities faced by transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) populations is becoming more popular, historically it has been limited. It is now recognized that TGNC people experience disproportionate rates of negative mental health outcomes relative to both their gender-normative, heterosexual peers, as well as their gender-normative lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. The theoretical basis of current transgender mental health research is rooted in the Minority Stress Model, which postulates that we live in a hetero-centric, gender-normative society that stigmatizes and discriminates against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, subjecting them to chronic stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012; Meyer, 1995). This chronic, potentially compounding stress, is responsible for the increased risk of negative mental health outcomes in LGBT populations. TGNC people, in particular, may experience more adverse outcomes than their LGB peers due to rejection and discrimination within society at large as well as within the LGB community. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(12), 44-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.
Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.
Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.
This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266
Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna
In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. The study design was comprised of three questionnaire assessments, with the second and the third evaluation taking place 6 and 12 months after the beginning of the study, respectively. Thirty-six females treated conservatively were asked to fill in the TAPS, SRS-22 and BSSQ forms. In regards to TAPS, the results differed between the 1st and the 2nd assessment in Figure 2 only (p = 0.013). The difference between the 1st and the 3rd evaluation concerned Figure 3 and the total score (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively). The SRS-22 and BSSQ results of study participants did not differ significantly between the 1st and the 2nd, between the 2nd and the 3rd and between the 1st and the 3rd evaluations. The study indicated that the assessment of girls with AIS concerning body function and mental health did not deteriorate in the course of orthosis treatment. Furthermore, they showed improvement in perceptions particularly in regards to trunk shape. We pointed out that the negative perceptions of mental health, self-image and low level of activity held by females with AIS coexisted with severe emotional distress. Moreover, factors that improved functioning or subjective physical appearance ratings in particular, such as level of activity, were indicated.
Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K
India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Koenig, Harold G
The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness). Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Rod, Naja Hulvej
Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...... and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress...
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.
acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.
Maulik, PK; Kallakuri, S; Devarapalli, S; Vadlamani, VK; Jha, V; Patel, A
BACKGROUND: About 25% of the Indian population experience common mental disorders (CMD) but only 15-25% of them receive any mental health care. Stigma, lack of adequate mental health professionals and mental health services account for this treatment gap, which is worse in rural areas. Our project evaluated task shifting and mobile-technology based electronic decision support systems to enhance the ability of primary care health workers to provide evidence-based mental health care for stress,...
... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jan 8,2018 When ... therapist in your community. Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...
Chen, Jessica A; Owens, Mandy D; Browne, Kendall C; Williams, Emily C
Unhealthy alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur. Patients with both conditions have poorer functioning and worse treatment adherence compared to those with either condition alone. Therefore, it is possible that PTSD, when co-occurring with unhealthy alcohol use, may influence receipt of evidence-based alcohol-related care and mental health care. We evaluated receipt of interventions for unhealthy alcohol use and receipt of mental health follow-up care among patients screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use with and without PTSD in a national sample from the Veterans Health Administration (VA). National clinical and administrative data from VA's electronic medical record were used to identify all patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score≥5) between 10/1/09-5/30/13. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the relative rate and prevalence of receipt of: brief interventions (advice to reduce or abstain from drinking≤14days after positive screening), specialty addictions treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD; documented visit≤365days after positive screening), pharmacotherapy for AUD (filled prescription≤365days after positive screening), and mental health care ≤14days after positive screening for patients with and without PTSD (documented with ICD-9 CM codes). In secondary analyses, we tested effect modification by both severity of unhealthy alcohol use and age. Among 830,825 patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use, 140,388 (16.9%) had documented PTSD. Of the full sample, 71.6% received brief interventions, 10.3% received specialty AUD treatment, 3.1% received pharmacotherapy for AUD, and 24.0% received mental health care. PTSD was associated with increased likelihood of receiving all types of care. Adjusted relative rates were 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.05) for brief interventions, 1.06 (1.05-1.08) for specialty AUD treatment, 1.35 (1.31-1.39) for
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...
Yu, Bin; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Robserson, Emily
There is a growing need for better understanding of mechanisms underpinning the relationship between migration stress and HIV risk behaviors for the development of HIV prevention and control policy. Survey data from a random sample of 1,293 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), mental health status was assessed using the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and having sex with high risk partners was assessed as if ever have had sex with high risk partners (e.g., sex workers, intravenous injection drug users, blood donors, persons infected with HIV, persons with sexually transmitted infection, and same gender partners) in the past year. The proposed relationship was tested using mediation modeling method. Among the sample, 5.5% reported having had sex with high-risk partners in the past year. Mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between DMSQ scores and having sex with high-risk partners was mediated by BSI (coefficient =0.41, 95% CI [0.21, 0.65]), including its components of somatization (0.32 [0.15, 0.53]), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.31 [0.07, 0.55]), depression (0.45 [0.23, 0.72]), anxiety (0.41 [0.23, 0.63]), and hostility (0.35 [0.17, 0.56]). Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced in males than in females. The study findings provide new data advancing our understanding of the mechanism of engagement in risky sex, underscoring the need for the HIV prevention policies in China to pay more attention to mental health of the rural-to-urban migrant population.
