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Sample records for stress measurement x-ray

  1. Stress measurement by x-ray diffractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C M

    1985-10-22

    This invention relates to x-ray diffractometry and more particularly to apparatus and methods for the measurement of residual stress in polycrystalline, e.g. metallic, specimens. The procedure is based on measurement of the lattice strain of crystals by x-ray diffraction, in which change in the interplanar spacing of a set of crystal lattice planes due to strain causes a change in the diffraction angle of the scattered x-ray beam, from which latter change the magnitude of the strain can be determined. In a polycrystalline specimen, from well know relations for elastic behaviour in isotropic materials, the stress on a plane normal to a given direction in the surface has a component in the given direction which can be calculated from measurement of lattice strain in two directions in a plane containing the given direction and the normal to the specimen surface. In general three such stress components in three directions in the surface are required to determine the principal stresses and thus express the state of stress in the surface. (author). 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. X-ray diffraction and measurement of residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, G.; Lebrun, J.L.; Corcaud, L.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique is a non destructive method for measuring the residual stresses in mechanical parts. This method, called sin 2 PSI method is investigated. It is applied to the measurement of elastic constants in different directions of crystals of Zr alloy (Zircaloy 4) and Ti alloy (TA6V). Stresses in TA6V sheets welded by TIG and electron beam processes are also studied [fr

  3. X-ray measurement of residual stress on bolt threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nakahara, Kanefumi; Yoshimoto, Isamu.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with X-ray measurement of residual stress at the local area around the thread root of a bolt. Residual stress in the 0.5 mm x 5 mm area was measured using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation. The conditions of measurement had been determined and evaluated through the preliminary measurement of compressive stress acting on the cylindrical surface. Furthermore, the fatigue strength estimated by applying the residual stress data to the previously presented hypothesis was compared with the experimental results. The main conclusions obtained were as follows: (1) The residual stress in a relatively small area on the cylindrical surface with large curvature can be measured by X-ray using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation; (2) The compressive residual stress measured at the thread root was larger for the bolt manufactured by thread rolling after heat treatment than for one manufactured by thread rolling before heat treatment; (3) The distribution of residual stress along the axial direction from the thread root to the portion under crest did not represent remarkable change in its value; (4) The residual stress of a bolt was somewhat decreased by fatigue loading on the condition of low mean stress; (5) The fatigue strength estimated using residual stress data showed the tendency of experimental results well. (author)

  4. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  5. Evaluation of stress gradient by x-ray stress measurement based on change in angle phi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    A new principle of X-ray stress evaluation for a sample with steep stress gradient has been prosed. The feature of this method is that the stress is determined by using so-called phi-method based on the change of phi-angle and thus has no effect on the penetration depth of X-rays. The procedure is as follows; firstly, an average stress within the penetration depth of X-rays is determined by changing only phi-angle under a fixed psi-angle, and then a distribution of the average stress vs. the penetration depth of X-rays is detected by repeating the similar procedure at different psi-angles. The following conclusions were found out as the result of residual stress measurements on a carbon steel of type S 55 C polished by emery paper. This method is practical enough to use for a plane stress problem. And the assumption of a linear stress gradient adopted in the authors' previous investigations is valid. In case of a triaxial stress analysis, this method is effective for the solution of three shearing stresses. However, three normal stresses can not be solved perfectly except particular psi-angles. (author)

  6. Residual stress measurement by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The authors derived the fundamental relations between the measured stress by X-ray and the residual stress distribution from the consideration of the contribution of internal stress in definite subsurface layer of metal to X-ray diffraction and proposed the exact formulas and their applications of residual stress measurements by successive thin layer removal in a plate, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere. (author)

  7. Convenient measurement of the residual stress using X-ray penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Takayoshi; Shibano, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The residual stress measured with a characteristic X-ray is usually evaluated as a surface stress. However, it is a weighted mean value over all penetration depth of X-ray. Thus, the classical sin 2 Ψ method with the characteristic X-ray is difficult to use for measuring the steep gradient of residual stress that occurs along the depth direction in a subsurface layer of the material after cold rolling and grinding. This paper presents a convenient method of the residual stress measurement along the depth direction in a subsurface layer using the penetration depth depending on a characteristic X-ray. The residual stress distribution of JIS SKS51 steel plate was measured as an example of applying this method. As a result, it could be confirmed that a residual stress distribution along the depth direction in a subsurface layer could be evaluated nondestructively by this convenient method. (author)

  8. Evaluation of stresses generated in steel finger joint of bridge by X-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Ami; Kawano, Yutaka; Nishido, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    In a steel bridge, the evaluation of the stress generated in the finger joint without a gap to absorb temperature change can be an index when evaluating the remaining life. This study chose as the object the finger joint of a diagonal bridge, where the generated stress state is considered to be more complicated, prepared a finger joint test specimen that simulated an actual part, and performed a load test. For judgment, FEM analysis, non-destructive X-ray stress measurement, and measurement of the generated stress using strain gauge were applied. Compared with the FEM analysis results, the difference in the stress value was generated due to the difference in the contact state, but the trends of the stress distribution were equivalent. In addition, the same measurement value as the strain gauge was obtained, and the validity of the X-ray stress measurement method was confirmed. As a result, it was found that the stress measurement method by X-ray is effective for measuring the generated stress including the residual stress of the finger joint without gap at a bridge. (A.O.)

  9. Measurement of stress using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, Donald J; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    Stress analysis in polycrystalline materials reveals that stress can vary considerably among different subpopulations of grains. Samples of MgO and mixtures of MgO and spinel have been studied. After the onset of plastic flow, stronger grains or orientations will support more stress than the weaker grains. A grain to grain fabric develops that enables this stress partitioning. The stress partitioning and the resulting fabric can invalidate static measurements of elastic moduli. However, high temperature flow mechanisms reveal a more isotropic strength behaviour resulting in a more uniform variation of stress with orientation

  10. X-ray stress measurement by use of synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsui, Hisaaki; Moro-oka, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of X-ray stress measurement of polycrystalline materials, a diffraction plane at higher Bragg angle has to be selected in order to obtain the precise value of stress. However, the stress measurement on an optional (hkl) plane desired is not always possible because the X-ray beam exited from a metal target has a dispersive wave length. Recently, we have been able to use the synchrotron radiation source (SR) as an excellent X-ray source. In Japan, the facility of synchrotron radiation (Photon Factory, PF) was constructed in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) at Tsukuba academic city. The use of this SR enables the stress measurements on many (hkl) planes with high accuracy in the higher Bragg angle region by providing an X-ray beam having an optional wave length. We have started the X-ray stress analysis by use of the synchrotron radiation source. This paper reports the system of measurement and some results of preliminaly experiments. Since a monochromatic X-ray beam is required for the stress measurement, we used a beam line which consists of a double crystal monochrometer and a focusing mirror. X-rays between 4 KeV (λ = 0.31 nm) and 10 KeV (λ = 0.12 nm) are available with this optical system. We adopted a constant Bragg angle of 2θ = 154 deg for all the diffraction planes. A PSPC having a carbon fiber anode is made and used as a detector with the use of a fast digital signal processor. We could observe the diffraction profiles from (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321) crystal plane of alpha iron, respectively, and the residual stresses in these planes except the (200) plane were measured with high accuracy in a short time. Such feature especially suits the stress analysis of the material which has preferred orientation or stress gradient. (author)

  11. X-ray stress measurement of ferritic steel using fourier analysis of Debye-Scherrer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, X-ray stress measurements of ferritic steel based on Fourier analysis are conducted. Taira et al. developed the cosα method for X-ray stress measurements using a two-dimensional X-ray detector. Miyazaki et al. reported that the cosα method can be described more concisely by developing the Fourier series (the Fourier analysis method). The Fourier analysis method is expected to yield the stress measurement with an imperfect Debye-Scherrer ring and there is a possibility that the materials evaluation is different compared with the conventional method, that is, the sin 2 ψ method. In the Fourier analysis method, the strain measured by X-rays is developed as a Fourier series, and all the plane-stress components can be calculated from the Fourier series. In this study, the normal stress calculation was confirmed. In addition, the Fourier-analysis and cosα methods were used for X-ray stress measurements during a four-point bending test on a S45C test piece, and the effectiveness of the Fourier analysis method was confirmed. It was found that the experimental results from the Fourier analysis and cosα methods were nearly identical. In addition, the measurement accuracies of both the methods were equivalent. (author)

  12. X-ray measurement of residual stress in metals at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegar, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    X-ray diffraction is used at CRNL to measure residual stress in metals. This report summarizes the basic principles of stress measurement, and reviews factors affecting accuracy of measurement. The technique and equipment described were developed at CRNL to give reliable measurements. Accuracy of measurement is achieved by using fixed-count step-scanning and by computer analysis of intensity data using a cubic spline curve smoothing routine. Specific reference is made to the measurement of residual stress in Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 boiler tubing. Because it measures stress in thin surface layers, the X-ray method can also be used to measure the depth profile of stresses. As there are no standardized procedures for measuring residual stress, this report will be useful both to those unfamiliar with the measurement of residual stress and to those already making such measurements in other laboratories. (auth)

  13. Rating of the X-ray method of measurement of stresses in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypinski, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities of utilization of some dependencies occuring in the X-ray technique of measurement of natural stresses for determination of distances of a between - plane lattice without natural stresses (d 0 ) are discussed. The proposed methodics of determination of d 0 is illustrated with the investigations which were carried-out on bearing steel LH15. (author)

  14. Residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction with the Gaussian curve method and its automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray technique with the Gaussian curve method and its automation are described for rapid and nondestructive measurement of residual stress. A simplified equation for measuring the stress by the Gaussian curve method is derived because in its previous form this method required laborious calculation. The residual stress can be measured in a few minutes, depending on materials, using an automated X-ray stress analyzer with a microcomputer which was developed in the laboratory. The residual stress distribution of a partially induction hardened and tempered (at 280 0 C) steel bar was measured with the Gaussian curve method. A sharp residual tensile stress peak of 182 MPa appeared right outside the hardened region at which fatigue failure is liable to occur

  15. A study of x-ray microbeam stress measurement for local area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Yoshitaka; Miyakawa, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    A new type X-ray microbeam equipment which is capable of three-dimensional oscillation at an X-ray radiation position was used to measure the residual stress of pure iron powder and bending plate specimens as well as that in the vicinity of fatigue crack tip of 1/2 CT specimen. The results obtained are summerized as follows. (1) Diffraction profiles of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size obtained by the present microbeam technique in the beam area of 80 μm in diamether and measuring time more than 800 sec showed Kα 1 and Kα 2 peaks clearly, so that these profiles are good enough for stress measurement. (2) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 10 ∼ 25 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was not equal to 0 MPa. The measured stress varied greatly and was independent of measuring time. (3) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was almost 1 MPa, which shows the good accuracy of this X-ray micro-beam equipment. (4) The relation between the X-ray measured stress and the mechanically applied stress showed good agreement. (5) The distribution of residual stress at the vicinity of fatigue crack tip showed that the residual stress at the fatigue crack tip was compression and the residual stress in front of crack tip was tension. This tensile residual stress in front of crack tip existed in the area from 0.02 mm to 2 mm. (6) The above results show that the present equipment is advantageous in the investigation of local stress, shortening the measuring time without sacrificing the accuracy. (author)

  16. Statistical analysis of x-ray stress measurement by centroid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori; Amano, Jun; Sakamoto, Isao

    1982-01-01

    The X-ray technique allows a nondestructive and rapid measurement of residual stresses in metallic materials. The centroid method has an advantage over other X-ray methods in that it can determine the angular position of a diffraction line, from which the stress is calculated, even with an asymmetrical line profile. An equation for the standard deviation of the angular position of a diffraction line, σsub(p), caused by statistical fluctuation was derived, which is a fundamental source of scatter in X-ray stress measurements. This equation shows that an increase of X-ray counts by a factor of k results in a decrease of σsub(p) by a factor of 1/√k. It also shows that σsub(p) increases rapidly as the angular range used in calculating the centroid increases. It is therefore important to calculate the centroid using the narrow angular range between the two ends of the diffraction line where it starts to deviate from the straight background line. By using quenched structural steels JIS S35C and S45C, the residual stresses and their standard deviations were calculated by the centroid, parabola, Gaussian curve, and half-width methods, and the results were compared. The centroid of a diffraction line was affected greatly by the background line used. The standard deviation of the stress measured by the centroid method was found to be the largest among the four methods. (author)

  17. Stress strain tensors with their application to x-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of obtaining the formulas of stress-strain tensor that express the directional dependence of stress-strain, that is, how these values change in response to coordinate transformation, and clarifies the preconditions for supporting both formulas. The two conversion formulas are both the second order of tensor, and the formula of strain tensor not only does not use the relational expression of stress and strain at all, but also is obtained completely independently of the formula of stress tensor. Except for the condition that the strain is very small (elastic deformation) in the conversion formula of strain, both formulas unconditionally come into effect. In other words, both formulas hold true even in the isotropic elastic body or anisotropic elastic body. It was shown that the conversion formula of strain can be derived from the conversion formula of stress using the formula of Hooke for isotropic elastic body. From these three-dimensional expressions, the two-dimensional stress-strain coordinate conversion formula that is used for Mohr's stress-strain circle was derived. It was shown that these formulas hold true for three-dimensional stress condition with stress-strain components in the three-axial direction that are not plane stress nor plane strain condition. In addition, as an application case of this theory, two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray stress measurements that are effective for residual stress measurement were shown. (A.O.)

  18. Residual stress measurement with focused acoustic waves and direct comparison with X-ray diffraction stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, Shamachary; Moran, Thomas J.; Martin, Richard W.; Reibel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The technique of measuring small changes in acoustic wave velocity due to external or internal stress has been used for quantitative determination of residual stress in materials during the last decade. Application of similar methodology with focused acoustic waves leads to residual stress measurement with spatial resolution of a few millimeters to a few microns. The high spatial resolution residual stress measurement required development of new methodologies in both the design of acoustic lenses and the instrumentation for acoustic wave velocity determination. This paper presents two new methodologies developed for the measurement of residual stress with spatial resolution of a few millimeters. The design of new type of acoustic lens for achieving higher spatial resolution in residual stress measurement is introduced. Development of instrumentation for high precision local surface wave velocity measurement will be presented. Residual stresses measured around a crack tip in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V using a focused beam will be compared with X-ray diffraction measurements performed on the same region of the sample. Results of residual stress measurements along a direction perpendicular to the electron beam weld in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V, determined using focused acoustic waves and X-ray diffraction technique, are also presented. The spatial resolution and penetration depth of X-rays and focused acoustic beams with reference to residual stress measurements are discussed

  19. Effective X-ray elastic constant measurement for in situ stress measurement of biaxially strained AA5754-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadicola, Mark A.; Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress–strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.

  20. Quantitative measurements of oxidative stress in mouse skin induced by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Cuiping; Tanaka, Ryoko; Okuda, Yohei; Ikota, Nobuo; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Anzai, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Haruhiko; Urano, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    To find efficient methods to evaluate oxidative stress in mouse skin caused by X-ray irradiation, several markers and methodologies were examined. Hairless mice were irradiated with 50 Gy X-rays and skin homogenates or skin strips were prepared. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the skin homogenate as the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The level of lipid peroxidation increased with time after irradiation and was twice that of the control at 78 h. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of skin strips showed a clear signal for the ascorbyl radical, which increased with time after irradiation in a manner similar to that of lipid peroxidation. To measure levels of glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized forms (GSSG) simultaneously, two high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, sample derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and detection with a UV detector (method A) and no derivatization and detection with an electrochemical detector (method B), were compared and the latter was found to be better. No significant change was observed within 24 h after irradiation in the levels of GSH and GSSG measured by method B. The GSH/GSSG ratio may be a less sensitive parameter for the evaluation of acute oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation in the skin. Monitoring the ascorbyl radical seems to be a good way to evaluate oxidative stress in skin in vivo. (author)

  1. An automated x-ray stress measurement system using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori; Miyagawa, Matsuo; Sato, Fumiyoshi; Sugiharai, Shigeru; Ishii, Masami; Sumiyoshi, Michio.

    1985-01-01

    An automated system for a rapid and precise X-ray stress measurement using a microcomputer has been developed. A block diagram of the system and a flowchart for the stress measurement method are shown. Of the various methods, the one most suitable for the material to be measured can be programmed in this system. The residual stress in a hardened steel having a broad diffraction profile (half-width of 7.2 deg ) could be measured in six minutes with a small standard deviation of 13 MPa by the Gaussian curve method using the sin 2 ψ method. Both the oscillation and the fixed ψ methods, using the Gaussian curve method, allow the X-ray stress measurement of coarse-grained steels; the sin 2 ψ diagram obtained by these methods had a good linearity. The residual stress measurement of an annealed chromium powder gave almost zero stress values, -3.2 to 2.9 MPa depending on the method used, showing a high accuracy of the system. (author)

  2. Measurement of residual stress in a sphere by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1981-01-01

    It was pointed out in the case of a plate that when stress gradient is large, the use of the X-ray with large penetration depth caused large measurement error. In this paper, the theoretical equations for measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray, taking penetration depth into account, are proposed, and the example of application is shown. As the method of measuring the residual stress in a hollow sphere with X-ray, only the method of combining external surface removal and external surface irradiation is practically in use. It was assumed that a sphere is isotropic, and that the residual stress is a function of the radius only. First, the theory of measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray taking penetration depth into account is explained, and the equations for calculating the residual stresses in tangential and radial directions are derived. As the example of applying this theory, the distribution of the residual stress in a steel ball for a ball bearing was measured with Cr characteristic X-ray. The ball of 30 mm diameter was made of high-carbon chromium bearing steel, grade 2, (JIS SUJ2) and quenched and tempered. The removal of the thin layer was made by chemical etching and electrolysis. The measured values and the calculated values are shown. (Kako, I.)

  3. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  4. Residual stress measurements by X-ray and neutron diffractions in heat-treated SiCw/A2014 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Takahisa; Fujita, Motoo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses due to various heat treatments in a 22 volume percent SiC whisker/A2014 metal matrix composite (MMC) were measured by using X-ray and neutron diffractions. Micro residual stresses generated from the differences in thermal expansion coefficients of the constituents and macro residual stresses associated with different cooling rates in the outer and inner regions of an MMC specimen must be distinguished in X-ray stress measurements. The conventional sin 2 ψ method under an assumption of plane stress condition has been found not to be applicable to the present MMC, because interactions among whiskers in the X-ray penetrating area yields σ 33 where the x 3 -axis is normal with respect to specimen's surface. An average value of σ 33 can be measured by X-ray diffraction technique, but does not seem enough to evaluate micro residual stresses. It is found that neutron diffraction is the most powerful method to measure micro residual stresses in the constituents. Elastic residual strains obtained by neutron diffraction in solution treated or T6 heat treated samples show good agreements with predictions calculated by using Eshelby inclusion theory coupled with the Mori-Tanaka mean field concept, indicating that the influence of stress relaxation is negligible. In addition, internal stresses relaxations during holding at room temperature, slow cooling from solution treatment temperature, or subzero cooling are discussed. (author)

  5. Residual stress measurement in worked and heat treated steel by X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.K.; Godaba, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations were made for residual stress measurement by X-ray diffractometry in the 1.14% C, 0.46% Mn, 0.16% Si, 0.11% S and 0.04% P steel samples subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation (cold upsetting in the range 7.7-21%), thermal gradient (quenching from 630 deg. C) and phase transformation (quenching from 850 deg. C), respectively. The results indicated that compressive residual stress at the surface increased in the samples with increasing deformation acquiring values in the range, -269.5 MPa to -374.7 MPa. In the samples quenched from 630 deg. C, the thermal stresses acquired increasing values in the range -83.9 MPa (compressive) to -188.1 MPa (compressive) with increased cooling rate. In the samples quenched from 850 deg. C, volume increase on account of austenite to martensite phase transformation ultimately dominated the thermal contraction resulting in residual stress at the surface from -329.3 MPa (compressive) to +61.7 MPa (tensile)

  6. Measurements of internal stresses in bond coating using high energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, K; Akiniwa, Y; Nishio, K; Kawamura, M; Okado, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) techniques enable high temperature combustion of turbines made of Ni-base alloy. TBC is made of zirconia top coating on NiCoCrAlY bond coating. The internal stresses in the bond coating play essential role in the delamination or fracture of TBC in service. With the X-rays from laboratory equipments, it is impossible to measure nondestructively the internal stress in the bond coating under the top coating. synchrotron radiations with a high energy and high brightness have a large penetration depth as compared with laboratory X-rays. Using the high energy X-rays from the synchrotron radiation, it is possible to measure the internal stress in the bond coating through the top coating. In this study, the furnace, which can heat a specimen to 1473 K, was developed for the stress measurement of the thermal barrier coatings. The internal stresses in the bond coating were measured at the room temperature, 773 K, 1073 K and 1373 K by using the 311 diffraction from Ni sub 3 Al with about 73...

  7. Measurements of the residual stresses in the welded steel columns based on the x-ray diffraction method, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Kiyoshi; Nishizawa, Hidekazu; Arashiyama, Masaki.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of two kinds of techniques of the X-ray stress analysis, namely, the standard sin 2 psi method and the newly developed phi-sin 2 psi method, bending tests have been performed. The test results have proved that the values of the stresses measured by means of the mechanical devices and of those measured by the two kinds of the X-ray techniques coincide each other. Then, these two methods have been applied to measure the surface residual stresses of the box-typed, welded steel columns and the following conclusions have been drawn. 1. The principal stress of the surface residural stresses is, in most cases, oriented to the rolled directions at the center of the steel plates, and it tends to rotate in the neighborhood of the heat affected zones. 2. Tensile residual stresses of a large magnitude have been observed in the direction parallel to the beads of the weld, and the moderate compressive residual stresses can be detected in the direction normal to the beads. (author)

  8. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  9. Consideration of microstructure evolution and residual stress measurement near severe worked surface using high energy x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Shobu, Takahisa

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to establish a measurement method that can evaluate accurate stress on the surface. However, the microstructure evolution takes place near the surface due to severe plastic deformation, since structural members have been superpositioned a lot of working processes to complete. As well known, a plane stress can't be assumed on the severe worked surface. Therefore we have been proposed the measurement method that can be measured the in-depth distribution of residual stress components by using high energy X-ray from a synchrotron radiation source. There is the combination of the constant penetration depth method and tri-axial stress analysis. Measurements were performed by diffraction planes for the orientation parameter Γ=0.25 of which elastic constants are nearly equal to the mechanical one. The stress components obtained must be converted to the stress components in real space by using optimization technique, since it corresponds to the weighted average stress components associated with the attenuation of X-ray in materials. The predicted stress components distribution agrees very well with the corrected one which was measured by the conventional removal method. To verify the availability of the proposed method, thermal aging variation of residual stress components on the severe worked surface under elevated temperature was investigated using specimen superpositioned working processes (i.e., welding, machining, peening). It is clarified that the residual stress components increase with thermal aging, using the diffraction planes in hard elastic constants to the bulk. This result suggests that the thermal stability of residual stress has the dependence of the diffraction plane. (author)

  10. Application of x-ray method for measuring internal stress in the gear teeth surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborowski, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the methodics of the internal stress measurements concerning cylindrical gear teeth of involute profile. There are the method selected, relation between stress and strain presented and conditions of investigation discussed in the study, including preparation of samples for investigation and conditions of the strain measurement. Exemplifying results of stress measurements for teeth of gears made of 4OH steel are shown. Suitability of the developed investigation method is indicated

  11. In-situ X-ray residual stress measurement on a peened alloy 600 weld metal at elevated temperature under tensile load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunomura, Tomoaki; Maeguchi, Takaharu; Kurimura, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    In order to verify stability of residual stress improvement effect of peeing for mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in components of PWR plant, relaxation behavior of residual stress induced by water jet peening (WJP) on surface of alloy 600 weld metal (alloy 132) was investigated by in-situ X-ray residual stress measurement under thermal aging and stress condition considered for actual plant operation. Surface residual stress change was observed at the early stage of thermal aging at 360°C, but no significant further stress relaxation was observed after that. Applied stress below yield stress does not significantly affect stress relaxation behavior of surface residual stress. For the X-ray residual stress measurement, X-ray stress constant at room temperature for alloy 600 was determined experimentally with several surface treatment and existence of applied strain. The X-ray stress constant at elevated temperatures were extrapolated theoretically based on the X-ray stress constant at room temperature for alloy 600. (author)

  12. Effect of Young's modulus evolution on residual stress measurement of thermal barrier coatings by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Mao, W.G.; Zhou, Y.C.; Lu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Subjected to thermal cycling, the apparent Young's modulus of air plasma-sprayed (APS) 8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was measured by nanoindentation. Owing to the effects of sintering and porous microstructure, the apparent Young's modulus follows a Weibull distribution and changes from 50 to 93 GPa with an increase of thermal cycling. The evolution of residual stresses in the top coating of an 8YSZ TBC system was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The residual stresses derived from the XRD data are well consistent with that obtained by the Vickers indention. It is shown that the evolution of Young's modulus plays an important role in improving the measurement precision of residual stresses in TBCs by XRD.

  13. Relation between psi-splitting and microscopic residual shear stresses in x-ray stress measurement on uni-directionally deformed layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, Takao; Fujiwara, Haruo

    1982-01-01

    The psi-splitting behaviors were investigated for the ground and the milled surface layers of both iron and high speed steel in order to find out the relation among microscopic residual shear stresses. For the high speed steel, the X-ray elastic constants and the residual strains were measured on the carbide phase as well as on the matrix phase. It was clarified that the psi-splitting was caused by a combination of the selective nature of X-ray diffractions and the microscopic residual shear stresses within the interior of cells and the carbide particles. The volume fraction occupied by the cell walls and the residual shear stresses sustained by them were estimated from the equilibrium condition of the microscopic residual shear stresses. The distributions of residual stresses over the deformed layers indicate that the thermal effect is dominant in grinding and the mechanical effect is dominant in milling for forming residual stresses. (author)

  14. Application of in-plane x-ray diffraction technique for residual stress measurement of TiN film/WC-Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takago, Shigeki; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Sakurai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    An in-plane X-ray diffraction technique was used to measure the residual stress of a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) TiN-coated WC-Co alloy. We could obtain the diffraction pattern from a thin film layer, eliminating that of the substrate. In the case of a conventional X-ray diffractometer, the X-ray penetration depth is about few μm. However, for a grazing incidence beam it is only 0.2μm. Depth profiles of residual stress in TiN film layer were evaluated by the present method and the conventional sin 2 ψ technique. We concluded that the in-plane diffraction technique enables us to determine the residual stress in a DVD-TiN film having an oriented texture. It was found that the residual tensile stress generated a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. (author)

  15. Application of in-plane x-ray diffraction technique for residual stress measurement of TiN film/WC-Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takago, Shigeki; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Inst. of Ishikawa, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakurai, Kenji [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    An in-plane X-ray diffraction technique was used to measure the residual stress of a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) TiN-coated WC-Co alloy. We could obtain the diffraction pattern from a thin film layer, eliminating that of the substrate. In the case of a conventional X-ray diffractometer, the X-ray penetration depth is about few {mu}m. However, for a grazing incidence beam it is only 0.2{mu}m. Depth profiles of residual stress in TiN film layer were evaluated by the present method and the conventional sin{sup 2}{psi} technique. We concluded that the in-plane diffraction technique enables us to determine the residual stress in a DVD-TiN film having an oriented texture. It was found that the residual tensile stress generated a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the film and the substrate. (author)

  16. X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Naughton, B.P.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interplanar spacing d{hkl} versus sin2 ψ distributions were measured for the 211, 310, 220 and 200 reflections from severely cold-drawn 0.7% C steel wire with a diameter of 0.25 mm. From the shape of the curves it was concluded that, as well as a 110 fibre texture and elastic anisotropy, plastic

  17. X-ray microbeam measurements of long-range internal stresses in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Lee, I-Fang; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Fox, Alan G.; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure long-range internal stresses (LRISs) in the grain/subgrain interiors of commercial-purity aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing for up to eight passes. The LRIS values at +4.9° off the axial (pressing) direction show only a slight increase with increasing numbers of passes. The normalized stress remains approximately constant at ∼0.10 of the flow stress

  18. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  19. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements of internal stresses during loading of steel-based metal matrix composites reinforced with TiB2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, D.H.; Edwards, L.; Moffatt, J.E.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure internal stresses in Fe-TiB 2 MMCs. → Samples of the MMCs were loaded to failure in situ in the X-ray beam. → The results show good elastic load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement. → There is good agreement with the predicted elastic stresses from Eshelby modeling. → During plastic deformation there is increasing load transfer to the reinforcement. - Abstract: High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure the internal strain evolution in the matrix and reinforcement of steel-based metal matrix composites reinforced with particulate titanium diboride (TiB 2 ). Two systems were studied: a 316L matrix with 25% TiB 2 by volume and a W1.4418 matrix with 10% reinforcement. In situ loading experiments were performed, where the materials were loaded uniaxially in the X-ray beam. The results show the strain partitioning between the phases in the elastic regime, and the evolution of the strain partitioning once plasticity occurs. The results are compared with results from Eshelby modelling, and very good agreement is seen between the measured and modelled response for elastic loading of the material. Heat treatment of the 316-based material did not affect the elastic internal strain response.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the three-dimensional residual stresses method based on the eigenstrain methodology via x-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masaru; Ishii, Takehiro; Furusako, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent fractures caused by fatigue or stress corrosion cracking in welded structures, it is important to predict crack propagation for cracks observed during in-service inspections. However, it is difficult to evaluate three-dimensional welding residual stresses non-destructively. Today, it is possible to measure residual stresses just on surface by X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction makes it possible to measure welding residual stresses non-destructively even in the thickness direction but it is only available in special irradiation facilities. Therefore, it is impossible to use neutron diffraction as an on-site measurement technique. As non-destructive method of three-dimensional welding residual stresses based on the eigenstrain methodology, the bead flush method has been proposed. In this method, three-dimensional welding residual stresses are calculated by an elastic FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis from eigenstrain distributions which are estimated by an inverse analysis from released strains by strain gauges in the removal of the weld reinforcement. Here, the removal of the excess metal contributes inhibition of crack initiation. Therefore, the bead flush method is a non-destructive technique essentially. However, estimation accuracy of this method becomes relatively poor when processing strains are added on the machined surface. The first author has been developed the bead flush method to be free from the influence of the processing strains. In this method, eigenstrains are estimated not from released strains but from residual strains on surface by X-ray diffraction. In this study, welding residual stresses on the bottom surface in an actual welded plate are estimated from elastic strains measured on the top surface using this method. To evaluate estimation accuracy, estimated residual stresses on the bottom surface are compared with residual stresses measured by X-ray diffraction. Here, eigenstrain distributions not only in the welding

  1. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  2. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  3. Measurement of residual stress in a cylinder by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The authors propose an exact theory of residual stress measurement by successive thin layer removal in a hollow cylinder under the consideration of the contribution of residual stress within a definite subsurface, and show an example of its application. (author)

  4. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  5. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  6. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows...... the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when...... the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite...

  7. Method for evaluationo of the 3D residual stress field from X-ray diffraction measurements on heavy weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.; Sandstroem, R.

    1982-03-01

    A method for evaluation of the three dimensional residual 30 stress distribution in heavy weldmwents has been developed. The evaluation is based on measured stress data at a number of depth levels below the plate surface. The method has been applied to two measurements on heavy weldments of A 553 B steel. Comparison to a previous evaluation shows good agreement. (Authors)

  8. The measurement of stress and phase fraction distributions in pre and post-transition Zircaloy oxides using nano-beam synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, H., E-mail: helen.swan@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Blackmur, M.S., E-mail: matthew.s.blackmur@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hyde, J.M., E-mail: jonathan.m.hyde@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Laferrere, A., E-mail: alice.laferrere@atkinsglobal.com [W.S.Atkins, The Hub, Aztec West, 500 Park Ave, Almondsbury, Bristol BS32 4RZ (United Kingdom); Ortner, S.R., E-mail: susan.r.ortner@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Styman, P.D., E-mail: paul.d.styman@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Staines, C., E-mail: cassie.staines@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, 102B, Stonehouse Park, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, GL10 3UT (United Kingdom); Gass, M., E-mail: mhairi.gass@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler Clean Energy Europe, Walton House, Birchwood, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Hulme, H., E-mail: helen.hulme@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler Clean Energy Europe, Walton House, Birchwood, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Cole-Baker, A., E-mail: aidan.cole-baker@rolls-royce.com [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 2000, Derby, DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Frankel, P., E-mail: philipp.frankel@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Zircaloy-4 oxide stress profiles and tetragonal:monoclinic oxide phase fraction distributions were studied using nano-beam transmission X-ray diffraction. Continuous stress relief and phase transformation during the first cycle of oxide growth was observed. The in-plane monoclinic stress was shown to relax strongly up to each transition, whereas in-plane tetragonal stress-relief (near the metal-oxide interface) was only observed post transition. The research demonstrates that plasticity in the metal and the development of a band of in-plane cracking both relax the monoclinic in-plane stress. The observations are consistent with a model of transition in which in-plane cracking becomes interlinked prior to transition. These cracks, combined with the development of cracks with a through-thickness component (driven primarily by plasticity in the metal) and/or a porous network of fine cracks (associated with phase transformation), form a percolation path through the oxide layer. The oxidising species can then percolate from the oxide surface to the metal/oxide interface, at which stage transition then ensues. - Highlights: • Measurement of stress in Zr-4 oxides using nano-beam transmission X-ray diffraction. • In-plane monoclinic stress relaxes strongly up to each transition. • In-plane tetragonal stress relaxation is only observed post transition. • Development of band of cracking is related to monoclinic in-plane stress relaxation. • Linking of in-plane cracking with through-plane crack/porosity leads to transition.

  9. Measuring device for soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.

    1978-09-01

    An instrument for the measurement of the absorbed energy per unit area of diagnostic X-rays in soft human tissue was developed. The instrument is intended for dosimetry applications in the field of dental and small skeleton radiography and for mammography. The detector assembly consists of a Polyvinyltoluene scintillator 2.54 diametre x 5.08 cm CsSb semitransparent head-on vacuum phototube. Polyvinyltoluene being a pure hydrocarbon may be considered a good representative material of human soft tissue concerning the absorption of X-rays. In the photon energy range of interest, 5 - 40 keV, the mass energy absorption coefficient for muscle tissue and for PVT differ about a factor 2 due to the considerable content of Oxygen in muscle tissue. This is to some extend reflected in the photon energy response characteristic for the instrument. For human adipose, the characteristic is practically flat from 5- 40 keV. The instrument is integrating the absorbed power per unit area and the digital display shows Joules/m 2 . The range for the instrument is from 000.1 μJ/m 2 to 19.99 J/m 2 (absorbed energy in 5 cm tissue). (author)

  10. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  11. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  12. X-ray stress analysis of residual stress gradients in surface layers of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, N.; Kraus, I.; Gosmanova, G.; Pfeiffer, L.; Tietz, H.-D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the contribution is to present the theoretical possibilities of X-ray non-destructive identification of stress gradients within the penetration depth of used radiation and its utilization for experimental stress analysis. Practical usefullness of outlined speculations is illustrated with results of stress measurements on cut and shot-penned steel samples. (author)

  13. X-ray measurements on wood - spectra measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Kamp; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Gerward, Leif

    The report concerns simultaneous non-destructive measurements of water content and density of wood. Theoretically, this should be possible using a x-ray equipment newly build at BKM, and this work is an attempt to use the equipment for assessing water content and density of wood samples under...... laboratory conditions. A number of wood samples with different densities are placed at different relative humidities from 0.5 to 97 %RH. When equilibrium is obtained the samples are measured with the x-ray equipment such that 10 points are measured in the sample followed by measurements outside the sample...... (free-scanning). In this way 100 points are measured for each wood sample. This produces information about moisture content and density of the samples as water and wood attenuations of the x-rays are different for the different energy levels contained in the x-rays. The "real" density and moisture...

  14. Photoemission measurements for low energy x-ray detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photoemission has been studied for nearly 100 years as both a means of investigating quantum physics, and as a practical technique for transducing optical/x-ray photons into electrical currents. Numerous x-ray detection schemes, such as streak cameras and x-ray sensitive diodes, exploit this process because of its simplicity, adaptability, and speed. Recent emphasis on diagnostics for low temperature, high density, and short-lived, plasmas for inertial confinement fusion has stimulated interest in x-ray photoemission in the sub-kilovolt regime. In this paper, a review of x-ray photoemission measurements in the 50 eV to 10 keV x-ray region is given and the experimental techniques are reviewed. A semiempirical model of x-ray photoemission is discussed and compared to experimental measurements. Finally, examples of absolutely calibrated instruments are shown

  15. A synchrotron X-ray diffraction deconvolution method for the measurement of residual stress in thermal barrier coatings as a function of depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Jacques, S D M; Chen, Y; Daisenberger, D; Xiao, P; Markocsan, N; Nylen, P; Cernik, R J

    2016-12-01

    The average residual stress distribution as a function of depth in an air plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia top coat used in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems was measured using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on station I15 at Diamond Light Source, UK, employing a series of incidence angles. The stress values were calculated from data deconvoluted from diffraction patterns collected at increasing depths. The stress was found to be compressive through the thickness of the TBC and a fluctuation in the trend of the stress profile was indicated in some samples. Typically this fluctuation was observed to increase from the surface to the middle of the coating, decrease a little and then increase again towards the interface. The stress at the interface region was observed to be around 300 MPa, which agrees well with the reported values. The trend of the observed residual stress was found to be related to the crack distribution in the samples, in particular a large crack propagating from the middle of the coating. The method shows promise for the development of a nondestructive test for as-manufactured samples.

  16. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren; Mikkelsen, Lars P.; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Lienert, Ulrich; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Reimers, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows the position, orientation and full stress tensor of each illuminated grain to be determined and, hence, enables the study of evolving stress fields in coarse grained materials with a spatial resolution equal to the grain size. Grain resolved information like this is vital for understanding what happens when the traditional continuum mechanics approach breaks down and fracture is governed by local heterogeneities (e.g. phase or stress differences) between grains. As a first approximation the results obtained were averaged through the thickness of the sample and compared with an elastic–plastic continuum finite element simulation. It was found that a full three-dimensional simulation was required to account for the measured transition from the overall plane stress case away from the notch to the essentially plane strain case observed near the notch tip. The measured and simulated stress contours were shown to be in good agreement except at the highest applied load, at which stress relaxation at the notch tip was observed in the experimental data. This stress relaxation is attributed to the initiation and propagation of a crack. Finally, it was demonstrated that the measured lattice rotations could be used as a qualitative measure of the shape and extent of the plastic deformation zone.

