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Sample records for stress measurement results

  1. Results and conclusions of stress measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Leijon, B.; Ingevald, K.; Strindell, L.; Carlsson, Hans

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the results of stress measurements at Stripa, compares the results obtained by different techniques, and recommends a stress measurement program for a hard rock repository site. The state of stress at the Stripa Mine has been measured both in a 381m deep hole drilled from the surface and in holes drilled from the drifts underground. The results of overcoring and hydraulic fracturing agree well, particularly for the magnitude and orientation of the greatest stress. A recommended program for stress measurement at a repository site would include hydraulic fracturing and deep-hole overcoring in a deep hole drilled from surface, and ovecoring and hydraulic fracturing from holes drilled from underground openings when access is available. Propagation of the hydraulic fractures should be monitored acoustically to determine their location and orientation

  2. Results and conclusions of stress measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Leijon, B.; Ingevald, K.; Strindell, L.; Carlsson, H.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the results of stress measurements at Stripa, compares the results obtained by different techniques, and recommends a stress measurement program for a hard rock repository site. The state of stress at the Stripa Mine has been measured both in a 381-m-deep hole drilled from the surface and in holes drilled from the drifts underground. Hydraulic fracturing and several overcoring methods have been used (Lulea triaxial gauge, CSIRO gauge, USBM gauge, Swedish State Power Board deep-hole Leeman triaxial gauge). The results of overcoring and hydraulic fracturing agree well, particularly for the magnitude and orientation of the greatest stress. A recommended program for stress measurement at a repository site would include hydraulic fracturing and deep-hole overcoring in a deep hole drilled from surface, and overcoring (Lulea gauge and USBM gauge) and hydraulic fracturing from holes drilled from underground openings when access is available. Propagation of the hydraulic fractures should be monitored acoustically to determine their location and orientation

  3. In-situ stress measurements - results of experiments performed at the ASSE salt mine - Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddersen, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are heat generating wastes. Heat will be transferred to the surrounding salt formation. This heating of the host rock will result in an increased temperature and in stress changes. From 1983 through 1985 two underground tests were conducted in the Asse Salt Mine (Federal Republic of Germany) in which, among others, thermally induced stress changes were investigated. These tests are discussed in this paper

  4. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  5. Stress Measurement by Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. S.; Rossnagel, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Fast, simple technique measures stresses in thin films. Sample disk bowed by stress into approximately spherical shape. Reflected image of disk magnified by amount related to curvature and, therefore, stress. Method requires sample substrate, such as cheap microscope cover slide, two mirrors, laser light beam, and screen.

  6. Stress measurements using the CFDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Latif, I.A.; Khalil, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with neutron diffraction measurements performed using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility (CFDF) for stress analysis.The CFDF has 0.45% resolution and a value l.lxl0 6 neutrons . cm -2 , s -1 of integral neutron flux at the sample position. While one of the two samples used for the present measurements was made from two steel cylindrical rods ( 5.5 mm in diameter) electrically welded together, the second one was a stress free steel rod of the same material. The stress distribution after welding was studied from the measured, by the CFDF, diffraction patterns . It has been found from the present measurements that the strain at the welding point is higher than any point far from it; verifying that the CFDF can be successfully used for stress measurement

  7. Neutron-diffraction measurements of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments on bent steam-generator tubing have shown that different diffraction peaks, (1 1 1) or (0 0 2), give different results for the sign and magnitude of the stress and strain. From an engineering standpoint, the macroscopic stress field cannot be both positive and negative in the same volume, so this difference must be due to intergranular effects superposed on the macroscopic stress field. Uniaxial tensile test experiments with applied stresses beyond the 0.2% offset yield stress, help to understand this anomaly, by demonstrating the different strain response to applied stress along different crystallographic axes.When Zr-alloys are cooled from elevated temperatures, thermal stresses always develop, so that it is difficult to obtain a stress-free lattice spacing from which residual strains may be derived. From measurements of the temperature dependence of lattice spacing, the temperature at which the thermal stresses vanish may be found. From the lattice spacing at this temperature the stress-free lattice spacings at room temperature can be obtained readily.To interpret the measured strains in terms of macroscopic stress fields it is necessary to know the diffraction elastic constants. Neutron diffraction measurements of the diffraction elastic constants in a ferritic steel for the [1 1 0], [0 0 2] and [2 2 2] crystallographic axes, in directions parallel and perpendicular to the applied stress are compared with theoretical diffraction elastic constants. (orig.)

  8. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  9. Stress measurements in the Naesliden Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, B. [Univ. of Luleaa, Sweden; Carlsson, H.; Myrvang, A.

    1980-05-15

    Determinations of virgin stresses were performed at an early stage of the Naesliden Project in order to obtain input data for the finite element models of the mine. The Leeman three-dimensional overcoring technique was used at five locations on levels ranging from 210 m to 460 m below surface. Stress data were obtained at four of these locations. The results show an excess of horizontal stresses whilst the vertical stress is in accordance with the gravitational load from the overburden. The major and intermediate principal stresses are sub-horizontal and directed respectively perpendicular and parallel to the schisotsity of the wall rock and the strike of the tabular ore body. The minor principal stress is directed almost vertically. Stresses were also measured close to a stope on 300 m level in the mine. Biaxial and triaxial overcoring measurements were made at eighteen points between 0.25 m and 7.2 m above the roof of the stope. The stresses were found to have magnitudes of about 70 MPa close to the roof and to decrease rapidly with the distance from the roof. Stress measurements were made in connection with slot blastings in the foot wall, the latter measure being made in an attempt to de-stress the roof of stope 3. Two methods were used for stress monitorings, both showing that expected stress changes did not take place. Long-term stress guages have been installed in the ore body in order to monitor expected re-distributions of stresses due to mining. So far, the recorded stress changes are below 5 MPa.

  10. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  11. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  12. Measurements for stresses in machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, V F

    1964-01-01

    Measurements for Stresses in Machine Components focuses on the state of stress and strain of components and members, which determines the service life and strength of machines and structures. This book is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes the physical basis of several methods of measuring strains, which includes strain gauges, photoelasticity, X-ray diffraction, brittle coatings, and dividing grids. The basic concepts of the electric strain gauge method for measuring stresses inside machine components are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III elaborates on the results of experim

  13. The measurement of residual stresses in claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, G.; Bender, N.

    1978-01-01

    The ring core method, a variation of the hole drilling method for the measurement of biaxial residual stresses, has been extended to measure stresses from depths of about 5 to 25mm. It is now possible to measure the stress profiles of clad material. Examples of measured stress profiles are shown and compared with those obtained with a sectioning technique. (author)

  14. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, M.; Hanabusa, T.; Ikeuchi, Y.; Minakawa, N.

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin 2 ψ method. Furthermore, the sin 2 ψ method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  16. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  17. Laser-induced stresses versus mechanical stress power measurements during laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.A.; Russo, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced stresses resulting from high-power laser-material interactions have been studied extensively. However, the rate of change in mechanical energy, or stress power, due to laser-induced stresses has only recently been investigated. An unanswered question for monitoring laser-material interactions in the far-field is whether stress power differs from stresses measured, particularly with respect to laser-energy coupling to a solid target. This letter shows experimental acoustic data which demonstrate that stress power measured in the far field of the target shows changes in laser-energy coupling, whereas the stresses measured do not. For the ambient medium above the target, stress power and stress together reflect changes in laser-energy coupling. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Measurement of stress using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, Donald J; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    Stress analysis in polycrystalline materials reveals that stress can vary considerably among different subpopulations of grains. Samples of MgO and mixtures of MgO and spinel have been studied. After the onset of plastic flow, stronger grains or orientations will support more stress than the weaker grains. A grain to grain fabric develops that enables this stress partitioning. The stress partitioning and the resulting fabric can invalidate static measurements of elastic moduli. However, high temperature flow mechanisms reveal a more isotropic strength behaviour resulting in a more uniform variation of stress with orientation