Liu, Howard; Petukhova, Maria V; Sampson, Nancy A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Gureje, Oye; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
Previous research has documented significant variation in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depending on the type of traumatic experience (TE) and history of TE exposure, but the relatively small sample sizes in these studies resulted in a number of unresolved basic questions. To examine disaggregated associations of type of TE history with PTSD in a large cross-national community epidemiologic data set. The World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys assessed 29 TE types (lifetime exposure, age at first exposure) with DSM-IV PTSD that was associated with 1 randomly selected TE exposure (the random TE) for each respondent. Surveys were administered in 20 countries (n = 34 676 respondents) from 2001 to 2012. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2015, to September 1, 2016. Prevalence of PTSD assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Among the 34 676 respondents (55.4% [SE, 0.6%] men and 44.6% [SE, 0.6%] women; mean [SE] age, 43.7 [0.2] years), lifetime TE exposure was reported by a weighted 70.3% of respondents (mean [SE] number of exposures, 4.5 [0.04] among respondents with any TE). Weighted (by TE frequency) prevalence of PTSD associated with random TEs was 4.0%. Odds ratios (ORs) of PTSD were elevated for TEs involving sexual violence (2.7; 95% CI, 2.0-3.8) and witnessing atrocities (4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-17.8). Prior exposure to some, but not all, same-type TEs was associated with increased vulnerability (eg, physical assault; OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.9) or resilience (eg, participation in sectarian violence; OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) to PTSD after the random TE. The finding of earlier studies that more general history of TE exposure was associated with increased vulnerability to PTSD across the full range of random TE types was replicated, but this generalized vulnerability was limited to prior TEs involving violence, including participation in organized violence (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6), experience of
Teri S Krebs
Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...
PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.
Nash, William P
Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...
Clement, Sarah; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Hatch, Stephani L; Schauman, Oliver; Jeffery, Debra; Henderson, R Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mental health-related discrimination experienced by adults receiving care from community mental health teams is associated with low engagement with services and to explore the pathways between these two variables. In this cross-sectional study, 202 adults registered with inner-city community mental health teams in the United Kingdom completed interviews assessing their engagement with mental health services (service user-rated version of the Service Engagement Scale), discrimination that they experienced because of mental illness, and other variables. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the relationship of experienced discrimination and service engagement with potential mediating and moderating variables, such as anticipated discrimination (Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination), internalized stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale), stigma stress appraisal (Stigma Stress Appraisal), mistrust in services, the therapeutic relationship (Scale to Assess Therapeutic Relationships), difficulty disclosing information about one's mental health, and social support. Analyses controlled for age, race-ethnicity, and symptomatology. No evidence was found for a direct effect between experienced discrimination and service engagement. The total indirect effect of experienced discrimination on service engagement was statistically significant (coefficient=1.055, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.312-2.074, p=.019), mainly via mistrust in mental health services and therapeutic relationships (coefficient=.804, CI=.295-1.558, p=.019). A 1-unit increase in experienced discrimination via this pathway resulted in .804-unit of deterioration in service engagement. Findings indicate the importance of building and maintaining service users' trust in mental health services and in therapeutic relationships with professionals and countering the discrimination that may erode trust.
Rondón, Marta B.
The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Rose, D M; Seidler, A; Nübling, M; Latza, U; Brähler, E; Klein, E M; Wiltink, J; Michal, M; Nickels, S; Wild, P S; König, J; Claus, M; Letzel, S; Beutel, M E
While work-related fatigue has become an issue of concern among European employees, the relationship between fatigue, depression and work-related stressors is far from clear. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the associations of fatigue with work-related stressors, severe medical disease, health behavior and depression in the working population and (2) to determine the unique impact of work-related stressors on fatigue. We used cross-sectional data of N = 7,930 working participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) from 2007 to 2012 filled out the Personal Burnout Scale (PBS) of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the PHQ-9, and a list of work-related stressors. A total of 27.5% reported increased fatigue, esp. women, younger persons with a lower social status and income, smokers, severely medically ill, previously and currently depressed participants. Fatigue was consistently associated with severe medical disease, health behavior and depression, which need to be taken into account as potential confounders when analyzing its relationship to work-related strains. Depression was consistently associated with work-related stressors. However, after statistically partialling out depression, fatigue was still significantly associated with work-related stress. Fatigue as an indicator of allostatic load is consistently associated with work-related stressors such as work overload after controlling for depression. The brief Personal Burn-out Scale is suitable for assessing work-related fatigue in the general population.