  17. X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement in the rolled-joint zone of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Nedelcu, L.

    1995-01-01

    The in-service experience of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in CANDU-type nuclear reactors has demonstrated very good performance over a long period of time. However, analyses done by AECL specialists on most failure cases, showed that a big percentage of defects are manufacturing defects, which appear mostly at the beginning of the rolled-joint zone. It has been observed that a correct rolling ensures an acceptable distribution of residual stress, but an incorrect one leads to an accumulation of big values of residual stress. This determines a preferential radial orientation of hydrides, which during operation in the reactor can produce DHC. To ensure a suitable performance of the Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in the CANDU reactor, it is very important to have a correct rolling as mentioned in the procedure. This work presents a methodology for the measurement of the stressing state in the surfaces layers of the rolled-joint zone. The X-ray diffraction method can also be used for establishing the residual stress distribution across the tub wall, in order to ensure a good performance at Cernavoda nuclear plant. The results obtained for the investigated tube have led to the conclusion that the rolling process was correctly applied in this case, the values obtained for the residual stress being in good agreement with those accepted in literature. (Author) 2 Figs., 2 Tabs

  18. X-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements of implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, B.A.; Ress, D.R.; Keane, C.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.; Pasha, R.; Wallace, R.J.; Bradley, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray measurements are essential in the investigation of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, where neutron and x-ray emission are the only observable signatures of the compressed core conditions. High-speed detectors, available for x-ray measurement, provide a means of measuring the rapidly evolving conditions in imploding capsules on picosecond time scales. We address a wide range of issues in our indirectly driven implosion experiments on Nova, with a large variety of x-ray measurement techniques. Critical issues include symmetry of the compressed core, fuel density and temperature and hydrodynamic mix at the pusher/fuel interface

  19. Effects of X-ray tube parameters on thickness measure precision in X-ray profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Wu Zhifang; Xing Guilai

    2011-01-01

    Instantaneous profile gauge technology has been widely used in metallurgy industry because it can on-line get the profile of steel strip. It has characters of high measure precision and wide measure range, but the X-ray tube parameters only can be set few different values during measurement. The relations of thickness measure precision and X-ray tube current, X-ray tube voltage were analyzed. The results show that the X-ray tube current affects the thickness measure precision and the X-ray tube voltage determines the thickness measure range. The method of estimating the X-ray current by thickness measure precision was provided in the end. This method is the base of X-ray source selection and X-ray source parameter's setting in the instantaneous profile gauge. (authors)

  20. X-ray residual stress measurement and its variation during plane bending fatigue and sliding wear processes in TiC, TiN, TiB2 and Al2O3 coated carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Takashi; Idemitsu, Kohji; Kawakami, Mamoru

    1993-01-01

    The development of ceramic coating to metals was stimulated by the need for high temperature, wear and corrosion resistant materials. Recently TiC, TiN, TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 are used as ceramic coating materials. In the present study, the X-ray method was successfully applied to measure the residual stress distribution in their ceramics coated steels. The X-ray elastic constants were determined and compared with the mechanically measured values. And plane bending and sliding wear tests were carried out. The X-ray method was successfully applied to measure the residual stress changes during fatigue and wear processes. The relationship between the change of residual stress and damage accumulation was investigated. (author)

  1. Multiaxial stress analysis taking account of the penetration depth of x-rays, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Makoto.

    1983-01-01

    The new theory of X-ray multiaxial stress measurement is proposed. This method takes accounts of the influence concerning to the stress gradient and to the dependence of the penetration depth of X-rays upon the incidence angle. As a basic assumption, it's assumed that (1) stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, (2) the penetration depth of X-rays shows linear dependence upon sin 2 PSI, and (3) the lattice strain determined by X-rays corresponds to the weighted averaging strain on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. Consequently, the stress state within the thin layer near to the surface is expressed by making use of three surface stresses and six stress gradients in this theory. It was proved that these nine stress elements were able to be solved through X-ray method by applying ''the integral method'' proposed by Lode and Peiter in 1976. The verification of the validity on this method was carried out through the numerical simulation and residual stress measurement of a ground S55C. As a result, it was found that this method could get a satisfactory accuracy. This method can estimate the multiaxial stress distribution within the surface layer nondestructively. (author)

  2. Measurement of characteristic X-rays by positron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y.; Saito, F.; Itoh, Y.; Goto, A.; Hyodo, T.

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray detector with thin Si(Li) crystals has been fabricated and employed to detect the characteristic X-rays by positron impact. Use of thin detector crystals is essential for the measurements of the characteristic X-rays induced by positron impact. Otherwise the background produced in the crystals by the annihilation γ-rays is too large to isolate the X-ray peaks. The data has been analyzed to obtain the inner-shell ionization cross sections by positron impact. (orig.)

  3. Multiaxial stress analysis taking account of penetration depth of x-rays, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto.

    1985-01-01

    In the past X-ray stress analysis in which the effect of stress gradients was taken into account within the penetration depth of X-rays, three assumptions have been made; 1) the stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, 2) the penetration depth of X-ray is a function of Sin 2 PSI and 3) the strain measured by X-rays corresponds to the weighted average strain on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. A problem, however, still remains on the assumption of the X-ray penetration depth. We sometimes observed noticiable errors in the stage of the numerical simulation and these errors depend on the combination of stress components in a stress tensor. In the present paper, we proposed a new X-ray multiaxial stress analysis without using the assumption of the X-ray penetration depth. This analysis is also applicable to both the iso-inclination method ( OHM -goniometer) and the side inclination method (PSI-goniometer). The weighted average strain by X-rays, 1 >(phi), is expressed as a 4th degree function of cosPSI for iso-inclination method and 3rd degree for side inclination method. By rearranging this function as a sum of average strain, ( 1 >(0 0 )+ 1 >(90 0 )), and difference of average strain, ( 1 >(0 0 )- 1 >(90 0 )), we can solve the stress components with sufficient accuracy by a least squares method. The validity of this method was proved through numerical simulations and experiments. (author)

  4. X-ray diffraction measurements in KCl shocked along [100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Almeida, T.; Gupta, Y.M.

    2000-01-01

    Real time x-ray diffraction measurements were used to examine the polymorphic phase transformation in KCl shocked along the [100] direction. Shock wave continuum data, obtained previously by Hayes, were used to design the experiments and to predict diffraction from KCl shocked to different peak stresses. Here, we present the results obtained below the transition stress: between 1.4 and 2 GPa. Diffraction data obtained were quantitatively related to macroscopic compression. Interplanar spacing measurements revealed isotropic compression of the unit cell in contrast to previously reported results. Above the transition stress, descriptions of the atomic arrangement with respect to shock propagation (not available in the literature) are required for setting up the detection system. Hence, continuum results in combination with various crystallographic considerations were utilized to obtain data above the transition stress

  5. A quality measurement study of a diagnostic x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Motohiro; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    It is important to check periodically the quality and quantity of the X-rays emitted, in order to obtain the best possible performance from your diagnostic X-ray apparatus. The best way of checking the exact quality of the X-ray is to measure the spectrum of the X-ray, but it is not an easy task to carry out. The second way is to plot the attenuation curve of the X-rays. We have developed a method to plot the attenuation curve by a single exposure, utilizing J.r. Greening's empirical formula. The output of the three cavity ionization chambers, one with 7 mmAl filter, another with a 3 mmAl and the third without any filter, exposed to the same X-ray, were put into a microcomputer. The programming was arranged to display the attenuation curve of the X-rays, effective energy of the X-rays, the 1st HVL and the 2nd HVL on the CRT. The attenuation curves of the X-rays, emitted at a tube voltage at between 60 and 140 kV obtained by this method, agreed with the experimental results with an error of +-4 %. The effective energy obtained by this method agreed with the experimental data with an error of +-1 %. (author)

  6. Residual stress analysis on materials with steep stress gradient by using X-ray incidence at higher angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Maeno, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    X-ray stress measurements for isotropic polycrystalline are materials are usually carried out by the sin 2 ψ method under the assumption of no stress gradient in X-ray penetration depth. When a steep stress gradient exists in the vicinity of surface layer, however, non-linear sin 2 ψ relation is observed and the sin 2 ψ method cannot be applied on such cases. Although several X-ray stress analyzers have been developed for materials with steep stress gradient in the surface layer, it is desirable to use diffraction data at higher incident angles of ψ 0 as possible as close on 90 degrees in order to determine the both values of surface stress and stress gradient with high accuracy. In the present study, an X-ray stress analyzer based on Ω geometry was fabricated to enable X-ray incidence at higher angle of ψ 0 . The X-ray detector was positioned on -η side against X-ray incident beam. Both of the residual surface stress and stress gradient were determined by use of the COSψ method on shot-peened steel and silicon nitride specimens. This prototype stress analyzer was found effective to perform a biaxial or triaxial stress analysis. (author)

  7. Some new possibilities in direct visible and x ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gex, J.P.; Sauneuf, R.; Boutot, J.P.; Delmotte, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Subnanosecond photodetection measurements in visible and X ray range with vacuum cell and very thin microchannel plate phototube (coupled with a fast scintillator or not) in conjunction with fast oscilloscope (5 GHz) are presented. They are compared to those given by a visible or a gold photocathode X-ray streak camera (temporal resolution better than 20 ps). (author)

  8. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  9. Application of X-rays and Synchrotron X Rays to Residual Stress Evaluation Near Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, Anke

    1999-01-01

    A nondestructive residual stress analysis can be performed using diffraction methods. The easiest accessible radiation is characteristic X radiation that has a penetration depth of ∼10 microm suitable for the determination of the residual stresses in near-surface layers. Special techniques have been developed, e.g., with respect to in situ analyses of the stress state in oxide layers and the residual stress analysis in coarse grained zones of steel welds or annealed Ni-base alloys. Depending on the size of the gauge volume, neutron diffraction can provide information at depths of tens of millimetres of steel and many tens of millimetres of Al. An alternative to the use of the characteristic synchrotron radiation is the use of a high-energy polychromatic beam in an energy dispersive arrangement, which gives access to higher penetration depths at still gauge volumes as small as 100 microm x 100 microm x 1 mm in steel rods of 15-mm diameter. The combination of neutrons with conventional X rays and monochromatic and polychromatic synchrotron radiation allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phase composition, the texture, and the residual stresses

  10. Evaluated Plan Stress Of Weld In Pressure Tube Using X Ray Diffraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Trong Phuc; Nguyen Duc Thanh; Luu Anh Tuyen

    2011-01-01

    X ray diffraction is a fundamental technique measuring stress, this technique has determined crystal strain in materials, from that determined stress in materials. This paper presents study of evaluating plane stress of weld in pressure tube, using modern XRD apparatus: X Pert Pro. (author)

  11. X-ray measurements of water fog density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.

    1982-11-01

    Water-fog densities were measured in a laboratory experiment using x-ray diagnostics. Fog densities were measured, varying the flow rate, nozzle type, nozzle configuration, nozzle height above the x-ray beam, and water surface tension. Suspended water volume fractions between 0.0008 and 0.0074 percent were measured. The fog density increases approximately as the square root of the flow rate; the other parameters had little effect on the density

  12. X-ray multiaxial stress analysis by means of polynomial approximation and an application to plane stress problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto.

    1984-01-01

    A new polynomial approximation method was proposed for the X-ray multiaxial stress analysis, in which the effect of stress gradient along the penetration depth of X-rays was taken into account. Three basic assumptions were made; (1) the stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, (2) the ponetration depth of X-rays is a function of Sin 2 phi and (3) the strain measured by X-rays corresponds to the weighted average strain on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. Consequently, the stress state within the thin layer near the surface was expressed by making use of three surface stresses and six stress gradients in the present method. The average strains by X-rays were approximated by the third order polynomial equations of sin 2 phi using a least square method at several phi angles on the coordinate system of specimen. Since the coefficients of these polynomials include these nine stress components mentioned above, it is possible to solve them as simultaneous equations. The calculating process of this method is simpler than that of the integral method. An X-ray plane stress problem was analyzed as an application of the present method, and the residual stress distribution on a shot-peened steel plate was actually measured by use of Cr-Kα X-rays to verify the analysis. The result showed that the compressive residual stress near the surface determined by the present method was smaller than the weighted average stress by the Sin 2 phi method because of the steep stress gradient. The present method is useful to obtain a reasonable value of stress for such a specimen with steep stress gradients near the surface. (author)

  13. Spalling stress in oxidized thermal barrier coatings evaluated by X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Furoh-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The spallation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is promoted by thermally grown oxide (TGO). To improve TBCs, it is very important to understand the influence of TGO on the spalling stress. In this study 'the TBCs were oxidized at 1373 K for four different periods: 0, 500,1000 and 2000 h. The distribution of the in-plane stress in oxidized TBCs, {sigma}{sub 1}, was obtained by repeating the X-ray stress measurement with low energy X-rays after successive removal of the surface layer. The distribution of the out-of-plane stress, {sigma}{sub 1} - {sigma}{sub 3}, was measured with hard synchrotron X-rays, because high energy X-rays have a large penetration depth. From the results by the low and high energy X-rays, the spalling stress in the oxidized TBCs, {sigma}{sub 3}, was evaluated. The evaluated value of the spalling stress for the oxidized TBC was a small tension beneath the surface, but steeply increased near the interface between the top and bond coating. This large tensile stress near the interface is responsible for the spalling of the top coating. (orig.)

  14. X-ray PIV measurements of blood flows without tracer particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sang Joon

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of blood moving in a circular tube flow using an X-ray PIV method and compared the experimental results with hemodynamic models. The X-ray PIV method was improved for measuring quantitative velocity fields of blood flows using a coherent synchrotron X-ray. Without using any contrast media, this method can visualize flow pattern of blood by enhancing the phase-contrast and interference characteristics of blood cells. The enhanced X-ray images were achieved by optimizing the sample-to-scintillator distance, the sample thickness, and hematocrit in detail. The quantitative velocity fields of blood flows inside opaque conduits were obtained by applying a two-frame PIV algorithm to the X-ray images of the blood flows. The measured velocity data show typical features of blood flow such as the yield stress and shear-thinning effects. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of non-invasive X-ray measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Described are the history, measuring system, characteristics and present state of the instruments in the title (NXMI). NXMI, non-invasive to the inner circuit of X-ray generator, is now essential for the quality control of generator with reference to definitions by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Non-invasive measurement of the generator's tube voltage in 1944 is the first report where the absorption difference of Cu plates with different thickness is used. At present, NXMI, being compact, can measure multiple properties of X-ray generated, such as the tube voltage (TV), current (TC), imaging time, dose/dose rate, total filtration, half value layer, and TV/output waveform. TV is measurable by the penetration difference of X-rays through Cu filters of different thickness, which is a linear function of TV; TC, with the clamp-type ammeter placed at the generator high voltage cable; and the dose, with the semiconductor detector. Characteristics can be evaluable within the upper trigger level of the detector (radiation time, dose measured here), in which measured are the irradiation (imaging) time, delay time, and TV (within the window width). Authors' practical quality control of the generator is conducted through calibration for which data are obtained by invasive (direct) precise measurement of TV, TC, imaging time and dose with reference to JIS. Periodical calibration and consequent quality control of NXMI are essential for the maintenance of precision of the generator. (T.T.)

  16. Thermoluminescent dosimeters for low dose X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sol Fernández, S.; García-Salcedo, R.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G.; Gaona, E.; León-Alfaro, M.A. de; Rivera-Montalvo, T.

    2016-01-01

    The response of TLD-100, CaSO_4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P for a range of X-ray low dose was measured. For calibration, the TLDs were arranged at the center of the X-ray field. The dose output of the X-ray machine was determined using an ACCU-Gold. All dosimeters were exposed at the available air kerma values of 14.69 mGy within a field 10×10 cm"2 at 80 cm of SSD. Results of LiF:Mg,Cu,P X-ray irradiated showed 4.8 times higher sensitivity than TLD-100. Meanwhile, TL response of CaSO_4:Dy exposed at the same dose was 5.6 time higher than TLD-100. Experimental results show for low dose X-ray measurements a better linearity for LiF:Mg,Cu,P compared with that of TLD-100. CaSO_4:Dy showed a linearity from 0.1 to 60 mGy - Highlights: • Low dose X-ray doses for personal dosimetry were measured. • Radiation dose (µGy ) for environmental dosimetry were determined. • Scattering radiation dose were measured by TLDs. • Linearity of pair TLD system was successful in the range of microgray. • Pair TLDs composed by CaSO_4:Dy and by LiF:Mg,Cu,P. is suggested for clinical dosimetry.

  17. X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stress in sol-gel grown lead zirconate titanate thick films on nickel-based super alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyarmanesh, Hamidreza; Nehzat, Naser; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2015-02-15

    Residual compressive stress of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thick films was investigated using residual strains derived from X-ray diffraction patterns. Sin{sup 2}ψ method was applied for the 5, 10 and 15 μm sol-gel derived thick films annealed at 700 .deg. C for 1 hr as high frequency structural health monitoring square-shape transducers of 10 x10 mm, deposited onto the curved nickel-based super alloy substrates. A triaxial model was proposed based on piezoelectric constitutive equations, and Bragg's law at a large diffraction angle (∼89°) was utilized considering the electromechanical coupling factor as well as elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants. Thickness variations led to a significant change in residual stress magnitudes delineated from more-accurate triaxial model compared to small angle plane-stress results not considering the piezoelectric coupling effects.

  18. A different approach to X-ray stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogilvie, Robert E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 13-5065, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: bobogil@mit.edu

    2007-07-15

    A different approach to X-ray stress analysis has been developed. At the outset, it must be noted that the material to be analyzed is assumed homogeneous and isotropic. If a sphere with radius r within a specimen is subjected to a state of stress, the sphere is deformed into an ellipsoid. The semi-axes of the ellipsoid have the values of (r + {epsilon}{sub x}), (r + {epsilon}{sub y}), and (r + {epsilon}{sub z}), which are replaced by d{sub x}, d{sub y}, and d{sub z}, or for the cubic case, a{sub x}, a{sub y}, and a{sub z}. In this technique, at a particular {phi} angle (see ), the two-theta position of a high angle (hkl) peak is determined at {psi} angles of 0, 15, 30, and 45{sup o}. These measurements are repeated for 3 to 6 {phi} angles in steps of 30{sup o}. The d{sub {phi}}{sub {psi}} or a{sub {phi}}{sub {psi}} values are then determined from the peak positions. The data is then fitted to the general quadratic equation for an ellipsoid by the method of least squares. From the coefficients of the quadratic equation, the angle between the laboratory and the specimen coordinates (direction of the principle stress) can be determined. Applying the general rotation of axes equations to the quadratic, the equation of the ellipse in the x-y plane is determined. The a{sub x}, a{sub y}, and a{sub z} values for the principal axes of the lattice parameter ellipsoid are then evaluated. It is then possible to determine the unstressed a{sub 0} value from Hooke's Law using a{sub x}, a{sub y}, and a{sub z}. The magnitude of the principal strains/stresses is then determined.

  19. Determination of global and local residual stresses in SOFC by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanova, Julie; Sicardy, Olivier; Fortunier, Roland; Micha, Jean-Sebastien; Bleuet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high-performance electrochemical device for energy conversion. A single cell is composed of five layers made of different ceramic materials: anode support, anode functional layer, electrolyte, cathode functional layer and cathode. The mechanical integrity of the cell is a major issue during its lifetime, especially for the electrolyte layer. Damage of the cells is mainly due to the high operating temperature, the 'redox' behaviour of the anode and the brittleness of the involved materials. Since residual stresses are known to play a significant role in the damage evolution, it is important to determine them. For this purpose, residual stresses in an anode-supported planar SOFC were measured by X-ray diffraction. Firstly, macroscopic stresses in each phase of each layer were studied using the sin 2 ψ method on a laboratory X-ray goniometer at room temperature. This technique enables the calculation of residual stress of the material from the measurement of the crystal lattice deformation. The electrolyte has been found under bi-axial compressive stress of -920 MPa. Secondly, X-ray measurements controlling depth penetration were made in the electrolyte using grazing incidence method. The results show that the stress is not homogenous in the layer. The first five micrometers of the electrolyte have been found less constrained (-750 MPa) than the complete layer, suggesting a gradient of deformation in the electrolyte from the interface with the Anode Functional Layer to the free surface. Finally, local stress measurements were made on the electrolyte layer by X-ray synchrotron radiation that allows high accuracy measurement on the (sub-) micrometer scale. Polychromatic and monochromatic beams are used to determine the complete strain tensor from grain to grain in the electrolyte. First results confirm the macroscopic stress trend of the electrolyte. These X-ray techniques at different scales will contribute to a better understanding

  20. Analysis of biological samples by x-ray attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing interest in X-ray attenuation measurements, mainly due to the enormous development of computer assisted tomography (CAT). With CAT, analytical information concerning the density and the mean atomic number distributions in a sample is deduced from a large number of attenuation measurements. Particular transmission methods developed, based on the differential attenuation method are discussed. The theoretical background for attenuation of radiation and for differential attenuation of radiation is given. Details about the generation of monoenergetic X-rays are discussed. Applications of attenuation measurements in the field of Medicine are presented

  1. Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material

  2. The advantages of soft X-rays and cryogenic spectrometers for measuring chemical speciation by X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; George, Simon J. [LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Cramer, Stephen P. [UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have built a 36-pixel high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) soft X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute metals by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. Soft X-ray absorption edges are preferred over traditional hard X-ray spectroscopy at the K-edges, since they have narrower natural linewidths and exhibit stronger chemical shifts. STJ detectors are preferred in the soft X-ray band over traditional Ge or grating spectrometers, since they have sufficient energy resolution to resolve transition metal L and M lines from light element K emission, and sufficient detection efficiency to measure the weak lines of dilute specimens within an acceptable time. We demonstrate the capabilities of our STJ spectrometer for chemical analysis with soft XAS measurements of molybdenum speciation on the Mo M{sub 4,5}-edges.

  3. X-ray stress analysis in textured polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi; Harada, Jimpei

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between stress and strain in polycrystalline materials with fibre texture is examined on the basis of the strain analysis in the constituent crystallites within the Reuss approximation. By introducing the symmetry of reciprocal lattices for the constituent crystallites, the physical meaning of taking an average of the strains observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is made clear. By using formulae obtained by the present treatment for the stress-strain relation in cubic specimens with fibre texture in the Laue classes m3-bar m hkl Bragg reflections with h≠k≠l split into doublets owing to the existence of crystallites with two different orientations under the stress field. This technique was confirmed by the profile analysis in XRD data observed for reflections of 222 and 420 in a cubic TiN thin film sputtered on a polyimide film. The technique of the stress analysis and its confirmation are introduced. (author)

  4. Soft x-ray measurements on the PLT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Goeler, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Bitter, M.

    1977-10-01

    Four experiments are described that currently run on the PLT tokamak and which utilize the soft x-ray emission of the plasma as a diagnostic: the pulse height analysis system for temperature and impurity measurements; the curved crystal Bragg spectrometer for the determination of ionization states of impurities; ''windowless'' surface barrier detectors for the investigation of the ultra soft x-ray radiation in the energy range 0.1 keV < hν < 1 keV and a silicon diode array for x-ray fluctuation measurements. For each diagnostic a short technical description and some recent results obtained with it on PLT are given in order to demonstrate its use

  5. A New Measurement of the Cosmic X-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.

    2009-01-01

    I present a new analytical description of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) spectrum in the 1.5-200 keV energy band, obtained by combining the new measurement performed by the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) with the recently published Swift burst alert telescope (BAT) measurement. A study of the cosmic variance in the XRT band (1.5-7 keV) is also presented. I find that the expected cosmic variance (expected from LogN-LogS) scales as Ω -0.3 (where Ω is the surveyed area) in very good agreement with XRT data.

  6. X-ray measurements and protection, 1913-1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-12-01

    This report reviews the development of measurement standards and protection against x rays. The story of x rays can be divided into three periods up to 1925, a period of discovery, application, and a recognized new danger; up to 1955, a period of exploitation, measurement, control, and protection, and from then, a time of consolidation, public awareness, and political activism. This book is an account of how government and non-government organizations have worked together. Attention is directed to some of the changes and differences between government laboratory operations today and those in the first half of the 20th century

  7. Computerized x-ray radiographic system for fuel pellet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Karnesky, R.A.; Bromley, C.

    1977-01-01

    The development and operation of a computerized system for determination of fuel pellet diameters from x-ray radiography is described. Actual fuel pellet diameter measurements made with the system are compared to micrometer measurements on the same pellets, and statistically evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the system are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development

  8. Recent X-ray hybrid CMOS detector developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Burrows, David N.; Wages, Mitchell; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; McQuaide, Maria; Bray, Evan; Kern, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS), have progressed their efforts to improve soft X-ray Hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) technology on multiple fronts. Having newly acquired a Teledyne cryogenic SIDECARTM ASIC for use with HxRG devices, measurements were performed with an H2RG HCD and the cooled SIDECARTM. We report new energy resolution and read noise measurements, which show a significant improvement over room temperature SIDECARTM operation. Further, in order to meet the demands of future high-throughput and high spatial resolution X-ray observatories, detectors with fast readout and small pixel sizes are being developed. We report on characteristics of new X-ray HCDs with 12.5 micron pitch that include in-pixel CDS circuitry and crosstalk-eliminating CTIA amplifiers. In addition, PSU and TIS are developing a new large-scale array Speedster-EXD device. The original 64 × 64 pixel Speedster-EXD prototype used comparators in each pixel to enable event driven readout with order of magnitude higher effective readout rates, which will now be implemented in a 550 × 550 pixel device. Finally, the detector lab is involved in a sounding rocket mission that is slated to fly in 2018 with an off-plane reflection grating array and an H2RG X-ray HCD. We report on the planned detector configuration for this mission, which will increase the NASA technology readiness level of X-ray HCDs to TRL 9.

  9. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  10. Measurements of Residual Stresses In Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel Plates Using X-Ray Diffraction with Rietveld Refinement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P; Rafterry, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the residual stresses using X-ray powder diffraction in a series of cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates, deforming 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175 and 196 % reduction in thickness has been carried out. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement method. The analysis shows that for all specimens, the martensite particles are closely in compression and the austenite matrix is in tension. Both the martensite and austenite, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness (containing of about 1% martensite phase) the average lattice strains are anisotropic and decrease approximately exponential with an increase in the corresponding percent reduction (essentially phase content). It is shown that this feature can be qualitatively understood by taking into consideration the thermal expansion mismatch between the martensite and austenite grains. Also, for all cold-rolled stainless steel specimens, the diffraction peaks are broader than the unrolled one (instrumental resolution), indicating that the strains in these specimens are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was predicted. The average residual stresses in cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates showed a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of the martensite particles and the austenite matrix. (author)

  11. Method for x-ray determination of three axial stresses of general orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, H; Hauk, V [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Juehe, H H; Krause, H [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrgebiet Abnutzung der Werkstoffe

    1976-11-01

    The authors describe a method of detecting three-dimensional self-stress/self-strain systems by means of X-ray measurements of the distances between the lattice planes in three directions of the sample surface. The method is illustrated by a study of a sample from a type of an electric railcar which had been deformed mainly by tangential forces.

  12. Analysis of stresses and strains in the materials with limiting structure using x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imafuku, Muneyuki

    2010-01-01

    This review outlines the principle of analysis and the measuring instruments using X-ray for the stresses and strains in the materials with limiting structure. Further the several experimental examples are shown. This method is expected to be useful widely for the characterization evaluation, the reliability insurance, and the development of materials. (M.H.)

  13. Soft x-ray measurements from the PDX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.H.; Bitter, M.; Brau, K.; Eames, D.; Greenberger, A.; Hill, K.W.; Meade, D.M.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.R.; von Goeler, S.

    1982-05-01

    Temporally and spatially-resolved profiles of the PDX soft x-ray spectra have been measured during single tokamak pulses of circular and divertor plasmas with a recently developed pulse height analyzer. This detection system incorporates an array of five vertically displaced sets of lithium-drifted silicon detectors, each consisting of three independent channels optimized for rapid data collection in adjacent energy regions. Simultaneous measurement of x-ray emission integrated along five chords of the plasma cross section can thereby be achieved. Abel inversion of these data yields temporally-resolved radial profiles of the local electron temperature from the slope of the continuum, concentrations of high-Z impurities from the characteristic line intensities, and a measure of Z/sub eff/ from the continuum intensity. The techniques of x-ray pulse height analysis, with illustrations featuring the results from the initial PDX circular plasma experiments are discussed in detail. In addition, comparisons between circular and divertor plasmas on PDX, derived from the x-ray measurements, are also presented

  14. Soft x-ray measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T; Toi, K; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Soft X-ray pulse height analysis system has been designed and constructed for measurements of electron distribution function and impurity with high spatial resolution (0.5 cm) and temporal resolution (2 msec) in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The experimental results about electron temperature, enhancement factor, Z sub(eff) and runaway electrons are presented and discussed.

  15. Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.

    1988-01-01

    The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)

  16. Active silicon x-ray for measuring electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.

    1994-07-01

    Silicon diodes are commonly used for x-ray measurements in the soft x-ray region between a few hundred ev and 20 keV. Recent work by Cho has shown that the charge collecting region in an underbiased silicon detector is the depletion depth plus some contribution from a region near the depleted region due to charge-diffusion. The depletion depth can be fully characterized as a function of the applied bias voltage and is roughly proportional to the squart root of the bias voltage. We propose a technique to exploit this effect to use the silicon within the detector as an actively controlled x-ray filter. With reasonable silicon manufacturing methods, a silicon diode detector can be constructed in which the sensitivity of the collected charge to the impinging photon energy spectrum can be changed dynamically in the visible to above the 20 keV range. This type of detector could be used to measure the electron temperature in, for example, a tokamak plasma by sweeping the applied bias voltage during a plasma discharge. The detector samples different parts of the energy spectrum during the bias sweep, and the data collected contains enough information to determine the electron temperature. Benefits and limitations of this technique will be discussed along with comparisons to similar methods for measuring electron temperature and other applications of an active silicon x-ray filter

  17. Residual stress evaluation and fatigue life prediction in the welded joint by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keun Bong; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    In the fossil power plant, the reliability of the components which consist of the many welded parts depends on the quality of welding. The residual stress is occurred by the heat flux of high temperature during weld process. This decreases the mechanical properties as the strength of fatigue and fracture or occurs the stress corrosion cracking and fatigue fracture. The residual stress of the welded part in the recently constructed power plants has been the cause of a variety of accidents. The objective of this study is measurement of the residual stress by X-ray diffraction method and to estimate the feasibility of this application for fatigue life assessment of the high-temperature pipeline. The materials used for the study is P92 steel for the use of high temperature pipe on super critical condition. The test results were analyzed by the distributed characteristics of residual stresses and the Full Width at Half Maximum intensity (FWHM) in x-ray diffraction intensity curve. Also, X-ray diffraction tests using specimens simulated low cycle fatigue damage were performed in order to analyze fatigue properties when fatigue damage conditions become various stages. As a result of X-ray diffraction tests for specimens simulated fatigue damages, we conformed that the ratio of the FWHM due to fatigue damage has linear relationship with fatigue life ratio algebraically. From this relationships, it was suggested that direct expectation of the life consumption rate was feasible.

  18. The origin of stress in sputter-deposited tungsten films for x-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hori, M.; Nadahara, S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism for the cause of stress in a sputter-deposited tungsten (W) film has been clarified. The tensile stress of the film was calculated using the interatomic forces acting on the grain boundary. The average distance of the grain boundary gaps was determined from the measured film density assuming the film had homogeneous size rectangular grains. The calculated and measured stress values were in good agreement in the high working gas pressure region. The difference between these values in the low working gas pressure region has been able to be explained by the compressive stress due to the peening effect of Ar. The low stress in the high pressure region was obtained by large opened grain boundaries which produced low film density. A low film density causes a low x-ray stopping power. The film deposited in the low pressure region is suitable as an x-ray absorber because of its high film density

  19. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  20. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (∼ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation

  1. Magnetic X-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K y and K x . They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar

  2. Laboratory measurements of 50-300 eV X rays from collisions of cometary interest: Ne and S L X rays, Fe M X rays and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzani, C.J.; Miller, K.; Wrigley, A.; Kessel, Q.; Smith, W.W.; Smith, S.J.; Hossain, S.; Chutjian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory measurements simulating the impact of certain solar wind ions on CO have been made. Preliminary analysis of the X rays in the 50-300 eV energy range produced by these collisions suggests that a dominant role is played by electron capture and subsequent relaxation of the electron to the n = 2 levels of solar wind ions such as Ne and S. In particular our data show that X rays from Ne play a role that is at least as significant as that of the more dominant solar wind ion O 6+ in this X-ray energy range. It may be assumed that Mg and Si may also play an important role; however, these ions were not included in the present experiment

  3. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  4. X-ray thickness measurement of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of x-ray thickness gauging is extended to reveal the conditions under which a fixed anode voltage is ideal. A mathematical model of an alloy and computations reveal that two voltages can be used to measure the aluminum alloys with an error of roughly 1 percent, determined by the tolerance on manganese content rather than the large errors ordinarily a consequence of the tolerances on copper and zinc content. Implementation is discussed

  5. Residual stress characterization of welds using x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineault, J.A.; Brauss, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Neglect of residual stresses created during processes lead to stress corrosion cracking, distortion, fatigue cracking, premature failures in components, and instances of over design. Automated residual stress mapping and truly portable equipment have now made the characterization of residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRI) practical. The nondestructive nature of the x-ray diffraction technique has made the tile residual stress characterization of welds a useful tool for process optimization and failure analysis, particularly since components can be measured before and after welding and post welding processes. This paper illustrates the importance of residual stress characterization in welds and presents examples where x-ray diffraction techniques were applied in the characterization of various kinds of welds. arc welds, TIG welds, resistance welds, laser welds and electron beam welds. Numerous techniques are available to help manage potentially harmfull residual stresses created during the welding process thus, the effects of a few example post weld processes such as grinding, heat treating and shot peening are also addressed

  6. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  7. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  8. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    March 30th, 1997 during a quiescent phase of the source. .... The field of view ... tagged with a 25µsec resolution and transmitted to ground on a 40 Kbit PCM/FM ... only composite model fits for the soft and hard X ray band are used and the ...

  9. Utility Of Stress-Texture Characteristics Of Structural Materials By X-Ray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonarski J.T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of residual stress analysis in selected metal-metal joints manufactured by conventional welding and explosive merging. The X-ray diffraction technique applied for advanced stress-texture measurements and data processing revealed directions and values of the principal stresses and their configuration on the surface of the examined structural elements. The obtained stress topography of the joint intersections indicates a possible path of potential cracking formed during the exploitation process and thus it becomes a very useful tool in the diagnostics of structural elements.

  10. The geometry of three-dimensional measurement from paired coplanar x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    This article outlines the geometric principles which underlie the process of making craniofacial measurements in three dimensions by combining information from pairs of coplanar x-ray images. The main focus is upon the rationale of the method rather than upon the computational details. We stress particularly the importance of having available accurate measurements as to the relative positions of the x-ray tubes and the film plane. The use of control arrays of radiopaque "points" whose projected images upon the film plane allow the retrospective calculation of the spatial relationship between the x-ray tubes and the film plane is explained. Finally, the question of correcting for movement of the subject between two films of an image pair is considered briefly.

  11. Multi-scale mechanics of granular solids from grain-resolved X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Wright, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    This work discusses an experimental technique for studying the mechanics of three-dimensional (3D) granular solids. The approach combines 3D X-ray diffraction and X-ray computed tomography to measure grain-resolved strains, kinematics and contact fabric in the bulk of a granular solid, from which continuum strains, grain stresses, interparticle forces and coarse-grained elasto-plastic moduli can be determined. We demonstrate the experimental approach and analysis of selected results on a sample of 1099 stiff, frictional grains undergoing multiple uniaxial compression cycles. We investigate the inter-particle force network, elasto-plastic moduli and associated length scales, reversibility of mechanical responses during cyclic loading, the statistics of microscopic responses and microstructure-property relationships. This work serves to highlight both the fundamental insight into granular mechanics that is furnished by combined X-ray measurements and describes future directions in the field of granular materials that can be pursued with such approaches.

  12. The measurement of patient doses from diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, N.D.; Solomon, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    As part of the National Health and Medical Research Council survey to determine the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population from the medical, dental and chiropractic uses of radiation sources, doses to patients undergoing X-ray diagnostic procedures were evaluated. The doses were measured using capsules of LiF or CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). The evaluation of the TLD measurements is described and the mean values of the skin doses for patients undergoing various radiographic examinations in Australia in 1970 are presented

  13. Penumbral measurements in water for high-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.J.; Schroeder, N.J.; Hoya, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ionization chambers of varying inside diameter have been used to investigate the penumbral region of 60 Co, 6-MV, and 31-MV x-ray beams. Measurements were made in water at varying depths up to 25 cm for a square field of side length 10 cm. The dependence of the penumbral widths on both the inside diameter of the ionization chamber and the depth in water is established along with the asymmetry of the penumbral distributions about the 50% level. A standard correction is indicated to eliminate the dependence of the measured penumbral widths on the inside diameter of the ionization chamber

  14. Measurements of X-rays from antiprotonic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Moir, J.; Sakamoto, S.; Davies, J.D.; Lowe, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Pyle, G.J.; Squier, G.T.A.; Welsh, R.E.; Winter, R.G.; Lingeman, E.W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute yields of X-rays from anti pHe atoms for 14 transitions covering the L, M and N series have been measured at target gas densities of 0.125, 0.25, 0.92, 1.0, 1.23, 2.0, 3.0 and 10.0 ρ STP and compared with the predictions of cascade calculations. The strong interaction width of the 3d state, has been determined to be 2.07±0.11 meV. (orig.)

  15. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall

  16. Measurement of soft X-ray power from high-power Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengrong; Luo Jianhui; Zhou Haisheng; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    A Ni-film bolometer driven by the pulsed constant-voltage supply was developed for measuring soft X-ray energy under 1 keV generated from the Qiang-Guang-I, while the measuring system of the soft X-ray power was established with an X-ray diode detector. Results of the soft X-ray energy and power measurements were obtained at the experiment of Kr gas-puff high-power Z-pinch plasma

  17. Development of a measuring and evaluation method for X-ray analysis of residual stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials; Entwicklung eines Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur roentgenographischen Analyse des Eigenspannungszustandes im Oberflaechenbereich vielkristalliner Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, C.