  19. Test design requirements for overcoring stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for a series of overcoring stress measurements to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility. The stress measurements will be made to determine the in situ state of stress within the candidate repository horizon and to determine the magnitude and distribution of the stresses induced by the mined openings of the facility. The overcoring technique involves the measurement of strain (or deformation) in a volume of rock as the stress acting on the rock volume is relieved. This document presents an overview of the measurements, including objectives and rationale for the measurements. A description of the measurements is included. The support requirements are identified as are constraints for the design of the measurements. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 13 refs

  20. Background Stress Inventory: Developing a Measure of Understudied Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Gjerde, Jill M; Garofalo, John P

    2015-10-01

    Background stress is an understudied source of stress that involves both ambient stress and daily hassles upon which new stressors are superimposed. To date, an accurate measure of the background stress construct has not been available. We developed the Background Stress Inventory, a 25-item self-report measure that asks respondents to indicate how distressed they have felt over the past month and the majority of the past year across five domains: financial, occupation, environment, health and social. Seven hundred seventy-two participants completed the paper-and-pencil measure; the sample was randomly split into two separate subsamples for analyses. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors corresponding to these domains, and confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable global fit (X(2)(255) = 456.47, comparative fit index = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation = 0.045). Cronbach's alpha (0.89) indicated good internal reliability. Construct validity analyses showed significant positive relationships with measures of perceived stressfulness (r = 0.62) and daily hassles (0.41), p's < 0.01. Depressive symptoms (0.62) and basal blood pressure (0.21) were both significantly associated with background stress, p's < 0.01. The importance of the proposed measure is reflected in the limited research base on the impact of background stress. Systematic investigation of this measure will provide insight into this understudied form of chronic stress and its potential influence on both psychological and physical endpoints. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation

  2. X-ray measurement of residual stress on bolt threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nakahara, Kanefumi; Yoshimoto, Isamu.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with X-ray measurement of residual stress at the local area around the thread root of a bolt. Residual stress in the 0.5 mm x 5 mm area was measured using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation. The conditions of measurement had been determined and evaluated through the preliminary measurement of compressive stress acting on the cylindrical surface. Furthermore, the fatigue strength estimated by applying the residual stress data to the previously presented hypothesis was compared with the experimental results. The main conclusions obtained were as follows: (1) The residual stress in a relatively small area on the cylindrical surface with large curvature can be measured by X-ray using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation; (2) The compressive residual stress measured at the thread root was larger for the bolt manufactured by thread rolling after heat treatment than for one manufactured by thread rolling before heat treatment; (3) The distribution of residual stress along the axial direction from the thread root to the portion under crest did not represent remarkable change in its value; (4) The residual stress of a bolt was somewhat decreased by fatigue loading on the condition of low mean stress; (5) The fatigue strength estimated using residual stress data showed the tendency of experimental results well. (author)

  3. Residual stress measurement with focused acoustic waves and direct comparison with X-ray diffraction stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, Shamachary; Moran, Thomas J.; Martin, Richard W.; Reibel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The technique of measuring small changes in acoustic wave velocity due to external or internal stress has been used for quantitative determination of residual stress in materials during the last decade. Application of similar methodology with focused acoustic waves leads to residual stress measurement with spatial resolution of a few millimeters to a few microns. The high spatial resolution residual stress measurement required development of new methodologies in both the design of acoustic lenses and the instrumentation for acoustic wave velocity determination. This paper presents two new methodologies developed for the measurement of residual stress with spatial resolution of a few millimeters. The design of new type of acoustic lens for achieving higher spatial resolution in residual stress measurement is introduced. Development of instrumentation for high precision local surface wave velocity measurement will be presented. Residual stresses measured around a crack tip in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V using a focused beam will be compared with X-ray diffraction measurements performed on the same region of the sample. Results of residual stress measurements along a direction perpendicular to the electron beam weld in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V, determined using focused acoustic waves and X-ray diffraction technique, are also presented. The spatial resolution and penetration depth of X-rays and focused acoustic beams with reference to residual stress measurements are discussed

  4. Evaluation of stresses generated in steel finger joint of bridge by X-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Ami; Kawano, Yutaka; Nishido, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    In a steel bridge, the evaluation of the stress generated in the finger joint without a gap to absorb temperature change can be an index when evaluating the remaining life. This study chose as the object the finger joint of a diagonal bridge, where the generated stress state is considered to be more complicated, prepared a finger joint test specimen that simulated an actual part, and performed a load test. For judgment, FEM analysis, non-destructive X-ray stress measurement, and measurement of the generated stress using strain gauge were applied. Compared with the FEM analysis results, the difference in the stress value was generated due to the difference in the contact state, but the trends of the stress distribution were equivalent. In addition, the same measurement value as the strain gauge was obtained, and the validity of the X-ray stress measurement method was confirmed. As a result, it was found that the stress measurement method by X-ray is effective for measuring the generated stress including the residual stress of the finger joint without gap at a bridge. (A.O.)

  5. Residual stress measurement in socket welded joints by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Minakawa, Noriaki; Funahashi, Satoru.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of lattice spacings provide the spatial map of residual stress near welds in ferritic steel socket joints. The high tensile stress greater than 200 MPa was found in the fusion and heat-affected zones in the hoop direction. However, the highest tensile stress in the axial direction at the weld root was about 110 MPa relatively lower than the expected value from the fatigue test results. The balancing compressive stress was found near the surface of the socket weld fusion zone. Heat treatment at 625degC for 2 hours was sufficient for the relief of residual stress in socket welds. (author)

  6. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  7. The Uncertainty of Measurement Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    Factors affecting the uncertainty of measurement are explained, basic statistical formulae given, and the theoretical concept explained in the context of pesticide formulation analysis. Practical guidance is provided on how to determine individual uncertainty components within an analytical procedure. An extended and comprehensive table containing the relevant mathematical/statistical expressions elucidates the relevant underlying principles. Appendix I provides a practical elaborated example on measurement uncertainty estimation, above all utilizing experimental repeatability and reproducibility laboratory data. (author)

  8. Work site stress management: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J E

    1989-12-01

    The National Survey of Work Site Health Promotion Activities established baseline data on the frequency of nine types of health promotion activity at private work sites with more than 50 employees in the United States. Stress management activities were provided at 26.6% of work sites. Types of activities at those work sites with some stress management activity included group counseling (58.5%), individual counseling (39.3%), follow-up counseling (25.9%), special events (11.5%), providing information about stress (80.7%), providing a place to relax (64.8%), and making organizational changes to reduce employee stress (81.2%). Frequency of activities varied by industry type and by region of the country. Incidence of most types of activities did not increase as work site size increased, although the likelihood of having any of these activities did increase with work site size. Stress management activities were more likely to be present at work sites with a medical staff or health educator. An increase in output, productivity, or quality was the most frequently cited benefit (46.5%). Negative effects were reported at 2.6% of the work sites. Other health promotion activities found at the work sites surveyed included smoking cessation (61.8%), treatment and control of high blood pressure (36.7%), and weight control (34.7%). Employee Assistance Programs were responsible for stress management at 62% of the work sites with an Employee Assistance Program.