Van Schrojenstein Lantman M
Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life
Rafferty, L A; Cawkill, P E; Stevelink, S A M; Greenberg, K; Greenberg, N
Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group. This paper aims to explore the relationship between PTSD and MDD with dementia within the military veteran population. A systematic review was conducted on articles from 1990 to July 2016 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO and Web of Science electronic databases with an update conducted in February 2017. Six empirical studies were identified from the review, the majority of which originated from the USA. Five of the studies asserted that veterans with a diagnosis of either PTSD or MDD are at a significantly greater risk of developing dementia than 'healthy' controls. The final study, conducted in Australia, found only a small, but non-significant, correlation between earlier MDD and future dementia, but no concurrent correlation. While causality cannot be determined, it is likely that PTSD and depressive disorders are related to an increased risk of dementia in military veterans. Potential pathological explanations and risk factors are reviewed and the clinical and neuroscience implications of these findings are explored.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational s...
Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a mental health improvement program for the acculturative stress and mental health literacy of married immigrant women using bilingual gatekeepers. Bilingual gatekeepers were recruited from multicultural centers and trained to provide 8-week structured mental health improvement services to the women in the experimental group using a mental health improvement guidebook developed by the authors in 8 different languages. The program was effective in improving mental health and mental health literacy scores as well as reducing the degree of acculturative stress. This study offers a model of effective mental healthcare for multicultural communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Shelton, Andrew J.; Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Zhu, Wenzhen
This study investigated unique and shared effects of social support and cultural orientation on mental health indicators (depressive and anxiety symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction) of 896 college students. Results indicated that perceived social support predicted mental health variables and that cultural orientation variables (independent and…
It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt
Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…
adversities to mood, anxiety, substance use and impulse control disorders in South Africa. Methods. Data were analysed from the South African. Stress and Health study, a population-based study of mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of. 4 351 adults. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the.
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Santilli, Alycia; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Goals of this study were to examine the mental health processes whereby everyday discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes. Data are drawn from a community health survey conducted with 1299 US adults in a low-resource urban area. Frequency of everyday discrimination was associated with overall self-rated health, use of the emergency department, and one or more chronic diseases via stress and depressive symptoms operating in serial mediation. Associations were consistent across members of different racial/ethnic groups and were observed even after controlling for indicators of stressors associated with structural discrimination, including perceived neighborhood unsafety, food insecurity, and financial stress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J; King, Andrew; Petukhova, Maria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; Maria Haro, Josep; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Ten Have, Margreet; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C
Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression. Simulation was used to estimate overall model strength in targeting individuals at highest PTSD risk. PTSD prevalence after UD averaged 5.2% across surveys and did not differ significantly between high-income and low-middle income countries. Significant multivariate predictors included the deceased being a spouse or child, the respondent being female and believing they could have done something to prevent the death, prior trauma exposure, and history of prior mental disorders. The final model was strongly predictive of PTSD, with the 5% of respondents having highest estimated risk including 30.6% of all cases of PTSD. Positive predictive value (i.e., the proportion of high-risk individuals who actually developed PTSD) among the 5% of respondents with highest predicted risk was 25.3%. The high prevalence and meaningful risk of PTSD make UD a major public health issue. This study provides novel insights into predictors of PTSD after this experience and suggests that screening assessments might be useful in identifying high-risk individuals for preventive interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
池田, 誠喜; 竹口, 佳昭; 芝山, 明義; 阿形, 恒秀; 末内, 佳代; 金児, 正史
The mental health problem of teachers is a serious problem. According to recent statistics, about 5000 teachers were absent due to mental health problems. Causes :1) long working hours. 2) increased work volume. 3) differences in perceptions of difficult educational activities. 4) business improvement. 5) stress such as human relations in the workplace.In this article, I understand the situation of mental health of teachers and summarized the previous research on stress. we focused on work en...