    2000-11-01

    The topic of the habilitation thesis is the development of an X-ray diffraction method for measurement and depth-resolved analysis of internal stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials. The method relies on the basic approach of varying {tau}, the penetration depth of the X-rays in the materials, by the scattering vector g{sub theta{psi}} via stepwise specimen rotation. Thus, depth profiles of the interlattice plane distances d(hkl) in the specimen system can be derived for given direction and inclination angles {theta} and {psi} of the scattering vector. This offers the possibility to identify individual components of the stress tensors of the basic equation of the X-ray diffraction analysis, and to perform separate analyses of those components. For calculation of the relevant internal stress distributions {sigma}{sub ij}({tau}) using the interlattice plane distance profiles, a self-consistent method is established which takes into account the high sensitivity of the derived internal stresses in relation to the interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl) in the stress-free crystal lattice. The evaluation yields results describing the depth profiles as well as the strain-free interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl), so that a quantitative analysis is possible of tri-axial internal stress states in the surface region of the materials. (orig./CB) [German] Den Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit bildet die Entwicklung eines roentgenographischen Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur tiefenaufgeloesten Analyse des oberflaechennahen Eigenspannungszustandes in vielkristallinen Werkstoffen. Der Grundgedanke der Methode besteht darin, die Eindringtiefe {tau} der Roentgenstrahlung in den Werkstoff durch schrittweise Drehung der Probe um den Streuvektor g{sub {theta}}{sub {psi}} zu variieren. Damit koennen Tiefenprofile der Netzebenenabstaende d(hkl) fuer fest vorgegebene Azimut- und Neigungswinkel {theta} und {psi} des Streuvektors im Probensystem ermittelt

  18. Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, G. V.; Kelley, R. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Obst, M.; Lepson, J. K.; Desai, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2010-10-01

    X-ray astronomy has been a voracious consumer of atomic data, especially after the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, which have produced very high-resolution grating spectra of point sources. One of the important issues has been to understand the physics underlying the Fe L-shell spectra, and the Fe XVII spectrum in particular. A lot of progress has been made, including measurements of the electron-impact and resonance excitation cross sections, which now provides a rather clear picture of the production mechanism of the Fe XVII spectrum. Recent measurements of the radiative rates provide additional information on the deexcitation channels, while investigations of dielectronic satellite transitions provide a measure of the electron temperature. Many questions, however, still remain. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program under contracts NNH07AF81I and NNG06WF08I. Part of this work was supported by Chandra Cycle 10 Award AR9-0002X.

  19. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Awaji, M; Tanaka, T; Hara, T; Goto, S; Ishikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper li...

  20. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper limit for the vertical emittance of the electron beam could be obtained as 0.14 nmrad

  1. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  2. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Haugh

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  4. Design and implementation of an x-ray strain measurement capability using a rotating anode machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.A.; Rangaswamy, P.; Lujan, M. Jr.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Residual stresses close to the surface can improve the reliability and lifetime of parts for technological applications. X-ray diffraction plays a significant role in gaining an exact knowledge of the stresses at the surface and their depth distribution. An x-ray capability at Los Alamos is key to developing and maintaining industrial collaborations in strain effects. To achieve this goal, the authors implemented a residual strain measuring station on the rotating anode x-ray instrument at the Lujan Center. This capability has been used to investigate residual strains in heat treated automotive components, machining effects on titanium alloys, resistance welded steel joints, titanium matrix fiber reinforced composites, ceramic matrix composites, thin films, and ceramic coatings. The overall objective is to combine both x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements with numerical models (e.g., finite element calculations).

  5. Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction measurements of full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Lee, I-Fang; Xu, Ruqing; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure the full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors of low dislocation density regions within the submicrometer grain/subgrain structure of equal-channel angular pressed (ECAP) aluminum alloy AA1050 after 1, 2, and 8 passes using route B C . This is the first time that full tensors were measured in plastically deformed metals at this length scale. The maximum (most tensile or least compressive) principal elastic strain directions for the unloaded 1 pass sample for the grain/subgrain interiors align well with the pressing direction, and are more random for the 2 and 8 pass samples. The measurements reported here indicate that the local stresses and strains become increasingly isotropic (homogenized) with increasing ECAP passes using route B C . The average maximum (in magnitude) LRISs are −0.43 σ a for 1 pass, −0.44 σ a for 2 pass, and 0.14 σ a for the 8 pass sample. These LRISs are larger than those reported previously because those earlier measurements were unable to measure the full stress tensor. Significantly, the measured stresses are inconsistent with the two-component composite model.

  6. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  7. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices

  8. Measuring and understanding ultrafast phenomena using X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant advances in X-ray sources and instrumentation as well as simultaneous developments in analysis methodology has allowed the field of fast- and ultrafast time-resolved X-ray studies of solution-state systems to truly come of age. We here describe some aspects of ...

  9. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using. X-ray data .... converts the photon arrival times to the solar system barycenter. ... applies all the known RXTE clock corrections and converts the photon arrival times.

  10. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, N W [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 49 Herenstraat, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Medical Physics, Level B, St Luke' s Wing, The Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Honey, I D, E-mail: nicholas.marshall@uz.kuleuven.ac.be [Department of Medical Physics, Floor 3, Henriette Raphael House, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 {mu}Gy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 {mu}Gy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm{sup -1} {+-} 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 {mu}Gy {+-} 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2} (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm{sup -1}, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm{sup -1} for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found

  11. System for calibration of instruments of x-ray measurement (CIR-X) applying the PGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan G, E.; Rivero G, T.; Cruz E, P.; Tovar M, V.M.; Vergara M, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Metrology of Ionizing Radiations of the ININ carries out calibration of instruments for X-ray measurement that determine the operation parameters in X-ray diagnostic machines of the health and private sectors. To facilitate this task, the Department of Automation and Instrumentation developed a system for acquisition and signals processing coming from a reference voltage divider with traceability at NIST that is connected directly to the X-rays tube. The system is integrated by the X-ray unit, the X-ray measurement equipment Dynalizer IIIU of RADCAL, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and the acquisition software and signals processing. (Author)

  12. Measurements of X ray absorbed doses to dental patients in two dental X ray units in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogundare, F.O.; Oni, O.M.; Balogun, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of absorbed doses from radiographic examinations to various anatomical sites in the head and neck of patients with an average age of 45 years using intra-oral dental radiography have been carried out. LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters were used for the measurements of the absorbed dose. The measured absorbed doses to the various anatomical sites in the two units are reported, discussed and compared with results from the literature. Quality control measurements were also performed using a Victoreen quality control test device on the X ray units. The tube voltage accuracies for the two units were found to be within acceptable limits (less than ±10%). On the other hand the exposure time accuracies for these units have large deviations (>20%). These results and those that have been reported in the literature may be an indication that high patient doses are common in most dental X ray centres and countries. As a result of this, regular compliance and performance checks of dental diagnostic X ray equipment are essential in order to ensure proper performance and to minimise unnecessary patient and operator doses. (author)

  13. Measuring Quasar Spin via X-ray Continuum Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Matthew; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Steiner, Jack

    2018-01-01

    We have identified several quasars whose X-ray spectra appear very soft. When fit with power-law models, the best-fit indices are greater than 3. This is very suggestive of thermal disk emission, indicating that the X-ray spectrum is dominated by the disk component. Galactic black hole binaries in such states have been successfully fit with disk-blackbody models to constrain the inner radius, which also constrains the spin of the black hole. We have fit those models to XMM-Newton spectra of several of our identified soft X-ray quasars to place constraints on the spins of the supermassive black holes.

  14. Low-Stress Iridium Coatings for Thin-Shell X-Ray Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new type of low-stress iridium (Ir) X-ray mirror coating technology that can be used for the construction of...

  15. Measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficients around K-absorption edges using Fe Kα X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients were measured around the K-absorption edges of elements in the range 16 ≤ Z ≤ 30 using Fe Kα x-rays of energy 6.400 keV, which is the weighted average energy of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray components from the 57 Co radioactive source. Kβ x-rays were almost eliminated by the differential absorption technique. The small difference in energy between Kα 1 and Kα 2 , 13 eV, was shown to be inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard materials such as Al, Cu, Mo and Ta. The effect of fine structure of the K-absorption edge on μ/ρ was elucidated by using the compounds of elements in the range 16 ≤ X ≤ 30, containing one element with its K-absorption edge energy (E k ) close to the incident photon energy (E x ). The results clearly indicate the validity of the theoretical mixture rule for all those compounds whose K edge is far away from the incident energy but show deviations of as much as 10% for the manganese compound whose K edge is 140 eV above E x and about 12% for the chromium compound whose K edge is 410 eV below E x . These deviations are attributed to the possible influence of resonance Raman scattering when the incident photon energy E x is less than the edge and to the influence of EXAFS when E x is more than the edge energy. (Author)

  16. A study on the measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fijimoto, Nobuhisa; Oogama, Noboru; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    It is important to correct for the energy response of the X-ray detector in measuring X-ray leakage from the protective barrier of the examination room. However, measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays is very difficult in the clinical setting. In this paper, we discuss a method for estimating the effective energy of both primary and scattered X-rays. This method is based on the measurement of leakage X-ray spectra using a semiconductor-fitted X-ray detector and analyzing the relationship between X-ray tube voltage and effective energy. In this study. we found that the effective energy of leakage X-rays was not dependent on the thickness of shielding materials like concrete and lead. With the concrete barrier, it was possible to express the relation-ship between X-ray tube voltage and the effective energy of leakage X-rays with a simple approximate equation. With the lead-lined barrier, the absorption of the K-edge of lead needs to be considered in estimating the effective energy of leakage X-rays at relatively high tube voltages. (author)

  17. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  18. Layer thickness measurement using the X-ray fluorescence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelkamp, B.

    1980-01-01

    Curium 244 having a gamma energy of about 15.5 keV is used as excitation emitter for contactless and continuous measuring of the thickness of metallic layers on iron strip. Soft gamma radiation is absorbed in matter according to the photo effect, so that X-ray fluorescence radiation is generated in the matter, which depends on the element and is radiated to all sides. For instance, it amounts for iron 6.4 keV and is measured with a specific ionisation chamber for this energy range. With increasing atomic number of the elements, the energy of fluorescence radiation increases and hence also the emission signal of the detector. The prerequisite for a usable measuring effect is an element distance of at least two and the thickness of the layer to be measured being in an optimum range. A signal dependent on the thickness of the layer is produced either by absorption of iron radiation (absorption method - aluminium and tin) or by build-up radiation of the material of the layer (emission method - zinc and lead). (orig./GSCH) [de

  19. Investigation of surface residual stress profile on martensitic stainless steel weldment with X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of residual stresses during fabrication is inevitable and often neglected with dire consequences during the service life of the fabricated components. In this work, the surface residual stress profile following the martensitic stainless steel (MSS pipe welding was investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed the presence of residual stresses equilibrated across the weldment zones. Tensile residual stress observed in weld metal was balanced by compressive residual stresses in the parent material on the opposing sides of weld metal. Keywords: Residual stress, Weld, Stainless steel, X-ray, HAZ

  20. Computerized X-ray Microtomography Observations and Fluid Flow Measurements of the Effect of Effective Stress on Fractured Reservoir Seal Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, N.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    The successful storage of carbon dioxide in geologic formations requires an in-depth understanding of all reservoir characteristics and morphologies. An intact and substantial seal formation above a storage reservoir is required for a significant portion of the initial sealing mechanisms believed to occur during carbon dioxide storage operations. Shales are a common seal formation rock types found above numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as potential saline aquifer storage locations. Shales commonly have very low permeability, however they also have the tendency to be quite fissile, and the formation of fractures within these seals can have a significant detrimental effect on the sealing potential of a reservoir and amount to large areas of high permeability and low capillary pressures compared to the surrounding intact rock. Fractured shales also have an increased current interest due to the increasing development of shale gas reservoirs using hydraulic fracturing techniques. This work shows the observed changes that occur within fractured pieces of reservoir seal shale samples, along with quarry analogues, using an in-situ micro-CT fluid flow imaging apparatus with a Hassler type core holder. Changes within the preferential flow path under different stress regimes as well as physical changes to the fracture geometry are reported. Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations were then performed on the extracted flow paths and compared to experiment permeability measurements. The preferential flow path of carbon dioxide through the fracture network is also observed and compared to the results two-phase Lattice Boltzmann fluid flow simulations.

  1. Measurement of scattered and transmitted X-rays from intra-oral and panoramic dental X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, John Richard

    2018-04-10

    To quantify the levels of transmitted radiation arising from the use of intra-oral dental X-ray equipment and scattered radiation arising from the use of both intra-oral and panoramic X-ray equipment. Methods: Levels of scattered radiation were measured at 1 m from a phantom, using an 1800 cc ion chamber. Transmitted radiation was measured using both: i) a phantom and Dose Area Product (DAP) meter, ii) a patient and an 1800 cc ion chamber. Results: For intra-oral radiography the patient study gave a maximum transmission of 1.80% (range 0.04% to 1.80%, mean 0.26%) and the phantom study gave a maximum transmission of 6% (range 2% to 6%, mean 5%). The maximum scattered radiation, per unit DAP, was 5.5 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 70 kVp and a distance of 1 m. For panoramic radiography the maximum scattered radiation was 9.3 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 80 kVp and a distance of 1 m. Conclusions: Typical doses from scattered and transmitted radiation in modern dental practice have been measured and values are presented to enable the calculation of adequate protection measures for dental radiography rooms. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies have used a phantom and measured radiation doses at 1 m from the phantom to determine the radiation dose transmitted through a patient, whereas this study uses both patient and phantom measurements together with a large area dose meter, positioned to capture the entire X-ray beam, to ensure more realistic dose measurements can be made. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Quantifying vertical stress transmission and compaction-induced soil structure using sensor mat and X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    tillage. In this study, partially confined uniaxial compression tests were carried out on intact topsoil columns placed on subsoil columns. Two methods were employed for estimation of stress transmission in soil: (i) soil deformation patterns were quantified using X-ray CT and converted to stress......Accurate estimation of stress transmission in soil and quantification of compaction-induced soil pore structure is important for efficient soil use and management. Continuum mechanics have so far mostly been applied for agricultural soils, even if topsoil structure is aggregated due to regular...... distributions, and (ii) a tactile sensor mat was employed for measuring stresses at the interface of the topsoil and subsoil columns. The resulting soil pore structure under applied stresses was quantified using X-ray CT and by air-permeability measurements. In topsoil discrete stress transmission patterns were...

  3. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  4. Microstructural analysis of alumina chromium composites by X-ray tomography and 3-D finite element simulation of thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geandier, G.; Hazotte, A.; Denis, S.; Mocellin, A.; Maire, E.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to measure volume fraction and connectivity of the metallic phase in an alumina-chromium composite. Reconstructed images are used as input data for a finite element calculation of the residual thermal stresses. Results confirm the main trends shown by similar calculations previously performed on less-realistic finite element models

  5. Microstructural analysis of alumina chromium composites by X-ray tomography and 3-D finite element simulation of thermal stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geandier, G.; Hazotte, A.; Denis, S.; Mocellin, A.; Maire, E

    2003-04-14

    X-ray microtomography is used to measure volume fraction and connectivity of the metallic phase in an alumina-chromium composite. Reconstructed images are used as input data for a finite element calculation of the residual thermal stresses. Results confirm the main trends shown by similar calculations previously performed on less-realistic finite element models.

  6. Residual stress determination in PECVD TiN coatings by X-ray diffraction: a parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Horsewell, Andy; Mogensen, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the residual macroscopic stress in titanium-nitride, TiN, coatings deposited onto a tool steer substrate. The measurements were performed with a theta-theta decoupled X-ray diffractometer. The coatings were manufactured using an industrial pulsed...

  7. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  8. Advanced x-ray stress analysis method for a single crystal using different diffraction plane families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imafuku, Muneyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Kazuyuki; Akita, Koichi; Ohya, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Generalized formula of the x-ray stress analysis for a single crystal with unknown stress-free lattice parameter was proposed. This method enables us to evaluate the plane stress states with any combination of diffraction planes. We can choose and combine the appropriate x-ray sources and diffraction plane families, depending on the sample orientation and the apparatus, whenever diffraction condition is satisfied. The analysis of plane stress distributions in an iron single crystal was demonstrated combining with the diffraction data for Fe{211} and Fe{310} plane families

  9. X-ray residual stress analysis on machined and tempered HPSN-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immelmann, S.; Welle, E.; Reimers, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1997-11-15

    The residual stress state induced by grinding and tempering of hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) samples is studied by X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that the residual stress values at the surface of the samples as well as their gradient within the penetration depth of the X-rays depend on the sintering aid and thus, on the glassy phase content of the HPSN. Tempering of the ground HPSN reduces the residual stress values due to microplastic deformation, whereas an oxidation of the glassy phase leads to the formation of compressive residual stresses. (orig.) 35 refs.

  10. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  11. Measurement of spherical compound refractive X-ray lens at ANKA synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchik, Yu.I.; Simon, R.; Baumbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of compound refractive X-ray lens were measured at ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The lens consists of 224 spherical concave epoxy microlenses formed inside glass capillary. The curvature radius of individual microlens is equal to 100 microns. Measured were: X-ray focal spot, lens focal length and gain in intensity. The energy of X-ray beam was equal to 12 keV and 14 keV. It is shown that when X-ray lens is used, the gain in intensity of the X-ray beam in some cases may exceed value of 100. Tested lens is suitable to focus X-rays into, at least, 2-microns in size spot. (authors)

  12. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 x 10^47 cm^-3 and 1.1 x 10^48 cm^-3. Comparing Sph...

  13. Reconstruction of Stress and Composition Profiles from X-ray Diffraction Experiments - How to Avoid Ghost Stresses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    On evaluating lattice strain-depth or stress-depth profiles with X-ray diffraction, the variation of the information depth while combining various tilt angles,psi, in combination with lattice spacing gradients leads to artefacts,so-called ghost or fictitious stresses. X-ray diffraction lattice...... method for the evaluation of stress/strain and composition profiles, while minimising the risk for ghost stresses....

  14. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Cheng-Jun; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam

  15. Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebes, J.E.; Mrowka, S.; London, R.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Carter, M.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Stone, G.F.; Feit, M.D.; Nugent, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial coherence of a neon-like selenium x-ray laser operating at 206 and 210 Angstroems has been measured using a technique based on partially coherent x-ray diffraction. The time integrated spatial coherence of the selenium x-ray laser was determined to be equivalent to that of a quasi-monochromatic spatially incoherent disk source whose diameter is comparable to the line focus of the visible light laser pumping the x-ray laser. The spatial coherence was improved by narrowing the line focus width. 20 refs., 4 figs

  16. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-03-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  17. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  18. Deformation and stress in PMMA during hard X-ray exposure for deep lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, N.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns

  19. X-ray study of residual stress distribution of ground ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kenzi.

    1997-01-01

    The residual stress distribution of ground ceramics was determined from the eigen strain existing in the ground surface. The eigen strain of ground ceramics was tensile, and exponentially decreased with the distance from the surface. The residual stress distribution is given as a superposition of an exponential function of compression and a linear function. It is found that the actual residual stress distribution can be approximated by a compressive exponential function because the magnitude of tensile residual stress is negligibly small compared to the compressive residual stress. In the experiments, the diffraction angle was measured on ground silicon nitride for a wide range of sin 2 ψ using the glancing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. A strong nonlinearity was found in the 2θ-sin 2 ψ diagram at very high ψ-angles. From the analysis of nonlinearity, the residual stress distribution was determined. The residual stress distribution of silicon nitride coincided with the distribution calculated from the eigen strain distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to clarify the origin of generation of the residual stress. Both strain contrasts and microcracks were observed below the ground surface ; straight dislocations were also observed within silicon nitride grains near the ground surface. (author)

  20. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  1. Radiation Dose Measurements in Routine X Ray Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.; Sulieman, A.; Suliman, I.I.; Sam, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate patients radiation dose in routine X-ray examinations in Omdurman teaching hospital Sudan.110 patients was examined (134) radiographs in two X-ray rooms. Entrance surface doses (ESDs) were calculated from patient exposure parameters using DosCal software. The mean ESD for the chest, AP abdomen, AP pelvis, thoracic spine AP, lateral lumber spine, anteroposterior lumber spine, lower limb and for the upper limb were; 231±44 Gy,453± 29 Gy, 567±22 Gy, 311±33 Gy,716±39 Gy, 611±55 Gy,311±23 Gy, and 158±57 Gy, respectively. Data shows asymmetry in distribution. The results of were comparable with previous study in Sudan.

  2. Determining grain resolved stresses in polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  3. [Multiple linear regression analysis of X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores of knee osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Feng; Wang, Qing-Fu; Chen, Zhao-Jun; Du, Chun-Lin; Li, Jun-Hai; Huang, Hu; Shi, Zong-Ting; Yin, Yue-Shan; Zhang, Lei; A-Di, Li-Jiang; Dong, Shi-Yu; Wu, Ji

    2012-05-01

    To perform Multiple Linear Regression analysis of X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores of knee osteoarthritis, and to analyze their relationship with clinical and biomechanical concepts. From March 2011 to July 2011, 140 patients (250 knees) were reviewed, including 132 knees in the left and 118 knees in the right; ranging in age from 40 to 71 years, with an average of 54.68 years. The MB-RULER measurement software was applied to measure femoral angle, tibial angle, femorotibial angle, joint gap angle from antero-posterir and lateral position of X-rays. The WOMAC scores were also collected. Then multiple regression equations was applied for the linear regression analysis of correlation between the X-ray measurement and WOMAC scores. There was statistical significance in the regression equation of AP X-rays value and WOMAC scores (Pregression equation of lateral X-ray value and WOMAC scores (P>0.05). 1) X-ray measurement of knee joint can reflect the WOMAC scores to a certain extent. 2) It is necessary to measure the X-ray mechanical axis of knee, which is important for diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis. 3) The correlation between tibial angle,joint gap angle on antero-posterior X-ray and WOMAC scores is significant, which can be used to assess the functional recovery of patients before and after treatment.

  4. Roles of Thin Film Stress in Making Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray optics typically must be coated with one of the noble metals, gold, platinum, or iridium, to enhance their photon collection area. In general, iridium is preferred to the other two because it generates the highest X-ray reflectivity in the I to 10 keV band. Unfortunately, iridium films typically have also the highest stress that can severely degrade the optical figure of the mirror substrate, resulting in a poorer image quality. In this paper we will report our work in understanding this stress and our method to counterbalance it. In particular we will also report on potential ways of using this stress to improve the substrate's optical figure, turning a bug into a desirable feature. This work is done in the context of developing an enabling technology for the International X-ray Observatory which is a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, and expected to be launched into an L2 orbit in 2021.

  5. Feasibility study for PTV measurement using x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Tomomasa; Yamamoto, Yasufumi; Murata, Shigeru; Nishio, Shigeru; Iguchi, Manabu; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    Some X-ray imaging techniques are examined for a feasibility study for micro-PIV in this study. There are three X-ray imaging method, the absorption contrast method, the refraction contrast method, and the phase contrast method. The first one is a common method but its spatial resolution is rather poor. The 2nd method corresponds to the Schlieren method that utilizes refraction of parallel light. The characteristics of the method, edge enhancement, can be effective in extracting tracer images. The third method is a kind of holography methods, and this method can record fine tracer particles. Among the three methods, the second and the third method are seemed to be applicable to PIV imaging, and those methods need a parallel X-ray. The SPring-8, the synchrotron radiation facility in Harima, is utilized. There are some methods to realize phase contrast image, most of them requires ultra-high precision in optical alignment. In the present study, though a coherent source is indispensable, the simplest and robust holography method, the inline holography, is used to take phase contrast pictures. (author)

  6. Sulfur content measurement in coal by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Thinova, L.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using backscattering, was employed in the determination of sulfur content and ash content measurement in coal. The results of the methods are given to illustrate the differences between the chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence method.

  7. Measuring the Dust Grains and Distance to X Persei Via Its X-ray Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2006-09-01

    We propose to observe the X-ray halo of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar X Per to measure interstellar dust grains along the line of sight (LOS) and to determine the distance to X Per. The X-ray halo is formed by scattering from grains along the LOS, which for X Per appear to be concentrated in one molecular cloud. Unlike many other X-ray halo observations, this low-absorption high-latitude sightline is well-characterized from absorption spectroscopy done with HST, Copernicus, and FUSE. This halo observation will measure the distance to the cloud and the dust size distribution in it. We will also be able to determine the distance to X Per by measuring the time delayed pulses in the X-ray halo.

  8. X-ray calorimeters used for measurement in laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Daorun; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Wu Dengxue; Lin Libin; Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen

    2005-01-01

    X-ray calorimeters are ready to measure the total soft X-ray energy emitted from the plasma produced by laser because of their bodily absorption, linear response, insensitivity to the electromagnetic disturbance, and so on. The calorimeters mainly include absorbers, thermocouples, bases and shrouds. When X-rays are deposited in the absorbers, photon energy absorbed is quickly converted into intrinsic energy which simultaneously dissipates by thermal conduction and radiation. The X-ray calorimeters were absolutely on-line calibrated in Shenguang-II laser facility with the X-ray diode array spectrometer which has been absolutely calibrated on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. 20 shots' experimental results show that the X-ray calorimeters are stable, the sensitivity of calorimeter is (84.1 ± 3.4) μv/mJ and the related combined standard uncertainty in the X-ray energy measure is about 31%. The calorimeters can be applied to measure the X-ray energy. (authors)

  9. Use of an X-ray imaging plate for stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Kaempfe, B.; Ermrich, M.; Auerswald, E.; Traenkner, K.

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction method for stress measurements has been successfully carried out for many years [1]. The basis for the determination of residual and load stresses is the Debye-Scherrer-method and Bragg's law. The Bragg angles of one or several reflections are measured with high precision in the back reflection region. The results permit the determination of changes in interplanar spacings of polycrystalline materials. Conventional stress analysis is based on two commonly used techniques, the so-called ''sin 2 ψ''- and ''φ''-methods, which require measurements at different tilting and rotating positions of the sample by the help of a Ψ- or Ω-goniometer [1, 2, 3]. In these cases the interplanar spacings and consequently the shift of the peak can be determined with conventional counters or position sensitive detectors. From the whole diffraction cone only a small part of lattice planes {hkl} with a special orientation (ψ, φ) is analysed. The use of a two-dimensional detector like an imaging plate [4] offers the possibility to get diffraction patterns in one measurement from lattice planes {hkl} having one ψ and all φ orientations (non-tilted case) or different ψ and different φ orientations (tilted case). Thus the number of measurements for the calculation of the stress components can be significantly reduced. Further it is possible to investigate both textured materials and coarse-grained samples. (orig.)

  10. Effects of job stress on hypertension among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhigang; Wang Jixian; Zhao Yongcheng; Zhang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between job stress and hypertension among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China. Methods: A total of 264 confirmed cases of hypertension were selected among medical diagnostic X-ray workers from 10 provinces and cities. A case-control study with 1:2 matched pair was conducted. Job stress was defined according to Siegrist effort-reward imbalance model. Results: High imbalance ,high overcommitment and severe work environment were associated with enhanced hypertension risk significantly. The OR was 1.848 (P=0.018), 2.058 (P=0.000) and 1.797 (P=0.008) for imbalance, overcommitment and severe work environment, respectively. After controlling other risk factors, the relation still remained significant. Conclusion: The main work-related risk factors causing hypertension among diagnostic X-ray workers are effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and severe work environment. (authors)

  11. Quantifying movements of corrosion products in reinforced concrete using x-ray attenuation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement, embedded in concrete, may substantially degrade concrete structures due to the expansive nature of corrosion products. Expansion of corrosion products cause tensile stresses to develop and cracks to form in concrete. Extensive research has focused on corrosion...... of corrosion products move into the concrete without generating tensile stresses and cracks in the concrete. Typically, corrosion products are thought to occupy pores, interfacial defects, and/or air voids located near the concrete-steel interface and stresses develop only after filling of these pores. Further....... X-ray attenuation measurements are also capable of detecting cracks. Therefore, this approach provides a direct measurement of the amount and location of reinforcement corrosion products required to induce cracking. Results of a parametric investigation on the impact of water-to-cement ratio (0...

  12. Software System for the Calibration of X-Ray Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Munoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martinez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutierrez, T.

    2006-01-01

    A software system that facilities the calibration of X-ray measuring instruments used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the calibration of X-ray measuring instruments, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the calibration system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and calibrated. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed

  13. Energy dependence measurement of small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter by means of characteristic X-rays induced with general diagnostic X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal exposure doses. In an actual clinical situation, it is assumed that X-rays of different energies will be detected by a dosimeter. For evaluation of the exposure dose measured by a dosimeter, it is necessary to know the energy dependence of the dosimeter. Our aim in this study was to measure the energy dependence of the OSL dosimeter experimentally in the diagnostic X-ray region. Metal samples weighing several grams were irradiated and, in this way, characteristic X-rays having energies ranging from 8 to 85 keV were generated. Using these mono-energetic X-rays, the dosimeter was irradiated. Simultaneously, the fluence of the X-rays was determined with a CdTe detector. The energy-dependent efficiency of the dosimeter was derived from the measured value of the dosimeter and the fluence. Moreover, the energy-dependent efficiency was calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation. The efficiency obtained in the experiment was in good agreement with that of the simulation. In conclusion, our proposed method, in which characteristic X-rays are used, is valuable for measurement of the energy dependence of a small OSL dosimeter in the diagnostic X-ray region.

  14. Measurement of spectra for intra-oral X-ray beams using biological materials as attenuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenóbio, Madelon A.F.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.; Zenóbio, Elton G.; Squair, Peterson Lima; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Silva, Teógenes A. da

    2011-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology, the radiation interaction probability in matter is a strong function of the X-ray energy. The knowledge of the X-ray energy spectral distribution allows optimizing the radiographic imaging system in order to obtain high quality images with as low as reasonably achievable patient doses. In this study, transmitted X-ray spectra through dentin and enamel that are existing materials in intra-oral radiology were experimentally determined in an X-ray equipment with 40–70 kV variable range. Dentin and enamel samples with 0.4–3.8 and 0.6–2.6 mm thick were used as attenuators. X-ray transmitted spectra were measured with XR-100T model CdTe detector and half-value layers (HVL) were determined. Characteristics of both dentin and enamel transmitted spectra showed that they have differences in the penetration power in matter and in the spectrum distribution. The results will be useful for phantom developments based on dentin and enamel for image quality control in dental radiology. - Highlights: ► The X-ray energy spectral distribution, optimize the radiographic imaging system. Transmitted X-ray spectra through dentin and enamel were experimentally determined. X-ray transmitted spectra were measured (XR-100T model CdTe detector). The transmitted spectra showed differences in the penetration power and spectrum distribution. Dentin and enamel transmitted spectra will be useful for phantom developments.

  15. Comarability of digital and analouge x-rays for migration measurements with EBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, E.

    2001-02-01

    EBRA is a computer supported method for measuring the migration of total hip prostheses by using consecutive standard X-rays of the pelvis. PACS is a picture archiving and communication system used to handle digitally taken X-rays. After the installation of a PACS at the University Clinic of Innsbruck it was impossible to compare the digital pictures with the former analogue pictures with EBRA, as they have different scales. By introducing a calibrating step into the EBRA-program it was possible to do measurements on series of pictures containing digital pictures as well as analogue ones. For displaying the failure of EBRA caused by different radiological techniques we did measurements on a series of consecutive X-rays taken of a model made of acrylic glass and simulating the relevant anatomic structures by screws. The migration of the implant was simulated by shifting it in two directions. Whilst using analogue and digital radiological techniques for taking X-rays, the difference in measurement errors of both techniques was studied. The reliable comparability of X-rays of every format is an absolute necessity for continuing measurements of migration after changing the technique of taking X-rays. The average measurement error of all studied formats of pictures was 0.04 mm (Stdev. 0.11 mm). Though, by using the calibration tool of EBRA migration measurement on X-rays with different formats is possible within the same accuracy. (author)

  16. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  17. An examination of mass thickness measurements with X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mincong; Li Hongmei; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2008-01-01

    A method using X-rays to measure mass thickness is discussed. The method utilizes a filter to absorb low energy and characteristic photons so that the hardened X-ray spectra have a peaked energy distribution. An equivalent X-ray energy, which defines the attenuation in a material of interest can be used. The effect on the X-ray spectra of different filters is examined with Monte Carlo simulation using the EGSnrc package. A theoretical model for X-ray absorption that shows that the method can achieve good precision for a certain range of mass thicknesses is advanced. Experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis. It is found that for a certain range of mass thicknesses, the relative error can be less than 1% for the aluminum alloy sample at the tube voltage of 30 or 45 kV

  18. An examination of mass thickness measurements with X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Mincong; Li Hongmei; Chen Ziyu [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Jin Zhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China); Shen Ji [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Jin Zhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: shenji@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-10-15

    A method using X-rays to measure mass thickness is discussed. The method utilizes a filter to absorb low energy and characteristic photons so that the hardened X-ray spectra have a peaked energy distribution. An equivalent X-ray energy, which defines the attenuation in a material of interest can be used. The effect on the X-ray spectra of different filters is examined with Monte Carlo simulation using the EGSnrc package. A theoretical model for X-ray absorption that shows that the method can achieve good precision for a certain range of mass thicknesses is advanced. Experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis. It is found that for a certain range of mass thicknesses, the relative error can be less than 1% for the aluminum alloy sample at the tube voltage of 30 or 45 kV.

  19. Soft X-Ray Measurements of Z-Pinch-Driven Vacuum Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, Chris; Varas, M.; Moats, Ann; Struve, Ken; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Simpson, W.W.; Fehl, D.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Matuska, W.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the experimental characterization of a z-pinch driven-vacuum hohlraum. The authors have measured soft x-ray fluxes of 5 x 10 12 W/cm 2 radiating from the walls of hohlraums which are 2.4--2.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm tall. The x-ray source used to drive these hohlraums was a z-pinch consisting of a 300 wire tungsten array driven by a 2 MA, 100 ns current pulse. In this hohlraum geometry, the z-pinch x-ray source can produce energies in excess of 800 kJ and powers in excess of 100 TW to drive these hohlraums. The x-rays released in these hohlraums represent greater than a factor of 25 in energy and more than a factor of three in x-ray power over previous laboratory-driven hohlraums

  20. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  1. Adjustment of a two-block X-ray interferometer and absolute measurement of lattice spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kan

    1994-01-01

    X-ray interferometer was invented in 1965 by Bonse and Hart, and it uses the lattice surface of a silicon single crystal as a three-dimensional diffraction lattice. It divides X-ray coherently, changes direction, combines and causes interference. It made for the first time the interference effect of X-ray into the usable form in macroscopic world. As an example of the application of X-ray interferometers to basic science, there is the absolute measurement of lattice spacing. This is the method of simultaneously measuring the same displacement with an X-ray interferometer and a light wave interferometer, and doing the absolute measurement of the lattice spacing of crystals with light wavelength. Avogadro constant is the constant that becomes the foundation of chemistry, and its relation with other basic constants is shown. The principle of X-ray interferometers is explained. As the elementary technologies for the absolute measurement of lattice spacing, the adjustment of X-ray interferometers, parallel movement table and angular adjustment table, light wave interferometer and the prevention of vibration and temperature change are described. The example of the measurement is reported. In order to improve the accuracy, the improvement of the equipment and the measurement in vacuum are prepared at present. (K.I.)

  2. Residual stress estimation of ceramic thin films by X-ray diffraction and indentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Erdem; Sarioglu, Cevat; Demirler, Ugur; Sabri Kayali, E.; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2003-05-15

    The residual stresses in ceramic thin films obtained by the indentation method have been found to be three times higher than those of the X-ray diffraction method. This discrepancy can be eliminated by setting the geometrical factor for the Vickers pyramid indenter to 1 in the relevant equation of the indentation method.

  3. Residual stress estimation of ceramic thin films by X-ray diffraction and indentation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Erdem; Sarioglu, Cevat; Demirler, Ugur; Sabri Kayali, E.; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2003-01-01

    The residual stresses in ceramic thin films obtained by the indentation method have been found to be three times higher than those of the X-ray diffraction method. This discrepancy can be eliminated by setting the geometrical factor for the Vickers pyramid indenter to 1 in the relevant equation of the indentation method

  4. Review - X-ray diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifuru Mitsui, Keiichi Koyama and Kazuo Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A system was developed measuring x-ray powder diffraction in high magnetic fields up to 5 T and at temperatures from 283 to 473 K. The stability of the temperature is within 1 K over 6 h. In order to examine the ability of the system, the high-field x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for Si and a Ni-based ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy. The results show that the x-ray powder diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures are useful for materials research.

  5. X-ray measurement of plastic strain by means of Eshelby/Mori-Tanaka model and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Lin, Zheng; Hirose, Yukio

    1997-01-01

    A new method is proposed in this paper for determining plastic strains in composite materials using the X-ray diffraction method. The present method was derived by using both Eshelby's approach and the Mori-Tanaka theory to express the stress state in composite materials instead of the elasticity in single-phase materials which is used in the conventional method of X-ray stress measurement. It was found that the plastic strain can be determined from the slope of the linear relation between lattice strains measured by the X-ray diffraction technique and sin 2 ψ using almost the same procedure as that for determining stresses by the conventional X-ray method. The results on ferritic and austenitic dual-phase stainless steel are shown. We discuss the effects of a uniaxial tensile load in a range of plastic deformation on the field of plastic strain as well as on residual macro-, micro- and phase stresses built up in the sample. (author)

  6. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  7. LCLS in—photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2018-02-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.

  8. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  9. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  10. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  11. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-28

    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  12. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A. [Shenzhen College of International Education, 1st HuangGang Park St., Shenzhen, GuangDong (China); Luo, J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, 332 Bonner Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-1920 (United States); Wang, A. [Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Broadbent, C. [School of Engineering, Columbia University, 1130 Amsterdam Av., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhong, J. [Department of English, Dartmouth College, 6032 Sanborn House, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dilmanian, F.A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 743, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. An efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent in the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.

  13. High-resolution measurements of x rays from ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    High resolution measurements of K x-ray spectra produced by ion-atom collisions at MeV energies are presented. These measurements indicate that a distribution of L-shell vacancies accompanies K-shell excitation. The variation of these spectra as a function of incident ion energy and atomic number is discussed. Difficulties in the analysis of these spectra due to rearrangement of vacancies between the time of the collision and the time of x-ray emission are considered. The use of high resolution x-ray measurements to obtain information on projectile ion vacancy configurations is demonstrated by data for Ar ions in KCl. X-ray spectra from Al projectiles in a variety of targets were measured and the effect of target composition on these spectra is discussed

  14. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources

  15. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, M; Aoki, Y; Ikeda, J; Sato, K; Fujita, F; Homma, A; Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

  16. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  17. In situ stress determination by X-ray diffractometry and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castex, Louis

    The mechanical behavior of the metallic construction generally relates to the amount of the residual stress which reigned in the constitutive material. It is then essential to evaluate the residual stress inside the material without destruction. The X-ray diffractometry apparatus which we have developed for this study consisted of the use of the linear sensitive detector, the special psi-goniometer and the programming computer [fr

  18. Methodology of ionizing radiation measurement, from x-ray equipment, for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Katia C.S.; Borges, Jose C.