  9. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  10. Stress measurement by x-ray diffractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C M

    1985-10-22

    This invention relates to x-ray diffractometry and more particularly to apparatus and methods for the measurement of residual stress in polycrystalline, e.g. metallic, specimens. The procedure is based on measurement of the lattice strain of crystals by x-ray diffraction, in which change in the interplanar spacing of a set of crystal lattice planes due to strain causes a change in the diffraction angle of the scattered x-ray beam, from which latter change the magnitude of the strain can be determined. In a polycrystalline specimen, from well know relations for elastic behaviour in isotropic materials, the stress on a plane normal to a given direction in the surface has a component in the given direction which can be calculated from measurement of lattice strain in two directions in a plane containing the given direction and the normal to the specimen surface. In general three such stress components in three directions in the surface are required to determine the principal stresses and thus express the state of stress in the surface. (author). 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Recent advances in residual stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.; Buttle, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently residual stresses have been included in structural integrity assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and piping in a very primitive manner due to the lack of reliable residual stress measurement or prediction tools. This situation is changing the capabilities of newly emerging destructive (i.e. the contour method) and non-destructive (i.e. magnetic and high-energy synchrotron X-ray strain mapping) residual stress measurement techniques for evaluating ferritic and austenitic pressure vessel components are contrasted against more well-established methods. These new approaches offer the potential for obtaining area maps of residual stress or strain in welded plants, mock-up components or generic test-pieces. The mapped field may be used directly in structural integrity calculations, or indirectly to validate finite element process/structural models on which safety cases for pressurised nuclear systems are founded. These measurement methods are complementary in terms of application to actual plant, cost effectiveness and measurements in thick sections. In each case an exemplar case study is used to illustrate the method and to highlight its particular capabilities

  12. Development of a stress sensor based on the piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate for impact stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Xu, Bin; Li, Lifei; Li, Bing

    2012-04-01

    The measurement of stress of concrete structures under impact loading and other strong dynamic loadings is crucial for the monitoring of health and damage detection. Due to its main advantages including availability, extremely high rigidity, high natural frequency, wide measuring range, high stability, high reproducibility, high linearity and wide operating temperature range, piezoelectric (Lead Zirconate Titanate, PZT) ceramic materials has been a widely used smart material for both sensing and actuation for monitoring and control in engineering structures. In this paper, a kind of stress sensor based on piezoelectric ceramics for impact stress measuring of concrete structures is developed. Because the PZT is fragile, in order to employ it for the health monitoring of concrete structures, special handling and treatment should be taken to protect the PZT and to make it survive and work properly in concrete. The commercially available PZT patch with lead wires is first applied with an insulation coating to prevent water and moisture damage, and then is packaged by jacketing it by two small precasted cylinder concrete blocks with enough strength to form a smart aggregate (SA). The employed PZT patch has a dimension of 10mm x 10mm x 0.3mm. In order to calibrate the PZT based stress sensor for impact stress measuring, a dropping hammer was designed and calibration test on the sensitivity of the proposed transducer was carried out with an industry charge amplifier. The voltage output of the stress sensor and the impact force under different free falling heights and impact mass were recorded with a high sampling rate data acquisition system. Based on the test measurements, the sensibility of the PZT based stress sensor was determined. Results show that the output of the PZT based stress sensor is proportional to the stress level and the repeatability of the measurement is very good. The self-made piezoelectric stress sensor can be easily embedded in concrete and provide

  13. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  14. Evaluation of stress gradient by x-ray stress measurement based on change in angle phi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    A new principle of X-ray stress evaluation for a sample with steep stress gradient has been prosed. The feature of this method is that the stress is determined by using so-called phi-method based on the change of phi-angle and thus has no effect on the penetration depth of X-rays. The procedure is as follows; firstly, an average stress within the penetration depth of X-rays is determined by changing only phi-angle under a fixed psi-angle, and then a distribution of the average stress vs. the penetration depth of X-rays is detected by repeating the similar procedure at different psi-angles. The following conclusions were found out as the result of residual stress measurements on a carbon steel of type S 55 C polished by emery paper. This method is practical enough to use for a plane stress problem. And the assumption of a linear stress gradient adopted in the authors' previous investigations is valid. In case of a triaxial stress analysis, this method is effective for the solution of three shearing stresses. However, three normal stresses can not be solved perfectly except particular psi-angles. (author)

  15. Analysis of rock stress and rock stress measurements with application to Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, Beatrice

    2000-11-01

    The process of choosing a site for a nuclear waste repository means that many aspects have to be taken into consideration. One of these is that the repository has to be mechanically stable for a long time. The mechanical stability of the rock is very difficult to determine. One of several factors, which determine the mechanical stability, is the virgin state of stress. The thesis project consists of two parts. In the first part the state of stress at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory had to be defined. This was done based on earlier rock stress measurements conducted during the years 1988 to 1997. Two different measurement techniques have been used, hydraulic fracturing and overcoring. During the overcoring two types of cells have been used, CSIRO HI-cell and a cell developed by the Swedish State Power Board (SSPB). In the second part of the project, investigation of the correlation between the stress and geological structures are made using numerical modelling tools such as FLAC, UDEC and 3DEC. The rock stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing gave orientations of the horizontal stress that coincide with earlier hydraulic fracturing measurements conducted in Scandinavia. The magnitudes of rock stresses are slightly lower than the earlier reported stress magnitudes for the Scandinavian part of the earth crust. The rock stresses obtained from the overcoring resulted in higher stresses than what was predicted by the hydraulic fracturing measurements. However, the orientation of the maximum horizontal stresses coincides well between the two techniques. The orientation is also more or less constant with respect to increasing depth. The state of stress at Aespoe is defined by using the results from the hydraulic fracturing and the measurements conducted by SSPB-cell. The measurements from the SSPB-cell are used since these have a Poisson's ratio that corresponds well with the uniaxial tests of rock samples and since the measurements have been done at a distance from

  16. FIB-based measurement of local residual stresses on microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Sabate, Neus; Gollhardt, Astrid; Keller, Juergen; Auersperg, Juergen; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    The paper comprises research results obtained for stress determination on micro and nanotechnology components. It meets the concern of controlling stresses introduced to sensors, MEMS and electronics devices during different micromachining processes. The method bases on deformation measurement options made available inside focused ion beam equipment. Removing locally material by ion beam milling existing stresses / residual stresses lead to deformation fields around the milled feature. Digital image correlation techniques are used to extract deformation values from micrographs captured before and after milling. In the paper, two main milling features have been analyzed - through hole and through slit milling. Analytical solutions for stress release fields of in-plane stresses have been derived and compared to respective experimental findings. Their good agreement allows to settle a method for determination of residual stress values, which is demonstrated for thin membranes manufactured by silicon micro technology. Some emphasis is made on the elimination of main error sources for stress determination, like rigid body object displacements and rotations due to drifts of experimental conditions under FIB imaging. In order to illustrate potential application areas of the method residual stress suppression by ion implantation is evaluated by the method and reported here.

  17. High-resolution stress measurements for microsystem and semiconductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Keller, Juergen; Michel, Bernd

    2006-04-01

    Research results obtained for local stress determination on micro and nanotechnology components are summarized. It meets the concern of controlling stresses introduced to sensors, MEMS and electronics devices during different micromachining processes. The method bases on deformation measurement options made available inside focused ion beam equipment. Removing locally material by ion beam milling existing stresses / residual stresses lead to deformation fields around the milled feature. Digital image correlation techniques are used to extract deformation values from micrographs captured before and after milling. In the paper, two main milling features have been analyzed - through hole and through slit milling. Analytical solutions for stress release fields of in-plane stresses have been derived and compared to respective experimental findings. Their good agreement allows to settle a method for determination of residual stress values, which is demonstrated for thin membranes manufactured by silicon micro technology. Some emphasis is made on the elimination of main error sources for stress determination, like rigid body object displacements and rotations due to drifts of experimental conditions under FIB imaging. In order to illustrate potential application areas of the method residual stress suppression by ion implantation is evaluated by the method and reported here.

  18. Measuring type II stresses using 3DXRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...... including error estimation and outlier rejection. As examples of use results from two experiments – one on interstitial free (IF) steel and one on copper – will be presented. In the first experiment 96 grains in one layer of IF steel were monitored during elastic loading and unloading. Very consistent...

  19. Residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintschovius, L.; Jung, V.; Macherauch, E.; Voehringer, O.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of multiaxial residual stress states is presented, which is based on high resolution neutron diffraction. It is analogous to X-ray stress analysis, but the use of neutrons instead of X-rays allows the analysis of the stress distributions also in the interior of technical components in a non-destructive way. To prove the feasibility of the method, investigations of the loading stress distributions of an aluminium bar subjected to purely elastic bending were performed. Limiting factors due to the volume of the internal probe region and the sample thickness are discussed. Complete neutron residual stress analyses were carried out for a plastically deformed bending bar and a transformation-free water-quenched steel cylinder. The results are in fairly good agreement with theoretical expectations and with X-ray control measurements at the surface of the objects. (Auth.)