Full Text Available With the advent of latest technologies and rapid industrialization human beings have made advancement to a great extent, in the materialistic world. He has mechanized his instruments in such a sophisticated way so as to carry out complicated and heavy tasks in comparatively lesser time and utilizing lesser manpower. In this pursuit of progress, he became more and more ambitious which further led him to stressful life and to make compromises with his other aspects of life intentionally and sometimes unintentionally. One has to consider all the aspects of individual’s physical, mental, social and psychological angles which play an important role in maintaining the individual’s overall personality development as well as wellbeing so that he may lead a productive life. These factors along with the environmental and surroundings influences the behavior of individual. In the present day life though human beings may have progressed socially, economically and also intellectually but somewhere he tended to neglect his emotions, feelings, tolerance and above all there is a growing concern of loneliness amongst all age groups. There is an imbalance between the amount of stress a person takes up with the amount he can cope up with, which has led to increase in behavioral and mental health problems. Burden of mental disorders had risen over last few decades in general mental health is often equated with the cognitive and emotional wellbeing - it is all about the way one thinks, feels and behaves. Mental health, can also mean an absence of a mental disorder. Various factors which has led to the rise in mental health problems are - growing population, continuous stress, over exertion, high ambition, socioeconomic conditions, loneliness, drug abuse, expectations, competitions and failures etc. The list is unending. It has been observed that there is a growing concern worldwide among developed as well as developing nations regarding the rise in behavioral
Ross, Misha; Mason, Georgia J
Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could therefore potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Muriel Anna C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1 estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among Haitian immigrant students; and 2 examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood. Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a stressful experience for parents. When left unmanaged, high stress levels can lead to the development of depressive symptomatology, highlighting the importance of coping supports. The current paper examined the stress level and psychological wellbeing of mothers with a child with ASD…
Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students. ... Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate ... positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or ...
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...
Shahbaz Ali Khan
Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta
Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703
Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010
Berg, Lloyd; King, Benjamin; Koenig, Jessica; McRoberts, Roger L
Popular (i.e., nonclassical) musicians have higher rates of mental health disorders and mental health service utilization than the general population. Little is known, however, about how popular musicians perceive mental health interventions in terms of overall satisfaction and therapeutic benefit. An online client satisfaction survey was sent to all musicians and family members who received mental health services through a nonprofit mental health organization in Austin, Texas, between July 2014 and June 2015 (n=628). 260 individuals (41.4%) responded to the survey, of whom 94% (n=244) were musicians. A majority of musician respondents were male (60%) and white (82%). 87% received counseling, 32% received psychiatric medication treatment, and 8% received addiction recovery services. 97% of musicians (205/211) rated their counselor as 'very good' or 'excellent,' 88% (64/79) rated their psychiatric providers as 'very good' or 'excellent,' and 94% (17/19) rated their addiction recovery specialists as 'very good' or 'excellent' (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). 89% of musicians receiving counseling, 84% receiving psychiatric medication treatment, and 95% receiving addiction recovery services agreed or strongly agreed that their symptoms and overall functioning improved as a result of their treatment (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). Popular musicians express strong provider satisfaction and overall benefit when mental health interventions are accessible, affordable, and delivered by professionals familiar with their concerns. More research is needed to understand the unique psychosocial stresses popular musicians face to inform treatment planning for this high-risk, underserved population.
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is
I disorder (P = 0.01), but not with major depression and symptoms of psychological distress. Conclusions: .... Models were adjusted for sex, ... reports of past treatment for mental health problems, ..... Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In:.
Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health. The aim of the present article is to propose a biopsychosocial model on the basis of a literature review on the psychological benefits of physical activity. In view of the findings we assume that physical activity increases mental well-being and optimal mental health as opposed to poor mental health. Hence, physical activity provides a state of well-being that enables individuals to realize their own potential, and that helps to cope with the normal stresses of life or adversity. The model certainly opens the way for research and new hypothesis, but it also aims at the promotion of the benefits of physical activity on psychological well-being for optimal mental health.
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
Tomeny, Theodore S.
The link between autism spectrum disorder symptoms and maternal stress has been well established, yet many mothers remain resilient to more severe psychopathology. For the current online study, 111 mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder completed questionnaires about their child's symptoms, their own stress related to parenting, and any…
Desocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne
A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10- 12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included facts about the brain's connection to mental health, information about healthy ways to manage stress, resources and activities to promote mental health, common mental health problems experienced by children, and how to seek help for mental health problems. Classes included a combination of didactic presentation and open discussion, encouraging students to ask questions and allowing the school nurse to correct misinformation. Analysis of pre- and posttests from 370 elementary and middle school students revealed statistically significant improvements in their knowledge of mental health and mental illness.
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...
El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza
The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Immunization Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits coalitions statewide. Visit the AOPTF Website to learn more. Childhood Trauma Costs All Alaskans What we
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A.G.E.M.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; van Dijk, F.J.H.
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems.