    1996-01-01

    Most of X-rays beam used for diagnostic, are short exposure time (milliseconds). Exception are those used in fluoroscopy. measuring instruments (area monitors with ionizing chambers or Geiger tubes) used in hospitals and clinics, in general, have characteristic answer time not adequate to X-rays beams length in time. Our objective was to analyse instruments available commercially, to prepare a measuring methodology for direct and secondary beams, in order to evaluate protection barriers for beams used in diagnostic radiology installations. (author)

  19. An optimal ross filter system for soft X-ray spectra measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tianxuan; Zheng Zhijian; Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen

    2000-01-01

    A broadband Ross filter spectrometer is described for measuring soft X-ray radiation (0.1∼1.5 keV) emitted from laser plasma. It consists of a number of channels, each representing a Ross filter pair in conjunction with Al cathode X-ray diodes. An optimal channel has flat response within the sensitivity band, and minimal response outside it. The effect of some uncertainties on the accuracy of measurements is calculated

  20. X-ray measurements of elastic deformation of individual crystallites in polycrystalline Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroshi; Urashima, Ken-ichi; Miyawaki, Noburo; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    1982-01-01

    Equations and angular limits for X-ray stress measurements of individual crystallites in polycrystalline aggregates are obtained, and the stresses in grains of Al-4 -- 5 mass% Cu alloys containing large grains are measured under tension to compare the analytical results. Stresses in grains are not affected by the aging treatment, but diffraction spots are blurred out by the eigen strain occurred during the aging. Deviation angles theta 1 of the principal stress from the tensile direction have a linear relation to the shear factor F sub(S), which consists of the direction cosines of axes of the specimen with respect to axes of the crystallographic grain, and the proportional constant α is about 10 0 . The principal stress σ 1 is not affected by the factor F sub(S). Stress distributions are numerically analized for rectangular grains to clarify quantitatively the relations obtained experimentally. Numerical results also show the linear relation between the angle theta 1 and the factor F sub(S). The proportional constant α increases from zero to a constant αinfinity with the ratio R of the width to the length of the grain. The principal stress σ 1 is not affected by the shear factor F sub(S), but varies with the ratio R. (author)

  1. Renal function measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boijsen, M.; Jacobsson, L.; Tylen, U.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1987-01-01

    In twenty-six patients injected with metrizoate during urography, plasma was analyzed for iodine concentration using X-ray fluorescence analysis, and total plasma clearance of contrast medium was calculated. Total plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA was also determined, but not simultaneously, in order to find out if the urographic procedure would influence the kidneys to such an extent that the contrast medium clearance value would differ much from the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance value. The errors in the method were assessed and the total error of the contrast medium clearance determination was calculated. When comparing 51 Cr-EDTA and metrizoate clearance a correlation of 0.94 and a mean ratio of 1.046 (SD 0.138) was found. The assessable errors cannot fully explain the standard deviation, which might indicate a transient change in kidney function related to elements of the urographic procedure such as laxation with possible dehydration and/or the contrast medium dose. (orig.)

  2. High energy X-ray diffraction analysis of strain and residual stress in silicon nitride ceramic diffusion bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Prieto, C.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M.I.; Terry, A.E.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    High resolution X-ray scanning diffractometry is used to study the residual stress in binary metal/ceramic (Ni/Si 3 N 4 ) diffusion bonds fabricated by simultaneous high temperature heating and uniaxial pressing. In order to diminish the experimental error on the stress determination, the method consists of three steps: (i) to measure the axial and radial strains following some selected lines at the inner volume of the ceramic; (ii) to fit the strain data using finite element method (FEM) analysis and (iii) to determinate stresses by using the results obtained from the FEM method in the strain calculation

  3. An experimental measurement of metal multilayer x-ray reflectivity degradation due to intense x-ray flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.Y.P.

    1987-06-01

    The degradation of the x-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense x-ray flux was investigated. The Z-pinch plasma produced by PROTO II of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was used as the source. The plasma generated total x-ray yields of as much as 40 kJ with up to 15 kJ in the neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines in nominal 20-ns pulses. Molybdenum-carbon, palladium-carbon, and tungsten-carbon metal multilayers were placed at 15 and 150 cm from the plasma center. The multilayers were at nominal angles of 5 0 and 10 0 to diffract the neon resonance lines. The time-integrated x-ray reflection of the metal multilayers was monitored by x-ray film. A fluorescer-fiber optic-visible streak camera detector system was then used to monitor the time-resolved x-ray reflection characteristics of 135 A- 2d tungsten-carbon multilayers. A large specular component in the reflectivity prevented determination of the rocking curve of the multilayer. For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A ''conduction factor'' of 82 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/cm 2 and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/cm 2 . 82 refs., 66 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Hard X-ray measurements of A0535+26 during low state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.

    1982-01-01

    A number of measurements of the recurrent transient X-ray source A0535+26 have been made during its outburst phase, since its detection in 1975 by Ariel V. The optical counterpart of the source (Be Star 245770) has also been extensively studied both in active and quiescent state in optical I.R. and U.V. bands. These data show a positive correlation with the X-ray flux during on state. The X-ray flux from the source during the outburst increases to about twice the Crab intensity in soft X-ray band and gradually decreases to 100 mCrab during 30 to 50 days. However positive detection of the sources has not been reported until now during the low state. In this paper we present the spectral measurements of the source in the energy band 20-100 KeV made during the low state in 1981. (orig.)

  5. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  6. High precision instrumentation for measuring the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danubia B.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important physical quantities to be evaluated in diagnostic radiology is the radiation exposure time experimented by the patient during the X-ray examination. IAEA and WHO organizations have suggested that any country must create a quality surveillance program to verify if each type of ionizing radiation equipment used in the hospitals and medical clinics are in conformity with the accepted uncertainties following the international standards. The purpose of this work is to present a new high precision methodology for measuring true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations: pulsed, continuous or digital one. An electronic system named CronoX, which will be soon registered at the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI), is the equipment that provides such a high precision measurement. The principle of measurement is based on the electrical signal captured by a sensor that enters in a regeneration amplifier to transform it in a digital signal, which is treated by a microprocessor (uP). The signal treatment results in a two measured times: 1) T rx , the true X-ray exposure time; 2) T nx , the time in which the X-ray machine is repeatedly cut off during the pulsed irradiation and there is no delivery dose to the patient. Conventional Polymat X-ray equipment and dental X-ray machines were used to generate X-ray photons and take the measurements with the electronic systems. The results show that such a high precision instrumentation displays the true exposure time in diagnostic X-ray examinations and indicates a new method to be purposed for the quality surveillance programs in radiology. (author)

  7. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  8. EFFECT OF HELIUM SEDIMENTATION ON X-RAY MEASUREMENTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fang; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The uniformity of the helium-to-hydrogen (He-to-H) abundance ratio in the X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is one of the commonly adopted assumptions in X-ray analyses of galaxy clusters and cosmological constraints derived from these measurements. In this paper, we investigate the effect of He sedimentation on X-ray measurements of galaxy clusters in order to assess this assumption and associated systematic uncertainties. By solving a set of flow equations for a H-He plasma, we show that the He-to-H mass ratio is significantly enhanced in the inner regions of clusters. The effect of He sedimentation, if not accounted for, introduces systematic biases in observable properties of clusters derived using X-ray observations. We show that these biases also introduce an apparent evolution in the observed gas mass fractions of X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters and hence biases in observational constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, derived from the cluster distance-redshift relation. The Hubble parameter derived from the combination of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements is affected by the He sedimentation process as well. Future measurements aiming to constrain w or H 0 to better than 10% may need to take into account the effect of He sedimentation. We propose that the evolution of gas mass fraction in the inner regions of clusters should provide unique observational diagnostics of the He sedimentation process.

  9. Rocket measurements of X-rays and energetic electrons through an auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarsnes, K.; Stadsnes, J.; Soeraas, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results from rocket measurements on auroral electron precipitation are discussed as far as the spatial structure and time and space variations in the primary electron fluxes are concerned. The analysis demonstrates that there was a good overall correspondence between the X-ray and electron data. By using a well collimated X-ray detector on a spinning rocket, it was possible to get additional information on the overall electron precipitation pattern

  10. In-situ stress analysis with X-Ray diffraction for yield locus characterization of sheet metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güner, A.; Tekkaya, A. E. [Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, TU Dortmund University, Baroper Str. 301, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Zillmann, B.; Lampke, T. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, Erfenschlager Strasse 73 D-09125 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    A main problem in the field of sheet metal characterization is the inhomogeneous plastic deformation in the gauge regions of specimens which causes the analytically calculated stresses to differ from the sought state of stress acting in the middle of the gauge region. To overcome this problem, application of X-Ray diffraction is analyzed. For that purpose a mobile X-ray diffractometer and an optical strain measurement system are mounted on a universal tensile testing machine. This enables the recording of the whole strain and stress history of a material point. The method is applied to uniaxial tension tests, plane strain tension tests and shear tests to characterize the interstitial free steel alloy DC06. The applicability of the concepts of stress factors is verified by uniaxial tension tests. The experimentally obtained values are compared with the theoretical values calculated with crystal elasticity models utilizing the orientation distribution functions (ODF). The relaxation problem is addressed which shows itself as drops in the stress values with the strain kept at a constant level. This drop is analyzed with elasto-viscoplastic material models to correct the measured stresses. Results show that the XRD is applicable to measure the stresses in sheet metals with preferred orientation. The obtained yield locus is expressed with the Yld2000–2D material model and an industry oriented workpiece is analyzed numerically. The comparison of the strain distribution on the workpiece verifies the identified material parameters.

  11. Measurement of thickness of thin films by the X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, C.; Balasingh, C.; Singh, A.K.

    1979-07-01

    X-ray diffraction method can be used to measure the thickness of thin films (coatings). The principle and the experimental details of the x-ray diffraction methods are described. The intensities of the diffracted beams are derived assuming a random orientation of the crystallites in the diffracting medium. Consequently, the expressions are not valid when the sample has preferred orientation. To check the performance of the method, thicknesses of nickel deposits on mild steel plates were determined by the x-ray diffraction method and the results compared with those obtained by the weighing method and metallographic examination. The weighing method which gives an accuracy of +- 0.1 micron is taken as the standard. The x-ray diffraction methods and the metallographic examinations give values within +- 1 micron of the value obtained by the weighing method. (author)

  12. Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron X-ray measurements in a gas environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mom, Rik V; Onderwaater, Willem G; Rost, Marcel J; Jankowski, Maciej; Wenzel, Sabine; Jacobse, Leon; Alkemade, Paul F A; Vandalon, Vincent; van Spronsen, Matthijs A; van Weeren, Matthijs; Crama, Bert; van der Tuijn, Peter; Felici, Roberto; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Carlà, Francesco; Frenken, Joost W M; Groot, Irene M N

    2017-11-01

    A combined X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrument is presented that enables the local detection of X-ray absorption on surfaces in a gas environment. To suppress the collection of ion currents generated in the gas phase, coaxially shielded STM tips were used. The conductive outer shield of the coaxial tips can be biased to deflect ions away from the tip core. When tunneling, the X-ray-induced current is separated from the regular, 'topographic' tunneling current using a novel high-speed separation scheme. We demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument by measuring the local X-ray-induced current on Au(1 1 1) in 800 mbar Ar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sub-keV, subnanosecond measurements of x-ray spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, H.N.; Koppel, L.N.; Slivinsky, V.W.; Glaros, S.S.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Larsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the effort to extend our x-ray diagnostic capabilities, we have made x-ray spectral measurements of laser-produced plasmas for photon energies down to 100 eV with a time response of 0.5 nsec. Fast, windowless x-ray diodes were used in conjunction with critical angle reflecting mirrors and thin filters for energy definition for two channels, 300 to 600 eV and 800 to 1300 eV. A third channel, using only an x-ray diode and filter, provided spectral information in the 100 to 300 eV region. Results from exploding pusher targets will be presented and compared with those of other diagnostic techniques and Lasnex calculations. Future expansion and modifications of the present system will be discussed

  14. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 10 47 cm –3 and 1.1 × 10 48 cm –3 . Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  15. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  16. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  17. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  18. X-ray beam size measurements on the Advanced Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Chambers, F.W.; Lauer, E.J.; Slaughter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron beam size has been determined on the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) by intercepting the beam with a target and measuring the resulting x-ray intensity as a function of time as the target is moved through the beam. Several types of targets have been used. One is a tantalum rod which extends completely across the drift chamber. Another is a tungsten powder filled carbon crucible. Both of these probes are moved from shot to shot so that the x-ray signal intensity varies with probe position. A third is a larger tantalum disk which is inserted on beam axis to allow determining beam size on a one shot basis. The x-ray signals are detected with an MCP photomultiplier tube located at 90 0 to the beamline. It is sufficiently shielded to reject background x-rays and neutrons. The signals were digitized, recorded and later unfolded to produce plots of x-ray intensity versus probe position for several times during the pulse. The presumption that the x-ray intensity is proportional to beam current density is checked computationally. Details of the probe construction and PMT shielding, as well as sample measurements are given

  19. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source (HTPD 08 paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M; Schneider, M B

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  20. X-RAY MEASUREMENTS OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya G. Kanazirska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diagnostics is essential in case of retention of teeth. An important condition for proper treatment plan for impacted third molars of the mandible is the determination of the type of retention in the jaw in accordance with their medio-distal inclination and the space available for eruption (retromolar space. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an objective method for determination of the medio-distal inclination and the space for eruption of the third molars of the mandible. Materials and methods: The studied patients with impacted third molars of the mandible are 127, aged 17 through 60. They were examined with Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT. On the orthopantomography, obtained after the scanning as a reconstructed image, we defined the medio-distal inclination and space for eruption of the third molars of the mandible. For this purpose, we summarized several methods. Results: The most common inclination of the third molars of the mandible with retained eruption is the medial one at 120 teeth (61.5% ± 3.5. Second in frequency is the vertical one-34 teeth (17.4% ± 2.7, followed by the distal inclination– 21 teeth (10.8% ± 2.2. With the lowest frequency are the teeth which are positioned horizontally –20 teeth (10.3% ± 2.2. Shortage of retromolar space is established for173 teeth (88.7% ± 2.3. In 22 teeth (11.3% ± 2.3 there is enough space in the jaw for eruption. Conclusion: An objective method for determination of the medio-distal inclination of the teeth and the space available for eruption is introduced for the first time in Bulgaria. By determining the inclination of impacted wisdom teeth under this methodology one can avoid the subjective factor–the seventh tooth. It is not a reference plane, because it can also be tilted or missing. With the help of the developed method the retromolar point can be determined more objectively.

  1. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre; Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van

    2013-01-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented

  2. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew A; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Jordan, Inga; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Müächler, Jean-Pierre; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Wörner, Hans Jakob; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2013-07-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

  3. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

  4. Soft x-ray transmission measurements on thin films used for XMM CCD-filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.-H.; Reppin, C.; Maier, H. J.; Frischke, D.; Fuchs, D.; Müller, P.

    1997-02-01

    We have been developing optical filters for ESA's X-ray astronomy project XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror Mission). Specific CCDs will be used as detectors in the focal plane on board the observatory (1). Since these detectors are sensitive from the X-ray to the near infrared spectral range, X-ray observations require optical filters, which combine a high transparency for photon energies in the soft X-ray region and a high opacity for ultraviolet and visible radiation as well. With respect to the mission goal in orbit three types of flight model filters are designed having different spectral transmittance functions. We report on one of these types, a so-called "thick" filter, which has been realized within the EQM (Electrical Qualification Model)-phase of the project. The filter features a cut-off in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and suppresses radiation below ˜10 eV photon energy by more than 8 orders of magnitude. It has an effective aperture of 73 mm without any support structure. A 0.35 μm thick polypropylene carrier foil is coated with metallic films of Al and Sn. We describe transmission measurements in the soft X-ray photon energy range to determine the thickness of the individual layers and present the optical performance data of the filter.

  5. X-ray imaging with amorphous selenium: Pulse height measurements of avalanche gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Brian J. M.; Hunt, D. C.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide a large, adjustable gain for active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI), enabling quantum noise limited x-ray imaging during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In the case of direct conversion AMFPI, the multiplication factor for each x ray is a function of its depth of interaction, and the resulting variations in gain can reduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system. An experimental method was developed to measure gain fluctuations by analyzing images of individual x rays that were obtained using a video camera with an a-Se target operated in avalanche mode. Pulse height spectra (PHS) of the charge produced per x ray were recorded for monoenergetic 30.9, 49.4, and 73.8 keV x-ray sources. The rapid initial decay and long tail of each PHS can be explained by a model in which positive charge dominates the initiation of avalanche. The Swank information factor quantifies the effect of gain fluctuation on DQE and was calculated from the PHS. The information factor was found to be 0.5 for a 25 μm a-Se layer with a maximum gain of ∼300. Changing the energy of the incident x ray influenced the range of the primary photoelectron and noticeably affected the tail of the experimental PHS, but did not significantly change the avalanche Swank factor

  6. Texture, residual stress and structural analysis of thin films using a combined X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterotti, L.; Chateigner, D.; Ferrari, S.; Ricote, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thin films for today's industrial and research needs require highly specialized methodologies for a successful quantitative characterization. In particular, in the case of multilayer and/or unknown phases a global approach is necessary to obtain some or all the required information. A full approach has been developed integrating novel texture and residual stress methodologies with the Rietveld method (Acta Cryst. 22 (1967) 151) (for crystal structure analysis) and it has been coupled with the reflectivity analysis. The complete analysis can be done at once and offers several benefits: the thicknesses obtained from reflectivity can be used to correct the diffraction spectra, the phase analysis help to identify the layers and to determine the electron density profile for reflectivity; quantitative texture is needed for quantitative phase and residual stress analyses; crystal structure determination benefits of the previous. To achieve this result, it was necessary to develop some new methods, especially for texture and residual stresses. So it was possible to integrate them in the Rietveld, full profile fitting of the patterns. The measurement of these spectra required a special reflectometer/diffractometer that combines a thin parallel beam (for reflectivity) and a texture/stress goniometer with a curved large position sensitive detector. This new diffraction/reflectivity X-ray machine has been used to test the combined approach. Several spectra and the reflectivity patterns have been collected at different tilting angles and processed at once by the special software incorporating the aforementioned methodologies. Some analysis examples will be given to show the possibilities offered by the method

  7. A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Waveform in X-Ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Hernandez, Marco A.

    2004-01-01

    The experience gained in the quality control in X-ray units used in Radiology has demonstrated that the measurement of the waveform of the X-ray beam, measured as the response of a radiation detector is very helpful to decide if the unit fulfills the quality control requirements and also has been useful to define some kind of faults in the unit. Several instruments are available on the market to make this measurement but they need in general a storage or digital oscilloscope to see the waveform. In this work a stand alone new instrument is proposed in which the waveform is seen in a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The instrument is based in the X-ray response of a photo diode. The analog response depending on time is converted to digital numbers that are stored sequentially in a memory. The stored information is recovered with a microcontroller and reconstructed in the screen of the LCD. The instrument is able to measure in the mammographic range from 22 kV to 35 kV and in the conventional range from 40 kV to 120 kV in the different settings of current encountered on practical applications, the time range for the measurement of the X-ray shot is from 100 ms to 3 s. The instrument can be useful in quality control practices and in the verification and maintenance of X-ray units

  8. X-ray evaluation of residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the

  9. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C.

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  10. Application of x-ray fluorescence to the measurement of additives in paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.; McNelles, L.A.; Sinclair, A.H.; Hewitt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Titanium dioxide content in paper was measured by x-ray fluorescence analysis using an 55 Fe source and an x-ray proportional counter to determine the feasibility of an on-line instrument. X-ray calibration curves for 60- and 100-g/m 2 paper samples were obtained using neutron activation to measure the titanium dioxide concentration. The predictions of a simple model were in good agreement with the experimental calibration curves. The measurements and calculations were extended to investigate the effects of clay and moisture. The presence of clay has a significant effect on the x-ray fluorescence determination of the titanium dioxide concentration; however, this can be well accounted for by the model. The calculations indicated that the effect of typical moisture levels on the titanium dioxide determination was small and can be ignored. It is not possible to measure the clay content by x-ray fluorescence; however, preliminary results for the determination of calcium carbonate concentration are promising

  11. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  12. Rapid X-ray crystal structure analysis in few second measurements using microstrip gas chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, A; Tanimori, T; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Nishi, Y; Nishi, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Koishi, S

    2001-01-01

    X-ray crystal structure analysis using microstrip gas chamber was successfully carried out in a measurement time within a few seconds. The continuous rotation photograph method, in which most of the diffraction peaks can be obtained within one continuous rotation of the sample crystal (without stopping or oscillation), was applied for this measurement. As an example, the structure of a single crystal of ammonium bitartrate (r=1 mm, spherical) was measured. Diffraction spots from the sample, which were sufficient to obtain crystal structure, were successfully obtained by taking only 2 s measurements with a commercially available laboratory X-ray source.

  13. Measurements of transient electron density distributions by femtosecond X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis concerns measurements of transient charge density maps by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Different X-ray diffraction methods will be considered, particularly with regard to their application in femtosecond X-ray diffraction. The rotation method is commonly used in stationary X-ray diffraction. In the work in hand an X-ray diffraction experiment is demonstrated, which combines the method with ultrafast X-ray pulses. This experiment is the first implementation which makes use of the rotation method to map transient intensities of a multitude of Bragg reflections. As a prototype material Bismuth is used, which previously was studied frequently by femtosecond X-ray diffraction by measuring Bragg reflections successively. The experimental results of the present work are compared with the literature data. In the second part a powder-diffraction experiment will be presented, which is used to study the dynamics of the electron-density distribution on ultrafast time scales. The experiment investigates a transition metal complex after photoexcitation of the metal to ligand charge transfer state. Besides expected results, i. e. the change of the bond length between the metal and the ligand and the transfer of electronic charge from the metal to the ligand, a strong contribution of the anion to the charge transfer was found. Furthermore, the charge transfer has predominantly a cooperative character. That is, the excitation of a single complex causes an alteration of the charge density of several neighboring units. The results show that more than 30 transition-metal complexes and 60 anions contribute to the charge transfer. This collective response is a consequence of the strong coulomb interactions of the densely packed ions.

  14. X-ray diffraction study of thermal stress relaxation in ZnO films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conchon, F. [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Renault, P.O., E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.f [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Le Bourhis, E.; Krauss, C.; Goudeau, P. [Institut P' , Universite de Poitiers-Ensma-UPR CNRS 3346, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Barthel, E.; Grachev, S. Yu.; Sondergard, E. [Lab. Surface du Verre et Interfaces (SVI), UMR 125, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Rondeau, V.; Gy, R. [Lab. Recherche de Saint-Gobain (SGR), 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Lazzari, R.; Jupille, J. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP), UMR 7588, 75015 Paris (France); Brun, N. [Lab. Physique des Solides (LPS), UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-30

    X-ray diffraction stress analyses have been performed on two different thin films deposited onto silicon substrate: ZnO and ZnO encapsulated into Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers. We showed that both as-deposited ZnO films are in a high compressive stress state. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements inside a furnace revealed a relaxation of the as-grown stresses at temperatures which vary with the atmosphere in the furnace and change with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} encapsulation. The observations show that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films lying on both sides of the ZnO film play an important role in the mechanisms responsible for the stress relaxation during heat treatment. The different temperatures observed for relaxation in ambient and argon atmospheres suggest that the thermally activated stress relaxation may be attributed to a variation of the stoichiometry of the ZnO films. The present observations pave the way to fine tuning of the residual stresses through thermal treatment parameters.

  15. Using absolute x-ray spectral measurements to infer stagnation conditions in ICF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pravesh; Benedetti, L. R.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Landen, O.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the continuum x-ray spectrum emitted from the hot-spot of an ICF implosion can be used to infer a number thermodynamic properties at stagnation including temperature, pressure, and hot-spot mix. In deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we field a number of x-ray diagnostics that provide spatial, temporal, and spectrally-resolved measurements of the radiated x-ray emission. We report on analysis of these measurements using a 1-D hot-spot model to infer thermodynamic properties at stagnation. We compare these to similar properties that can be derived from DT fusion neutron measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Methods for reduction of scattered x-ray in measuring MTF with the square chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatagawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Rie

    1982-01-01

    A square wave chart has been used to measure the MTF of a screen-film system. The problem is that the scattered X-ray from the chart may give rise to measurement errors. In this paper, the authors proposed two methods to reduce the scattered X-ray: the first method is the use of a Pb mask and second is to provide for an air gap between the chart and the screen-film system. In these methods, the scattered X-ray from the chart was reduced. MTFs were measured by both of the new methods and the conventional method, and MTF values of the new methods were in good agreement while that of the conventional method was not. It was concluded that these new methods are able to reduce errors in the measurement of MTF. (author)

  17. Scintillator power meter applied on Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siqun; Huang Xianbin; Li Jing; Dan Jiakun; Li Jun; Yang Libing; Cui Mingqi; Zhao Yidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration and measuring parameters of scintillator power meter applied in Z-pinch plasma soft X-ray yield measurement on Yang accelerator. It also introduces the calibration experiment on BSRF, and analyzes the defect of the power meter from calibration results, the possible errors and feasible method for correcting the errors. The measuring results are revised according to spectrum acquired from Dante spectrometer. The revised discrepancy of two instruments is decreased from over 30% to subter-15%. Finally, the result of yield measurement of the puff Z-pinch X-ray radiation is reported as well, i.e., hundreds of Joule, multigigawatt levels of soft X ray radiation were produced by puff Z-pinch on Yang accelerator. (authors)

  18. Lightning x-rays inside thunderclouds, in-flight measurements on-board an A350

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces x-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. The In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS was developed in an EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It is intended to localize the lightning attachment points in order to reduce maintenance time and to build statics on lightning current. The system consists of 2 E-field sensors and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been enhanced by two LaBr3 scintillation detectors inside the aircraft. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on-board of an A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100Msamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the x-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The x-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization better than 40 ns with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with very limited time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That channel would allow x-rays from cosmic ray background, TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside the 1 s time window. In the EGU2014 we presented the ILDAS system and showed that the x-ray detection works as intended. Fast x-ray bursts have been detected during stepped/dart stepped leaders and during interception of lightning. Data analysis of continuous channel recordings will be presented as well.

  19. Improvement of graphite crystal analyzer for light elements on X-ray fluorescence holography measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Naohisa; Hada, Takuma; Kubota, Atsushi; Ebisu, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shinya; Kimura, Koji; Tajiri, Hiroo; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2018-05-01

    Using a graphite crystal analyzer, focused monochromatic fluorescent X-rays can be obtained on an X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) measurement. To measure the holograms of elements lighter than Ti, we improved a cylindrical-type crystal analyzer and constructed a small C-shaped analyzer. Using the constructed C-shaped analyzer, a Ca Kα hologram of a fluorite single crystal was obtained, from which we reconstructed a clear atomic image. The XFH measurements for the K, Ca, and Sc elements become possible using the presently constructed analyzer.

  20. Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C R D; Davis, P; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wünsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  1. Correction of build-up factor one x-ray hvl measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to obtain the value build-up factor (b) on half value layers (HVL) measurement of diagnostic X-Rays using pocket dosimeter behind aluminium (AI) filter with its thickness vary from 1 to 4 mm. From the measurement it was obtained HVL value of 1.997, 2.596 and 2.718 mmAI for X-Rays of kVp : 80 Kv with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm filter thickness respectively. HVL value significantly increase with increasing AI filter thickness. Increasing of HVL means increasing filter thickness. From the calculation it was obtained increasing b value relative to 1 mm AI filter of 18.26 and 46% for filter thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Experiment result shows the need of involving b value in HVL calculation of X-Rays if the filter is relatively thick. Calculation of HVL of X-Rays can be carried out with thin layers filter. Key words : x-rays, half value layer, build up factor

  2. Measurement of picometre non-linearity in an optical grating encoder using x-ray interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Cross, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    X-ray interferometry has been used to characterize the non-linearity in an optical encoder displacement measuring system. Traceable measurements of the non-linearity have been made and an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the measurements is given. Cyclic errors with a magnitude of up to 50 pm and periodicity of the encoder system (128 nm) have been recorded.

  3. X-ray polarization measurements at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Mancini, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    An effort has been started to measure the short pulse laser absorption and energy partition at relativistic laser intensities up to 10 21 W/cm 2 . Plasma polarization spectroscopy is expected to play an important role in determining fast electron generation and measuring the electron distribution function. (author)

  4. Residual stress and microstructural behaviour of a shot peened steel in fatigue. An X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, J.

    1986-01-01

    The surface residual stress behaviour during fatigue of the quenched and tempered medium strength low-alloyed steel SS 2244-05, equivalent to AISI 4140, has been investigated. Notched specimens of shot peened and ground surface conditions were used. The residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction sin/sup 2/psi-method at intervals in the fatigue tests. Fatigue testing was performed with constant load amplitude at nominal pull-push and pull-pull cycling. The effects of peak-load and variable amplitude were also examined. It was found that the residual stress relaxation could be linked to a total mean stress relaxation towards zero, to an extent which is ruled by a softening criteria. Fatigue test data of the shot peened and ground surface conditions are also given. An X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis was undertaken to examine the microstructural behaviour due to fatigue loading and its correlation to the residual stress behaviour. Single-peak analysis with a Voigt-function method was used to estimate the microstructural parameters, domain size and microstrain. Multiple-peak analysis according to the Warren-Averbach method was used to verify the single-peak analysis. The dislocation density was found to decrease depending on the load amplitude, while the dislocation arrangement follows a pattern depending on yield history.

  5. Image quality measurements for X-ray television chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, M.

    1986-01-01

    Image quality measurements were carried out for 36 television chains during 3 years. For the parameters sensitivity, resolution, contrast-detail diagram, minimal contrast and dose rate average values and experiences on their long-term stability are reported. (author)

  6. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  7. Description of EMX computer code. System for measuring soft X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, D.A.; Smeulders, P.; Launois, D.

    1978-07-01

    After briefly describing the system for measuring soft X rays implanted in TFR 600, the objectives and principles of the E.M.X calculation programme are presented. This model is divided into two distinct parts. The ultimate aim of EMX 1, the first part, is to build the soft X ray photo of a plasma with varied characteristics, seen through a certain collimation system (in this case a slit). That of EMX 2, the second part, is to filter the previously built soft X ray photo, by means of the system of absorbents belonging to the measuring system and to calculate the currents generated by each detector aimed at a plasma chord. The first calculation results are commented and discussed [fr

  8. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, Don; Griffin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  9. Comparation of Some Values of Measured Parameteres between Old and New X-Ray Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, B.; Marinkovic, J.; Praskalo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Checking the change of values of parameters like specific value of kerma, repeatability of expositions, linearity of exposition, stability of high voltage, time of exposition and HVL of X-ray machines that are in use in medical centres of Republic of Serbia give us an idea of comparing those values for two groups of X-ray machines. One is in use since 70's in last century and is still in use, and the other group is quite new, and is controlled for last 5 years. Checking the results of controlled parameters within those two groups of X-ray machines we can compare stability and quality of old and new machines, and the influence of 'aging' of machines to the quality and stability of measured parameters. Some of conclusions are that old machines are showing better stability and repeatability of values of measured parameters during the 'aging' than new machines.(author)

  10. Disparity in formulations used for fluorescent X-ray intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Raj; Gupta, Sheenu

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a problem in computations of X-ray fluorescence cross-sections, shell/sub-shell fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig yields, vacancy alignment, etc. from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies. While using barn/atom as a unit for cross-sections if the atomic masses are not considered it causes a discrepancy in the measured cross-section, yield and alignment values. Most of the earlier publications are being quoted where such an oversight has occurred and discrepancy is evident. - Highlights: → Manuscript gives basic formulation for measurements of fluorescent X-ray intensities. → Most publications ignored the fact that use of barn/atom units for cross-sections requires atomic masses. → Published experimental results higher by a factor ≥2 or less by factor 1/M K . → Inspection of published data on XRF parameters needed.

  11. A simple, semi-quantitative method for measuring pulsed soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Y.; Du, J.; Yanagidaira, T.; Hirano, K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple semi-quantitative measurement and image processing system for pulsed soft X-rays with a time and spatial resolution is proposed. Performance of the system is examined using a cylindrical soft X-ray source generated with a plasma device. The system consists of commercial facilities which are easily obtained such as a microchannel plate-phosphor screen combination, a CCD camera, an image memory board and a personal computer. To make a quantitative measurement possible, the image processing and observation of the phosphor screen current are used in conjunction. (author)

  12. The design of a measuring system for soft X ray absolute intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Congwu; Cui Mingqi

    1997-01-01

    The design of a measuring system for soft X ray absolute intensity in detail is presented. The system consists of two parts: the ionization chamber, the silicon photodiode and its transferring system. The system can be used as the primary standard detector for the measurement of soft X ray absolute radiation flux in the energy range of 50 to 2000 eV after being calibrated. The whole system will be installed to the newly built beamline of 3W1B at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

  13. Measurements within cloud cavitation by means of X-ray attenuation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barouch, G.; Legoupil, S.; Stutz, B.; Woo, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the two-phase flow structure of cloud cavitation. The experimental study is performed in a cavitation tunnel equipped with a Venturi-type test section. The flow is investigated by means of an optical probe and a X-ray attenuation device. 24 collimated detectors enable measurement of the instantaneous space fraction of the vapour phase at different locations of the two-phase flow. X-ray intensity measurement mode enables fast data acquisitions (250 Hz). The studied geometry is characterized by a convergent angle of 18 deg. and a divergent angle of 8 deg. It leads to regular large vapour cloud shedding

  14. Measurement of the energy dependence of X-ray-induced decomposition of potassium chlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-03-21

    We report the first measurements of the X-ray induced decomposition of KClO3 as a function of energy in two experiments. KClO3 was pressurized to 3.5 GPa and irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 35 keV in 5 keV increments. A systematic increase in the decomposition rate as the energy was decreased was observed, which agrees with the 1/E(3) trend for the photoelectric process, except at the lowest energy studied. A second experiment was performed to access lower energies (10 and 12 keV) using a beryllium gasket; suggesting an apparent resonance near 15 keV or 0.83 Ǻ maximizing the chemical decomposition rate. A third experiment was performed using KIO3 to ascertain the anionic dependence of the decomposition rate, which was observed to be far slower than in KClO3, suggesting that the O-O distance is the critical factor in chemical reactions. These results will be important for more efficiently initiating chemical decomposition in materials using selected X-ray wavelengths that maximize decomposition to aid useful hard X-ray-induced chemistry and contribute understanding of the mechanism of X-ray-induced decomposition of the chlorates.

  15. Diagnostic x-ray spectra measurements using a silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Laitano, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A silicon surface barrier detector having a low efficiency for x-ray is used to analyse diagnostic x-ray spectra. This characteristic is advantageous in overcoming experimental problems caused by high fluence rates typical of diagnostic x-ray beams. The pulse height distribution obtained with silicon surface barrier detectors is very different from the true photon spectra because of the presence of escaped Compton photons and the fact that detection efficiency falls abruptly when photon energy increases. A detailed analysis of the spurious effects involved in detection is made by a Monte Carlo method. A stripping procedure is described for implementation on a personal computer. The validity of this method is tested by comparison with experimental results obtained with a Ge detector. The spectra obtained with the Si detector are in fairly good agreement with the analogous spectra measured with a Ge detector. The advantages of using Si as opposed to Ge detectors in x-ray spectrometry are: its simplicity of use, its greater economy for use in routine diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy and the possibility that the stripping procedure can be implemented on a personal computer. (author)

  16. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Shibayama, Naoya, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Okabe, Takahiro [Division of Biophysics, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke 329-0498 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Department of Computer and Network Engineering, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Asa-Minami-Ku, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Kimura, Koji [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Park, Sam-Yong [Drug Design Laboratory, Department of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Material Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α{sub 2}β{sub 2} tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  17. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Shibayama, Naoya; Okabe, Takahiro; Happo, Naohisa; Kimura, Koji; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Park, Sam-Yong; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α_2β_2 tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm"3) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  18. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel around the K-edge using synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Bunty Rani; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S.N.; Nageswara Rao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The work presents the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for measuring the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel metal foil in the X-ray energy range of 8271.2–8849.4 eV using scanning XAFS beam line (BL-09) at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source facility, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore, India. The result represents the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data for 0.02 mm thick Ni metal foil in the XAFS region of Ni K-edge. However, the results are compared to theoretical values using X-COM. There is a maximum deviation which is found exactly near the K-edge jump and decreases as we move away from the absorption edge. Oscillatory structure appears just above the observed absorption edge i.e., 8348.7 eV and is confined to around 250 eV above the edge. - Highlights: • Mass attenuation coefficient measurements of nickel using synchrotron radiation. • The measurements were taken exactly near the Ni K-edge at an energy step of 1 eV. • A maximum deviation is found near the K-edge

  20. Measurement of X-ray spectra by PIN photodiode: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Furquim, Tania A.C.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    1996-01-01

    Two different approaches for the evaluation of diagnostic X-ray spectra are presented : one based on a semiempirical model and other based on measurements using a silicon PIN photodiode. Measured and calculated values using typical kVp and filter combinations are compared

  1. An instrument for X-ray set quality assurance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willetts, R.J.; West, M.B.; Brydon, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype electronic instrument for performing quality assurance (QA) measurements on diagnostic radiological equipment with a view to long-term performance assessment on a Regional basis. The instrument is based on a Tandy 200 laptop computer and has been developed primarily to include the assessment of image intensifier/TV systems in a general QA package. It is capable of accepting signals from the following sources: (1) a radiation detector (diode array); (2) a Keithley kV divider (Keithley Instruments, Inc.); (3) the video output of an image intensifier system. (author)

  2. Inspection method of optical fiber preforms by x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Shibuya, S.; Kuroha, T.

    1980-01-01

    A method for measuring the refractive index distribution of optical fiber preforms has been developed by application of the theory of X-ray radiography. The composition of quartz optical fiber materials is, in most cases, limited to the group of five elements - Ge, P, Si, O and B. Of them, Ge is an essential element to determine the structure of refractive index of an optical fiber and the distribution of its density can be regarded approximately as the distribution of refractive index. On the other hand, the coefficient of low-energy X-ray absorption by the elements depends markedly on their atomic numbers, and Ge has a far larger absorption coefficient than the other four elements. Therefore, analysis of the intensity of X-ray absorbed by optical fiber preforms makes it possible to determine the distribution of Ge density and consequently the distribution of refractive index. (author)

  3. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density.

  4. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references

  5. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references.

  6. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  7. Radiochromic film measurement of spatial uniformity for a laser generated x-ray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Horton, R.; Fournier, K. B.; Emig, J.; Patterson, R.; Davis, J. F.; Seiler, S.; Jenkins, P. P.