  20. Soil compaction: Evaluation of stress transmission and resulting soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    strength. As soon as the applied load is lower than the aggregate strength, the mode of stress transmission is discrete as stresses were mainly transmitted through chain of aggregates. With increasing applied load soil aggregates start deforming that transformed heterogeneous soil into homogenous......, as a result stress transmission mode was shifted from discrete towards more like a continuum. Continuum-like stress transmission mode was better simulated with Boussinesq (1885) model based on theory of elasticity compared to discrete. The soil-pore structure was greatly affected by increasing applied...... and compaction-resulted soil structure at the same time. Stress transmission was quantified using both X-ray CT and Tactilus sensor mat, and soil-pore structure was quantified using X-ray CT. Our results imply that stress transmission through soil highly depends on the magnitude of applied load and aggregate...

  1. Soil compaction: Evaluation of stress transmission and resulting soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas; Lamande, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of stress transmission and resultant deformation in soil profiles is a prerequisite for the development of predictive models and decision support tools for preventing soil compaction. Numerous studies have been carried out on the effects of soil compaction, whilst relatively few studies have focused on the cause (mode of stress transmission in the soil). We have coupled both cause and effects together in the present study by carrying out partially confined compression tests on (1) wet aggregates, (2) air dry aggregates, and (3) intact soils to quantify stress transmission and compaction-resulted soil structure at the same time. Stress transmission was quantified using both X-ray CT and Tactilus sensor mat, and soil-pore structure was quantified using X-ray CT. Our results imply that stress transmission through soil highly depends on the magnitude of applied load and aggregate strength. As soon as the applied load is lower than the aggregate strength, the mode of stress transmission is discrete as stresses were mainly transmitted through chain of aggregates. With increasing applied load soil aggregates start deforming that transformed heterogeneous soil into homogenous, as a result stress transmission mode was shifted from discrete towards more like a continuum. Continuum-like stress transmission mode was better simulated with Boussinesq (1885) model based on theory of elasticity compared to discrete. The soil-pore structure was greatly affected by increasing applied stresses. Total porosity was reduced 5-16% and macroporosity 50-85% at 620 kPa applied stress for the intact soils. Similarly, significant changes in the morphological indices of the macropore space were also observed with increasing applied stresses.

  2. Measurements of the state of stress in deep drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, A.; Saerkkae, P.

    1985-05-01

    The state of stress in rock is one of the most important parameters in the safe planning of stable underground openings in rock. At the same time, it is very difficult to be determined from a great distance. The common methods for the determination of state of stress in bedrock are usually not able to do this from a distance over 30 m. This work is a survey on rock stress determination methods usable in deep, over 500 m, drill holes. It also contains a recommendation for a method to determine the state of stress in Lavia test hole. The presented recommendation for the measurement of the state of stress contains an estimation on the working time for the measurement as well as the amount and location of the measuring points. The examination of the methods has been concentrated on three methods, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring by Vattenfall and differential strain analysis. Theoretical background of these methods has been analyzed. A special interest has been laid on the fundamental assumptions of different methods and their influence on the reliability of the results and the interpretation of the state of stress. The comparison of the methods has been made by literature and user interviews. Equipment and personnel needed, and way of measurement are described for the methods. The parameters measured and their possible sources of errors are described, too, as well as the fundamental assumptions and potential difficulties in the measurement. The organizations in Scandinavia performing measurements and their abilities to do measurements and interpretation are presented. Readiness to interpretation in Finland is described shortly

  3. Accuracy of soil stress measurements as affected by transducer dimensions and shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Keller, Thomas; Berisso, Feto Esimo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of soil stress are needed to evaluate the impact of traffic on soil properties and prevent soil compaction. Four types of transducer commonly used to measure vertical stress were calibrated in realistic traffic conditions in the field. The four transducer types differed...... in shape and dimensions, which are important factors influencing stress. Deviation of measured stress from true stress ranged from 15% underestimation to 18% overestimation, with transducer thickness to width ratio being the most important shape factor influencing the stress recorded. Changes in physical...... conditions in the soil above the transducers due to their installation did not influence the accuracy of vertical stress measurements. The results of this calibration are valid for correcting stress measurements in topsoil, but should be used with caution for vertical stress measurements in subsoil. All...

  4. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  5. Rock stress measurements using the LUT-Gauge overcoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1988-04-01

    With overcoring techniques, rock stresses are determined indirectly from measurements of the dimensional changes of a borehole, occurring when the rock volume surrounding the hole is isolated from the stresses in the host rock. This thesis describes the development and application of an overcoring technique. The key-component of the instrumentation that has been developed is a triaxial borehole strain cell, referred to as the LUT-Gauge. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the instrumentation. Special emphasis was given to determining temperature sensitivity of the measuring system since this was identified as a potential source of measurement error. Results indicated good instrument reliability and that the measurement error due to temperature variations typically experienced under field conditions is ± 1 MPa or less. The technique was also evaluated by a series of field tests. Comparison of the results obtained by the different methods showed satisfactory agreement. Analysis of the comprehensive field data collected showed that the confidence that can be attached to an overcoring test is largely governed by the mechanical characteristics of the overcored specimen. Expressed as the standard deviation of the mean stress magnitude, the scatter obtained from repeated testing within a borehole section of about 10 m in length, is found to be ± 4 MPa or less. Rock engineering investigations typically refer to a scale of hundreds of metres or more. This study has demonstrated the existence of significant variations of the stress field on this scale. These variations thus impose difficulties in the application of stress data to the analysis of problems in rock engineering, since the pointwise results obtained from stress measurements cannot be extrapolated with good confidence. (30 refs.) (author)

  6. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  7. Investigating Resulting Residual Stresses during Mechanical Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Most manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, heat treatment, laser forming, laser cladding and, laser metal deposition, etc. are subjected to a form of heat or energy to change the geometrical shape thus changing the inherent engineering and structural properties of the material. These changes often cause the development of locked up stresses referred to as residual stresses as a result of these activities. This study reports on the residual stresses developed due to the mechanical forming process to maintain a suitable structural integrity for the formed components. The result of the analysis through the X-ray diffraction confirmed that residual stresses were induced in the manufactured parts and further revealed that residual stresses were compressive in nature as found in the parent material but with values less than the parent material.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  9. Magnitude of shear stress on the san andreas fault: implications of a stress measurement profile at shallow depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M D; Roller, J C

    1979-10-26

    A profile of measurements of shear stress perpendicular to the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, shows a marked increase in stress with distance from the fault. The pattern suggests that shear stress on the fault increases slowly with depth and reaches a value on the order of the average stress released during earthquakes. This result has important implications for both long- and shortterm prediction of large earthquakes.

  10. Stress measurement in thin films by geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Gilstrap, P.; Rujkorakarn, R.

    1982-01-01

    A variation of Newton's rings experiment is proposed for measuring film stress. The procedure described, the geometrical optics method, is used to measure radii of curvature for a series of film depositions with Ta, Al, and Mo films. The method has a sensitivity of 1 x 10 to the 9th dyn/sq cm, corresponding to the practical radius limit of about 50 m, and a repeatability usually within five percent. For the purposes of comparison, radii are also measured by Newton's rings method and the Talysurf method; all results are found to be in general agreement. Measurement times are also compared: the geometrical optics method requires only 1/2-1 minute. It is concluded that the geometrical optics method provides an inexpensive, fast, and a reasonably correct technique with which to measure stresses in film.

  11. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  12. Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurement at Haestholmen, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, C.; Klasson, H.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents hydraulic fracturing measurements in two boreholes located on the Haestholmen island near Loviisa, Finland. The aim of the measurements was to provide stress data, forming input for the design of an underground facility for disposal of low- and medium-level waste as well as future plant decommissioning radioactive waste from the IVO reactor units situated on Haestholmen. The theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method is summarized, as is the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case. All results obtained are presented and critically discussed. The final stress parameters presented are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to schedule in both boreholes.(orig.)