Maclean, Heather; Glynn, Keva; Ansara, Donna
HEALTH ISSUE: Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our study explored the moderating affects of different role combinations on women's mental health by examining associations with socioeconomic status and differences in women's distress (depressive symptoms, personal stress (role strain) and chronic stress (role strain plus environmental stressors). KEY FINDINGS: Women with children, whether single or partnered, had a higher risk of personal stress. Distress, stress and chronic stress levels of mothers, regardless of employment, or marital status, are staggeringly high. Single, unemployed mothers were significantly more likely than all other groups to experience financial stress and food insecurity. For partnered mothers, rates of personal stress and chronic stress were significantly lower among unemployed partnered mothers. Married and partnered mothers reported better mental health than their single counterparts. Lone, unemployed mothers were twice as likely to report a high level of distress compared with other groups. Lone mothers, regardless of employment status, were more likely to report high personal and chronic stress. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: National health surveys need to collect more data on the characteristics of women's work environment and their care giving responsibilities. Questions on household composition should include inter-generational households, same sex couples and multifamily arrangements. Data disaggregation by ethno-racial background would be helpful. Data should be collected on perceived quality of domestic and partnership roles and division of labours.
Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca
Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...
Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted. In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed. Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
Tomeny, Theodore S
The link between autism spectrum disorder symptoms and maternal stress has been well established, yet many mothers remain resilient to more severe psychopathology. For the current online study, 111 mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder completed questionnaires about their child's symptoms, their own stress related to parenting, and any psychopathology symptoms they were experiencing. Autism spectrum disorder symptom severity was positively related to both parenting stress and maternal psychopathology symptoms. Furthermore, parenting stress mediated the relation between autism spectrum disorder symptom severity and maternal psychopathology symptoms. These results provide evidence for a pathway through which psychopathology may develop among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder and a potential point of intervention for clinicians serving this population.
Imamura, Kotaro; Asai, Yumi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Hiro, Hisanori; Odagiri, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Kawakami, Norito
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the impact of the Stress Check Program, a recently introduced national policy and program aimed at reducing psychological distress among Japanese workers. A baseline survey was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016, the period when Japan began enforcing the Stress Check Program. A one-year follow-up survey was conducted in December 2016. In the follow-up survey, two exposure variables were collected: having taken the annual stress survey, and experiencing an improvement in the psychosocial work environment. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The two exposure variables were used to define four groups: "Neither", "Stress survey (SS) only", "Psychosocial work environment improvement (WI) only", and "Both". BJSQ results were analyzed using repeated measures general linear modeling (GLM). The study included 2,492 participants: 1,342 in the "Neither" group, 1,009 in the "SS only" group, 76 in the "WI only" group, and 65 in the "Both" group. Overall time-group interaction effects were not significant. The "Both" group showed significantly greater improvements in psychological distress than the "Neither" group (p = 0.02) at the 1-year follow-up, although the effect size was small (d = -0.14). Combination of the annual stress survey and improvement in psychosocial work environment may have been effective in reducing psychological distress in workers, although the effect size was small.
USA Today, 1979
Summarizes major findings of a national survey, "The General Mills American Family Report 1978/79: Family Health in an Era of Stress," conducted by Yankelovich, Skelly and White. Topics covered include attitudes toward medical costs, mental illness, and good health practices, as well as expressed interest in health information. (SJL)
Burns, J K
The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...
Kessler, Ronald C.; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C.; Karam, Elie G.; Stang, Paul E.; Stein, Dan J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Hill, Eric D.; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A.; McLean, Samuel A.; Pennell, Beth E.; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Ruscio, Ayelet M.; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are
Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health
Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas
Training in psychiatric settings is stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between the students' characteristics, their stress degrees, stressors and types of coping strategies they experience during training in psychiatric course. A descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five undergraduate nursing students were recruited randomly from five Jordanian universities. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The findings showed that students who utilized avoidance or transference strategies reported high stress degrees. Moreover, the results showed that those students who were in the fourth year, with a low family income, who avoid extracurricular activities, with a low academic grade or who registered in other clinical course(s) reported high stress degrees. These findings present a worthy data for the clinical instructors that facilitate students training in psychiatric settings and promote their psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scott, K. M.; Koenen, K. C.; King, A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Bunting, B.; de Jonge, P.; Haro, J. M.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Sampson, N. A.; Shahly, V.; Stein, D. J.; Torres, Y.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background. Sexual assault is a global concern with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the common sequelae. Early intervention can help prevent PTSD, making identification of those at high risk for the disorder a priority. Lack of representative sampling of both sexual assault survivors
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
A systematic review of evidence for fitness-to-drive among people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Unsworth, Carolyn A; Baker, Anne M; So, Man H; Harries, Priscilla; O'Neill, Desmond
Limited evidence exists regarding fitness-to-drive for people with the mental health conditions of schizophrenia, stress/anxiety disorder, depression, personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (herein simply referred to as 'mental health conditions'). The aim of this paper was to systematically search and classify all published studies regarding driving for this population, and then critically appraise papers addressing assessment of fitness-to-drive where the focus was not on the impact of medication on driving. A systematic search of three databases (CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE) was completed from inception to May 2016 to identify all articles on driving and mental health conditions. Papers meeting the eligibility criteria of including data relating to assessment of fitness-to-drive were critically appraised using the American Academy of Neurology and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine protocols. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria of driving among people with mental health conditions studied, and of these, 16 contained data and an explicit focus on assessment of fitness-to-drive. Assessment of fitness-to-drive was reported in three ways: 1) factors impacting on the ability to drive safely among people with mental health conditions, 2) capability and perception of health professionals assessing fitness-to-drive of people with mental health conditions, and 3) crash rates. The level of evidence of the published studies was low due to the absence of controls, and the inability to pool data from different diagnostic groups. Evidence supporting fitness-to-drive is conflicting. There is a relatively small literature in the area of driving with mental health conditions, and the overall quality of studies examining fitness-to-drive is low. Large-scale longitudinal studies with age-matched controls are urgently needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions on fitness-to-drive.