    2012-10-01

    n existing x-ray source application (XRSA) test cassette was modified to hold multiple x-ray filter materials followed by two radiochromic film types (FWT-60 and HD-810 Gafchromic® film) to qualitatively characterize the spectral-spatial uniformity over the XRSA sample field of view. Multiple sets of film were examined and nominal set was determined. These initial, qualitative measurements suggest a low-energy regime (E < 3 keV) spatial anisotropy and spatial isotropy at higher energies (E > 3 keV).

  8. The primary exposure standard of ENEA for medium energy X-ray: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a medium energy X-ray free-air chamber used, as primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Enea in Italy. The main features of an X-ray facility for the production of radiation between 40 KeV and 400 KeV are also described. The measurements procedures are then analyzed with respect to the realization of the exposure unit in the relevant energy range. Finally the results of some international comparisons are reported

  9. Results from X-ray measurements on the Wendelstein W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Hacker, H.; Lazaros, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray imaging measurements have contributed to studies of the plasma equilibrium, plasma fluctuations, impurity radiation and impurity transport effects in the advanced stellarator Wendelstein W7-AS (R = 2 m, a = 17 cm). In addition, time resolved electron temperature profiles are deduced from X-ray intensity ratios according to the two absorber foil method. The plasma is generated and heated by fundamental and 2nd harmonic ECRH (P ≤ 800 kW at 70 GHz). Neutral beam injection heating (P ≤ 1.5 MW) was applied also, assisted by D 2 pellet injection. (orig.)

  10. Results from X-ray measurements on the Wendelstein W7-AS stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, A; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Hacker, H; Lazaros, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    X-ray imaging measurements have contributed to studies of the plasma equilibrium, plasma fluctuations, impurity radiation and impurity transport effects in the advanced stellarator Wendelstein W7-AS (R=2 m, a=17 cm). In addition, time resolved electron temperature profiles are deduced from X-ray intensity ratios according to the two absorber foil method. The plasma is generated and heated by fundamental and 2{sup nd} harmonic ECRH (P{le}800 kW at 70 GHz). Neutral beam injection heating (P{le}1.5 MW) was applied also, assisted by D{sub 2} pellet injection. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Measurements of reciprocity law failure in green-sensitive X-ray films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B A; Eisenberg, H; Bjärngard, B E

    1978-02-01

    Reciprocity law failure was measured for four brands of medical x-ray films exposed with intensifying screens. Three of the films are green light-sensitized for use in combination with green light-emitting rare-earth screens. These films showed larger reciprocity failure effects than one conventional blue-sensitive film, Dupont Cronex-2. Development conditions had a small effect on reciprocity failure. As part of the investigation, a detector was constructed with a response that accurately monitors the light emission from the double screen-cassette combination over a wide range of x-ray photon energies.

  12. X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkert, Florian J; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Möller, Johannes; Kujawski, Simon; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    A high-pressure cell for in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces at hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa (5 kbar), a pressure regime that is particularly important for the study of protein unfolding, is presented. The original set-up of this hydrostatic high-pressure cell is discussed and its unique properties are demonstrated by the investigation of pressure-induced adsorption of the protein lysozyme onto hydrophobic silicon wafers. The presented results emphasize the enormous potential of X-ray reflectivity studies under high hydrostatic pressure conditions for the in situ investigation of adsorption phenomena in biological systems.

  13. Visualizing and measuring flow in shale matrix using in situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A. H.; Kiss, A. M.; Kovscek, A. R.; Bargar, J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas production via hydraulic fracturing of shale has proliferated on a global scale, yet recovery factors remain low because production strategies are not based on the physics of flow in shale reservoirs. In particular, the physical mechanisms and time scales of depletion from the matrix into the simulated fracture network are not well understood, limiting the potential to optimize operations and reduce environmental impacts. Studying matrix flow is challenging because shale is heterogeneous and has porosity from the μm- to nm-scale. Characterizing nm-scale flow paths requires electron microscopy but the limited field of view does not capture the connectivity and heterogeneity observed at the mm-scale. Therefore, pore-scale models must link to larger volumes to simulate flow on the reservoir-scale. Upscaled models must honor the physics of flow, but at present there is a gap between cm-scale experiments and μm-scale simulations based on ex situ image data. To address this gap, we developed a synchrotron X-ray microscope with an in situ cell to simultaneously visualize and measure flow. We perform coupled flow and microtomography experiments on mm-scale samples from the Barnett, Eagle Ford and Marcellus reservoirs. We measure permeability at various pressures via the pulse-decay method to quantify effective stress dependence and the relative contributions of advective and diffusive mechanisms. Images at each pressure step document how microfractures, interparticle pores, and organic matter change with effective stress. Linking changes in the pore network to flow measurements motivates a physical model for depletion. To directly visualize flow, we measure imbibition rates using inert, high atomic number gases and image periodically with monochromatic beam. By imaging above/below X-ray adsorption edges, we magnify the signal of gas saturation in μm-scale porosity and nm-scale, sub-voxel features. Comparing vacuumed and saturated states yields image

  14. Real Structure and Resudal Stresses in Advanced Welds Determined by X-ray and Neutron Diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trojan, K.; Hervoches, Charles; Ganev, N.; Mikula, Pavol; Čapek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, SEP (2017), s. 32-38 E-ISSN 2336-5382 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : laser and MAG welding * residual stresses * X-ray diffraction * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/APP/article/view/4401/4298

  15. Electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Benedetti, Robin; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Prav; Schneider, Marilyn; Springer, Paul; LLNL Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered implosions on the NIF using a titanium differential filtering x-ray diagnostic. The electron temperature from x-ray emission is insensitive to non-thermal velocity flows as is the case with ion temperature measurements and is thus a critical parameter in interpreting stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss measurements using titanium filters ranging from 10 μm to 1mm in thickness with a sensitivity band of 10-30keV coupled with penumbral pinholes. The use of larger pinhole diameters increases x-ray fluence improving sensitivity of photon energies with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. This diagnostic has been fielded on a series of cryogenic shots with DT ion temperatures ranging from 2-5keV. Analysis of the measurement will be presented along with a comparison against simulated electron temperatures and x-ray spectra as well as a comparison to DT ion temperature measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Calculated efficiencies of three-material low stress coatings for diffractive x-ray transmission optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubec, Adam; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Menzel, Maik; Leson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray optical elements made by thin film coating techniques such as multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) and multilayer zone plates (MZP) are promising approaches to achieve resolutions in hard X-ray microscopy applications of less than 10 nm. The challenge is to make a lens with a large numerical aperture on the one hand and a decent working distance on the other hand. One of the limiting factors with the coated structures is the internal stress in the films, which can lead to significant bending of the substrate and various types of unwanted diffraction effects. Several approaches have been discussed to overcome this challenge. One of these is a three-material combination such as Mo/MoSi_2/Si, where four single layers per period are deposited. Mo and Si represent the absorber and spacer in this case while MoSi_2 forms a diffusion barrier; in addition the thicknesses of absorber and spacer are chosen to minimize residual stress of the overall coating. Here the diffraction efficiency as well as the profile of the beam in the focal plane are discussed in order to find a tradeoff between lowest residual stress and best diffraction properties.

  17. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  18. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  19. Femtosecond Near Edge X-ray Absorption Measurement of the VO2 Phase Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalleri, A.; Chong, H.H.W.; Fourmaux, S.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A; Kieffer, J.C.; Padmore, H.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The authors measure the insulator-to-metal transition in VO 2 using femtosecond Near-Edge X-ray Absorption. Sliced pulses of synchrotron radiation are used to detect the photo-induced dynamics at the 516-eV Vanadium L 3 edge

  20. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiedtke, K.; Sorokin, A. A.; Jastrow, U.; Juranić, P.; Kreis, S.; Gerken, N.; Richter, M.; Arp, U.; Feng, Y.; Nordlund, D.; Soufli, R.; Fernández-Perea, M.; Juha, Libor; Heimann, P.; Nagler, B.; Lee, H.J.; Mack, S.; Cammarata, M.; Krupin, O.; Messerschmidt, M.; Holmes, M.; Rowen, M.; Schlotter, W.; Moeller, S.; Turner, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 18 (2014), s. 21214-21226 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : soft x-ray * free electron laser * LCLS * instrumentation * measurement * metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014

  1. Soft x-ray laser gain measurements in a recombining plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Milchberg, H.; Keane, C.; Voorhees, D.

    1985-03-01

    An enhancement of approx. 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 A line (one-pass gain approx. = 6.5) was measured in a recombining, magnetically confined plasma column by two independent techniques using intensity calibrated XUV monochromators. Additional confirmation that the enhancement was due to stimulated emission has been obtained with a soft x-ray mirror

  2. Soft-X ray electronics for temperature measurement in SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Praveena; Raval, Jayesh V.; Chauhan, Harsad; Hansalia, C.J.; Joisa, Y.S.; Rajpal, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Soft-X ray diagnostic is used for the measurement of core temperature of plasma in tokamak. Signal conditioning electronics is designed, developed and tested for Soft-X ray measurement in SST-1. Silicon Surface Barrier Detectors (SBD) are used for detection of Soft -X ray. The detector is very sensitive and have a large leakage current (1-10) nA/cm"2. The preamplifier is designed to measure (10-100) nA of current signal. Virtual bias is supplied to detector through preamplifier. The front end electronics are mounted directly on the feed through in air side. Detectors are interfaced with feed through by 2-wire shielded cable. In the way of getting good results, problems are identified and troubleshooted. Soft-X ray signals are observed consistently in SST-1 campaign XIII. Different scheme were tested during the plasma experimental shots to get better measurement. This poster will describe the design details, interfacing with detector, problem faced, remedy and results. (author)

  3. Simultaneous resonant x-ray diffraction measurement of polarization inversion and lattice strain in polycrystalline ferroelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorfman, S.; Simons, Hugh; Iamsasri, T.

    2016-01-01

    and strain in ferroelectrics is an ongoing challenge that so far has obscured its fundamental behaviour. By utilizing small intensity differences between Friedel pairs due to resonant scattering, we demonstrate a time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique for directly and simultaneously measuring both lattice...

  4. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  5. Thin-film thickness measurement using x-ray peak ratioing in the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, N.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Archuleta, T.A.; Stupin, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to measure laser target film thickness using a scanning electron microscope is summarized. This method is generally applicable to any coating on any substrate as long as the electron energy is sufficient to penetrate the coating and the substrate produces an x-ray signal which can pass back through the coating and be detected

  6. Measurement of trace elements in KH2PO4 crystals by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Duewer, T.I.

    1981-02-01

    A non-destructive method is described for the quantitative measurement of impurities in KDP (KH 2 PO 4 ) crystals. Part per million concentrations of impurities can be determined with good accuracy in about one hour of instrument time. An energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer is used. Both the crystals and the solutions from which they are grown may be analyzed

  7. Hard x-ray measurements of the hot-electron rings in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillis, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the hot electron rings in ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) is essential to the bumpy torus concept of plasma production, since the rings provide bulk plasma stability. The hot electrons are produced via electron cyclotron resonant heating using a 28-GHz cw gyrotron, which has operated up to power levels of 200 kW. The parameters of the energetic electron rings are studied via hard x-ray measurement techniques and with diamagnetic pickup coils. The hard x-ray measurements have used collimated NaI(Tl) detectors to determine the electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density n/sub e/ for the hot electron annulus. Typical values of T/sub e/ are 400 to 500 keV and of n/sub e/ 2 to 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . The total stored energy of a single energetic electron ring as measured by diamagnetic pickup loops approaches approx. 40 J and is in good agreement with that deduced from hard x-ray measurements. By combining the experimental measurements from hard x-rays and the diamagnetic loops, an estimate can be obtained for the volume of a single hot electron ring. The ring volume is determined to be approx. 2.2 litres, and this volume remains approximately constant over the T-mode operating regime. Finally, the power in the electrons scattered out of the ring is measured indirectly by measuring the x-ray radiation produced when those electrons strike the chamber walls. The variation of this radiation with increasing microwave power levels is found to be consistent with classical scattering estimates

  8. On the determination of stress profiles in expanded austenite by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and successive layer removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Frederico A.P.; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Winther, Grethe; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface layers of expanded austenite resulting from nitriding typically exhibit large gradients in residual stress and composition. Evaluation of residual-stress profiles is explored by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), probing shallow depths, combined with successive layer removal. Several factors complicating the stress determination are analysed and discussed: (1) ghost stresses arising from a small variation in the shallow information depths probed with GI-XRD, (2) selection of the grain interaction model used to calculate the X-ray elastic constants for conversion of lattice strains into residual stress and (3) the composition dependence of these elastic constants

  9. Comparative study of residual stress by table of coordinates and X-ray diffraction in a welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira Filho, A.V.; Rolim, T.L.; Yadava, Y.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Guimaraes, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Residual stresses in a welded joint of naval steel ASTM AH-32 was measured either by the displacements of referenced points with a coordinated table (CT) or by x-ray diffraction (X-DR) after welding. For all tests, the welding was performed by a certified welder in the SMAW process, using an AWS E 7018 G3 electrode. Before welding, small holes evenly spaced were made in the specimens to be mapped on a coordinated table (CT). After labeling, the specimens were submitted to the welding process and new measurements by (CT) to evaluate the displacements produced by the tensions generated. In parallel, residual stress were measured by DR-X for validation of this new measurement methodology. (author)

  10. X-ray and neutron diffraction determination of residual stresses in a pressed and welded component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Broda, M.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Problems connected with welding and pressing are very important in mechanical design, as these processed create microstructural alterations and internal stresses in the material that cannot be neglected. A pressing steel (FEP13) machine element is considered, designed to support a scooter engine. Two kinds of fatigue are to be supported by the component during operation: high loads at low frequency, due to the interaction of the scooter with the soil and low loads at high frequency due to the engine. The knowledge of the residual stress field occurring before operation is fundamental in order to perform theoretical predictions of the stress state during operation, and also to determine the loads to be used in fatigue tests which the component will be submitted to. The results of X-ray and neutron experiments are presented, carried out across a 'critical' weld in the component. (author)

  11. A convenient method for X-ray analysis in TEM that measures mass thickness and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, P.; Sagar, J.; Holland, J.; Pinard, P.; Lozano-Perez, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a new approach for quantitative analysis in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that offers the same convenience as single-standard quantitative analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Instead of a bulk standard, a thin film with known mass thickness is used as a reference. The procedure involves recording an X-ray spectrum from the reference film for each session of acquisitions on real specimens. There is no need to measure the beam current; the current only needs to be stable for the duration of the session. A new reference standard with a large (1 mm x 1 mm) area of uniform thickness of 100 nm silicon nitride is used to reveal regions of X-ray detector occlusion that would give misleading results for any X-ray method that measures thickness. Unlike previous methods, the new X-ray method does not require an accurate beam current monitor but delivers equivalent accuracy in mass thickness measurement. Quantitative compositional results are also automatically corrected for specimen self-absorption. The new method is tested using a wedge specimen of Inconel 600 that is used to calibrate the high angle angular dark field (HAADF) signal to provide a thickness reference and results are compared with electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) measurements. For the new X-ray method, element composition results are consistent with the expected composition for the alloy and the mass thickness measurement is shown to provide an accurate alternative to EELS for thickness determination in TEM without the uncertainty associated with mean free path estimates.

  12. Measuring spectroscopy and magnetism of extracted and intracellular magnetosomes using soft X-ray ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Hitchcock, Adam P; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Denes, Peter; Joseph, John; Lins, Ulysses; Marchesini, Stefano; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Shapiro, David A

    2016-12-20

    Characterizing the chemistry and magnetism of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is an important aspect of understanding the biomineralization mechanism and function of the chains of magnetosomes (Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles) found in such species. Images and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of magnetosomes extracted from, and magnetosomes in, whole Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1 cells have been recorded using soft X-ray ptychography at the Fe 2p edge. A spatial resolution of 7 nm is demonstrated. Precursor-like and immature magnetosome phases in a whole MV-1 cell were visualized, and their Fe 2p spectra were measured. Based on these results, a model for the pathway of magnetosome biomineralization for MV-1 is proposed. Fe 2p X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra have been derived from ptychography image sequences recorded using left and right circular polarization. The shape of the XAS and XMCD signals in the ptychographic absorption spectra of both sample types is identical to the shape and signals measured with conventional bright-field scanning transmission X-ray microscope. A weaker and inverted XMCD signal was observed in the ptychographic phase spectra of the extracted magnetosomes. The XMCD ptychographic phase spectrum of the intracellular magnetosomes differed from the ptychographic phase spectrum of the extracted magnetosomes. These results demonstrate that spectro-ptychography offers a superior means of characterizing the chemical and magnetic properties of MTB at the individual magnetosome level.

  13. Longitudinal detection of ferromagnetic resonance using x-ray transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, G.; Rusponi, S.; Kavich, J.; Rizzini, A. Lodi; Piamonteze, C.; Nolting, F.; Tieg, C.; Thiele, J.-U.; Gambardella, P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a setup for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance in the longitudinal geometry using element-specific transmission measurements. Thin magnetic film samples are placed in a static magnetic field collinear with the propagation direction of a polarized soft x-ray beam and driven to ferromagnetic resonance by a continuous wave microwave magnetic field perpendicular to it. The transmitted photon flux is measured both as a function of the x-ray photon energy and as a function of the applied static magnetic field. We report experiments performed on a 15 nm film of doped Permalloy (Ni 73 Fe 18 Gd 7 Co 2 ) at the L 3 /L 2 -edges of Fe, Co, and Ni. The achieved ferromagnetic resonance sensitivity is about 0.1 monolayers/√(Hz). The obtained results are interpreted in the framework of a conductivity tensor based formalism. The factors limiting the sensitivity as well as different approaches for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance are discussed.

  14. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  15. Stress Free Multilayer Coating for High Resolution X-ray Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of X-ray optics research and development in the US is to build a high resolution, large collecting area and light-weight optic, namely an soft X-ray mirror for...

  16. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  17. Effects of Cu stress on maize seedlings using X-ray energy spectrum and FTIR spectra methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Lin; Fu Zhaolin; Qiao Chuanying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Cu 2+ stress on maize seedlings by using scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy spectrum and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry were investigated, and antioxidative enzymes activities such as SOD, CAT, POD, APX were measured. Results showed that, with the increasing of Cu concentration, the content of chlorophyll decreased, and antioxidative enzyme activities increased at first and then decreased at higher concentration stress. High concentration Cu 2+ treatment twisted the cells' shape and increased copper content on leaf surface, and absorption of other nutrients were also affected. The result of FTIR-ATR analysis showed that the organic content of leaf were changed by Cu 2+ stress. (authors)

  18. Transmission properties of barite mortar using X-ray spectra measured with Cd Te detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J. C.; Mariano, L.; Costa, P. R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: josilene@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970 Goiania (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Current methods for calculating X-ray shielding barriers do not take into account spectral distribution of the beam transmitted by the protective material. This consideration is important in dose estimations for radiation workers and general public in diagnostic radiology facilities. The aim of the present study was to estimate barite mortar attenuation curves using X-ray spectra weighted by a workload distribution. These curves were described in units of ambient dose equivalent (H (10)), since it is the radiation quantity adopted by IAEA for dose assessment in medical environment. Attenuation curves were determined using the optimized model for shielding evaluation presented by Costa and Caldas (2002). Workload distribution presented by Simpkin (1996), measured primary spectra and mass attenuation coefficients of barite mortar were used as input data in this model. X-ray beams in diagnostic energy range were generated by an industrial X-ray tube with 3 mm of aluminum additional filtration. Primary experimental spectra were measured by a Cd Te detector and corrected by the response function of detector by means of a stripping procedure. Air kerma measurements were performed using an ionization chamber for normalization purpose of the spectra. The corrected spectra presented good agreement with spectra generated by a semi-empirical model. The variation of the ambient dose equivalent as a function of barite mortar thickness was calculated. Using these data, it was estimated the optimized thickness of protective barrier needed for shielding a particular area in an X-ray imaging facility. The results obtained for primary protective barriers exhibit qualitative agreement with those presented in literature. (Author)

  19. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  20. Measurements of x-rays and γ-rays from stopped kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    Intensities of x rays and γ rays from negative kaons stopped in elements, pure isotopes, and some compounds ranging from Z = 2 through Z = 92 have been measured. Included were x rays from K - atoms, Σ - atoms, and π - atoms. Also some nuclear γ rays associated with the stopped kaons were observed. The kaonic x-ray intensities for low n, Δn = 1 transitions, varied from .1 to .5 x rays/K/sub stop/ and showed a remarkable oscillation as Z changed. Peaks occurred near elements with closed electron shells. Within experimental accuracy, isotopes of the same elements yielded equal intensities. By searching for μ - from K - → μ - anti ν it was concluded that less than or equal to 5 percent of the stopped kaons decayed before nuclear capture in those elements studied. A cascade calculation was performed that reasonably reproduced the Δn = 1 intensities but gave Δn = 2 intensities high by a factor of 2. Initial kaon distributions in n = 30 proportional to (2l + 1) out to some l/sub max/ were used to begin the cascade. The value of l/sub max/ changed with Z. It is suggested that l/sub max/ might be related to an impact parameter picture with the lever arm equal to one-half the distance between the atoms in their lattice. (U.S.)

  1. NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source] X-19A beamline performance for x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Stefan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of the X-19A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described. The beamline is designed for high resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a wide energy range. All of the beamline optical components are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) operation. This permits measurements to be made in a window-less mode, thereby facilitating lower energy (<4 KeV) studies. To upgrade the beamline performance, several possible improvements in instrumentation and practice are discussed to increase photon statistics with an optimum energy resolution, while decreasing the harmonic contamination and noise level. A special effort has been made to improve the stability and UHV compatibility of the monochromator system. Initial x-ray absorption results demonstrate the capabilities of this beamline for x-ray absorption studies of low Z elements (e.g. S) in highly dilute systems. The future use of this beamline for carrying out various x-ray absorption experiments is presented. 10 refs., 4 figs

  2. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Detector Optimization for Flash X-Ray Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, Caleb Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schirato, Richard C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Charge trapping, resulting in a decreased and spatially dependent electric field, has long been a concern for wide bandgap semiconductor detectors. While significant work has been performed to characterize this degradation at varying temperatures and radiation environments, this work concentrates upon examining the event-to-event response in a flash X-ray environment. The following work investigates if charge trapping is a problem for CZT detectors, with particular emphasis on flash X-ray radiation fields at cold temperatures. Results are compared to a non-flash radiation field, using an Am-241 alpha source and similar temperature transitions. Our ability to determine if a response change occurred was hampered by the repeatability of our flash X-ray systems; a small response change was observed with the Am-241 source. Due to contrast of these results, we are in the process of revisiting the Am-241 measurements in the presence of a high radiation environment. If the response change is more pronounced in the high radiation environment, a similar test will be performed in the flash X-ray environment.

  3. First dedicated in-beam X-ray measurement in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Henning, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Muecher, D.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Hellgartner, S.; Maier, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl E12 (Germany); Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Baba, H. [RIKEN, Research Group for Superheavy Elements (Japan); Lutter, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We report on an experiment aiming at in-beam X-ray spectroscopy of heavy and superheavy elements (SHE). The goal is to establish K-X-ray spectroscopy as a sensitive tool to identify SHE produced in fusion reactions. SHE, formed after cold or hot fusion, are usually identified via the alpha-decay products, which have to be connected to well-known elements. However, various theories predict spontaneous fission as the dominant decay mode for the daughter nuclides. Additionally, half-lives of these elements are expected to increase to values impeding the identification of SHE solely by their decay. The in-beam identification of the characteristic X-rays would precisely allow to identify the charge number of the produced SHE. Experiments were performed at the RIKEN Nishina Centre for Accelerator based Science by using the gas-filled magnet separator GARIS for superheavy element detection. A high-purity, low-energy planar germanium LEGe-detector was adapted to the GARIS system at the target place for the first time in order to measure the element-characteristic, prompt X-ray emission.

  4. Measurement of the energy distribution of parametric X-ray radiation from a double-crystal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Akira; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Kidokoro, Akio; Sato, Isamu; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Kobayashi, Kouji; Ohshima, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    A parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system was developed at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Applications (LEBRA) at Nihon University; this PXR generator system is a tunable wavelength and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source constructed as one of the advanced applications of the LEBRA 125-MeV electron linear accelerator. The PXR beam which has characteristic of energy distribution. The theoretical values of energy distribution obtained at the output port were calculated to be approximately 300 eV and 2 keV at the central X-ray energies of 7 keV and 20 keV, respectively. In order to investigate the energy distribution, several measurements of the X-ray energy were carried out. The X-ray absorption of known materials and that of thin aluminum has been evaluated based on analyses of images taken using an imaging plate. The X-ray energy was deduced base on the identification of the absorption edges, and the energy distribution was estimated based on measurements using aluminum step method. In addition, an X-ray diffraction method using a perfect silicon crystal was employed, and spectra were measured using a solid state detector (SSD). The results of these experiments agreed with the calculated results. In particular, the well-defined absorption edges in the X-ray images and the typical rocking curves obtained by the measurement of the X-ray diffraction indicated that the distribution has a high-energy resolution

  5. On the determination of stress profiles in expanded austenite by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and successive layer removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Winther, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Surface layers of expanded austenite resulting from nitriding typically exhibit large gradients in residual stress and composition. Evaluation of residual-stress profiles is explored by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), probing shallow depths, combined with successive layer...... removal. Several factors complicating the stress determination are analysed and discussed: (1) ghost stresses arising from a small variation in the shallow information depths probed with GI-XRD, (2) selection of the grain interaction model used to calculate the X-ray elastic constants for conversion...

  6. X-ray diffraction analysis of residual stresses in alumina-chromium composites and comparison with numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geandier, G.; Weisbecker, P.; Denis, S.; Mocellin, A. [L.S.G.2M., UMR, CNRS/INPL, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Nancy (France); Hazotte, A. [L.S.G.2M., UMR, CNRS/INPL, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Nancy (France); LETAM, UMR, CNRS/Metz Univ., ISGMP, Metz (France); Lebrun, J.L. [L.P.M.I., ENSAM Angers, Angers (France); Elkaim, E. [L.U.R.E., Centre Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2002-07-01

    Residual stresses in alumina chromium composites have been determined using X ray synchrotron diffraction at LURE. Results show that non-negligible residual stresses exist in the composites. Mean residual stresses calculated by finite element show discrepancies with experimental values that are discussed in relation with experimental difficulties and calculation assumptions. (orig.)

  7. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  8. X-ray extended-range technique for precision measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and IM(F) for copper using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, C.Q.; Paterson, D.; Barnea, Z.; Cookson, D.J.; Chantler, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Complex X-ray form factors are used in crystallography, material science, medical diagnosis refractive index studies and XAFS. We introduce the X-ray Extended-Range Technique for measurements of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor. We achieve accuracies of 0.27%-0.5% for copper from 8.84 keV to 20 keV. Discrepancies between measurements using earlier experimental techniques are 10%. We achieve reproducibility of 0.02%. New methods of computation are required to approach the accuracy of our data. Results probe the transform of atomic orbital wavefunctions and long-range order. Discrepancies of order 10% between current theory and experiments can be addressed

  9. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  10. X-ray diffraction of residual stresses in boron nitride coated on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Ramdan, R.D.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Hamid, N.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a promising coating material for cutting tools especially for applications that have contact with ferrous metals. This is because of its extreme hardness, chemical stability at high temperature and inertness with ferrous metals. However applications of cBN as coating material has not been used extensively due to the poor adhesion between cBN and its substrate. High stress level in the film is considered to be the main factor for the delamination of cBN films after deposition. Thus the present research concentrates on residual stress analysis of cBN films by x-ray diffraction method. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis was also performed on the samples to study the structure of the deposited films. Based on the present experimental results and previous literature study, a new theoretical model for cBN film growth was proposed. (Author)

  11. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  12. Effective x-ray attenuation measurements with full field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Behera, Madhusmita

    2006-01-01

    This work shows that effective x-ray attenuation coefficients may be estimated by applying Beer's Law to phantom image data acquired with the General Electric Senographe 2000D full field digital mammography system. Theoretical developments are provided indicating that an approximate form of the Beer's relation holds for polychromatic x-ray beams. The theoretical values were compared with experimentally determined measured values, which were estimated at various detector locations. The measured effective attenuation coefficients are in agreement with those estimated with theoretical developments and numerical integration. The work shows that the measured quantities show little spatial variation. The main ideas are demonstrated with polymethylmethacrylate and breast tissue equivalent phantom imaging experiments. The work suggests that the effective attenuation coefficients may be used as known values for radiometric standardization applications that compensate for the image acquisition influences. The work indicates that it is possible to make quantitative attenuation coefficient measurements from a system designed for clinical purposes

  13. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  14. Near K-edge measurement of the X-ray attenuation coefficient of heavy elements using a tuneable X-ray source based on an electron LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Materna, T; Mondelaers, W; Masschaele, B

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray attenuation coefficients of bismuth and of uranium were measured in the regions of 40-240 and 70-240 keV, respectively, using a tuneable hard X-ray source based on the linear electron accelerator at the University of Ghent. Results were compared with the semi-empirical values of Storm and Israel and to the theoretical values of Berger and Hubbell. We also propose a simple function for the attenuation coefficient in the vicinity of the K-edge for uranium and in an extended range of energy for bismuth. The set-up of the source at Ghent is described and the future improvements are explained.

  15. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed

  16. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  17. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Diamond Thermal Expansion Measurement Using Transmitted X-ray Back-diffraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Carlos; Adriano, Cris; Lubambo, Adriana Freire; Cusatis, Cesar; Mazzaro, Irineu; Hönnicke, Marcelo Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient of diamond has been measured using forward-diffracted profiles in X-ray backscattering. This experimental technique is presented as an alternative way of measuring thermal expansion coefficients of solids in the high-resolution Bragg backscattering geometry without the intrinsic difficulty of detecting the reflected beam. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter is obtained from the high sensitivity of the transmitted profiles to the Bragg a...

  19. X ray and EUV spectroscopic measurements of highly charged tungsten ions relevant to fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R; Biedermann, C; Mandelbaum, P; Schwob, J L

    2007-01-01

    Using high-resolution x ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometry, the line emission of W 28+ - W 50+ ions was measured at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). Our study encompasses a wide range of wavelengths (5-800 A) and includes the observation of electric and magnetic dipole lines. The results of our measurements are compared with predicted transition wavelengths from ab initioatomic structure calculations

  20. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interrogating the near field of a number of dense sprays including diesel injectors , aerated liquid jets, solid-cone sprays, impinging-jet sprays and gas...Measurements of Mass Distributions in the Near- Nozzle Region of Sprays form Standard Multi-hole Common-rail Diesel Injection Systems,” 11th Triennial...Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  1. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.F.; Yue, Y.; Poola, R.; Wang, J.

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date

  2. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  3. Soft x-ray camera for internal shape and current density measurements on a noncircular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Roney, P.; Simon, M.P.

    1988-05-01

    Soft x-ray measurements of the internal plasma flux surface shaped in principle allow a determination of the plasma current density distribution, and provide a necessary monitor of the degree of internal elongation of tokamak plasmas with a noncircular cross section. A two-dimensional, tangentially viewing, soft x-ray pinhole camera has been fabricated to provide internal shape measurements on the PBX-M tokamak. It consists of a scintillator at the focal plane of a foil-filtered pinhole camera, which is, in turn, fiber optically coupled to an intensified framing video camera (/DELTA/t />=/ 3 msec). Automated data acquisition is performed on a stand-alone image-processing system, and data archiving and retrieval takes place on an optical disk video recorder. The entire diagnostic is controlled via a PDP-11/73 microcomputer. The derivation of the polodial emission distribution from the measured image is done by fitting to model profiles. 10 refs., 4 figs

  4. CXBN: a blueprint for an improved measurement of the cosmological x-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Lance M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Malphrus, Benjamin K.; McNeil, Roger; Brown, Kevin Z.; Rose, Tyler G.; Lim, Hyoung S.; Anderson, Steven; Kruth, Jeffrey A.; Doty, John P.; Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Prasad, Kamal S.; Thomas, Eric T.; Combs, Michael S.; Kroll, Robert T.; Cahall, Benjamin J.; Turba, Tyler T.; Molton, Brandon L.; Powell, Margaret M.; Fitzpatrick, Jonathan F.; Graves, Daniel C.; Gaalema, Stephen D.; Sun, Shunming

    2012-10-01

    A precise measurement of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) is crucial for constraining models of the evolution and composition of the universe. While several large, expensive satellites have measured the CXB as a secondary mission, there is still disagreement about normalization of its spectrum. The Cosmic X-ray Background NanoSat (CXBN) is a small, low-cost satellite whose primary goal is to measure the CXB over its two-year lifetime. Benefiting from a low instrument-induced background due to its small mass and size, CXBN will use a novel, pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector with energy resolution strategy for scanning the sky and calibrating the data, and presents the expected results over the two-year mission lifetime.

  5. A compact x-ray system for two-phase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyle; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a compact x-ray densitometry system consisting of a 50 kV, 1 mA x-ray tube and several linear detector arrays is developed for two-phase flow measurement. The system is capable of measuring void fraction and velocity distributions with a spatial resolution of 0.4 mm per pixel and a frequency of 1000 Hz. A novel measurement model has been established for the system which takes account of the energy spectrum of x-ray photons and the beam hardening effect. An improved measurement accuracy has been achieved with this model compared with the conventional log model that has been widely used in the literature. Using this system, void fraction and velocity distributions are measured for a bubbly and a slug flow in a 25.4 mm I.D. air-water two-phase flow test loop. The measured superficial gas velocities show an error within  ±4% when compared with the gas flowmeter for both conditions.

  6. Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

  7. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  8. Recent measurements of soft X-ray emission from the DPF-1000U facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray imaging is a very useful diagnostic technique in plasma-focus (PF experiments. This paper reports results of four experimental sessions which were carried out at the DPF-1000U plasma-focus facility in 2013 and 2014. Over 200 discharges were performed at various experimental conditions. Measurements were taken using two X-ray pinhole cameras with a line of sight perpendicular to the z-axis, at different azimuthal angles (about 20° and 200°, and looking towards the centre of the PF-pinch column. They were equipped with diaphragms 1000 μm or 200–300 μm in diameter and coated with filters of 500 μm Al foil and 10 μm Be foil, respectively. Data on the neutron emission were collected with silver activation counters. For time-resolved measurements the use was made of four PIN diodes equipped with various filters and oriented towards the centre of the PF-column, in the direction perpendicular to the electrode axis. The recorded X-ray images revealed that when the additional gas-puff system is activated during the discharge, the stability of the discharge is improved. The data collected in these experiments confirmed the appearance of a filamentary fine structure in the PF discharges. In the past years the formation of such filaments was observed in many Z-pinch type experiments. Some of the recorded X-ray images have also revealed the appearance of the so-called hot-spots, i.e. small plasma regions of a very intense X-ray emission. Such a phenomenon was observed before in many PF experiments, e.g. in the MAJA-PF device, but it has not been investigated so far in a large facility such as the DPF-1000U. The time-resolved measurements provided the evidence of a time lapse between the X-ray emission from plasma regions located at different distance from the anode surface. The formation of distinct ‘hot-spots’ in different instants of the DPF-1000U discharge was also observed.

  9. Device for measuring the exposure time in dental X-ray - Cronox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Santos, Luiz A.P. dos

    2009-01-01

    The Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) developed a test device for monitoring the X-ray beam in dental equipment to its application in quality control programs. This device, called Odontologic Dosimetric Card (CDO of Cartao Dosimetrico Odontologico in Portuguese) uses thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for the measurement of some parameters of the X-ray beam as the entrance surface dose, the peak tension and half value layer (HVL). Radiographic films record the size of the radiation field. However, the TLD does not allow the assessment of exposure time, a parameter that complements the requirements of the Diretrizes de Protecao Radiologica em Radiodiagnostico Medico e Odontologico of Department of Health in Brazil for such equipment. Thus was developed a system based on sensitivity to ionizing radiation of phototransistors for measurement of exposure time when a patient is put in a clinical dental radiography. The system, called CRONOX was sized to be inserted within the CDO. The results showed that the measuring error had developed for less than 3% when compared to reference values obtained with the Tektronix digital oscilloscope, TDS2022 model. The readings obtained with the CRONOX were also compared with the nominal values selected in the X-ray equipment and with the values measured with the instrument of trade PTW Diavolt Universal. The results showed that the measuring device developed showed a maximum deviation of 5.92% on the nominal value selected, while for the instrument of PTW was 17.86%. (author)

  10. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkovits, Theo; Zhao, Yue; O'Brien, Rebecca; Dowey, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin 2 ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin 2 ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a 0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a 0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin 2 ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  11. Stress-dependent crystal structure of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Philipp T.; Khansur, Neamul H.; Riess, Kevin; Martin, Alexander; Hinterstein, Manuel; Webber, Kyle G.

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3-δ (LSCF) is one of the most studied mixed ionic-electronic conductor materials due to electrical and transport properties, which are attractive for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen permeation membranes, and catalysis. The integration of such materials, however, depends on the thermal as well as mechanical behavior. LSCF exhibits nonlinear hysteresis during compressive stress-strain measurements, marked by a remanent strain and coercive stress, i.e., ferroelasticity. However, the origin of ferroelastic behavior has not been investigated under high compressive stress. This study, therefore, investigates the microscopic origin of stress-induced mechanical behavior in polycrystalline (La0.6Sr0.4)0.95Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The data presented here reveals that the strain response originates from the intrinsic lattice strain as well as the extrinsic domain switching strain without any apparent change in crystallographic symmetry. A comparison of the calculated microscopic strain contribution with that of a macroscopic measurement indicates a significant change in the relative contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic strain depending on the applied stress state, i.e., under maximum stress and after unloading. Direct evidence of the microscopic origin of stress-strain response outlined in this paper may assist in guiding materials design with the improved mechanical reliability of SOFCs.

  12. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  13. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  14. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  15. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  16. Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurement of the Cd content in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Huong Quynh; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1989-12-01

    Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed on thin samples prepared from different rabbit tissues, using 3 MeV proton beam for inducing x-rays from the animal tissues. This method is very sensitive and very small amounts of trace elements can be detected. Cadmium, one of the most toxic elements which can be concentrated in animal and human tissues due to environmental pollution, was detected with a limit of 0.7 ppm. The trace element concentrations obtained by PIXE were compared to those measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. PIXE method is proposed for routine analysis at the Veterinary and Food Investigating Service, Budapest, Hungary. (D.Gy.) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Measurements of line overlap for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Elliott, S.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-06-01

    High-precision measurements are presented of candidate line pairs for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions in the nickel-like W 46+ , the neon-like Fe 16+ , and the neon-like La 47+ x-ray lasers. Our measurements were carried out with high-resolution crystal spectrometers, and a typical precision of 20--50 ppM was achieved. While most resonances appear insufficient for effective photo-spoiling, two resonance pairs are identified that provide a good overlap. These are the 4p 1/2 → 3d 3/2 transition in nickel-like W 46+ with the 2p 3/2 → 1s 1/2 transition in hydrogenic Al 12+ , and the 3s 1/2 → 2p 3/2 transition in neon-like La 47+ with the 1 1 S 0 -2 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Ti 20+

  18. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Khin San; Mon, Khin Aye [Department of Physiology, Institute of Medicine, Mandalay (Myanmar)

    1971-07-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm.