  13. A Shortened Stress Measure in Military Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From- To) 10/17/2017 Abstract 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER A Shortened Stress Measure in Military...Psychology 14. ABSTRACT A Shortened Stress Measure with Military Nursing Personnel Abstract Stress is a psychological construct with important...consequences for human health. A substantial number of stress measures are available that vary in length and dimensionality. The purpose of this study was to

  14. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  15. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  16. Calibration of Heat Stress Monitor and its Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2017-07-01

    Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) equation is a heat stress index that gives information for the workers in the industrial areas. WBGT equation is described in ISO Standard 7243 (ISO 7243 in Hot environments—estimation of the heat stress on working man, based on the WBGT index, ISO, Geneva, 1982). WBGT is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the natural wet-bulb temperature, dry-bulb temperature, and air temperature. WBGT is a calculated parameter. WBGT uses input estimates, and heat stress monitor measures these quantities. In this study, the calibration method of a heat stress monitor is described, and the model function for measurement uncertainty is given. Sensitivity coefficients were derived according to GUM. Two-pressure humidity generators were used to generate a controlled environment. Heat stress monitor was calibrated inside of the generator. Two-pressure humidity generator, which is located in Turkish Standard Institution, was used as the reference device. This device is traceable to national standards. Two-pressure humidity generator includes reference temperature Pt-100 sensors. The reference sensor was sheltered with a wet wick for the calibration of natural wet-bulb thermometer. The reference sensor was centred into a black globe that has got 150 mm diameter for the calibration of the black globe thermometer.

  17. Field instrumentation for hydrofracturing stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Bjarni; Torikka, Arne.

    1989-08-01

    A recently developed system for rock stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing method is documented in detail. The new equipment is intended for measurement in vertical or nearvertical boreholes, down to a maximum depth of 1000 m. The minimum borehole, diameter required is 56 mm. Downhole instrumentation comprises a straddle packer assembly for borehole fracturing, equipment for determination of fracture orientations and a pressure transducer. The downhole tools are operated by means of a multihose system, containing high pressure hydraulic tubings, signal cable and carrying wire into one hose unit. The surface components of the equipment include a system for generation and control of water pressures up to approximately 75 MPa, an hydraulically operated drum for the multihose and a data acquisition system. All surface instrumentation is permanently mounted on a truck, which also serves as power source for the instrumentation. In addition to the description of instrumentation, the theoretical fundament and the testing procedures associated with the hydraulic fracturing method are briefly outlined

  18. Residual stress investigation of copper plate and canister EB-Welds Complementary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripenberg, H.

    2009-03-01

    The residual stresses in copper as induced by EB-welding were studied by specimens where the weld had two configurations: either a linear or a circumferential weld. This report contains the residual stress measurements of two plates, containing linear welds, and the full-scale copper lid specimen to which a hollow cylinder section had been joined by a circumferential EB-weld. The residual stress state of the EB-welded copper specimens was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hole drilling (HD) ring core (RC) and contour method (CM). Three specimens, canister XK010 and plates X251 and X252, were subjected to a thorough study aiming at quantitative determination of the residual stress state in and around the EB-welds using XRD for surface and HD and RC for spatial stress analysis. The CM maps one stress component over a whole cross section. The surface residual stresses measured by XRD represent the machined condition of the copper material. The XRD study showed that the stress changes towards compression close to the weld in the hollow cylinder, which indicates shrinkage in the hoop direction. According to the same analogy, the shrinkage in the axial direction is much smaller. The HD measurements showed that the stress state in the base material is bi-axial and, in terms of von Mises stress, 50 MPa for the plates and 20 MPa for the cylinder part of the canister. The stress state in the EB-welds of all specimens differs clearly from the stress state in the base material being more tensile, with higher magnitudes of von Mises stress in the plate than in the canister welds. The HD and RC results were obtained using linear elastic theory. The RC measurements showed that the maximum principal stress in the BM is close to zero near the surface and it becomes slightly tensile, 10 MPa, deeper under the surface. Welding pushed the general stress state towards tension with the maximum principal stress reaching 50 MPa, deeper than 5 mm below the surface in the weld. The

  19. Measurement and simulation of deformation and stresses in steel casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galles, D.; Monroe, C. A.; Beckermann, C.

    2012-07-01

    Experiments are conducted to measure displacements and forces during casting of a steel bar in a sand mold. In some experiments the bar is allowed to contract freely, while in others the bar is manually strained using embedded rods connected to a frame. Solidification and cooling of the experimental castings are simulated using a commercial code, and good agreement between measured and predicted temperatures is obtained. The deformations and stresses in the experiments are simulated using an elasto-viscoplastic finite-element model. The high temperature mechanical properties are estimated from data available in the literature. The mush is modeled using porous metal plasticity theory, where the coherency and coalescence solid fraction are taken into account. Good agreement is obtained between measured and predicted displacements and forces. The results shed considerable light on the modeling of stresses in steel casting and help in developing more accurate models for predicting hot tears and casting distortions.

  20. Measurement and simulation of deformation and stresses in steel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galles, D; Beckermann, C; Monroe, C A

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to measure displacements and forces during casting of a steel bar in a sand mold. In some experiments the bar is allowed to contract freely, while in others the bar is manually strained using embedded rods connected to a frame. Solidification and cooling of the experimental castings are simulated using a commercial code, and good agreement between measured and predicted temperatures is obtained. The deformations and stresses in the experiments are simulated using an elasto-viscoplastic finite-element model. The high temperature mechanical properties are estimated from data available in the literature. The mush is modeled using porous metal plasticity theory, where the coherency and coalescence solid fraction are taken into account. Good agreement is obtained between measured and predicted displacements and forces. The results shed considerable light on the modeling of stresses in steel casting and help in developing more accurate models for predicting hot tears and casting distortions.

  1. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  2. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G A; Ezeilo, A N [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  3. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  4. The Measurement of Stressful Events in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Lin, Chong-De; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The "Chinese College Stress Scale" was developed to ascertain stress in university students. Results suggested that the psychometric properties of the "Chinese College Stress Scale" were satisfactory. Overall, student stress was primarily related to academic, personal, and negative life events. Approximately 8% of Chinese…

  5. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  6. Hole Drilling Technique – on site stress measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    2. Hole Drilling Technique for onsite stress measurement has been used to validate the stress level at 2 pillars of the Sint-Jacobschurch (Leuven, B). The technique allows estimating the stress in a stone from measuring deformation when a small hole is made. It is a low intrusive technique. The application of it is limited to local stress measurements and is a complement to stress estimate from calculations of from the use of –for example- flat jacks. In addition to the flat-jack technique...

  7. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  8. Measuring in-situ stress in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The hydrofracturing method of in-situ stress measurement is the only technique which has been proven to be reliable in boreholes below depths of 300 m. The method has been used in a variety of applications at depths of up to 5000m, and in a range of borehole diameters. The equipment used is composed of standard components from proven and long-established oil industry well-logging tools and is simple to operate. This is preferable to the delicate electrical devices used in the overcoring stress measurement method. Electrical components are difficult to waterproof, very small strains are monitored and the tendency of electrical circuits to drift, due to a variety of effects, makes interpretation of the results difficult. However, the interpretation of hydrofracturing test results is often not easy. Many factors can prevent ideal fracturing behaviour from occurring, in which case conventional analyses will yield incorrect answers. The complete state of stress can often not be determined and sweeping assumptions are commonly made about principal stress direction, which cannot always be subsequently verified. (author)

  9. Stress and strain measurements in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askegaard, V.

    1978-01-01

    A design basis is given for stress- and strain cells to be used in a solid either externally loaded or with a stressfree strain field (for example shrinkage). A stress- and a strain cell has been designed for use in granular materials. Calibration tests show either good or reasonably good correspondance with calculated values. (orig.) [de

  10. Monthly results of measurements, May 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  11. Monthly results of measurements, october 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface waters, underground water, drinking water, sewage water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites, sediments. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  12. Monthly results of measurements, October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This October 1986 report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident, with an exceptional control of migratory birds [fr