Bryant, Richard A; Gallagher, H Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Pattison, Philippa; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Baker, Elyse; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Forbes, David; Lusher, Dean
Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression. Social networks were assessed by asking participants to nominate people with whom they felt personally close. These nominations were used to construct a social network map that showed each participant's ties to other participants they nominated and also to other participants who nominated them. This map was then analyzed for prevailing patterns of mental health outcomes. Depression risk was higher for participants who reported fewer social connections, were connected to other depressed people, or were connected to people who had left their community. PTSD risk was higher if fewer people reported being connected with the participant, if those who felt close to the participant had higher levels of property loss, or if the participant was linked to others who were themselves not interconnected. Interestingly, being connected to other people who in turn were reciprocally close to each other was associated with a lower risk of PTSD. These findings provide the first evidence of disorder-specific patterns in relation to one's social connections after disaster. Depression appears to co-occur in linked individuals, whereas PTSD risk is increased with social fragmentation. These patterns underscore the need to adopt a sociocentric perspective of postdisaster mental health in order to better understand the potential for societal interventions in the wake of disaster.
Full Text Available Background: Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees’ mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. Methods: A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status, violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%. The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2–3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8. Conclusions: Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES. Keywords: Depression, Employment, Japan, Mental health, Social class, Worker, Violence, Workplace
Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can pro...
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.
Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.
Albeg, Loren Jennifer
Latino adolescents, especially English language learners (ELLs) are considered to be a highly vulnerable group in our schools today. Despite their apparent need for additional social-emotional and academic learning (SEAL) supports, there is very little research to inform the type of cultural modifications (if any) needed to make SEAL interventions more appropriate for this population. Accordingly, this study focused on identifying the effects of acculturative stress (a culturally specific str...
Shiyi Zhou; Shu Da; Heng Guo; Xichao Zhang
After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relat...
Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce
Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leila Tafreshi Motalgh
Full Text Available This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992. To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite post-migration stresses, the main female characters who encounter pre-migration stress factors and traumas are more likely to develop mental health problems like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Although there is extensive literary criticism of Jazz (1992, no theoretical criticism exists that simultaneously covers migration theories and the mental health problems evident in Toni Morrison's female characters. It is worth highlighting that gender is a variable that correlates positively with migration and mental health. This article attempts to fill a gap in literary criticism and contribute to the body of research on mental health problems associated with gender and migration. Keywords: Push-Pull Theory, Great Migration, Black Studies, Gender, Trauma, PTSD
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a non-linear association between varying levels of alcohol use and poor mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in university students from low-, middle- and high-income countries. Methods. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19 238 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8; standard deviation (SD 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Alcohol use was assessed in terms of number of drinks in the past 2 weeks and number of drinks per episode, and measures of depression and PTSD symptoms were administered. Results. The proportion of students with elevated depression scores was 12.3%, 16.9%, and 11.5% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively, while the proportion of students with high PTSD symptoms was 20.6%, 20.4% and 23.1% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Further, heavy, more frequent drinkers and more frequent binge drinkers had a higher odds to have elevated PTSD symptoms than moderate and non-drinkers, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Conclusion. The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified, and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and alcohol use and PTSD symptoms.
Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H
Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.
Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan
Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.
Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Gaisbachgrabner, Kerstin; Traunmüller, Claudia
Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.
Heck, Nicholas C
This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship.
Warhel Asim Mohammed
Full Text Available Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose.Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and decrease negative mood in injured athletes.Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age range = 21–36 years who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week. A Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions; however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in both groups.Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Byron, Gerard; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; McGrath, Caroline; Frazier, Jean A.; deTorrijos, Fernando; Fulwiler, Carl
Occupational stress and burnout adversely impacts mental health care staff well-being and patient outcomes. Mindfulness training reduces staff stress and may improve patient care. However, few studies explore mental health setting implementation. This qualitative study used focus groups to evaluate stakeholders’ perceptions of organizational factors affecting implementation of an adapted version of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for staff on adolescent mental health units. Common f...
Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald
Using data from the Mannheim stalking study, the present report analyses gender differences with regard to various mental health indicators and potential mediator effects of stalking victimization. Furthermore, we were interested in whether the impact of stalking on mental health was comparable for men and women. The study included a postal survey of 675 community residents on the experience of intruding harassment and on mental health indicators. In the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-D, Lowe et al. 2001), women scored higher on most of the subscales (depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, stress, psychosocial impairment) than men. Furthermore, more women fulfilled criteria for at least one threshold or subthreshold mental disorder syndrome according to DSM-IV, and more women were under psychotropic medication. However, the identified associations were completely mediated by the higher prevalence of stalking victims in women. In contrast, the associations of stalking victimization with poor mental health, psychosocial functioning, and use of medication were largely comparable across gender.
Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody
Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...... also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Conclusion: Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach....
Lídia Cabral; João Duarte; Manuela Ferreira; Carlos dos Santos
Background: The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. Objectives: To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relat...
Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael
To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
Charlton, Peter H; Celka, Patrick; Farukh, Bushra; Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi
Abstract Objective: Mental stress is detrimental to cardiovascular health, being a risk factor for coronary heart disease and a trigger for cardiac events. However, it is not currently routinely assessed. The aim of this study was to identify features of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) pulse wave which are indicative of mental stress. Approach: A numerical model of pulse wave propagation was used to simulate blood pressure signals, from which simulated PPG pulse waves were estimated using a transfer function. Pulse waves were simulated at six levels of stress by changing the model input parameters both simultaneously and individually, in accordance with haemodynamic changes associated with stress. Thirty-two feature measurements were extracted from pulse waves at three measurement sites: the brachial, radial and temporal arteries. Features which changed significantly with stress were identified using the Mann–Kendall monotonic trend test. Main results: Seventeen features exhibited significant trends with stress in measurements from at least one site. Three features showed significant trends at all three sites: the time from pulse onset to peak, the time from the dicrotic notch to pulse end, and the pulse rate. More features showed significant trends at the radial artery (15) than the brachial (8) or temporal (7) arteries. Most features were influenced by multiple input parameters. Significance: The features identified in this study could be used to monitor stress in healthcare and consumer devices. Measurements at the radial artery may provide superior performance than the brachial or temporal arteries. In vivo studies are required to confirm these observations. PMID:29658894
Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant
Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using
... way of protecting itself. When you have chronic stress, your body stays alert, even though there is no danger. Over time, this puts you at risk for health problems, including: ... condition, chronic stress can make it worse. SIGNS OF TOO MUCH ...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
... Trichotillomania (Nemours Foundation) Health Check Tools How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) (Nemours Foundation) Statistics and Research Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) ...
Vaillant, George E
SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik
Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit. This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Grace, Sherry L; Tan, Yongyao; Cribbie, Robert A; Nguyen, Han; Ritvo, Paul; Irvine, Jane
Mental disorders are a leading cause of disability and early mortality. The objective of this study was to describe and compare psychosocial indicators and mental health service use among ethnoculturally-diverse Ontarians. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Ontario Health Study pilot investigation. Residents were mailed an invitation to one of 3 assessment centres (urban, rural and northern sites) from March 2009 to July 2010. Participants had an interview with a nurse and completed a questionnaire on a touchscreen kiosk. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, and scales assessing symptoms of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale), stressful life events, and mental health service use. Eight thousand two hundred thirty-five residents participated, among whom 6652 (82.4 %) self-reported their ethnocultural background as White, 225 (2.8 %) as South Asian, 222 (2.8 %) East Asian, 214 (2.7 %) Southeast Asian, 197 (2.4 %) Black, and 28 (0.3 %) as Aboriginal. Based on their sociodemographic characteristics, participants from these ethnocultural minority groups were matched to White participants. Black participants reported significantly greater stressful life events than White participants (p = .04), particularly death (p divorce (p = .002) and financial difficulties (p < .001). East Asian participants reported significantly less social support than their White counterparts (p < .001), and this was not confounded by measurement variance. Mental health service use was significantly lower in all ethnocultural minorities except Aboriginals, when compared to White participants (p = .001). There is a high burden of psychosocial distress in several preponderant ethnocultural minorities in Ontario; many of whom are not accessing available mental health services.
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi
There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of
Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; van Dijk, F. J. H.
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the
Steverink, N.; Veenstra, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Gans, R.O.B.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.