  19. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Wai; Khin Aye Mon

    1971-01-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm

  20. Measurement of real pulsatile blood flow using X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-03-06

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging technique has been used to investigate biofluid flows in a non-destructive manner. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles as flow tracer for measurement of pulsatile blood flows under in vivo conditions. The traceability of CO2 microbubbles in a pulsatile flow was demonstrated through in vitro experiment. A rat extracorporeal bypass loop was used by connecting a tube between the abdominal aorta and jugular vein of a rat to obtain hemodynamic information of actual pulsatile blood flows without changing the hemorheological properties. The decrease in image contrast of the surrounding tissue was also investigated for in vivo applications of the proposed technique. This technique could be used to accurately measure whole velocity field information of real pulsatile blood flows and has strong potential for hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Measurement of real pulsatile blood flow using X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging technique has been used to investigate biofluid flows in a non-destructive manner. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles as flow tracer for measurement of pulsatile blood flows under in vivo conditions. The traceability of CO2 microbubbles in a pulsatile flow was demonstrated through in vitro experiment. A rat extracorporeal bypass loop was used by connecting a tube between the abdominal aorta and jugular vein of a rat to obtain hemodynamic information of actual pulsatile blood flows without changing the hemorheological properties. The decrease in image contrast of the surrounding tissue was also investigated for in vivo applications of the proposed technique. This technique could be used to accurately measure whole velocity field information of real pulsatile blood flows and has strong potential for hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25744850

  2. Experimental time resolved measurement of fluence and energy spectra of photons emitted by a pulsed X-ray generator in the range 5-300 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed: - A sensor to measure locally X ray fluence rate amplitude and variation versus time during X ray pulses, - A spectrometer based on ROSS method to measure absolute X ray spectrum versus time during X ray pulses. This metrology is used to characterise single shot X ray pulsed sources emitting photons in the range of 5 to 300 keV. Fluence domain is between 10 -9 and 5 10 -4 J. cm -2 with a few nanoseconds time resolution [fr

  3. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-01-01

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kα 1 and Kβ 1 features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is well

  4. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Gordon Andrew; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Dropinski, Steven Clark; Hanson, Donald L.; Johnson, William Arthur; York, Mathew William; Lewis, D.F.; Korde, R.; Haslett, C.L.; Wall, D.L.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Ramirez, L.E.; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; McKenney, John Lee; Bryce, Edwin Anthony; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Torres, Jose A.; Mills, Jerry Alan; Leeper, Ramon Joe; McGurn, John Stephen; Fehl, David Lee; Spielman, R. B.; Pyle, John H.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Ives III, Harry Crockett; Seamen, Johann F.; Simpson, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total) energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP) diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38 x 38 square array of 10-(micro)m-diameter pinholes in a 50-(micro)m-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999)RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode's output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation) the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and--on every shot--provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects) of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented

  5. An environmental sample chamber for reliable scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements under water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Nigge, Pascal; Prakash, Shruti; Gilles, Mary K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements. The reactor mounts directly to the existing sample holder used in the majority of STXM instruments around the world and installs with minimal instrument reconfiguration. The reactor accommodates many gas atmospheres, but was designed specifically to address the needs of measurements under water vapor. An on-board sensor measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the reactor, minimizing uncertainties associated with measuring these quantities outside the instrument. The reactor reduces x-ray absorption from the process gas by over 85% compared to analogous experiments with the entire STXM instrument filled with process gas. Reduced absorption by the process gas allows data collection at full instrumental resolution, minimizes radiation dose to the sample, and results in much more stable imaging conditions. The reactor is in use at the STXM instruments at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source.

  6. Atomic vibration amplitudes in fcc and hcp 4He through x-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, C.T.; Simmons, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic vibration amplitudes in dense fcc and hcp 4 He crystals have been measured using synchrotron x rays from the dependence of integrated Bragg intensities up to wave vectors of 91 nm -1 . Observed raw Bragg x-ray integrated intensities cover an extraordinary range, greater than 10 5 , due to the combined effect of the Debye-Waller factor and electronic form factor. From analysis of these intensities mean-square atomic vibration amplitudes Q 2 > and Lindemann ratios are determined. Path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations of Draeger and Ceperley, extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit, provide excellent agreement with these experimental results. For both present measurements and the PIMC results, one finds both a predominantly Gaussian distribution in Q 2 > and an extraordinarily large Lindemann ratio. In contrast, these directly measured x-ray values are significantly larger than published values inferred from Born-von Karman fitting to phonon dispersion measured by neutron scattering. Mildly anharmonic neon, which is fairly well described by self-consistent phonon theories, is contrasted with present results on fcc 4 He at corresponding densities

  7. The structural analysis of zinc borate glass by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajinami, Akihiko; Harada, Yasushi; Inoue, Shinsuke; Deki, Shigehito; Umesaki, Norimasa

    1999-01-01

    The structure of zinc borate glass has been investigated by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurement as preliminary investigations for the detailed study in SPring-8. The zinc borate glass was prepared in the range from 40 to 65 mol% of zinc oxide content. The X-ray diffraction was measured by horizontal θ-θ goniometer with 60 kV and 300 mA output of Mo target. The EXAFS of zinc borate glass was measured by laboratory EXAFS system with 20 kV, 100 mA output of Mo target for the K absorption edge of zinc atom. From the X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS measurements, it is found that the zinc ion is surrounded by four oxygen atoms and formed a tetrahedral structure whose (Zn-O) distance is about 2 A and that the structure is unchanged with the zinc oxide content. The diffraction data show that the neighboring structure of boron atom transforms from BO 4 tetrahedra to BO 3 tetragonal planar structure with increasing of the zinc oxide content. (author)

  8. The measurement of X-rays radiation temperature with a new developed filter-fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanfei; Lin Libin; Lou Fuhong; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces how to measure the energy spectra of X-rays by filter-fluorescence spectroscopy. The design principle and structure of new-developed double diaphragms and filter-fluorescence spectroscopy with 5 channels are depicted. The parameters of optimized spectroscopy by numerical method are given. The filter-fluorescence spectroscopy designed according as Rousseau balance principle improves signal-noises ratio

  9. Ferro-metry and X-ray fluorescence to measure wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherin, J.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The determination of wear of metallic structures is carried out by measuring metallic particles in the lubricating oil. This method is routinely used by SNCF, the French railroad company to control the motors of the high speed trains (TGV). Four methods, plasma emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ferro-metry and magnetometry are used. The field of application and advantage of each method is described. (C.B.)

  10. Calibration technique for radiation measurements in vacuum ultraviolet - soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizui, Jun-ichi

    1986-05-01

    This is a collection of the papers presented at the workshop on ''Calibration Technique for Radiation Measurements in Vacuum Ultraviolet - Soft X-ray Region'' held at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, on December 19 - 20, 1985, under the Collaborating Research Program at the Institute. The following topics were discussed at the workshop: the needs for the calibration of plasma diagnostic devices, present status of the calibration technique, use of the Synchrotron Orbit Radiations for radiometry, and others. (author)

  11. New measurements in plutonium L X ray emission spectrum using an electron probe micro-analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.; Despres, J.

    1966-01-01

    Further studies by means of an electron-probe micro-analyser, allowed report CEA-R--1798 authors to set up a larger plutonium X ray spectrum table. Measurements of plutonium L II and L III levels excitation potentials have also been achieved. Some remarks about apparatus performance data (such as spectrograph sensibility, resolving power and accuracy) will be found in the appendix. (authors) [fr

  12. The use of a CCD imaging system for X-ray film intensity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, M.W.; Barnea, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a simple CCD-based imaging system for digitizing and x-ray film image is demonstrated. A method of extending the region of linear response of the film based upon an analytic representation of the observed response to a series of increasing exposures is described. The validity of the procedure is illustrated through an example of the absolute intensity measurement of a reflection of cadmium sulphide. 3 refs., 7 figs

  13. The interchangeability of radioisotope and X-ray based measurements of bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, J.D.; Webber, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured with a Novo radioisotope based dual photon densitometer and with a Lunar X-ray densitometer in 94 subjects attending a Metabolic Bone Disease Clinic. There was a strong correlation between results obtained from each machine. The correlation coefficients for the spine and femoral neck were 0.97 and 0.88, respectively. Differences between results from each machine were normally distributed with a mean bias of 37.5% (spine) and 27.8% (femur), arising principally from differences in machine calibration. In each case the BMD was greater measured by X-ray absorptiometry. The range for the bias was approximately 25-50% for the spine and 10-45% for the femoral neck. The results from these two machines are not interchangeable. When subjects participating in long term studies using a radioisotope densitometer are transferred to an X-ray densitometer, an individual conversion factor must be measured at each site for each subject. (author)

  14. Exposure measurement in the neighboring hospital beds during an x-ray procedure in hospitalization unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Rafael E.; Capeleti, Felipe F.; Cabete, Henrique V., E-mail: rafael.goto@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: felipe.capeleti@fcmsantacasasp.edu.br, E-mail: henrique@gmpbrasil.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); GMP Consultoria em Radioprotecao e Fisica Medica e Assessoria LTDA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    There are lots of discussion about the exposure in hospitalization units in Brazil, especially around labor legislation and economic advantages of unhealthiness. With the attention focused on hospitalized patients, there were measured the exposure in neighboring beds of the patient submitted to an X-ray procedure with a mobile X-ray system that could be used to illustrate the discussion with consistent values. The most common X-ray procedure made in hospitalization units are chests images with techniques between 70 to 120 kV and 5 to 20 mAs. The measurement was made during routine exposure and simulations using a scattering phantom with Radcal AccuPro electrometer and 1800cc ionization chamber in a private hospital and a philanthropic hospital, both in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The ionization chambers are placed at 2 meters distance of the patient exposed of both sides during the routine procedure. During the simulation, a nylon phantom of 20 centimeters thick and 30 x 30 cm² size was placed on the bed, a typical exposure technique was used and the exposure was measured surrounding the phantom at 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 meters distance for scattered radiation characterization. Initial results showed that the neighboring exposure at about 2 meters distance from the exposed patient bed have low values, even when exposure is integrated during the length of hospital stay. Therefore, the exposure in hospitalization units are very low compared to the exams doses. (author). (author)

  15. Development of the measurement system with interferometers for ultraprecise X-ray mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, K; Mimura, H

    2003-01-01

    A figure measurement system with a stitching method has been developed for evaluation and fabrication of the ultraprecise hard X-ray mirror optics. This system was constructed by two interferometers. One is the Michelson-type microscopic interferometer which is improved to keep the focus distance within 0.1 mu m. Another is the Fizeau's interferometer employed to compensate stitching error in the long spatial wavelength range. To estimate the absolute accuracy in this figure measurement system, the reflection X-ray intensity distributions of flat and aspherical mirrors, which are fabricated by us, were predicted by wave-optical simulation based on measured profile an compared with actually observed distributions. As the result, they are in good agreements. These agreements prove that the developed system has sub-nanometer absolute accuracy in all the spatial wavelength range longer than 0.5mm, because sub-nanometer figure error in those spatial wavelength ranges are known to affect reflection X-ray intensity ...

  16. New Solar Irradiance Measurements from the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer Cubesat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Richard; Mason, James Paul; Moore, Christopher S.; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Caspi, Amir [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Chamberlin, Phillip C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Solomon, Stanley C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Machol, Janet; Viereck, Rodney [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer ( MinXSS ) CubeSat is to explore the energy distribution of soft X-ray (SXR) emissions from the quiescent Sun, active regions, and during solar flares and to model the impact on Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. The energy emitted in the SXR range (0.1–10 keV) can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXRs to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. The MinXSS primary science instrument is an Amptek, Inc. X123 X-ray spectrometer that has an energy range of 0.5–30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution. Two flight models have been built. The first, MinXSS -1, has been making science observations since 2016 June 9 and has observed numerous flares, including more than 40 C-class and 7 M-class flares. These SXR spectral measurements have advantages over broadband SXR observations, such as providing the capability to derive multiple-temperature components and elemental abundances of coronal plasma, improved irradiance accuracy, and higher resolution spectral irradiance as input to planetary ionosphere simulations. MinXSS spectra obtained during the M5.0 flare on 2016 July 23 highlight these advantages and indicate how the elemental abundance appears to change from primarily coronal to more photospheric during the flare. MinXSS -1 observations are compared to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ) X-ray Sensor (XRS) measurements of SXR irradiance and estimated corona temperature. Additionally, a suggested improvement to the calibration of the GOES XRS data is presented.

  17. Measurements of Bremsstrahlung radiation and X-ray heat load to cryostat on SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.Y.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W.H.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhu, Y.H.; Li, X.X.; Xie, D.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation from ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) plasma can yield certain information about the ECR heating process and the plasma confinement, and more important it can give a plausible estimate of the X-ray heat load to the cryostat of a superconducting ECR source. To better understand the additional heat load to the cryostat due to Bremsstrahlung radiation, the axial Bremsstrahlung measurements have been conducted on SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) with different source parameters. In addition, the heat load induced by intense X-ray or even γ-ray was estimated in terms of liquid helium consumption. The relationship between these two parameters is presented here. Thick-target Bremsstrahlung, induced by the collision of hot electrons with the wall or the source electrode, is much more intensive compared with the radiation produced in the plasma and, consequently, much more difficult to shield off. In this paper the presence of the thick-target Bremsstrahlung is correlated with the magnetic confinement configuration, specifically, the ratio of B(last) to B(ext). And possible solutions to reduce the X-ray heat load induced by Bremsstrahlung radiation are proposed and discussed. It appears that by choosing an appropriate ratio of B(last) to B(ext) the thick-target Bremsstrahlung radiation can be avoided effectively. The paper is followed by the associated poster

  18. Soft x-ray imaging system for measurement of noncircular tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Reusch, M.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Hulse, R.; Roney, P.

    1986-08-01

    A soft x-ray camera and image processing system has been constructed to provide measurements of the internal shape of high temperature tokamak plasmas. The camera consists of a metallic-foil-filtered pinhole aperture and a microchannel plate image intensifier/convertor which produces a visible image for detection by a CCD TV camera. A wide-angle tangential view of the toroidal plasma allows a single compact camera to view the entire plasma cross section. With Be filters 12 to 50 μm thick, the signal from the microchannel plate is produced mostly by nickel L-line emissions which orignate in the hot plasma core. The measured toroidal image is numerically inverted to produce a cross-sectional soft x-ray image of the plasma. Since the internal magnetic flux surfaces are usually isothermal and the nickel emissivity depends strongly on the local electron temperature, the x-ray emission contours reflect the shape of the magnetic surfaces in the plasma interior. Initial results from the PBX tokamak experiment show clear differences in internal plasma shapes for circular and bean-shaped discharges

  19. Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Glenzer, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Rambo, P.W.; Stone, G.F.; Trebes, J.E.; Weber, F.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 μm. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments

  20. X-ray beam penetration in TXRF measurement of polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak-Roy, A.R.; Hossain, T.Z.

    2000-01-01

    For TXRF measurement on single crystal silicon surface, it is generally agreed that the x-ray beam penetration is of the order of a few hundred Angstroms from the surface. However, for polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces - frequently used in semiconductor manufacturing there are evidences that x-rays penetrate much deeper revealing underlying layers. The evidences come from various measurements done with films such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and metal films such as aluminum, titanium and cobalt. A systematic study was carried out to help understand the issue further. Four sets of samples (on 8 inch wafers) were prepared to create layers buried under various deposited metal and non-metal layers. The metal layers created were aluminum, titanium and cobalt and the non-metal layers were silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. These samples were analyzed by TXRF under various angles and energies and the data were analyzed for signals from various buried layers along with their angular dependence. The results indicated deep penetration of x-ray beams. The samples were further analyzed by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and some of them by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) to obtain information about their depth profiles. This was done in order to rule out the possibility of intermixing of layers during deposition. (author)

  1. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  2. First examination of CASCADE-X-ray-detector and measurement of neutron-mirrorneutron-oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, B.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of X-radiation is of utmost importance for both fundamental physics and medical diagnostics. This work investigates whether or not the CASCADE detector working principle, first developed for the detection of neutrons, can be adapted for the detection of X-rays. This modular detector concept combines the use of a solid neutron or X-ray converter with the advantages of a counting gas detector. Thus, it gives the possibility to optimize efficiency, dynamics and spatial resolution independently. Firstly, it is necessary to find a suitable converter material that allows for the best possible detector efficiency. In order to do so, a mathematical model of the complete detector system was developed that yields the total efficiency for any given material. Respecting technical constraints, gold and gadolinium showed to be favorable choices. Based on these theoretical considerations a prototype of a CASCADE X-ray detector was built, and measurements for the determination of this detector's efficiency were conducted. In the second part of this work a CASCADE neutron detector was used to conduct the first measurement the neutron-mirrorneutron oscillation time. Mirrormatter was proposed in 1956 by Lee and Yang to allow for symmetry in the description of the universe despite the existence of parity violation. By using neutrons it was possible to determine a lower limit for the oscillation time in this work. (orig.)

  3. X-ray Debye-Waller factor measurements of solid 3He and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms, D.A.; Shah, R.S.; Simmons, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation was used to measure Debye-Waller factors of helium crystals for both 3 He and 4 He in both hcp and fcc phases. To our knowledge, there are no previous measurements for 3 He. The ranges studied for 3 He and 4 He crystals were 11.52-12.82 and 10.95-12.13 cm 3 , respectively, and 11.5-18.2 and 12.0-20.3 K. With small uncertainty, only a Gaussian dependence upon momentum transfer Q was found, and no anisotropy was detected in the hcp phase. Mean square atomic deviations, 2 >, and Lindemann ratios were obtained. Large Lindemann ratios confirm that these solids are highly anharmonic. The 2 > values agree within an average 1% with computations of Draeger and Ceperley from path integral Monte Carlo methods including unusual extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit. Because the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations exhibit a T 3 dependence for 2 >, which also depends upon molar volume, an empirical analysis was made of the present data as well as of published x-ray and neutron data on hcp 4 He. The volume dependencies are similar to those found from calorimetry, over a large volume range, and the temperature dependencies show similar systematic variations with molar volume both in x-ray data and PIMC results

  4. X-ray spectroscopy for high energy-density X pinch density and temperature measurements (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Shlyaptseva, A.S.; Hansen, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    X pinch plasmas produced from fine metal wires can reach near solid densities and temperatures of 1 keV or even more. Plasma conditions change on time scales as short as 5-10 ps as determined using an x-ray streak camera viewing a focusing crystal spectrograph or directly viewing the plasma through multiple filters on a single test. As a result, it is possible to determine plasma conditions from spectra with ∼10 ps time resolution. Experiments and theory are now coming together to give a consistent picture of the dynamics and kinetics of these high energy density plasmas with very high temporal and spatial precision. A set of diagnostic techniques used in experiments for spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolved measurements of X pinch plasmas is described. Results of plasma parameter determination from these measurements are presented. X ray backlighting of one x-pinch by another with ∼30 ps x-ray pulses enables the dynamics and kinetics to be correlated in time

  5. Measurement of the G-value for 1. 5 keV X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, J.P.; Schillaci, M.E.; Raju, M.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Using a ferrous sulfate solution modified by the addition of benzoic acid, the authors measured relative G-values for Al{sub k} characteristic X-rays (1.5keV), {sup 238}Pu {alpha}-particles (3.7MeV), {sup 60}Co (1.17 MeV) and {sup 137}Cs (0.66 MeV){gamma}-rays. Relative ferrous-to-ferric conversions as a function of dose were similar for the two {gamma}-ray energies, yielding G-values of 1.62 and 1.59 {mu}mol J{sup -1} for the {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs radiations. The {alpha}-particle G-value was 0.52 {mu}mol J{sup -1}, or 31% of that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The Al{sub k} X-rays had a G-value of 0.92 {mu}mol J{sup -1} or 57% of that of the {sup 60}Co radiation. This G-value for 1.5 keV X-rays is within 20% of values predicted by current theories, and theoretical values are within the error range of the authors' measurements. (author).

  6. Accommodation stresses in hydride precipitates by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J R; Vicente, M A; Vizcaino, P; Banchik, A D; Almer, J

    2012-01-01

    Hydride-forming materials (Zr, Ti, Nb, etc) are affected by a sub-critical crack growth mechanism that involves the diffusion of H to the stressed region ahead of a crack, followed by nucleation and fracture of hydrides at the crack tip [1]. The phenomenon is intermittent, with the crack propagating through the hydride and stopping when it reaches the matrix. By repeating these processes, the crack propagates through a component at a rate that is highly dependent on the temperature history of the component. Most research effort to understand this phenomenon has occurred within the nuclear industry, as it affects the safe operation of pressure tubes (Zr2.5%Nb) and the long-term storage of nuclear fuel (Zircaloy cladding). Stress-induced hydride formation is a consequence of the volume dilatation that accompanies hydride formation (of the order of 15%), which is elastoplastically accommodated by the matrix and precipitate. Compressive stresses are expected within hydride precipitates due to the constraint imposed by the matrix. Such 'accommodation' stresses are essential ingredients in all theoretical models developed to assess the crack growth rate dependence on operational variables such as temperature, applied stress intensity factor, or overall H concentration [2]. Yet little experimental information is available about the magnitude and directionality of such accommodation stresses. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is the only technique capable of quantifying such stresses. Here we briefly describe the fundaments of the technique, when used through an area detector placed in transmission geometry. The results of the experiments have allowed us to produce a comprehensive picture about the magnitude and origin of accommodation stresses in δ zirconium hydride platelets (author)

  7. High energy x-ray synchrotron radiation analysis of residual stress distribution of shot-peened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Kimachi, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Kenji; Yanase, Etsuya; Nishio, Kouji; Kusumi, Yukihiro

    2001-01-01

    A high energy X-ray beam from synchrotron radiation source SPring-8 was used to determine the residual stress distribution beneath the shot-peened surface of carbon steel plates. By using the monochromatic X-ray beam with an energy of 72 keV, the relation between 2θ and sin 2 ψ was obtained by the side-inclination method upto sin 2 ψ = 0.9. The distribution of the residual stress was determined from the non-linearity of the relation between 2θ and sin 2 ψ. (author)

  8. Using X-ray microbeam diffraction to study the long-range internal stresses in aluminum processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Fang; Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Geantil, Peter T.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 1050 was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a single pass (equivalent uniaxial strain of about 0.88). Long-range internal stresses (LRISs) were assessed in the grain/subgrain interiors using X-ray microbeam diffraction to measure the spacing of {5 3 1} planes, with normals oriented approximately +27.3°, +4.9° and −17.5° off the pressing (axial) direction. The results are consistent with mechanical analysis that suggests the maximum tensile plastic-strain after one pass is expected for +22.5°, roughly zero along the pressing axis, and maximum compressive strain for the −67.5° direction. The magnitude of the measured maximum compressive long-range internal stress is about 0.13σ a (applied stress) in low-dislocation regions within the grain/subgrain interiors. This work is placed in the context of earlier work where convergent beam electron diffraction was used to analyze LRISs in close proximity to the deformation-induced boundaries. The results are complementary and the measured stresses are consistent with a composite model for long-range internal stresses

  9. Measurement of dose received in knee joint x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashar, Basamat Musa Hajo

    2014-11-01

    Diagnostic x-rays examinations play an important role in the health care of the population. These examinations may involve significant irradiation of the patient and probably represent the largest man-made source of radiation exposure for the population. This study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital in period of January to June 2014. This study performed to assess the effective dose (ED) received in knee joint radiographic examination and to analyze dose (ed) received in knee joint radiographic examination and to analyze effective dose distribution among radiological departments under study. The study was performed in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, covering two x-ray units and a sample of 50 patients. The following parameters were recorded age, weight, height, body mass ines (BMI) derived from weight (Kg) and (Height (M)) and (height (m)) and exposure factors. The dose was measured for knee joint x-rays examination. For effective dose calculation, the entrance surface dose (ESD) values were estimated from the x-ray tube output parameters for knee joint Ap and lateral examinations. The ED values were then calculated from the obtained ESD values using IAEA calculation methods. Effective doses were then calculated from energy imparted using ED conversion factors proposed by IAEA. The results of ED values calculated showed that patient exposure were within the normal range of exposure. The mean ED values calculated were( 2.49 + 0.03) and (5.60 + 0.22) milli Grey for knee joint AP and lateral examinations, respectively, Further studies are recommended with more number of patients and using more two modalities for comparison.(Author)

  10. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  11. Measurement of the gonad dose of infants during X-ray examination of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Krepler, P.; Harranek, C.

    1977-01-01

    To protect the gonads during X-ray examination of the hip joints a special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb with a fenestration can be used. This window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton to make a correct diagnosis while all other parts, especially the gonads, are safely shielded. To check the effectiveness of this gonad protection direct dosimetric studies on the infants were performed with LiF and CaF 2 :Dy TL-dosimeters at different adjustments of the x-ray machine and with various screen-film combinations. To correct the energy response of the LiF and CaF 2 :Dy dosimeters in the energy range below 100 keV tandem dosimeters were used. From the ratio of indications by TLD-200/TLD-100 the effective energy of the x-ray spectrum can be estimated and therefrom the response of the high sensitive TLD-200 dosimeters determined. To measure the ovary dose the dosimeters were placed in the rectum on the tip of a tube. The lowest exposure values were registrated using rare earth intensifying screens and generator adjustment of 60 kV and 1 mAs: 0,12 mrad for the ovary and 0,03 - 0,07 mR for the testes

  12. Elasticity of Tantalum to 105 Gpa using a stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynn, H; Yoo, C S

    1999-01-01

    Determining the mechanical properties such as elastic constants of metals at Mbar pressures has been a difficult task in experiment. Following the development of anisotropic elastic theory by Singh et al.[l], Mao et a1.[2] have recently developed a novel experimental technique to determine the elastic constants of Fe by using the stress and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (SEX). In this paper, we present an improved complementary technique, stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (SAX), which we have applied to determine the elastic constants of tantalum to 105 GPa. The extrapolation of the tantalum elastic data shows an excellent agreement with the low-pressure ultrasonic data[3]. We also discuss the improvement of this SAX method over the previous SEX.[elastic constant, anisotropic elastic theory, angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction, mechanical properties

  13. Bystander effects and compartmental stress response to X-ray irradiation in L929 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelie, Mihaela; Stroe, Daniela; Petcu, Ileana; Mustaciosu, Cosmin; Moisoi, Nicoleta; Savu, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Bystander effects are indirect consequences of radiation and many other stress factors. They occur in cells that are not directly exposed to these factors, but receive signals from affected cells either by gap junctions or by molecules released in the medium. Characterizing these effects and deciphering the underlying mechanisms involved in radiation-induced bystander effects are relevant for cancer radiotherapy and radioprotection. At doses of X-ray radiation 0.5 and 1 Gy, we detected bystander effects as increased numbers of micronuclei shortly after the treatment, through medium transfer and by co-cultures. Interestingly, bystander cells did not exhibit long-term adverse changes in viability. Evaluation of several compartmental stress markers (CHOP, BiP, mtHsp60, cytHsp70) by qRT-PCR did not reveal expression changes at transcriptional level. We investigated the involvement of ROS and NO in this process by addition of specific scavengers of these molecules, DMSO or c-PTIO in the transferred medium. This approach proved that ROS but not NO is involved in the induction of lesions in the acceptor cells. These results indicate that L929 cells are susceptible to stress effects of radiation-induced bystander signaling.

  14. Measuring system with stereoscopic x-ray television for accurate diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, K.; Shimizu, S.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray stereoscopic television is diagnostically effective. The authors invented a measuring system using stereoscopic television whereby the coordinates of any two points and their separation can be measured in real time without physical contact. For this purpose, the distances between the two foci of the tube and between the tube and image intensifier were entered into a microcomputer beforehand, and any two points on the CRT stereoscopic image can be defined through the stereoscopic spectacles. The coordinates and distance are then displayed on the CRT monitor. By this means, measurements such as distance between vessels and size of organs are easily made

  15. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, A., E-mail: aurelien.moy@cea.fr [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Merlet, C. [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Dugne, O. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • The M X-ray production cross sections of Th were measured by electron impact. • The M-subshell ionization cross sections of Th were determined from 3 to 38 keV. • Theoretical ionization cross-sections are in agreement with our experimental results. - Abstract: Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  16. The application of photoconductive detectors to the measurement of x-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Bell, P.; Trebes, J.

    1987-08-01

    Photoconductive detectors (PCDs) offer an attractive alternative for the measurement of pulsed x-rays from laser produced plasmas. These devices are fast (FWHM ∼100 ps), sensitive and simple to use. We have used InP, GaAs, and Type IIa diamond as PCDs to measure x-rays emission from 100 eV to 100 keV. Specifically, we have used these detectors to measure total radiation yields, corona temperatures, and hot electron generated x-rays from laser produced plasmas. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses of a thin diamond crystal for X-ray free-electron lasers under high-repetition-rate operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Songwei; Wu, Juhao

    2018-01-01

    High-brightness X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are perceived as fourth-generation light sources providing unprecedented capabilities for frontier scientific researches in many fields. Thin crystals are important to generate coherent seeds in the self-seeding configuration, provide precise spectral measurements, and split X-ray FEL pulses, etc. In all of these applications a high-intensity X-ray FEL pulse impinges on the thin crystal and deposits a certain amount of heat load, potentially impairing the performance. In the present paper, transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses as well as transient thermal analysis are carried out to address the thermomechanical issues for thin diamond crystals, especially under high-repetition-rate operation of an X-ray FEL. The material properties at elevated temperatures are considered. It is shown that, for a typical FEL pulse depositing tens of microjoules energy over a spot of tens of micrometers in radius, the stress wave emission is completed on the tens of nanoseconds scale. The amount of kinetic energy converted from a FEL pulse can reach up to ∼10 nJ depending on the layer thickness. Natural frequencies of a diamond plate are also computed. The potential vibrational amplitude is estimated as a function of frequency. Due to the decreasing heat conductivity with increasing temperature, a runaway temperature rise is predicted for high repetition rates where the temperature rises abruptly after ratcheting up to a point of trivial heat damping rate relative to heat deposition rate.

  18. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-11-20

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  19. Detailed assessment of diesel spray atomization models using visible and X-ray extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, G.M.; Genzale, C.L. (GIT)

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms characterizing the breakup of a diesel spray into droplets are still unknown. This gap in knowledge has largely been due to the challenges of directly imaging this process or quantitatively measuring the outcomes of spray breakup, such as droplet size. Recent x-ray measurements by Argonne National Laboratory, utilized in this work, provide needed information about the spatial evolution of droplet sizes in selected regions of the spray under a range of injection pressures (50–150 MPa) and ambient densities (7.6–22.8 kg/m3) relevant for diesel operating conditions. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) measurements performed at the Advanced Photon Source are presented, which quantify Sauter mean diameters (SMD) within optically thick regions of the spray that are inaccessible by conventional droplet sizing measurement techniques, namely in the near-nozzle region, along the spray centerline, and within the core of the spray. To quantify droplet sizes along the periphery of the spray, a complementary technique is proposed and introduced, which leverages the ratio of path-integrated x-ray and visible laser extinction (SAMR) measurements to quantify SMD. The SAMR and USAXS measurements are then utilized to evaluate current spray models used for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. We explore the ability of a carefully calibrated spray model, premised on aerodynamic wave growth theory, to capture the experimentally observed trends of SMD throughout the spray. The spray structure is best predicted with an aerodynamic primary and secondary breakup process that is represented with a slower time constant and larger formed droplet size than conventionally recommended for diesel spray models. Additionally, spray model predictions suggest that droplet collisions may not influence the resultant droplet size distribution along the spray centerline in downstream regions of the spray.

  20. Comparison of dissimilarity measures for cluster analysis of X-ray diffraction data from combinatorial libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuma; Kusne, A. Gilad; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning techniques have proven invaluable to manage the ever growing volume of materials research data produced as developments continue in high-throughput materials simulation, fabrication, and characterization. In particular, machine learning techniques have been demonstrated for their utility in rapidly and automatically identifying potential composition-phase maps from structural data characterization of composition spread libraries, enabling rapid materials fabrication-structure-property analysis and functional materials discovery. A key issue in development of an automated phase-diagram determination method is the choice of dissimilarity measure, or kernel function. The desired measure reduces the impact of confounding structural data issues on analysis performance. The issues include peak height changes and peak shifting due to lattice constant change as a function of composition. In this work, we investigate the choice of dissimilarity measure in X-ray diffraction-based structure analysis and the choice of measure's performance impact on automatic composition-phase map determination. Nine dissimilarity measures are investigated for their impact in analyzing X-ray diffraction patterns for a Fe-Co-Ni ternary alloy composition spread. The cosine, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Jensen-Shannon divergence measures are shown to provide the best performance in the presence of peak height change and peak shifting (due to lattice constant change) when the magnitude of peak shifting is unknown. With prior knowledge of the maximum peak shifting, dynamic time warping in a normalized constrained mode provides the best performance. This work also serves to demonstrate a strategy for rapid analysis of a large number of X-ray diffraction patterns in general beyond data from combinatorial libraries.

  1. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    2016-11-15

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  2. Measurement of the performance characteristics of diagnostic X-ray systems used in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by the Diagnostic Radiology Topic Group of the Hospital Physicists' Association, providing the basis for exhaustive performance tests on X-ray image intensifier television systems. After a general introduction to the equipment, the parameters which may need to be assessed are outlined in section 1. The measurement techniques and equipment necessary to undertake the measurements are presented in section 2. Specimen data sheets are also presented which the user may find useful to record the data acquired in the field. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray spectroscopic measurements of dielectronic recombination of highly charged krypton ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C.; Fuchs, T.; Liebisch, P.; Radtke, R.; Behar, E.; Doron, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the dielectronic recombination (DR) resonance strengths for the KLn (n = 2, .., 5) series of He-, Li-, and Be-like krypton ions. The ions were produced with an electron beam ion trap, and the strengths were obtained from a fit procedure that compares the experimental excitation function for DR to theory. The results agree well with the predictions. By looking at the KLL resonance, the time evolution of different krypton charge states was measured with this technique and compared with a model of the trap inventory. (orig.)

  4. Dosimetry measurements of X-Ray machine operating at ordinary radiology and fluoroscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Bakazi, A.; Elharby, H.

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of radiation dose levels inside diagnostic radiology rooms at King Khalid University Hospital was made. The measurements were taken using lithium Flouride detectors Also, an assessment of doses received by patients during some radiographic examinations especially at fluoroscopy has been measured. It has been noted that when rare-earth image intensifying screens were used the radiation dose received by the patient was reduced by 60%. It has been shown that a lead glass viewer caused a reduction of the radiation intensity by more than 50%. The variation of dose rate with the operating conditions of the X-ray tube has been studied, as well as the machine factor (P)

  5. Measurement of K-shell photoelectric cross-sections for some characteristic x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S

    1976-03-05

    Because of the non-availability of clean and strong low energy photon sources, external conversion x-rays in various suitable targets have been produced and successfully used to measure relative K shell photoelectric cross-sections in Y for incident energies 17.781, 22.581, 23.618, 25.770, 29.208, 35.478, 41.006, and 43.949 keV in a double reflection geometry experiment. A brief outline of the procedure of measurement and the results obtained are given. (auth)

  6. A new way of soft X-ray spectrum measurement in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Chen Liaoyuan; Song Xianying; Li Yongge; Luo Cuiwen; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2007-01-01

    A soft X-ray spectrum measurement system is newly developed for the real-time acquisition, data processing and display of electron temperature. In this system, a personal computer with high-speed A/D acquisition card is used to obtain the original analog data and processing software is specially developed to calculate the electron temperature. Compared with PHA (Pulse Height Analyzer), the new system provides a way to set channel number and time solution by software. This method has been applied in the HL-2A tokamak experiment, and the result shows a good agreement with the electron temperature tested by other measurements. (authors)

  7. Materials analysis using x-ray linear attenuation coefficient measurements at four photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, S M

    2005-01-01

    The analytical properties of an accurate parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient are examined. The parameterization utilizes an additive combination of N compositional- and energy-dependent coefficients. The former were derived from a parameterization of elemental cross-sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The compositional-dependent coefficients are referred to as the mixture parameters, representing the electron density and higher order statistical moments describing elemental distribution. Additivity is an important property of the parameterization, allowing measured x-ray linear attenuation coefficients to be written as linear simultaneous equations, and then solved for the unknown coefficients. The energy-dependent coefficients can be determined by calibration from measurements with materials of known composition. The inverse problem may be utilized for materials analysis, whereby the simultaneous equations represent multi-energy linear attenuation coefficient measurements, and are solved for the mixture parameters. For in vivo studies, the choice of measurement energies is restricted to the diagnostic region (approximately 20 keV to 150 keV), where the parameterization requires N ≥ 4 energies. We identify a mathematical pathology that must be overcome in order to solve the inverse problem in this energy regime. An iterative inversion strategy is presented for materials analysis using four or more measurements, and then tested against real data obtained at energies 32 keV to 66 keV. The results demonstrate that it is possible to recover the electron density to within ±4% and fourth mixture parameter. It is also a key finding that the second and third mixture parameters cannot be recovered, as they are of minor importance in the parameterization at diagnostic x-ray energies

  8. The Determination of γ and X Rays Variation in Radioactivity Measurement of Eu-152 Using Merlin Gerin Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot-Wurdiyanto; Tuti-Budiantari, C; Ermi-Juita; Hermawan-Candra; Eni-Suswantini; Holnisar; Wahyudi

    2001-01-01

    Activity measurement of Eu-152 was carried out by using dose calibrator Merlin Gerin. Four samples having their solution factors was prepared for the measurement. The activities of each sample were determined with four variations of γ-rays and X-rays, namely all of γ-rays, all of γ rays and all of X-rays; 15 greater γ-rays intensities; 15 greater γ-rays intensities and all of X-rays. The reference of the measurement is the measurement result using γ-spectrometry methods. The result of the measurement is fairly good, meanwhile the best measurement of Eu-152 is based on all of γ-rays and X-rays which its difference of under 0.5 %. (author)

  9. Stability of dislocation structures in copper towards stress relaxation investigated by high angular resolution 3D X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    A 300 µm thick tensile specimen of OFHC copper is subjected to a tensile loading sequence and deformed to a maximal strain of 3.11%. Using the novel three-dimensional X-ray diffraction method High angular resolution 3DXRD', the evolution of the microstructure within a deeply embedded grain....... In contrast to the deformation stages, during each stress relaxation stage, number, size and orientation of subgrains are found to be constant, while a minor amount of clean-up of the microstructure is observed as narrowing of the radial X-ray diffraction line profile. The associated decrease in the width...