  13. Monthly results of measurements, february 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobylsk accident [fr

  14. Monthly results of measurements, Nov 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  15. Monthly results of measurements, May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface waters, underground water, drinking water, sewage water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites, sediments. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  16. Monthly results of measurements, November 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  17. Monthly results of measurements, August 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface waters, underground water, drinking water, sewage water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites, sediments. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  18. Monthly results of measurements, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, cattle thyroids, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites, sediments. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident, in various food samples [fr

  19. Monthly results of measurements, August 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes) seawater around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  20. Monthly results of measurements, July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accidents [fr

  1. Monthly results of measurements, Oct 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  2. Monthly results of measurements, Aug 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  3. Monthly results of measurements, Oct 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  4. Monthly results of measurements, november 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  5. Monthly results of measurements, Jul 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  6. Monthly results of measurements April 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  7. Monthly results of measurements, Apr 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. This report exposes also the results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident [fr

  8. Comparison of residual stress measurement in thin films using surface micromachining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Luo, Z.X.; Chen, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Conductive, dielectric, semiconducting, piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films are extensively used for MEMS/NEMS applications. One of the important parameters of thin films is residual stress. The residual stress can seriously affect the properties, performance and long-term stability of the films. Excessive compressive or tensile stress results in buckling, cracking, splintering and sticking problems. Stress measurement techniques are therefore essential for both process development and process monitoring. Many suggestions for stress measurement in thin films have been made over the past several decades. This paper is concentrated on the in situ stress measurement using surface micromachining techniques to determine the residual stress. The authors review and compare several types of stress measurement methods including buckling technique, rotating technique, micro strain gauge and long-short beam strain sensor

  9. Measurement of residual stresses in welded sample of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Martins, Geraldo Antonio Scoralick; Atanazio Filho, Nelson do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    reactors, what can generate significant residual stresses due so much to the welding procedure as for the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the involved materials. In this work, are shown the results of the measurement of residual tensions in welded sample of steel carbon SA 508 Cl 3 and stainless steel 316L. The Inconel 182 was used as weld metal. (author)

  10. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    present this new and unique stress measurement system and some initial test results from a 1200 m long borehole in crystalline rock.

  11. Initial Results from the New Stress Map of Texas Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Modern techniques for characterizing tectonic stress orientation and relative magnitude have been successfully used for more than 35 years. Nevertheless, large areas of North America lack high spatial resolution maps of stress orientation, magnitude, and faulting regime. In Texas, for example, data are foundational elements of attempts to characterize tectonic driving forces, understand hazards associated with induced seismicity, and optimize production of oil, gas, and geothermal resources. This year, we launched the Texas Stress Map project to characterize tectonic stress patterns at higher spatial resolution across Texas and nearby areas. Following a successful effort just completed in Oklahoma, we will evaluate borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, shear wave anisotropy, and earthquake data. The principal data source will be FMI (fullbore formation microimager), UBI (ultrasonic borehole imager), cross-dipole sonic, density, and caliper logs provided by private industry. Earthquake moment tensor solutions from the U.S. Geological Survey, Saint Louis University and other sources will also be used. Our initial focus is on the Permian Basin and Barnett Shale petroleum plays due to the availability of data, but we will expand our analysis across the state as the project progresses. In addition, we hope to eventually apply the higher spatial resolution data coverage to understanding tectonic and geodynamic characteristics of the southwestern United States and northeastern Mexico. Here we present early results from our work to constrain stress orientations and faulting regime in and near Texas, and we also provide a roadmap for the ongoing research.

  12. Compressive residual stresses as a preventive measure against stress corrosion cracking on turbine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Ewald, J.; Fischer, K.; Gruendler, O.; Potthast, E.; Stuecker, E.; Winzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    Disk type low pressure turbine rotors have been designed for a large variety of power plant applications. Developing disk type rotors required a concerted effort to design a shaft/disk shrink fit with a minimum of tensile stress concentrations in order to aim for the lowest possible susceptibility to corrosive attack, i.e. stress corrosion cracking. As a result of stresses, the regions of greatest concern are the shrink fit boundaries and the keyways of turbine disks. These stresses are caused by service loading, i.e. centrifugal and shrinkage stresses and by manufacturing procedure, i.e. residual stresses. The compressive residual stresses partly compensate the tensile service stresses so that an increase of compressive residual stresses decreases the whole stress state of the component. Special manufacturing procedures, e.g. accelerated cooling after tempering can induce compressive residual stresses up to about 400 MPa in the hub bore region of turbine disk

  13. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  14. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Weiqin; Chen, Guolong; Qiu, Zhongchao; Cao, Xinyuan; Gao, Xuanyi

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235) specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  15. Longitudinal and Lateral Stress Measurements in NiTi under One-Dimensional Shock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziere, Y. J. E.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.; Wallwork, A.; Workman, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the impact stress on the magnitude of the shear stress under one-dimensional shock loading. The shear stress is calculated from the measured longitudinal and the lateral stresses. New data in terms of shock stress, particle velocity and shock velocity has been gathered. Results indicate that the lateral stress has a positive dependence on the impact stress. A general decrease of the lateral stress was also observed immediately after the impact, while the longitudinal stress remains constant for the duration of the pulse length. This suggests that the shear strength increases behind the shock front. This decrease had been found to reach a constant value for the specimens impacted at lower stress. A complex mechanism of deformation behind the shock front during loading was thus reveals. This limit, related to the inflexion point noted on the Hugoniot (Us-up), seems to be an effect of the martensitic phase transformation undergoes by the material

  16. Application of x-ray method for measuring internal stress in the gear teeth surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborowski, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the methodics of the internal stress measurements concerning cylindrical gear teeth of involute profile. There are the method selected, relation between stress and strain presented and conditions of investigation discussed in the study, including preparation of samples for investigation and conditions of the strain measurement. Exemplifying results of stress measurements for teeth of gears made of 4OH steel are shown. Suitability of the developed investigation method is indicated

  17. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  18. CIME: last results of magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports about the magnetic measurements recently finished at the CIME cyclotron. The measurements were carried out over two stages, first in January 1997 dedicated to the magnetic chart acquisition (for the main field only) and the other from 16 April to 2 June dedicated to the chart acquisition of the isochronous fields (main field + 11 correction magnetic coils). These charts have a closed enough meshing to ensure good interpolations and to define the current intensity values for any working point. This has been tested by measuring the fields calculated for a 18 O +4 beam. The results confirmed all the calculations done with TOSCA code. Calculations of current intensities for 11 isochronous coils were made by using only field response given by TOSCA for each coil and each induction level. (author)

  19. Developments in wireline in-situ rock stress measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Holzberg, Bruno; Gmach, Helmut [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents recent developments of in-situ stress measurements with wireline tools. The stress measurements are based on the micro hydraulic techniques that can be initialized when an interval is pressurized by pumping fluid until a tensile fracture begins or by packers fracturing (sleeve fracturing). Ultrasonic and Micro-resistivity borehole image logs (before and after the testes) are used as a complement, in order to observe the fractures created by the tests, evaluating the mechanical behavior of the formation. An offshore case study is presented, where shales and tight sandstones at depths deeper than 4500 meters depth were successfully evaluated. A workflow to succeed on stress measurements on such environments is proposed, what includes a planning phase: where breakdown pressures ranges are estimated and compared with the capacity of the tools, a Real Time Monitoring phase, where a decision tree is proposed to help on quick decisions while testing, and an interpretation phase, where appropriate techniques are indicated to evaluate the results. Also, the paper presents the main operational needs to succeed on such environments. Basically, such tests require an entirely software controlled, motorized and modular design tool consisting of dual packer (DP), pump out and flow control modules (Figure 1). These modules were upgraded for the present environment: conditions such as temperatures above 300 deg F, formation pressures above 10,000 psia, very low formation permeability, high pressure differential need and oil based mud (OBM) environment. (author)