This study examined gender differences in the associations between affection-and status-related stressors encountered in the first half of life and physical and mental health problems later on. Based on the theory of Social Production Functions (SPF) two hypotheses have been formulated, which were
Sumneangsanor, Tipsuda; Vuthiarpa, Sararud; Somprasert, Chomchueun
Mental health disorders can affect physical and psychological behaviors. The people of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have a high risk of mental health disorders, such as depression, stress, and substance abuse be-cause the people in this region are trafficked for forced sex work and various forms of forced labor. In these situations, vic-tims often endure violence and abuse from trafficking recruiters, employers, and other individuals. The purposes of this study were to identify the elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and sub-stance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. The researcher undertook a comparative analysis of the literature, reviews of epidemiological studies and mental disorder therapies, and overviews of previous research studies, were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental disorder therapeutic modalities. Regarding the search methods, the data from the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Dynamed and ScienceDirect were supplemented with a manual reference search covering relevant studies from 2005 to 2016. Thirty-one papers were included in the review of elements characterizing mental health disorders, especially in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse, and to identify the treatment modalities for mental health disorders in the GMS. Nine papers defined characterizing mental health disorders, in terms of depression, stress, and substance abuse. Twenty-two papers showed the treatment modalities for mental health disorders that the treatment was effective, these in-cluded pharmacological treatments and psychological treatments, such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, biofeedback, and music therapy. Useful guidance can be provided for the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders, and for the care of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The finding of this review confirms the
Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods. A qualitative design was used to address the ma...
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.
Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.
Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen
Background Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito
Work-related physical assaults or violence has severely impacted on the safety of the work environment and employees' mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of physical assaults, the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on it and depression associated with it in employees working at large companies. A total of 22,770 Japanese employees responded to a self-administered questionnaire including SES (educational status and occupational status), violence victimization, worksite social support and depression (response rate, 85%). The 12-month prevalence of physical assaults and depression was examined using a single question and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, respectively. The prevalence of physical assaults was 1.8% both in males and females. Although the risk of exposure to physical assaults was 2-3 times higher in the blue-collar group than in the manager group, the association of exposure to physical assaults with depression was stronger in the manager and white-collar worker group (Prevalence ratio [PR]=2.1 in males; 1.8 in females) than in the blue-collar worker group (PR=1.7 in males; 1.5 in females) after adjusting demographic and occupational covariates. A similar pattern was observed for education in males; the association was stronger than in the lower education group (PR=2.1 and 1.8). Low SES is a risk factor of exposure to physical assaults, however, the association of physical assaults with depression was significantly greater among company employees of higher SES than those of lower SES.
THERE COULD be no better time for a review of mental health nursing. It is 11 years since the last one, which in itself suggests change must be overdue if professional practice is to keep pace with health service reforms. As the largest professional group in mental health care, nurses will be relied on to deliver the reforms outlined in the Mental Health Bill, as well as the measures to improve race equality in the service. Nurses will also be promoting good mental health as outlined in last autumn's public health white paper. All these initiatives can only benefit from the chance to take stock.
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
pointed out how people with mental illness protect their identities through consealment in order to avoid stigmatisation. Changes in the organisation of mental health services, from a mainly hospital-based psychiatry towards mental health work in local communities, have highlited issues of participation......, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from...... a Danish ond Norwegian community mental health service, and relate our findings and the discussion of them to the overall themes of participation, social identity and mental helath....
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
White, J H
Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.
Naylor, Paul B; Cowie, Helen A; Walters, Stephen J; Talamelli, Lorenzo; Dawkins, Judith
Child and adolescent mental health disorders are present in around 10% of the population. Research indicates that many young people possess negative attitudes towards mental health difficulties among peers. To assess the impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescent pupils' understanding. Two-group pre-test-post-test control group study in two English secondary schools. Experimental classes (School E) received a six-lesson teaching intervention on mental health; control classes (School C) did not. Participants were 14- and 15-year-old pupils. The intervention consisted of six lessons on mental health issues common to young people: stress; depression; suicide/self-harm; eating disorders; being bullied; and intellectual disability. School C was given access to these lesson plans and materials on completion of the study. Understanding was measured at two time points, Time 1 (T(1)) and Time 2 (T(2)), 8 months apart, by a Mental Health Questionnaire. Behavioural, emotional and relationship strengths and difficulties were measured by the self-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with five subscales: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour. At T(2), pupils in School E compared with those in School C showed significantly more sensitivity and empathy towards people with mental health difficulties. They also used significantly fewer pejorative expressions to describe mental health difficulties. There was a significant reduction in SDQ scores on conduct problems and a significant increase on prosocial behaviour among School E pupils compared with controls. Pupils valued the intervention highly, in particular the lessons on suicide/self-harm. Teaching 14- and 15-year-olds about mental health difficulties helps to reduce stigma by increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes. The intervention also reduced self-reported conduct problems and increased prosocial behaviour. Generally