  10. Inner-shell/subshell photoionization cross section measurements using a gamma excited variable energy X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, B S; Allawadhi, K L; Arora, S K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1982-02-15

    The method developed for the determination of K/L shell photoionization cross sections in various elements, 39 <= Z <= 92, in the characteristic X-ray energy region using a gamma excited variable energy X-ray source has been used for the measurement of Lsub(III) subshell photoionization cross section in Pb, Th and U. The measurements are made at the K X-ray energies of Rb, Nb and Mo, since these are able to excite selectively the Lsub(III) subshells of Pb, Th and U, respectively. The results, when compared with theoretical calculations of Scofield, are found to agree within the uncertainties of determination.

  11. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  12. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Materials Research, 51147 Cologne (Germany); Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Karlsson, Anette M. [Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  13. Determination of residual stresses in steel 20 comparison of the results obtained by the Barkhausen noise and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L. M.; Herrera, V.; Suarez, J.C.; Merino, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    During a heat treatment (quenching, surface hardening, Thermochemical treatment) the metallic alloys undergo temperature variations and phase transformation. The resulting changes give rise to internal stresses in the piece. Phase transformation modifies the thermomechanical behavior of the material through the change of mechanical properties ( hardness, fatigue-behaviour, corrosion resistance, electric resistivity, etc.) The aim of this paper is residual stress measurements in specimens of steel-20 submitted to different heat treatment, by two non destructive methods: Barkhausen and X-ray diffraction. Brakhausen Effects utilizes the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials such as ferritic and perlitic steels and provides a practical tool for surface streets evaluation. X-ray streets analysis is based on the measurement of lattice strains in different directions of specimen The results obtained by two techniques are compared, avowing a good agreement

  14. Study of 3-D stress development in parent and twin pairs of a hexagonal close-packed polycrystal: Part I - In-situ three-dimensional synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    to reconstruct the 3D microstructure and statistically study neighborhood effects on the load sharing. The investigated volume of the sample contained 6132 grains initially, yet as a result of twin formation, 9724 grains were measured in the same volume at the last loading step. It is shown that the most favored......) microscopy. In-situ uniaxial straining was carried out at seven steps up to 2.7% in the macroscopic direction that favors twin formation, while center-of-mass position, crystallographic orientation, elastic strain, stress, and relative volume of each grain were measured. This information was used...

  15. Dosimetry of x-ray beams: The measure of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Castro, T.M.

    1986-08-01

    This document contains the text of an oral presentation on dosimetry of analytical x-ray equipment presented at the Denver X-Ray Conference. Included are discussions of sources of background radiation, exposure limits from occupational sources, and the relationship of these sources to the high dose source of x-rays found in analytical machines. The mathematical basis of x-ray dosimetry is reviewed in preparation for more detailed notes on personnel dosimetry and the selection of the most appropriate dosimeter for a specific application. The presentation concludes with a discussion common to previous x-ray equipment accidents. 2 refs

  16. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10(4) T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10(-10)m(3)) at high plasma densities (∼10(28)m(-3)) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  17. Effect of constituent elements in wood on X-ray densitometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouris, K.; Tout, R.E.; Gilboy, W.B.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    Small concentrations of elements introduced into a wood matrix have been shown by calculation to measurably influence the photon mass attenuation coefficient although the corresponding changes in the physical density are negligible. This has implications in dendrochronology where the interpretation of densitometric data is based on X-ray radiographs of wood. The magnitude of such effects has been evaluated for selected elements by simulating various botanical matrices. Significant matrix to matrix differences in the mass attenuation coefficient, in the energy range of interest (5 to 25 keV), have been established as being due to variations in the mineral composition. (author)

  18. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray line emission from neon-like Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2006-01-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array

  19. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Body composition in hemodialysis patients measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Gotfredsen, Arne; Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures three of the principal components of the body: fat mass, lean soft-tissue mass (comprising muscle, inner organs, and the body water), and the bone mineral content. The purpose of this study was to test the estimation capacity of DXA when it is applied...... and reduction in fat-free mass (lean soft-tissue mass plus bone mineral content) was observed by DXA. The estimation of the fat-free mass was independent of the amount of fluid loss. No significant differences in variance between the data obtained before and after the dialysis were observed. We conclude...

  1. Highly efficient angularly resolving x-ray spectrometer optimized for absorption measurements with collimated sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Gonzalez, I.G.; Ekerfelt, H.; Svensson, J.B.; Hansson, M.; Wood, I. C.; Persson, A.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Lundh, O.; Falk, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 063102. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration * measurments * x ray * high energy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  2. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B.B.; Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Navathe, C.P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8–18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 µm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  3. Interior Temperature Measurement Using Curved Mercury Capillary Sensor Based on X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Jiang, Xing; Lu, Guirong

    2017-07-01

    A method was presented for measuring the interior temperature of objects using a curved mercury capillary sensor based on X-ray radiography. The sensor is composed of a mercury bubble, a capillary and a fixed support. X-ray digital radiography was employed to capture image of the mercury column in the capillary, and a temperature control system was designed for the sensor calibration. We adopted livewire algorithms and mathematical morphology to calculate the mercury length. A measurement model relating mercury length to temperature was established, and the measurement uncertainty associated with the mercury column length and the linear model fitted by least-square method were analyzed. To verify the system, the interior temperature measurement of an autoclave, which is totally closed, was taken from 29.53°C to 67.34°C. The experiment results show that the response of the system is approximately linear with an uncertainty of maximum 0.79°C. This technique provides a new approach to measure interior temperature of objects.

  4. On the measurement of austenite in supermartensitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolchard, Julian Richard, E-mail: tolchard@material.ntnu.no [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Sømme, Astri; Solberg, Jan Ketil [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Solheim, Karl Gunnar [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    2015-01-15

    Sections of a 13Cr supermartensitic stainless steel were investigated to determine the optimum sample preparation for measurement of the austenite content by X-ray diffraction. The surface of several samples was mechanically ground or polished using media of grit sizes in the range 1–120 μm. The strained surface layer was afterwards removed stepwise by electropolishing, and the austenite content measured at each step. It was found that any level of mechanical grinding or polishing results in a reduction of the measured austenite fraction relative to the true bulk value, and that coarser grinding media impart greater damage and greater reduction in the measured austenite content. The results thus highlight the importance of the electropolishing step in preparation of such samples, but suggest that the American Society for Testing and Materials standard E975-03 substantially overestimates the amount of material which needs to be removed to recover the true “bulk” content. - Highlights: • Quantitative Rietveld analysis of austenite/martensite ratio in supermartensitic stainless steels • Critical evaluation of sample preparation for residual austenite measurements by X-ray diffraction • Highlighting of the importance of electropolishing as a final preparation step.

  5. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes, through x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  6. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes through x-rays diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  7. Residual stress mapping by micro X-ray diffraction: Application to the study of thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of spontaneous detachment of the film from its substrate and in the case of compressive stresses, thin film buckling. Although these effects are undesirable for future applications, one may take benefit of it for thin film mechanical properties investigation. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical works have been done to develop mechanical models with the aim to get a better understanding of driven mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon and thus to propose solutions to avoid such problems. Nevertheless, only a few experimental works have been done on this subject to support these theoretical results and nothing concerning local stress/strain measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few tenth mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam x-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress/ strain mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  8. Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126/sup 0/ toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 ..mu..sec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value.

  9. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xinguo; Hao, Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  10. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xinguo; Hao Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 deg. C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  11. Soft x-ray measurements in the FN-II dense plasma focus device for different anode configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Blanco, C; Castillo-Mejía, F; Rangel-Gutiérrez, J; Herrera-Velázquez, J J E

    2012-01-01

    A study of the soft x-ray emission is presented, for a low energy (4.8 kJ) dense plasma focus device. Three Quantrad Si PIN-diodes with differential filter combinations of Be, Al, Ti, Ni, and Mo are employed as time-resolved x-ray detectors. The x-ray flux in different energy windows is measured as function of the deuterium filling pressure. A comparison is made for three anode configurations: (a) hollow, (b) flat, and (c) 2mm diameter W needle.

  12. Unsteady void measurements within debris beds using high speed X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E., E-mail: Laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de; Stürzel, T., E-mail: thilo.stuerzel@stihl.de; Zhou, M., E-mail: mi.zhou@ike.uni-stuttgart.de

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A high speed X-ray tomography facility has been built for the investigation on two-phase flow. • The two-phase flow through beds of packed plastic spheres has been investigated in the facility. • 3D-reconstructions from the measurements show the fluxes in the two-phase flow. • The gas fraction has been calculated from the reconstruction and used for validation of the modeling. • A new bed with closest regular spheres arrangement has been manufactured by 3D-plotter and used in the measurement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow and boiling within debris beds representing a destroyed reactor core after a severe accident with core fragmentation can be simulated by using the porous media approach. In this approach, a local pressure drop and the heat transfer between the solid debris particles and the two-phase flow is modelled with the help flow-pattern maps, in which the boundaries between bubbly, slug, and annular flow are assumed. In order to support further understanding of these flows we have developed a very fast X-ray measurement device to visualize the 3D-void distribution within particle beds or porous media, which are otherwise un-accessible internally. The experimental setup uses a scanned electron beam directed in circles on a tungsten target to generate the X-rays. The particle bed, which has a diameter of 70 mm, is located between this target and a field of 256 X-ray detectors, which are arranged on a circle concentric to the target. The void distribution is reconstructed numerically from the attenuation of signals, which penetrates the particle bed and the two-phase flow inside. A 3D frame rate of up to 1000 Hz can be reached. The spatial resolution is such that bubbles with a diameter > 1.7 mm can be detected. We have investigated two-phase flows air/water through beds of packed plastic spheres (diameter between 3 and 15 mm) as well as through plastic beds, which were manufactured using a ‘3D-plotter’. Flow patterns can be

  13. A review of recent work in sub-nanometre displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, G N; Yacoot, A

    2002-05-15

    This paper reviews recent work in the field of displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry at the sub-nanometre level of accuracy. The major sources of uncertainty in optical interferometry are discussed and a selection of recent designs of ultra-precise, optical-interferometer-based, displacement measuring transducers presented. The use of X-ray interferometry and its combination with optical interferometry is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  15. Radiographic measurement of bone mineral: reviewing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L.H.; van Doorn, T.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic methods of bone mineral measurement have been reviewed, with particular emphasis on the methods of Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Features of the three major brands of DEXA equipment available in Australasia have been summarised. Radiation hazard is considered to be small, with patient effective doses of the order of a few microSieverts. In vivo measurement precision of the order of 1% is achievable for PA scans of the lumbar spine. Lateral scans can achieve measurement precision of the order of 4%. Recent technological developments using X-ray fan beams and multi element detector arrays on C-arm devices have resulted in faster scan times, higher resolution images, and an ability to perform PA and lateral scanning without the need to reposition the patient. Accuracy of DEXA is dependent upon specific instrumentation and data reduction algorithms, but results generally correlate well with ashed bone measurements. Major sources of inaccuracy include inhomogeneous distributions of fat, and machine specific factors such as edge detection algorithms. Lack of absolute inter unit comparability may cause difficulties in clinical practice. 88 refs., 5 figs

  16. Molybdenum cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Kozaburo; Katoh, Masahiro; Inui, Masanori

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a sample cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures. All parts of the cell are made of molybdenum which is resistant to the chemical corrosion of alkali metals. Single crystalline molybdenum disks electrolytically thinned down to 40 μm were used as the walls of the cell through which x rays pass. The crystal orientation of the disks was controlled in order to reduce the background from the cell. All parts of the cell were assembled and brazed together using a high-temperature Ru-Mo alloy. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements have been successfully carried out for fluid rubidium up to 1973 K and 16.2 MPa. The obtained S(Q) demonstrates the applicability of the molybdenum cell to x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures.

  17. Measurement of anisotropic soft X-ray emission during radio-frequency current drive in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hisato; Matoba, Tohru; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawakami, Tomohide; Yamamoto, Takumi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Fuchs, Gerhard; Uesugi, Yoshihiko.

    1994-01-01

    A new vertical soft X-ray pulse height analyzer (PHA) system and a tangential PHA system were used to measure the anisotropy of soft X-ray emission during lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) and also during current drive by the combination of LHCD and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in the JFT-2M tokamak. The strong soft X-ray emission was measured in the parallel forward direction during LHCD. When ECRH was applied during LHCD, the perpendicular emission was enhanced. The high-energy electron velocity distribution was evaluated by comparing the measured and calculated X-ray spectra. The distribution form was consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the electron Landau damping of lower-hybrid waves and the electron cyclotron damping of electron cyclotron waves for reasonable energy ranges. (author)

  18. Measurement of parameters for the quality control of X-ray units by using PIN diodes and a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, F.; Gaytan, E.; Mercado, I.; Estrada, M.; Cerdeira, A.

    2000-01-01

    The design of a new system for the measurement of the main parameters of X-ray units used in medicine is presented. The system measures automatically the exposure time, high voltage applied, waveform of the detected signal, exposure ratio and the total exposure (dose). The X-ray detectors employed are PIN diodes developed at CINVESTAV, the measurements are done in one single shot, without invasion of the X-ray unit. The results are shown in the screen of the computer and can be saved in a file for later analysis. The proposed system is intended to be used in the quality control of X-rays units for clinical radio-diagnosis. It is a simple and inexpensive equipment if compared with available commercial equipment that uses ionization chambers and accurate electrometers that small facilities and hospitals cannot afford

  19. Platform development of x-ray absorption-based temperature measurements above 100-eV on the OMEGA laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jonathan; Keiter, P.; Tierney, T.; Tierney, H.; Belle, K.; Magelssen, G.; Peterson, R.; Fryer, C.; Comley, A.; Taylor, M.

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were performed on the OMEGA laser system at the University of Rochester to measure radiation temperature in hohlraum-heated foams. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the 3-6-keV x-ray range allows temperature determination in the range of 50-200-eV. Uranium, bismuth and gold M-shell x-ray emission were used as broadband backlighters. Backlighter absorption through heated chlorinated foam and scandium tracers were used to determine temperatures. The development of this technique in the temperature range of 100-200-eV will be used for platform development of future NIF experiments. We will present time-integrated and time-resolved measurements of x-ray emission from the backlighter materials as well as absorption measurements trough the heated tracer materials. We will also present future directions in the development of this platform.

  20. Sparse signal reconstruction from polychromatic X-ray CT measurements via mass attenuation discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Renliang; Dogandžić, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer’s law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach for reconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ℓ 1 -norm penalty terms. We propose a two-step scheme for refining the mass attenuation discretization grid by using higher sampling rate over the range with higher photon energy, and eliminating the discretization points that have little effect on accuracy of the forward projection model. This refinement allows us to successfully handle the characteristic lines (Dirac impulses) in the incident energy density spectrum. We compare the proposed method with the standard filtered backprojection, which ignores the polychromatic nature of the measurements and sparsity of the image density map. Numerical simulations using both realistic simulated and real x-ray ct data are presented

  1. Measurement of X-ray emission efficiency for K-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, M

    2004-08-01

    Results for the X-ray emission efficiency (counts per C per sr) of K-lines for selected elements (C, Al, Si, Ti, Cu, Ge) and for the first time also for compounds and alloys (SiC, GaP, AlCu, TiAlC) are presented. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) of known detection efficiency (counts per photon) has been used to record the spectra at a takeoff angle of 25 degrees determined by the geometry of the secondary electron microscope's specimen chamber. Overall uncertainty in measurement could be reduced to 5 to 10% in dependence on the line intensity and energy. Measured emission efficiencies have been compared with calculated efficiencies based on models applied in standardless analysis. The widespread XPP and PROZA models give somewhat too low emission efficiencies. The best agreement between measured and calculated efficiencies could be achieved by replacing in the modular PROZA96 model the original expression for the ionization cross section by the formula given by Casnati et al. (1982) A discrepancy remains for carbon, probably due to the high overvoltage ratio.

  2. Windowless microfluidic platform based on capillary burst valves for high intensity x-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Enevoldsen, Nikolaj; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Eriksen, Johan; Kristensen, Anders; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2009-01-01

    We propose and describe a microfluidic system for high intensity x-ray measurements. The required open access to a microfluidic channel is provided by an out-of-plane capillary burst valve (CBV). The functionality of the out-of-plane CBV is characterized with respect to the diameter of the windowless access hole, ranging from 10 to 130 μm. Maximum driving pressures from 22 to 280 mbar corresponding to refresh rates of the exposed sample from 300 Hz to 54 kHz is demonstrated. The microfluidic system is tested at beamline ID09b at the ESRF synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, and x-ray scattering measurements are shown to be feasible and to require only very limited amounts of sample, <1 ml/h of measurements without recapturing of sample. With small adjustments of the present chip design, scattering angles up to 30 deg. can be achieved without shadowing effects and integration on-chip mixing and spectroscopy appears straightforward.

  3. Absolute brightness modeling for improved measurement of electron temperature from soft x-rays on MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; van Meter, P.

    2017-10-01

    The two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic on MST is now capable of Te measurement down to 500 eV. The previous lower limit was 1 keV, due to the presence of SXR emission lines from Al sputtered from the MST wall. The two-color technique uses two filters of different thickness to form a coarse spectrometer to estimate the slope of the continuum x-ray spectrum, which depends on Te. The 1.6 - 2.0 keV Al emission lines were previously filtered out by using thick Be filters (400 µm and 800 µm), thus restricting the range of the SXT diagnostic to Te >= 1 keV. Absolute brightness modeling explicitly includes several sources of radiation in the analysis model, enabling the use of thinner filters and measurement of much lower Te. Models based on the atomic database and analysis structure (ADAS) agree very well with our experimental SXR measurements. We used ADAS to assess the effect of bremsstrahlung, recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line emission on the inferred Te. This assessment informed the choice of the optimum filter pair to extend the Te range of the SXT diagnostic. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  4. Measurement of conversion coefficients between air Kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors for diagnostic X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves

    2008-01-01

    Two sets of quantities are import in radiological protection: the protection and operational quantities. Both sets can be related to basic physical quantities such as kerma through conversion coefficients. For diagnostic x-ray beams the conversion coefficients and backscatter factors have not been determined yet, those parameters are need for calibrating dosimeters that will be used to determine the personal dose equivalent or the entrance skin dose. Conversion coefficients between air kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors were experimentally determined for the diagnostic x-ray qualities RQR and RQA recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The air kerma in the phantom and the mean energy of the spectrum were measured for such purpose. Harshaw LiF-100H thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were used for measurements after being calibrated against an 180 cm 3 Radcal Corporation ionization chamber traceable to a reference laboratory. A 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom was used for deep-dose measurements. Tl dosemeters were placed in the central axis of the x-ray beam at 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 mm depth in the phantom upstream the beam direction Another required parameter for determining the conversion coefficients from was the mean energy of the x-ray spectrum. The spectroscopy of x-ray beams was done with a CdTe semiconductor detector that was calibrated with 133 Ba, 241 Am and 57 Co radiation sources. Measurements of the x-ray spectra were carried out for all RQR and RQA IEC qualities. Corrections due to the detector intrinsic efficiency, total energy absorption, escape fraction of the characteristic x-rays, Compton effect and attenuation in the detector were done aiming an the accurate determination of the mean energy. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected with the stripping method by using these response functions. The typical combined standard uncertainties of conversion coefficients and

  5. Americium-241 use of measurement lead equivalent thickness for medical x-ray room: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Saleh; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman; Zainal Jamaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for X-ray room at health centres. Results of measurement of 30 irradiation rooms conducted from 2009 to mid 2010 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that 96.7 % of the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Ohyanagi, T.; Murakami, K.

    1995-01-01

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm 2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C 0 ), C - , C + and C 2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C 0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C 2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  7. Novel methods for measuring afterglow in developmental scintillators for X-ray and neutron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, C. M.; Edgar, A.; Dixie, L.; Varoy, C.; Piltz, R.; Buchanan, S.; Rutherford, K.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we discuss two novel methods of measuring afterglow in scintillators. One method is designed for X-ray detection and the other for neutron detection applications. In the first method a commercial fan-beam scanner of basic design similar to those seen at airports is used to deliver a typically 12 ms long X-ray pulse to a scintillator by passing the test equipment through the scanner on the conveyor belt. In the second method the thermal neutron beam from a research reactor is incident on the scintillator. The beam is cut-off in about 1 ms using a 10B impregnated aluminum pneumatic shutter, and the afterglow is recorded on a dual range storage oscilloscope to capture both the steady state intensity and the weak decay. We describe these measurement methods and the results obtained for a range of developmental ceramic and glass scintillators, as well as some standard scintillators such as NaI(Tl), LiI(Eu) and the plastic scintillator NE102A. Preliminary modeling of the afterglow is presented.

  8. Novel methods for measuring afterglow in developmental scintillators for X-ray and neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartle, C.M., E-mail: m.bartle@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Edgar, A.; Dixie, L.; Varoy, C. [School of Chemistry and Physics, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Piltz, R. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia); Buchanan, S.; Rutherford, K. [School of Chemistry and Physics, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2011-09-21

    In this paper we discuss two novel methods of measuring afterglow in scintillators. One method is designed for X-ray detection and the other for neutron detection applications. In the first method a commercial fan-beam scanner of basic design similar to those seen at airports is used to deliver a typically 12 ms long X-ray pulse to a scintillator by passing the test equipment through the scanner on the conveyor belt. In the second method the thermal neutron beam from a research reactor is incident on the scintillator. The beam is cut-off in about 1 ms using a {sup 10}B impregnated aluminum pneumatic shutter, and the afterglow is recorded on a dual range storage oscilloscope to capture both the steady state intensity and the weak decay. We describe these measurement methods and the results obtained for a range of developmental ceramic and glass scintillators, as well as some standard scintillators such as NaI(Tl), LiI(Eu) and the plastic scintillator NE102A. Preliminary modeling of the afterglow is presented.

  9. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  11. Soft X-ray spectrometer design for warm dense plasma measurements on DARHT Axis-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, Nicholas Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, John Oliver [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-11

    A preliminary design study is being performed on a soft X-ray spectrometer to measure K-shell spectra emitted by a warm dense plasma generated on Axis-I of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100-ns-long intense, relativistic electron pulse with a beam current of 1.7 kA and energy of 19.8 MeV deposits energy into a thin metal foil heating it to a warm dense plasma. The collisional ionization of the target by the electron beam produces an anisotropic angular distribution of K-shell radiation and a continuum of both scattered electrons and Bremsstrahlung up to the beam energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal goal of this project is to characterize these angular distributions to determine the optimal location to deploy the soft X-ray spectrometer. In addition, a proof-of-principle design will be presented. The ultimate goal of the spectrometer is to obtain measurements of the plasma temperature and density to benchmark equation-of-state models of the warm dense matter regime.

  12. Estimation of signal intensity for online measurement X-ray pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Liu Shenye; Yang Guohong; Yu Yanning

    2009-01-01

    The signal intensity was estimated for on-line measurement X-ray pinhole camera with CCD as measurement equipment. The X-ray signal intensity counts after the attenuation of thickness-varied Be filters and different material flat mirrors respectively were estimated using the energy spectrum of certain laser prototype and the quantum efficiency curve of PI-SX1300 CCD camera. The calculated results indicate that Be filters no thicker than 200 μm can only reduce signal intensity by one order of magnitude, and so can Au flat mirror with 3 degree incident angle, Ni, C and Si flat mirrors with 5 degree incident angle,but the signal intensity counts for both attenuation methods are beyond the saturation counts of the CCD camera. We also calculated the attenuation of signal intensity for different thickness Be filters combined with flat mirrors, indicates that the combination of Be filters with the thickness between 20 and 40 μm and Au flat mirror with 3 degree incident angle or Ni flat mirror with 5 degree incident angle is a good choice for the attenuation of signal intensity. (authors)

  13. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  14. Space resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the supercooled state of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Shinya; Nishida, Akira; Mina, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In order to measure an ordering process of polymers, the supercooled state near the crystallizing surface was observed by a space resolved X-ray diffraction method at Photon Factory (PF). Using temperature slope crystallization, low density polyethylene and even-number paraffins were examined during crystallization from the melt state. The results indicate that polyethylene shows a sharp b-axis orientation where the lamellar normal and crystalline c-axis are perpendicular to the temperature slope. The crystalline lamellae are well-developed with lamellar thickness of 180 A. The supercooled melt state just above the crystallizing plane shows some diffraction in the small angle region without any crystalline reflection in the wide angle. This fact suggests that a long-range ordering (lamellar structure) appears prior to the short-range one (crystalline structure). The in-situ crystallizing surface was observed by an optical microscope connected to a TV system. The crystallizing surface of even-number paraffins moves to upwards in the temperature slope. In-situ X-ray measurements at PF revealed that the crystalline c-axis and lamellar normal of the even number paraffins are parallel to the temperature slope. From these results, the crystalline ordering and the surface movement of even number paraffins are explained using special nucleation mechanism including a screw dislocation. (author)

  15. The relationship between X-ray residual stress near the crack and crack opening/closing behavior controlling fatigue crack propagation in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Tashiyuki; Toi, Norihiko; Nakano, Kohji; Honda, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    Using the X-ray method of stress measurement for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, the residual stress near the crack was measured for annealed (AN) and solution treated and aged (STA) titanium alloys, under the condition that the measured X-ray stress was in satisfactory agreement with the applied stress under tension. The residual stress measured in the wake of the propagating fatigue crack, σ r , was compressive, resulting in a smaller crack opening displacement, COD, than theorized. The measured σ r and COD-values let us understand the fatigue crack propagation rate da/dN in terms of the effective stress intensity factor K eff . As a result, the da/dN under the same K eff -value was smaller in the AN specimen with zigzag crack growth than in the STA specimen with straight crack growth, although the da/dN-K eff relationship under various stress amplitudes was represented by a straight line in a log-log scale separately for the AN and STA specimens. (author)

  16. Feature-based analysis for quality assessment of x-ray computed tomography measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardelli, Vitor C; Arenhart, Francisco A; Donatelli, Gustavo D; Porath, Maurício C; Niggemann, Christian; Schmitt, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to assess the quality of the data extracted with computed tomography (CT) measuring systems to perform geometrical evaluations. The approach consists in analyzing the error features introduced by the CT measuring system during the extraction operation. The analysis of the features is performed qualitatively (using graphical analysis tools) and/or quantitatively (by means of the root-mean-square deviation parameter of the error features). The approach was used to analyze four sets of measurements performed with an industrial x-ray cone beam CT measuring system. Three test parts were used in the experiments: a high accuracy manufacturing multi-wave standard, a calibrated step cylinder and a calibrated production part. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the approach to gain knowledge on CT measuring processes and improve the quality of CT geometrical evaluations. Advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed. (paper)

  17. A photodiode amplifier system for pulse-by-pulse intensity measurement of an x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Togo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Omodani, Motohiko; Kirihara, Yoichi; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki; Hatsui, Takaki

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a single-shot intensity-measurement system using a silicon positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) photodiode for x-ray pulses from an x-ray free electron laser. A wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(11) photons/pulse) and long distance signal transmission (>100 m) were required for this measurement system. For this purpose, we developed charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers, which can process charge pulses with a wide dynamic range and variable durations (ns-μs) and charge levels (pC-μC). Output signals from the amplifiers were transmitted to a data acquisition system through a long cable in the form of a differential signal. The x-ray pulse intensities were calculated from the peak values of the signals by a waveform fitting procedure. This system can measure 10(3)-10(9) photons/pulse of ~10 keV x-rays by direct irradiation of a silicon PIN photodiode, and from 10(7)-10(11) photons/pulse by detecting the x-rays scattered by a diamond film using the silicon PIN photodiode. This system gives a relative accuracy of ~10(-3) with a proper gain setting of the amplifiers for each measurement. Using this system, we succeeded in detecting weak light at the developmental phase of the light source, as well as intense light during lasing of the x-ray free electron laser. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  18. A high resolution reflecting crystal spectrometer to measure 3 keV pionic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badertscher, A.; Bogdan, M.; Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Knecht, L.; Leisi, H.J.; Schroeder, H.C.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z.G.; Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.P.; Jeannet, E.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Gabathuler, K.; Simons, L.M.; Rusi El Hassani, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reflecting crystal spectrometer consisting of three cylindrically bent quartz (110) crystals is described. It was designed to measure the 3 keV K β X-rays from pionic hydrogen and deuterium. Charge coupled devices (CCDs) were used as X-ray detectors. Projecting the reflexes of all three crystals on one common focus, an instrumental energy resolution below 1 eV was obtained at an energy of 2.9 keV. (orig.)

  19. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  20. Mass thickness measurement of dual-sample by dual-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mincong; Li Hongmei; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2008-01-01

    X-ray equivalent energy can be used to measure mass thicknesses of materials. Based on this, a method of mass thickness measurement of dual-sample was discussed. It was found that in the range of sample mass thickness under investigation, the equivalent mass attenuation coefficient of a component could be used to compute mass thicknesses of a dual-sample, with relative errors of less than 5%. Mass thickness measurement of a fish sample was performed, and the fish bone and flesh could be displayed separately and clearly by their own mass thicknesses. This indicates that the method is effective in mass thickness measurement of dual-sample of suitable thicknesses. (authors)

  1. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  2. K-edge x-ray fluorescence analysis for actinide and heavy elements solution concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Advantages of using Co-57 as an exciter for K XRFA include: a compact design that requires no x-ray tubes; the exciter-detector assembly locates remote from support electronics; on-line, at-line, or off-line configurations for monitor/measurements; systems that can be run by semi-skilled technicians, once programmed; and operated via remote terminals with results sent to control rooms; heavy element concentrations that are measurable thru industrial pipes; independent of minor changes in solution matrix or source half life with concentration results reported in near-real-time; a dynamic range of measurable concentrations that is greater than 10 4 ; measurement times that are reasonable even at 1 gram/liter; and for nuclear safeguards, it provides the <0.5% accuracy required by DOE for the accountability of U, Pu, or both, once the system is calibrated

  3. Determining surface coverage of ultra-thin gold films from X-ray reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoy, A.; Simakov, D.; Olafsson, S.; Leosson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes usage of X-ray reflectivity for characterization of surface coverage (i.e. film continuity) of ultra-thin gold films which are widely studied for optical, plasmonic and electronic applications. The demonstrated method is very sensitive and can be applied for layers below 1 nm. It has several advantages over other techniques which are often employed in characterization of ultra-thin metal films, such as optical absorption, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. In contrast to those techniques our method does not require specialized sample preparation and measurement process is insensitive to electrostatic charge and/or presence of surface absorbed water. We validate our results with image processing of Scanning Electron Microscopy images. To ensure precise quantitative analysis of the images we developed a generic local thresholding algorithm which allowed us to treat series of images with various values of surface coverage with similar image processing parameters. - Highlights: • Surface coverage/continuity of ultra-thin Au films (up to 7 nm) was determined. • Results from X-ray reflectivity were verified by scanning electron microscopy. • We developed local thresholding algorithm to treat non-homogeneous image contrast

  4. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.phelan@oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Tortorella, Daniele [Payr Engineering GmbH, Wiederschwing 25, A-9564 Patergassen (Austria); Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo [Low Temperature Solutions UG, Bahnhofstraße 21, D-85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  5. Phase quantification in nanobainite via magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano-Alvarez, W., E-mail: ws298@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Abreu, H.F.G. [Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza (Brazil); Silva, M.R. da [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Peet, M.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    Accurate phase quantification of nanostructured bainitic steel is of importance because of the nature of its percolating structure that controls many of its mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction is the technique of choice for such analysis, but magnetic methods can be more rapid and less sensitive to defect structures. In this study, the phase volume fractions measured using both of these techniques for the specific mixtures associated with nanostructured bainite have been compared and contrasted. An expression which relates the volume fraction and the saturation magnetization is obtained and its form is found to be consistent with previous work done on duplex stainless steels and TRIP steels. The fitting constants used in many of such analyses vary significantly so an attempt is made to rationalize the differences by considering the factors that determine the intrinsic saturation magnetization of ferrite. - Author-Highlights: • Magnetic phase quantification of nanobainite is presented for the first time. • Results are compared with x-ray diffraction. • Expression obtained that relates ferrite fraction and saturation magnetization. • Equation derived to calculate intrinsic saturation magnetization of ferrites. • These values agree with experimental data of the literature.

  6. Quantitative measurements of localized density variations in cylindrical tablets using X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busignies, Virginie; Leclerc, Bernard; Porion, Patrice; Evesque, Pierre; Couarraze, Guy; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Direct compaction is a complex process that results in a density distribution inside the tablets which is often heterogeneous. Therefore, the density variations may affect the compact properties. A quantitative analysis of this phenomenon is still lacking. Recently, X-ray microtomography has been successfully used in pharmaceutical development to study qualitatively the impact of tablet shape and break-line in the density of pharmaceutical tablets. In this study, we evaluate the density profile in microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur 12) compacts obtained at different mean porosity (ranging from 7.7% to 33.5%) using X-ray tomography technique. First, the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is studied. Then, density calibration is performed and density maps of cylindrical tablets are obtained and visualized using a process with colour-scale calibration plot which is explained. As expected, important heterogeneity in density is observed and quantified. The higher densities in peripheral region were particularly investigated and appraised in regard to the lower densities observed in the middle of the tablet. The results also underlined that in the case of pharmaceutical tablets, it is important to differentiate the mechanical properties representative of the total volume tablet and the mechanical properties that only characterize the tablet surface like the Brinell hardness measurements.

  7. A Novel Spectrometer for Measuring Laser-Produced Plasma X-Ray in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental investigations of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-produced high-temperature plasma contains very abundant information, such as the electron temperature and density, ionization. In order to diagnose laser-plasma distribution in space and evolution in time, an elliptical curved crystal spectrometer has been developed and applied to diagnose X-ray of laser-produced plasma in 0.2~2.46 nm region. According to the theory of Bragg diffraction, four kinds of crystal including LiF, PET, MiCa, and KAP were chosen as dispersive elements. The distance of crystal lattice varies from 0.4 to 2.6 nm. Bragg angle is in the range of 30°~67.5°, and the spectral detection angle is in 55.4°~134°. The curved crystal spectrometer mainly consists of elliptical curved crystal analyzer, vacuum configuration, aligning device, spectral detectors and three-dimensional microadjustment devices. The spectrographic experiment was carried out on the XG-2 laser facility. Emission spectrum of Al plasmas, Ti plasma, and Au plasmas have been successfully recorded by using X-ray CCD camera. It is demonstrated experimentally that the measured wavelength is accorded with the theoretical value.

  8. A moving target for accelerated charged particle induced X-ray measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.; Shima, K.; Ebihara, H.; Seki, R.; Mikumo, T.

    1980-01-01

    To attain good reproducibility as well as to enable an absolute determination in the measurement of X-ray fluorescences, resulting from bombardment of a heterogeneous sample by accelerated charged particles, a moving-target mechanism incorporating an electronic remote control system has been devised. The system is designed to scan the whole sample area with a chosen constant linear speed, by a fixed particle beam with a cross-sectional area a small fraction of that of the sample. Using 16 MeV protons and 40 MeV oxygen-ion beams, test runs of this system showed that the attempted objectives are attainable with good accuracies: reproducibility of the data for a given target is better than 3%, the linearity of the calibration curve is in good agreement, within the weighing errors of the standard elements and the uncertainty due to beam current fluctuation, with the expected values, and the results of absolute determinations using both metal foils and heterogeneous powder samples are in good agreement with accepted results using different methods. Detailed accounts of the moving-target system, and the test for reproducibility and linearity are presented. An absolute determination of the quantities related to accelerated charged-particle induced X-ray fluorescence (PIXE) using the moving target is presented for samples in different forms. (orig./HP)

  9. Absolute Soft X-ray Emission Measurements at the Nike Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Atkin, R.; Boyer, C.; Colombant, D.; Feldman, U.; Fielding, D.; Gardner, J.; Holland, G.; Klapisch, M.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenscain, S.; Seely, J. F.

    2002-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Nike laser facility have demonstrated that, when a low intensity prepulse ( 2main laser intensity) is used to heat a thin Au or Pd coating on a planar CH target, the growth of non-uniformities due to laser imprint can be reduced from the growth observed for an uncoated CH target. The absolute radiation intensity in the soft x-ray region (0.1-1 keV) has a important role in the energy balance for layered targets. There is an ongoing effort to characterize the soft x-ray emission using an absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and filtered diode modules. Measurements of the angular distribution of the emission from unlayered solid targets (Au, Pd, CH) have recently been made using an array of moveable filtered diode modules. The data from the angular distribution studies will be presented. A new absolutely calibrated, time-resolving transmission grating spectrometer has been installed at the Nike. The new version has improved spectral resolution, selectable transmission filters, and the potential for simultaneous temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Preliminary data from the new spectrometer will be presented and future experiments will be briefly discussed. *Work was supported by DoE

  10. Soft X-ray and cathodoluminescence measurement, optimisation and analysis at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, C. M.; Wilson, N. C.; Torpy, A.; Delle Piane, C.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in field emission gun electron microprobes have led to significant gains in the beam power density and when analysis at high resolution is required then low voltages are often selected. The resulting beam power can lead to damage and this can be minimised by cooling the sample down to cryogenic temperatures allowing sub-micrometre imaging using a variety of spectrometers. Recent advances in soft X-ray emission spectrometers (SXES) offer a spectral tool to measure both chemistry and bonding and when combined with spectral cathodoluminescence the complementary techniques enable new knowledge to be gained from both mineral and materials. Magnesium and aluminium metals have been examined at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures by SXES and the L-emission Fermi-edge has been observed to sharpen at the lower temperatures directly confirming thermal broadening of the X-ray spectra. Gains in emission intensity and resolution have been observed in cathodoluminescence for liquid nitrogen cooled quartz grains compared to ambient temperature quartz. This has enabled subtle growth features at quartz to quartz-cement boundaries to be imaged for the first time.