  20. Stress coupling in the seismic cycle indicated from geodetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Hainzl, S.; Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic cycle includes several phases, the interseismic, coseismic and postseismic phase. In the interseismic phase, strain gradually builds up around the overall locked fault in tens to thousands of years, while it is coseismically released in seconds. In the postseismic interval, stress relaxation lasts months to years, indicated by evident aseismic deformations which have been indicated to release comparable or even higher strain energy than the main shocks themselves. Benefiting from the development of geodetic observatory, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in the last two decades, the measurements of surface deformation have been significantly improved and become valuable information for understanding the stress evolution on the large fault plane. In this study, we utilize the GPS/InSAR data to investigate the slip deficit during the interseismic phase, the coseismic slip and the early postseismic creep on the fault plane. However, it is already well-known that slip inversions based only on the surface measurements are typically non-unique and subject to large uncertainties. To reduce the ambiguity, we utilize the assumption of stress coupling between interseismic and coseismic phases, and between coseismic and postseismic phases. We use a stress constrained joint inversion in Bayesian approach (Wang et al., 2012) to invert simultaneously for (1) interseismic slip deficit and coseismic slip, and (2) coseismic slip and postseismic creep. As case studies, we analyze earthquakes occurred in well-instrumented regions such as the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, the 2010 M8.7 earthquake and the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We show that the inversion with the stress-coupling constraint leads to better constrained slip distributions. Meanwhile, the results also indicate that the assumed stress coupling is reasonable and can be well reflected from the available geodetic measurements. Reference: Lifeng

  1. Development of a relationship between external measurements and reinforcement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Andre; Hoult, Neil A.; Lees, Janet M.

    2015-03-01

    As many countries around the world face an aging infrastructure crisis, there is an increasing need to develop more accurate monitoring and assessment techniques for reinforced concrete structures. One of the challenges associated with assessing existing infrastructure is correlating externally measured parameters such as crack widths and surface strains with reinforcement stresses as this is dependent on a number of variables. The current research investigates how the use of distributed fiber optic sensors to measure reinforcement strain can be correlated with digital image correlation measurements of crack widths to relate external crack width measurements to reinforcement stresses. An initial set of experiments was undertaken involving a series of small-scale beam specimens tested in three-point bending with variable reinforcement properties. Relationships between crack widths and internal reinforcement strains were observed including that both the diameter and number of bars affected the measured maximum strain and crack width. A model that uses measured crack width to estimate reinforcement strain was presented and compared to the experimental results. The model was found to provide accurate estimates of load carrying capacity for a given crack width, however, the model was potentially less accurate when crack widths were used to estimate the experimental reinforcement strains. The need for more experimental data to validate the conclusions of this research was also highlighted.

  2. StressPhone: smartphone based platform for measurement of cortisol for stress detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aadhar; Rey, Elizabeth; Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are estimated to be the most common mental illness in US affecting around 40 million people and related job stress is estimated to cost US industry up to $300 billion due to lower productivity and absenteeism. A personal diagnostic device which could help identify stressed individuals would therefore be a huge boost for workforce productivity. We are therefore developing a point of care diagnostic device that can be integrated with smartphones or tablets for the measurement of cortisol - a stress related salivary biomarker, which is known to be strongly involved in body's fight-or-flight response to a stressor (physical or mental). The device is based around a competitive lateral flow assay whose results can then be read and quantified through an accessory compatible with the smartphone. In this presentation, we report the development and results of such an assay and the integrated device. We then present the results of a study relating the diurnal patterns of cortisol levels and the alertness of an individual based on the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns of the individual. We hope to use the insight provided by combining the information provided by levels of stress related to chemical biomarkers of the individual with the physical biomarkers to lead to a better informed and optimized activity schedule for maximized work output.

  3. Applicability of initial stress measurement methods to Horonobe Siliceous rocks and initial stress state around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya; Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding initial stress condition in deep underground is important for such construction as rock cavern for geological disposal of HLW and underground power plant. Neogene sedimentary rock is widely distributed in Japan. There are only a few studies of initial stress measurement in Neogene sedimentary rock mass in Japan due to difficulty of measurement. Evaluation of initial stress condition around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project was carried out in order to understand initial stress condition and applicability of AE, DSCA and hydraulic fracturing (HF) methods to Neogene sedimentary rock. Initial stress values obtained from AE method is smaller than overburden pressure due to time dependency of Kaizer effect. It would be difficult to use AE method as initial stress measurement method for Horonobe Siliceous rocks. Principal stress values by DSCA are similar to those by HF tests. Directions of maximum horizontal principal stresses are approximately in E-W and corresponded to HF results. In HF, rod type and wire-line type systems were compared. Workability of rod type was much better than wire-line type. However, re-opening pressure were not able to be precisely measured in case of rod type system due to the large compliance of the packers and rods. Horizontal maximum and minimum principal stresses increase linearly in HF results. Deviatoric stress is acting at shallow depth. Initial stress condition approaches hydrostatic condition with depth. Direction of maximum horizontal principal stress was in E-W direction which was similar to tectonic movement around Horonobe URL by triangular surveying. (author)

  4. Results of dosimetric measurements in space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Strauch, K.; Beaujean, R.; Kopp, J.; Leicher, M.; Heilmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), nuclear emulsions and plastic nuclear track detectors were exposed in different locations inside spacecraft. The detector systems, which supplement each other in their registration characteristics, allow the recording of biologically relevant portions of the radiation field independently. Results are presented and compared with calculations. Dose equivalents for the astronauts have been calculated based on the measurements; they lie between 190 μSv.d -1 and 860 μSv.d -1 . (author)

  5. [Stress and Burnout Risk in Nursery School Teachers: Results from a Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, J; Ehlen, S

    2015-06-01

    This article presents results from a study of 834 nursery school teachers in Germany, investigating working conditions, stress, and stress-related health problems. In order to evaluate the extent of mental and psychosomatic troubles, as well as the risk of burnout, we used the standardised questionnaire "Burnout Screening Scales" (BOSS I). Data analysis yielded a high percentage of nursery school teachers who reported a remarkably high stress level; nearly 20% can be considered as a high-risk group for burnout. Poor staff conditions in many nurseries turned out to be the crucial stress source, along with large groups, insufficient teacher-child ratio, time pressure and multitasking. In the concluding discussion of the study results, we consider possible measures to reduce stress and to improve working conditions for nursery school teachers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. CMS latest results on Higgs measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of a Higgs boson by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations in 2012, physicists at the LHC have been making intense efforts to measure this new particle’s properties. Last week, at the 37th International Conference on High Energy Physics, the CMS Collaboration has presented a broad set of results from new studies of the Higgs boson. They are based on the full Run 1 data from pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The analyses include the final calibration and alignment constants and contains about 25 fb−1 of data. These new results will be summarized here.

  7. Interpretation of stress measurements around mining cavities in rock salt - a finite-element study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Finite-element studies of stress measurements using the overcoring method and of large drift fields in rock salt show that the measurements are affected by local stress relaxation occurring near the test borehole and by general time-dependent stress redistribution in the marginal zones of adjacent drifts. Analysis of the overcoring method indicates that the following local effects have to be considered in the interpretation of the test results as opposed to measurements in elastic rock: The inelastic deformation behaviour of rock salt causes stress relaxation at the pilot borehole which can lead to an underestimation of the actual stress state in rock. During overcoring considerable inelastic deformations occur in rock salt which demand a modified interpretation of the measurements and as a result of stress relaxation at the borehole various tests conditions, such as overcoring diameter, pilot borehole diameter and time between drilling and overcoring, have an effect on the test results. (orig./PW)

  8. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  9. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  10. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  11. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  12. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Measurement of stress strain and vibrational properties of tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Gian Marco; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo

    2003-08-01

    The authors present a new non-intrusive experimental procedure based on laser techniques for the measurement of mechanical properties of tendons. The procedure is based on the measurement of the first resonance frequency of the tendon by laser Doppler vibrometry during in vitro tensile experiments, with the final aim of establishing a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons by extracting parameters such as the resonance frequency, also achievable during in vivo investigation. The experimental procedure is reported, taking into account the need to simulate the physiological conditions of the Achilles tendon, and the measurement technique used for the non-invasive determination of tendon cross-sectional area during tensile vibration tests at different load levels is described. The test procedure is based on a tensile machine, which measures longitudinal tendons undergoing controlled load conditions. Cross-sectional area is measured using a new non-contact procedure for the measurement of tendon perimeter (repeatability of 99% and accuracy of 2%). For each loading condition, vibration resonance frequency and damping, cross-sectional area and tensile force are measured, allowing thus a mechanical characterization of the tendon. Tendon stress-strain curves are reported. Stress-strain curves have been correlated to the first vibration resonance frequency and damping of the tendon measured using a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer. Moreover, experimental results have been compared with a theoretical model of a vibrating cord showing discrepancies. In vitro tests are reported, demonstrating the validity of the method for the comparison of different aged rabbit tendons.