  11. Fabrication and testing of an electrochemical microcell for in situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, A.; Kaulich, B.; Kiskinova, M.; Mele, C.; Prasciolu, M.; Sgura, I.; Bozzini, B.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and testing of a novel concept of electrochemical microcell for in-situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy in transmission. The microcell, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, implements an improved electrode design, with optimal current density distribution and minimised ohmic drop, allowing the same three-electrode electrochemical control achievable with traditional cells. Moreover standard electroanalytical measurements, such as cyclic voltammetry, can be routinely performed. As far as the electrolyte is concerned, we selected a room-temperature ionic-liquid. Some of the materials belonging to this class, in addition to a broad range of outstanding electrochemical properties, feature two highlights that are crucial for in situ, soft X-ray transmission work: spinnability, enabling accurate thickness control, and stability to UHV, allowing operation of an open cell in the analysis chamber vacuum (10-6 mbar). The cell can, of course, be used also with non-vacuum stable electrolytes in the sealed version developed in previous work in our group. In this study, the microcell designed, fabricated and tested in situ by applying an anodic polarisation to a Au electrode and following the formation of a distribution of corrosion features. This specific material combination presented in this work does not limit the cell concept, that can implement any electrodic material grown by lithography, any liquid electrolyte and any spinnable solid electrolyte.

  12. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M., E-mail: maurizio.vannoni@xfel.eu; Freijo Martín, I. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10{sup 25} (photons s{sup −1} mm{sup −2} mrad{sup −2})/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  13. Progresses in the measurement and evaluation of small-angle x-ray scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, A.

    2000-08-01

    Scattering methods are a widely used technique for determining size and shape of particles in the mesoscopic size range. This work deals on the one hand with the development of instruments in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering (SAXS) and on the other hand with methodical contributions concerning the interpretation of small angle scattering data. After a short introduction about Small Angle Scattering (SAS) and its application in chapter one, follows in chapter two a derivation of the theory of Small Angle x-ray scattering. Thereafter indirect transformations (Generalized Indirect Fourier Transformation [GIFT], Indirect Fourier Transformation [IFT]) are discussed and in this connection the optimization of multidimensional hyper surfaces is described. There are different possibilities for optimizing such multidimensional surfaces. The pros and contras of the different optimization methods with respect to the evaluation of small angle scattering data from interacting systems are discussed in detail. Global optimization methods are mainly used, if the hypersurface, which has to be optimized, shows many local minima. The goal of the optimization is it to find the global minimum. It is essential, that the parameters of the hyper surface are independent of each other, as it is the case in the GIFT. If someone deals with problems in only few dimensions or with many boundary conditions, mostly local optimization routines are sufficient. Therefore a number of starting parameters for the optimization is chosen, which can be obtained systematically or randomly. The best solution obtained represents the result of the optimization procedure. Chapter 3 deals with the description of instruments used in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering. After a description of the components (x-ray sources, monochromators, detectors) of these instruments, the different beam geometries are discussed. In chapter 4 improvements of SAXS measurements on Kratky slit systems by Goebel

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  15. Contributions to the defocusing effect on pole figure measurements by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios G, J.; Salat F, R. S.; Jimenez J, A.; Kryshtab, T., E-mail: palacios@esfm.ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    A simple method, considering a parallel beam approximation has been made to reproduce the main features of the defocusing effect, observed when pole figures are measured with the Schulz reflection technique using X-ray diffraction. A Lorentzian curve was used to approximate the primary beam profile. This method applied to low index reflections of copper and silver shows qualitatively and partially quantitatively, the extent the elongation of the ellipse resulting from the intersection of the beam with the tilted sample causes the defocusing effect. Differences observed experimentally are attributed mainly to the divergence of the beam, but also partially to the particular primary beam profile. Additionally, measurements with two different vertical heights of the receiving slit, i. e. the measured arch length of the Debye-Scherrer ring, indicate that this parameter plays no role in defocusing. (Author)

  16. Present and perspective roles of soft X-ray tomography in tokamak plasma position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Duval, B.P.; Horacek, J.; Lister, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the importance and feasibility of real-time tomography in fusion experiments for the example of soft X-ray (SXR) position measurements. The requirement of non-magnetic real-time diagnostics in low frequencies for ITER is discussed. This is illustrated by recent results of rapid tomographic inversion of SXR measurements on tokamak TCV. Comparison with the magnetic reconstruction data has not only shown the valuable resolution capabilities of both techniques, but also revealed a slight dependence of magnetic measurements on toroidal magnetic field and an unnoticed drift of plasma position observer. A feasibility study using current hardware capacities for programmable real-time tomographic system with plasma position feedback output was carried out. A compact solution is found to be tractable opening wide perspectives for development

  17. Dose Measurement and Calculation of Asymmetric X-Ray Fields from Therapeutic Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Attar, A. L.; Abdel-Wanees, M. E.; Hashem, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Linear accelerators with x-ray collimators that move independently are becoming increasingly common for treatment with asymmetric fields. In this paper we present a simplified approach to the calculation of dose for asymmetric fields. A method is described for calculating the beam profiles, depth doses and output factors for asymmetric fields of radiation produced by linear accelerators (siemens mevatron M2) with independent jaws. Values are calculated from data measured for symmetric fields. Symmetric field data are modified using opened off-axis factors (OAFs) and primary off-centre ratios (POCRs) which are obtained from in air measurements of the largest possible opened field. Beam hardening occurring within the flattening filter is taken into account using of attenuation coefficients for opened field and used to generate the opened POCR at different depths. A full investigation to compare measured and calculated profiles demonstrates favorable agreement.

  18. Measurement of rocking curve wings at high x-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.; Hastings, J.; Moulin, H.; Siddons, D.P.; Garrett, R.F.; Nachaliel, E.; Dilmanian, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements done recently at the NSLS have indicated that the level of intensity found in the wings of diffraction peaks from silicon at higher x-ray energies (>20keV) far exceeds the value which would be predicted based on the dynamical theory. We have measured Si(220) double crystal rocking curves at the 40keV fundamental and harmonics with various crystal scattering geometries: Bragg-Bragg, Laue-Bragg, Laue-Lauel. The comparison of the Bragg and Laue case diffraction geometries was done to determine scattering volume effects. Comparisons with dynamical theory calculations will be discussed. These measurements have been carried out in order to assess the level of harmonic contamination which will be present from a double crystal monochromator being designed for the X17 Superconducting Wiggler Beamline

  19. Opacity measurements of tamped NaBr samples heated by z-pinch X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.E.; Arnault, P.; Blenski, T.; Dejonghe, G.; Peyrusse, O.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mancini, R.C.; Cuneo, M.E.; Nielsen, D.S.; Rochau, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory measurements provide benchmark data for wavelength-dependent plasma opacities to assist inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics, and atomic physics research. There are several potential benefits to using z-pinch radiation for opacity measurements, including relatively large cm-scale lateral sample sizes and relatively-long 3-5 ns experiment durations. These features enhance sample uniformity. The spectrally resolved transmission through a CH-tamped NaBr foil was measured. The z-pinch produced the X-rays for both the heating source and backlight source. The (50±4) eV foil electron temperature and (3±1)x10 21 cm -3 foil electron density were determined by analysis of the Na absorption features. LTE and NLTE opacity model calculations of the n=2 to 3, 4 transitions in bromine ionized into the M-shell are in reasonably good agreement with the data

  20. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...... Mn-, Cr- and/or Ni-containing oxides are observed, instead of pure Magnetite, underneath a pure Hematite surface layer. Oxides on the austenitic steel are under compressive stress or even stress-free....

  1. X-ray microprobe measurements of the chemical compositions of ALH84001 carbonate globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Keller, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    We measured minor element contents of carbonate from ALH84001 and report trends in tbe Ca, V, Mn and Sr in carbonate and the associated magnetite bands. McKay et al. suggested that carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite from Mars contained evidence consistent with the development of bacterial life early in the history of Mars. This result provoked an extensive study of the ALH84001 meteorite. More recently Thomas-Keprta et al. have published a study showing that the magnetite associated with carbonate rims are of the size and shape produced by terrestrial bacteria. This paper has revived interest in ALH84001. The typical ALH84001 carbonate globule consists of four regions: a core of Fe-rich carbonate, a thin magnetite-rich band, a rim of Mn-rich carbonate, and another thin magnetite-rich band. Trace element analysis of each of these phases may allow us to address several important questions about these carbonates: (1) The origin of the magnetite-rich bands in the ALH84001 carbonate globules. If the magnetites are derived from the underlying carbonate through thermal decomposition (as proposed by Golden et al.), then we expect to see 'inherited' trace elements in these magnetite bands. (2) The origin of the rim carbonate, by determining whether the carbonate in the core has the same trace elements as the rim carbonates. (3) The age of the rim carbonate. Borg et al. dated the formation of the rim carbonate using the Rb/Sr chronometer. Borg et al. performed their measurements on an aliquot of what they called a high-Rb, low-Sr carbonate separate from the rim. We previously measured the trace element contents of chips from core and rim carbonates from an ALH84001 carbonate globule using an X-Ray Microprobe on Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. These measurements showed the rim carbonate had a very low Rb content, with Sr>>Rb, inconsistent with the ∼5 ppm Rb reported by Borg et al. in the sample they dated by the Rb/Sr chronometer. The large

  2. The interaction of fatigue cracks with a residual stress field using thermoelastic stress analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Khurram; Asquith, David; Sebastian, Christopher M.; Wang, Wei-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of cracks emanating from cold-expanded holes utilizing thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) techniques with the aim of resolving the long-standing ambiguity in the literature regarding potential relaxation, or modification, of beneficial compressive residual stresses as a result of fatigue crack propagation. The crack growth rates are found to be substantially lower as the crack tip moved through the residual stress zone induced by cold expansion. The TSA results demonstrated that the crack tip plastic zones were reduced in size by the presence of the residual compressive stresses induced by cold expansion. The crack tip plastic zones were found to be insignificant in size in comparison to the residual stress zone resulting from cold expansion, which implied that they were unlikely to have had a notable impact on the surrounding residual stresses induced by cold expansion. The residual stress distributions measured along the direction of crack growth, using SXRD, showed no signs of any significant stress relaxation or redistribution, which validates the conclusions drawn from the TSA data. Fractographic analysis qualitatively confirmed the influence on crack initiation of the residual stresses induced by the cold expansion. It was found that the application of single compressive overload caused a relaxation, or reduction in the residual stresses, which has wider implications for improving the fatigue life. PMID:29291095

  3. Evaluation of residual stresses in welded part using hard synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi; Zhang Shuoyuan

    2013-01-01

    The spiral slit-system and DSTM (diffraction spot trace method) are under development in order to evaluate internal stresses of materials with coarse grains. The spiral slit-system was improved so that the length of the gauge volume is independent of the diffraction angle. The bending stress in the specimen with coarse grains was measured in order to confirm performance of this advanced spiral slit-system. The distribution of the measured bending stress coincided with the applied bending stress. As a result, it was proved that the combination of the advanced spiral slit-system and the DSTM is useful for the internal stress measurement of materials with coarse grains. The welded specimen of a Mg-alloy plate was prepared by melt-run with TIG welding. The residual stress map in the cross-section of the specimen was made using the DSTM. On the other hand, the residual stresses of the welded specimen were simulated by a finite element method. Although the measured residual stresses were similar to the simulated results, the residual stresses due to extrusion were measured also using the DSTM. The DSTM is an excellent technique for the stress measurement of weld parts. (author)

  4. High pressure study of nanostructured Cu2Sb by X-ray Diffraction, Extended X-ray Absorption fine structure and Raman measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Sergio Michielon de; Triches, Daniela Menegon; Lima, Joao Cardoso de; Polian, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Nanostructured tetragonal Cu 2 Sb was prepared by mechanical alloying and its stability was studied as a function of pressure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy. The high pressure XRD data were collected at 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 3.4, 5.0, 7.1, 8.0, 9.9, 14.8, 18.7, 23.2, 29.3 and 40.6 GPa in the ELETTRA synchrotron (Italy) with λ = 0.68881 Å. The high pressure EXAFS measurements were carried out in the Soleil synchrotron (France) in 0.6, 1.8, 3.0, 4.5, 6.1, 8.0, 10.3, 12.7, 15.5, 18.0, 19.0, 20.0, 22.1, 23.9, 26.3 and 29.4 GPa and the high pressure Raman spectroscopy in the Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses (France) collected at 0.1, 1.6, 3.7, 6.7, 11.2, 15.1, 19.4, 24.5, 30.8, 36.3, 41.3 and 44.5 GPa. The results show high structural and optical phase stability. The moduli bulk and its derivatives were obtained by using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of states to the XRD and EXAFS results. The evolution of the Raman modes and the bulk moduli were used to obtain the Grueneisen parameters. (author)

  5. Central X-ray beam correction of radiographic acetabular cup measurement after THA: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, T; Weber, M; Wörner, M; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J; Craiovan, B

    2017-05-01

    Accurate assessment of cup orientation on postoperative radiographs is essential for evaluating outcome after THA. However, accuracy is impeded by the deviation of the central X-ray beam in relation to the cup and the impossibility of measuring retroversion on standard pelvic radiographs. In an experimental trial, we built an artificial cup holder enabling the setting of different angles of anatomical anteversion and inclination. Twelve different cup orientations were investigated by three examiners. After comparing the two methods for radiographic measurement of the cup position developed by Lewinnek and Widmer, we showed how to differentiate between anteversion and retroversion in each cup position by using a second plane. To show the effect of the central beam offset on the cup, we X-rayed a defined cup position using a multidirectional central beam offset. According to Murray's definition of anteversion and inclination, we created a novel corrective procedure to balance measurement errors caused by deviation of the central beam. Measurement of the 12 different cup positions with the Lewinnek's method yielded a mean deviation of [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 1.3-2.3) from the original cup anteversion. The respective deviation with the Widmer/Liaw's method was [Formula: see text] (95 % CI 2.4-4.0). In each case, retroversion could be differentiated from anteversion with a second radiograph. Because of the multidirectional central beam offset ([Formula: see text] cm) from the acetabular cup in the cup holder ([Formula: see text] anteversion and [Formula: see text] inclination), the mean absolute difference for anteversion was [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for inclination. The application of our novel mathematical correction of the central beam offset reduced deviation to a mean difference of [Formula: see text] for anteversion and [Formula: see text

  6. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  7. X-ray microbeam measurements of individual dislocation cell elastic strains in deformed single-crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Yang, Wenge [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Delos-Reyes, Michael A. [University of Southern California; Fields, Richard J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of elastic strains (and thus stresses) at the sub-micrometer length scale within deformed metal single crystals has surprisingly broad implications for our understanding of important physical phenomena. These include the evolution of the complex dislocation structures that govern mechanical behavior within individual grains [1-4], the transport of dislocations through such structures [5-7], changes in mechanical properties that occur during reverse loading [8-10] (e.g. sheet metal forming), and the analyses of diffraction line profiles for microstructural studies of these phenomena [11-17]. We present the first direct, spatially-resolved measurements of the elastic strains within individual dislocation cells in copper single crystals deformed in tension and compression along <100> axes. Broad distributions of elastic strains are found, with profound implications for theories of dislocation structure evolution [4,18], dislocation transport [5-7], and the extraction of dislocation parameters from X-ray line profiles [11-17,19].

  8. Determination of semi-reducing layer and applied stress through spectra emitted by an X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a method for assessment of half value layer (HVL) and peak tube voltage (kVp) by means of experimental x-ray spectra measured using a CdTe detector. The work also evaluated spectrometry parameters such as dead time and count rate, and x-ray tube characteristics that can affect the assessment of these quantities. Two sets of x-ray spectra were measured: A) using Cu filters with different thicknesses and fixed tube current, and B) keeping a fixed Cu filtration and different tube current and, so, ranging the count rates. The spectrometer was energy calibrated using standard radioactive sources. kVp value was estimated by means of experimental measured x-ray spectra, using linear regression in order to search the end point of each spectrum. HVL was estimated after the correction of the measured spectra, using an analytical method implemented using Matlab® software. For comparison, HVL was also determined using a 30 cm"3 ion chamber and high purity Al filters. (author)

  9. Effect of beryllium filter purity on x-ray emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, M. B.; Franz, P.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium foils of the purity grade typically specified for use as filters in soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostics may contain sufficient heavy element impurities to distort the energy transmission response of the filter. Electron microprobe analysis of the foils used in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) SXR tomography diagnostic revealed an impurity content of ˜0.3% fractional abundance by weight, comprised primarily of iron, zirconium, chromium, and nickel. These impurities lower the peak filter transmission in the energy range of the detector and alter the shape of the transmission curve. As a result, foil impurities introduce errors in any general measurement where radiation is being filtered. For example, neglecting the effect of impurities on filter transmission leads to large systematic errors (50%) in the electron temperature measured using the SXR double-filter technique on MST.

  10. Effect of beryllium filter purity on x-ray emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, M B; Hartog, D J Den; Goetz, J A; Franz, P

    2014-01-01

    Beryllium foils of the purity grade typically specified for use as filters in soft x-ray (SXR) diagnostics may contain sufficient heavy element impurities to distort the energy transmission response of the filter. Electron microprobe analysis of the foils used in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) SXR tomography diagnostic revealed an impurity content of ∼0.3% fractional abundance by weight, comprised primarily of iron, zirconium, chromium, and nickel. These impurities lower the peak filter transmission in the energy range of the detector and alter the shape of the transmission curve. As a result, foil impurities introduce errors in any general measurement where radiation is being filtered. For example, neglecting the effect of impurities on filter transmission leads to large systematic errors (50%) in the electron temperature measured using the SXR double-filter technique on MST. (paper)

  11. X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Yoshikiyo; Adachi, Ichiro; Morita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogels used as radiator in proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors. To obtain high performance in a large-area detector, a key characteristic of radiator is the density (i.e. refractive index) uniformity of an individual aerogel monolith. At a refractive index of n=1.05, our requirement for the refractive index uniformity in the transverse plane direction of an aerogel tile is |δ(n−1)/(n−1)|<4% in a focusing dual layer radiator (with different refractive indices) scheme. We applied the radiographic technique to evaluate the density uniformity of our original aerogels from a trial production and that of Panasonic products (SP-50) as a reference, and to confirm they have sufficient density uniformity within ±1% along the transverse plane direction. The measurement results show that the proposed technique can quantitatively estimate the density uniformity of aerogels.

  12. Statistical x-ray computed tomography imaging from photon-starved measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiqian; Zhang, Ruoqiao; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Sauer, Ken; Bouman, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Dose reduction in clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) causes low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in photonsparse situations. Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms have the advantage of retaining image quality while reducing input dosage, but they meet their limits of practicality when significant portions of the sinogram near photon starvation. The corruption of electronic noise leads to measured photon counts taking on negative values, posing a problem for the log() operation in preprocessing of data. In this paper, we propose two categories of projection correction methods: an adaptive denoising filter and Bayesian inference. The denoising filter is easy to implement and preserves local statistics, but it introduces correlation between channels and may affect image resolution. Bayesian inference is a point-wise estimation based on measurements and prior information. Both approaches help improve diagnostic image quality at dramatically reduced dosage.

  13. Measurement of bone mineral using multiple-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar; Hansson, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported a method of determining the amount of bone mineral using triple-energy absorptiometry with a continuous x-ray spectrum. In the present study, the experimental properties of the technique were examined. The accuracy, the influence of fat content and body thickness and the in vitro and in vivo precision were analysed. The results found in this investigation showed that despite the complexity of the technique, the amount of bone mineral can be accurately determined. The in vivo precision was determined to be 3.4%, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), for different skeletal parts. The in vitro precision was found to be 2.1% (CV). Neither the fat content nor the body thickness had any effect on the measured bone mineral values. Excellent linearity and a close correlation were found between the true and the measured bone mineral values. (author)

  14. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering and Management

    2005-05-01

    For superheater tubes, the adherence of the inner steamside oxide is especially important as spallation of this oxide results in a) blockage of loops which cause insufficient steam flow through the superheaters and subsequently overheating and tube failure and b) spalled oxide can cause erosion of turbine blades. Oxide spallation is a serious problem for austenitic steels where the significant differences of the thermal expansion coefficients of steel and oxide cause relatively high thermal stresses. Usually, various oxides layered within the scale are suggested from microscopical observations of the morphology and/or topography of the oxide scale accompanied by the analysis of chemical elements present. Reports about the application of X-ray diffraction on the study of steamside oxide formation are very scarce in literature. If applied at all, XRD-studies are restricted to ideally flat samples oxidized under laboratory conditions, but relation to real operating conditions and the effect of the real sample geometry is missing. Within the frame of the project, steamside oxides on plant exposed components of ferritic/ martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 as well as fine- and coarse-grained austenitic TP347H were studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Depth dependent phase analysis on sample segments cut from the tubes was carried out by means of grazing incidence diffraction and, in order to obtain information from a larger depth, conventional XRD was combination with stepwise mechanical removal of the steamside oxides. After each removal step phase analysis was performed both on the segments and on the removed powders. Phase specific stress analysis was carried out on rings cut from the tube. Results show that steamside oxides on X20CrMoV12-1 consist of pure Hematite at the surface followed by a relatively thick layer of pure Magnetite. Both phases are under relatively high tensile stresses. While the phase composition of the Hematite layer appears to be the same for all

  15. Mechanical properties of phases in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel-Surface stresses studied by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, Rim; Braham, Chedly; Baczmanski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this work the parameters characterizing the individual elastoplastic mechanical behaviour of each phase in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steels are determined by using X-ray diffraction during a uniaxial tensile test. The interpretation of the experimental data is based on the diffraction elastic constants calculated by the self-consistent model taking the anisotropy of the studied materials into account. The elastoplastic model is used to predict the evolution of the internal stresses during loading, and to identify the critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The effect of the chemical composition on the individual elastoplastic behaviour of the studied phases is established by comparing results from three different samples. Finally, the X-ray diffraction results are compared with those previously obtained by using neutron radiation

  16. X-ray PIV measurement of blood flow in deep vessels of a rat: An in vivo feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-18

    X-ray PIV measurement is a noninvasive approach to measure opaque blood flows. However, it is not easy to measure real pulsatile blood flows in the blood vessels located at deep position of the body, because the surrounding tissues significantly attenuate the contrast of X-ray images. This study investigated the effect of surrounding tissues on X-ray beam attenuation by measuring the velocity fields of blood flows in deep vessels of a live rat. The decrease in image contrast was minimized by employing biocompatible CO2 microbubbles as tracer particles. The maximum measurable velocity of blood flows in the abdominal aorta of a rat model was found through comparative examination between the PIV measurement accuracy and the level of image contrast according to the input flow rate. Furthermore, the feasibility of using X-ray PIV to accurately measure in vivo blood flows was demonstrated by determining the velocity field of blood flows in the inferior vena cava of a rat. This study may serve as a reference in conducting in vivo X-ray PIV measurements of pulsatile blood flows in animal disease models and investigating hemodynamic characteristics and circulatory vascular diseases.

  17. Material density measurements from dynamic flash x-ray radiographs using axisymmetric tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugelso, E.

    1981-03-01

    The axisymmetric version of the tomographic x-ray reconstruction procedures has been utilized to determine the material density for the impact of a cylinder on a steel plate. Derivations of the reconstruction algorithms relating x-ray radiographic intensities to the material densities are presented. Effects of noise, point spread functions, and motion blur are minimized

  18. Simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron X-ray measurements in a gas environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, R.V.; Onderwaater, W.G.; Rost, M.J.; Jankowski, M.; Wenzel, S.; Jacobse, L.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; Vandalon, V.; van Spronsen, M.A.; van Weeren, M.; Crama, B.; van der Tuijn, P.; Felici, R.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Carlà, F.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Groot, I.M.N.

    2017-01-01

    A combined X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrument is presented that enables the local detection of X-ray absorption on surfaces in a gas environment. To suppress the collection of ion currents generated in the gas phase, coaxially shielded STM tips were used. The conductive outer

  19. Thermal expansion measurements by x-ray scattering and breakdown of Ehrenfest's relation in alloy liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Blodgett, M. E.; Johnson, M. L.; Vogt, A. J.; Mauro, N. A.; Kelton, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of sharp diffraction peaks as a function of temperature are routinely used to obtain precise linear expansion coefficients of crystalline solids. In this case, the relation between temperature dependent changes in peak position in momentum transfer (q 1 ) and volume expansion is straightforward (Ehrenfest's relation: q 1  = K(2π/d), where K is a constant and d is the interatomic spacing) and the data obtained are usually in close agreement with more direct measurements. With high intensity synchrotron x-ray and spallation neutron sources, it is also possible to accurately measure the positions of the much broader peaks for liquids and glasses. This has led to a debate on whether linear expansion coefficients derived from these data are an accurate representation of the volume expansion coefficients. We present here volume thermal expansion and x-ray diffraction data for a large number of glass-forming alloy liquids acquired in a containerless environment using the beamline electrostatic levitation technique. The data show a large difference in the values obtained from the two different techniques. Moreover, the position of the first peak (q 1 ) in the scattered intensity in the structure factor (S(q)) and the atomic volume v for all liquids follow a simple relationship, v∝(q 1 ) −ε . The exponent, ε = 2.28 (±0.11), is much different from the expected value of 3 from Ehrenfest's relation and shows no temperature dependence over the temperature range of the data collected

  20. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra; Mediciones indirectas de espectros de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  1. X-ray diffraction study of stress relaxation in cubic boron nitride films grown with simultaneous medium-energy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abendroth, B.; Gago, R.; Eichhorn, F.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    Relaxation of the intrinsic stress of cubic boron nitride (cBN) thin films has been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) using synchrotron light. The stress relaxation has been attained by simultaneous medium-energy ion bombardment (2-10 keV) during magnetron sputter deposition, and was confirmed macroscopically by substrate curvature measurements. In order to investigate the stress-release mechanisms, XRD measurements were performed in in-plane and out-of-plane geometry. The analysis shows a pronounced biaxial state of compressive stress in the cBN films grown without medium-energy ion bombardment. This stress is partially released during the medium-energy ion bombardment. It is suggested that the main path for stress relaxation is the elimination of strain within the cBN grains due to annealing of interstitials

  2. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeyeva Victoria; Domergue Christophe; Destouches Christophe; Girard Jean Michel; Philibert Hervé; Bonora Jonathan; Thiollay Nicolas; Lyoussi Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuo...

  3. Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 μm was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 μm. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ∼1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ∼24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup −5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

  4. Void fraction measurement in two-phase flow with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hufschmidt, W.; Clercq, E. de.

    1984-01-01

    The exact knowledge of the void fraction in two-phase flow systems with water and vapour is of great importance for water-reactors. A mesurement method not disturbing the fluid flow is the absorption technique X-rays. This method has been tested for the present case of small absorption lengths (about 16mm). In collaboration with the 'Lehrstuhl fuer elektronische Schaltungen' of the Ruhruniversitaet, Bochum (FRG), a rapid measurement device has been developed using ionization chambers. At present steady-state fluid in vertical tubes with homogeneous distribution of the two-phases water-vapour are tested at pressures in the range from 70 to 150 bars and rather good agreements with calculated values are found

  5. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y.; Murai, K.; Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of μm in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10 20 - 10 22 cm -3 with the XRL-GIR and for 10 19 - 10 20 cm -3 from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Structural phase transition in lanthanum gallate as studied by Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, P.; Pramanik, P. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, Anushree [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}) is known to undergo orthorhombic to rhombohedral first order phase transition at 150 C. In this article we have shown that by introducing 2% La deficiency in the system, coexistence of above two phases can be obtained at lower temperature and a complete phase transition occurs at 200 C. The evolution of structural parameters of the system with temperature is reported from X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis of the diffraction patterns. The change in local octahedral distortion due to 2% La deficiency is revealed through the shift in the phonon modes of GaO{sub 6} octahedra, in both orthorhombic and rhombohedral phase. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Effective Kα x-ray excitation rates for plasma impurity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hiroe, S.; Hulse, R.; Ramsey, A.T.; Sesnic, S.; Shimada, M.; Stratton, B.C.

    1986-06-01

    Metal impurity concentrations are measured by the Pulse-Height-Analyzer (PHA) diagnostic from Kα x-ray peak intensities by use of an averaged excitation rate . Low-Z impurity concentrations are inferred from the continuum enhancement (relative to a pure plasma) minus the enhancement due to metals. Since the PHA does not resolve lines from different charge states, is a weighted sum of rates; coronal equilibrium is usually assumed. The used earlier omitted the intercombination and forbidden lines from the dominant helium-like state. The result was an overestimate of metals and an underestimate of low-Z impurities in cases where metals were significant. Improved values of using recent calculations for H-, He-, and Li-like Fe range from 10 to 50% larger than the earlier rates and yield metal concentrations in better agreement with those from VUV spectroscopy

  8. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paperwork covers the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and a computing algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  9. Quantitative analysis and metallic coating thickness measurements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Moga, Sorin; Boicea, Niculae

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for determining the concentration and the coating thickness on metallic samples. The analysis method presented here may also be applicable to other coatings, providing that the elemental nature of the coating and substrate are compatible with the technical aspects of XRF, such as the absorption coefficient of the system, primary radiation, fluorescent radiation and type of detection. For the coating thickness measurement it was used the substrate-line attenuation method and an algorithm was developed. Its advantage relies in the fact that no special calibration with standard samples having different layer thickness is needed. The samples used for evaluation were metallic pieces of iron with zinc-nickel coatings of different thickness obtained by electrochemical deposition. (authors)

  10. Determination of ash content of coal by mass absorption coefficient measurements at two X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the ash content of coal is proposed. It involves measurements proportional to mass absorption coefficients of coal at two X-ray energies. These measurements can be made using X-ray transmission or scatter techniques. Calculations based on transmission of narrow beams of X-rays have shown that ash can be determined to about 1wt%(1 sigma) in coal of widely varying ash content and composition. Experimentally, ash content was determined to 0.67wt% by transmission techniques and 1.0wt% by backscatter techniques in coal samples from the Bulli seam, NSW, Australia, having ash in the range 11-34wt%. For samples with a much wider range of coal composition (7-53wt% ash and 0-25wt% iron in the ash), ash content was determined by backscatter measurements to 1.62wt%. The method produced ash determinations at least as accurate as those produced by the established technique which compensates for variation in iron content of the ash by X-ray fluorescence analysis for iron. Compared with the established technique, it has the advantage of averaging analysis over much larger volumes of coal, but the disadvantage that much more precise measurements of X-ray intensities are required. (author)

  11. Measurements of transient electron density distributions by femtosecond X-ray diffraction; Messungen transienter Elektronendichteverteilungen durch Femtosekunden-Roentgenbeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, Benjamin

    2013-05-02

    This thesis concerns measurements of transient charge density maps by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Different X-ray diffraction methods will be considered, particularly with regard to their application in femtosecond X-ray diffraction. The rotation method is commonly used in stationary X-ray diffraction. In the work in hand an X-ray diffraction experiment is demonstrated, which combines the method with ultrafast X-ray pulses. This experiment is the first implementation which makes use of the rotation method to map transient intensities of a multitude of Bragg reflections. As a prototype material Bismuth is used, which previously was studied frequently by femtosecond X-ray diffraction by measuring Bragg reflections successively. The experimental results of the present work are compared with the literature data. In the second part a powder-diffraction experiment will be presented, which is used to study the dynamics of the electron-density distribution on ultrafast time scales. The experiment investigates a transition metal complex after photoexcitation of the metal to ligand charge transfer state. Besides expected results, i. e. the change of the bond length between the metal and the ligand and the transfer of electronic charge from the metal to the ligand, a strong contribution of the anion to the charge transfer was found. Furthermore, the charge transfer has predominantly a cooperative character. That is, the excitation of a single complex causes an alteration of the charge density of several neighboring units. The results show that more than 30 transition-metal complexes and 60 anions contribute to the charge transfer. This collective response is a consequence of the strong coulomb interactions of the densely packed ions.

  12. Establishment of X-ray Measurement System for On-line Monitoring of Water Content in Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J. S. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Idealsystem Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On-line process monitoring is of critical importance in many industries, and therefore a variety of the state-of-the-art physical and chemical measurement techniques have been proposed. But, these techniques have their own pros and cons under the field process environments. Because the field process environments are very different from the well-organized chemical laboratories, many factors should be considered in order to optimize the process monitoring system. However, there have been few studies on the on-line measurement of water content in powder materials. For that reason, the X-ray measurement system based on the X-ray scattering technique, which was first proposed in 2011 as a new method for the determination of water content in powder, has been improved. in the present study, our original X-ray measurement system has been modified for more rapid, simple, and adequate for maximizing the field applicability of the on-line monitoring system

  13. Electrochemical vs X-ray Spectroscopic Measurements of NiFe(CN)6 Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecher, Benjamin; Hampton, Jennifer

    Pseudocapacitive materials like hexacyanoferrate have greater energy storage capabilities than standard capacitors while maintaining an ability to charge and discharge quickly. We modify the surface of an electrodeposited Ni thin film with a layer of hexacyanoferrate. Charging and discharging these modified films using cyclic voltammetry (CV) allows us to measure the electrochemically active Fe in the film. To determine how closely this resembles the full amount of Fe in the film, we measure the films' composition using particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). We also vary the amount of Ni deposited, both to compare the electrolysis value of charge deposited to the PIXE measurement of Ni in the film, and also to measure how varying the thickness of the Ni surface affects the presence of Fe in the film. Comparisons of the CV and PIXE measurements show agreement in Ni levels but disagreement in Fe levels. PIXE measurements of Fe in the film have positive correlation with Ni in the film. This correlation between PIXE measurements of Ni and Fe suggests that PIXE provides a reliable measure of Fe in the film. This implies that a variable proportion of total Fe in a given film is electrochemically active. This research was made possible by the Hope College Department of Physics Frissel Research Fund and the National Science Foundation under Grants RUI-DMR-1104725, MRI-CHE-0959282, and MRI/RUI-PHY-0319523.

  14. A measurement-based X-ray source model characterization for CT dosimetry computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Mitchell; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes. Third-party software, Spektr, and the nominal kVp settings were used to generate the energy spectra. Beam fluence was calculated by dividing the integral product of the spectra and the in-air NIST mass-energy attenuation coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the filter axis. The authors found the optimal number of photons to seed in kVDoseCalc to achieve dose convergence. The Philips Brilliance beams were modeled for 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. The GE Optima beams were modeled for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. Relative doses measured using a Capintec Farmer-type ionization chamber (0.65 cc) placed in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and irradiated by the Philips Brilliance, were compared to those computed with kVDoseCalc. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. The number of photons required to reduce the average statistical uncertainty in dose to measurement over all 12 PMMA phantom positions was found to be 1.44%, 1.47%, and 1.41% for 90, 120, and 140 kVp, respectively. The maximum percent difference between calculation and measurement for all energies, measurement positions, and phantoms was less than 3.50%. Thirty-five out of a total of 36 simulation conditions were

  15. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry–Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry–Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed. (paper)

  16. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry-Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed.

  17. Clinical usefulness of calcaneal measurements using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Jun; Nakata, Tomoko; Ito, Masako

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the clinical usefulness of calcaneal measurement using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the ability to detect bone loss and fracture risk were evaluated in comparison with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) measured using DXA and quantitative CT (QCT) and with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Furthermore, to investigate the region in calcaneus in which to detect bone change sensitively, the ability to detect bone loss and fracture risk were also evaluated using new regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually defined. The subjects were 165 healthy women, and 188 female patients with fracture, estrogen deficiency, and steroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcaneal BMD with some manually defined ROIs showed lower precision and less sensitivity in detecting bone loss than BMD measured with automatically defined ROIs. Calcaneal DXA, spinal DXA, and QCT demonstrated significant age-related bone loss, and all measurements could discriminate fracture cases from non-fracture cases. Calcaneal DXA could discriminate the bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency as well as spinal DXA. Furthermore, calcaneal measurements showed a greater ability to detect steroid-induced bone loss than spinal DXA, probably because this group included subjects of advanced age with spondylosis. In conclusion, calcaneal DXA is useful to assess BMD in subjects who are not suitable for spinal measurement, although the ability to detect age-related bone loss in calcaneal DXA is less than in spinal measurements. (author)

  18. Direct 3-D morphological measurements of silicone rubber impression using micro-focus X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamegawa, Masayuki; Nakamura, Masayuki; Fukui, Yu; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Hojo, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer models of dental arches play a significant role in prosthetic dentistry. The microfocus X-ray CT scanner has the advantage of capturing precise 3D shapes of deep fossa, and we propose a new method of measuring the three-dimensional morphology of a dental impression directly, which will eliminate the conversion process to dental casts. Measurement precision and accuracy were evaluated using a standard gage comprised of steel balls which simulate the dental arch. Measurement accuracy, standard deviation of distance distribution of superimposed models, was determined as +/-0.050 mm in comparison with a CAD model. Impressions and casts of an actual dental arch were scanned by microfocus X-ray CT and three-dimensional models were compared. The impression model had finer morphology, especially around the cervical margins of teeth. Within the limitations of the current study, direct three-dimensional impression modeling was successfully demonstrated using microfocus X-ray CT.

  19. A coherent/Compton scattering method employing an x-ray tube for measurement of trabecular bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puumalainen, P.; Uimarihuhta, A.; Olkkonen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Results showed that the x-ray generator could be used as a radiation source in the coherent/Compton scattering method of measuring trabecular bone mineral content. The quasimonoenergetic x-ray beam was produced from the continuous bremsstrahlung radiation with the aid of a spectral filter. Of the two measuring arrangements that were tested, the semiconductor detector geometry appeared to give distinctly more reproducible results than the two NaI detector system. However, to improve the counting efficiency of the coherent radiation, the 'coherent' NaI detector could be replaced by a bore-through scintillation probe (bore diameter about 10mm). By placing the x-ray fluorescence target inside the bore, the yield would be considerably higher. The present method is suitable for TBMC measurements of small animal and human peripheral bones. Errors are discussed in relation to increase of bone size. (U.K.)

  20. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) performance as well as dose and image quality is directly affected by the x-ray spectrum. However, the current assessment approaches of the CT x-ray spectrum require costly measurement equipment and complicated operational procedures, and are often limited to the spectrum corresponding to the center of rotation. In order to address these limitations, the authors propose an angle-dependent estimation technique, where the incident spectra across a wide range of angular trajectories can be estimated accurately with only a single phantom and a single axial scan in the absence of the knowledge of the bowtie filter. Methods: The proposed technique uses a uniform cylindrical phantom, made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and positioned in an off-centered geometry. The projection data acquired with an axial scan have a twofold purpose. First, they serve as a reflection of the transmission measurements across different angular trajectories. Second, they are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the phantom, which is then utilized to compute the intersection length of each transmission measurement. With each CT detector element recording a range of transmission measurements for a single angular trajectory, the spectrum is estimated for that trajectory. A data conditioning procedure is used to combine information from hundreds of collected transmission measurements to accelerate the estimation speed, to reduce noise, and to improve estimation stability. The proposed spectral estimation technique was validated experimentally using a clinical scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with spectra provided by the manufacturer serving as the comparison standard. Results obtained with the proposed technique were compared against those obtained from a second conventional transmission measurement technique with two materials (i.e., Cu and Al). After validation, the proposed technique was applied to measure