  14. Measurement of residual stress in plasma-sprayed composite coatings with graded and uniform compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Matejicek, J.; Sampath, S.

    1999-10-01

    Residual stresses in plasma sprayed composite coatings were studied experimentally by both curvature and neutron diffraction measurements. Graded and uniform composite coatings, consisting of nickel + alumina and NiCrAlY + yttria-stabilized zirconia, were investigated. This paper briefly summarizes our recent work dealing with the effects of coating thickness, composition, and material properties on the evolution of residual stresses in coatings. Analysis of the results allowed in some cases the separation of the quenching stress and thermal stress contributions to the final residual stress, as well as the determination of the through-thickness stress profile from measurements of different thickness specimens. In the ceramic-metal composites, it was found that the thermal mismatch stress plays a dominant role in the ceramic phase, whereas the stress in the metallic phase is mostly dominated by quenching stress. The residual stress measurement methods employed here were found to be complementary, in that each can provide unique information about the stress state. Through-thickness stress profiles in graded coatings were determined with high spatial resolution by the curvature method, and determination of the stress in each separate phase of a composite was made by neutron diffraction. (orig.) 14 refs.

  15. Measurement of residual stress in plasma-sprayed metallic, ceramic and composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Suresh, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Matejicek, J.; Sampath, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1998-12-15

    Residual stresses in plasma-sprayed coatings were studied by three experimental techniques: curvature measurements, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Two distinct material classes were investigated: (1) single-material coatings (molybdenum) and (2) bi-material composites (nickel+alumina and NiCrAlY+yttria-stabilized zirconia), with and without graded layers. This paper deals with the effects of coating thickness and material properties on the evolution of residual stresses as a function of composition and thickness in both homogeneous and graded coatings. Mathematical analysis of the results allowed in some cases the separation of the quenching stress and thermal stress contributions to the final residual stress, as well as the determination of the through-thickness stress profile from measurements of different thickness specimens. In the ceramic-metal composites, it was found that the quenching stress plays a dominant role in the metallic phase, whereas the stress in the ceramic phase is mostly dominated by thermal mismatch. The respective thermal expansion coefficients and mechanical properties are the most important factors determining the stress sign and magnitude. The three residual stress measurement methods employed here were found to be complementary, in that each can provide unique information about the stress state. The most noteworthy outcomes are the determination of the through-thickness stress profile in graded coatings with high spatial resolution (curvature method) and determination of stress in each phase of a composite separately (neutron diffraction). (orig.) 25 refs.

  16. Circulation in the Gulf of Trieste: measurements and model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogunovici, B.; Malacic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The study presents seasonal variability of currents in the southern part of the Gulf of Trieste. A time series analysis of currents and wind stress for the period 2003-2006, which were measured by the coastal oceanographic buoy, was conducted. A comparison between these data and results obtained from a numerical model of circulation in the Gulf was performed to validate model results. Three different approaches were applied to the wind data to determine the wind stress. Similarities were found between Kondo and Smith approaches while the method of Vera shows differences which were particularly noticeable for lower (= 1 m/s) and higher wind speeds (= 15 m/s). Mean currents in the surface layer are generally outflow currents from the Gulf due to wind forcing (bora). However in all other depth layers inflow currents are dominant. With the principal component analysis (Pca) major and minor axes were determined for all seasons. The major axis of maximum variance in years between 2003 and 2006 is prevailing in Ne-Sw direction, which is parallel to the coastline. Comparison of observation and model results is showing that currents are similar (in direction) for the surface and bottom layers but are significantly different for the middle layer (5-13 m). At a depth between 14-21 m velocities are comparable in direction as well as in magnitude even though model values are higher. Higher values of modelled currents at the surface and near the bottom are explained by higher values of wind stress that were used in the model as driving input with respect to the stress calculated from the measured winds. Larger values of modelled currents near the bottom are related to the larger inflow that needs to compensate for the larger modelled outflow at the surface. However, inspection of the vertical structure of temperature, salinity and density shows that the model is reproducing a weaker density gradient which enables the penetration of the outflow surface currents to larger depths.

  17. Stress strain tensors with their application to x-ray stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of obtaining the formulas of stress-strain tensor that express the directional dependence of stress-strain, that is, how these values change in response to coordinate transformation, and clarifies the preconditions for supporting both formulas. The two conversion formulas are both the second order of tensor, and the formula of strain tensor not only does not use the relational expression of stress and strain at all, but also is obtained completely independently of the formula of stress tensor. Except for the condition that the strain is very small (elastic deformation) in the conversion formula of strain, both formulas unconditionally come into effect. In other words, both formulas hold true even in the isotropic elastic body or anisotropic elastic body. It was shown that the conversion formula of strain can be derived from the conversion formula of stress using the formula of Hooke for isotropic elastic body. From these three-dimensional expressions, the two-dimensional stress-strain coordinate conversion formula that is used for Mohr's stress-strain circle was derived. It was shown that these formulas hold true for three-dimensional stress condition with stress-strain components in the three-axial direction that are not plane stress nor plane strain condition. In addition, as an application case of this theory, two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray stress measurements that are effective for residual stress measurement were shown. (A.O.)

  18. The Community Child Health Network Life Stress Interview: a brief chronic stress measure for community health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Dooley, Larissa N; Guardino, Christine M; Huynh, Jan; Paek, Cynthia; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Schafer, Peter; Woolard, Richard; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress is implicated in many theories as a contributor to a wide range of physical and mental health problems. The current study describes the development of a chronic stress measure that was based on the UCLA Life Stress Interview (LSI) and adapted in collaboration with community partners for use in a large community health study of low-income, ethnically diverse parents of infants in the USA (Community Child Health Network [CCHN]). We describe the instrument, its purpose and adaptations, implementation, and results of a reliability study in a subsample of the larger study cohort. Interviews with 272 mothers were included in the present study. Chronic stress was assessed using the CCHN LSI, an instrument designed for administration by trained community interviewers to assess four domains of chronic stress, each rated by interviewers. Significant correlations ranging from small to moderate in size between chronic stress scores on this measure, other measures of stress, biomarkers of allostatic load, and mental health provide initial evidence of construct and concurrent validity. Reliability data for interviewer ratings are also provided. This relatively brief interview (15 minutes) is available for use and may be a valuable tool for researchers seeking to measure chronic stress reliably and validly in future studies with time constraints.

  19. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A. [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  20. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  1. Neutron stress measurement using image plate and the cos α method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    A new type of the neutron stress measurement method, in which the stress is determined by the cos α method, was studied. A neutron image plate was used in this study for detecting the diffraction image. Steel specimens of 5 mm thickness were used for the tensile stress test. The stresses obtain from the experiment showed one-to-one ratio with respect to the applied stresses, though the misfit stress of about 400 MPa was also observed in the result. A simple correction technique for calibrating raw data was proposed to obtain the true stress. A simulation study was carried out to check the experimental result on the peak positions in the diffraction ring and the stress calculation by the cos α method. (author)

  2. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  3. Results of dosimetric measurements in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.; Kopp, J.; Leicher, M.; Strauch, K.

    Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed at different locations inside the space laboratory Spacelab and at the astronauts' body and in different sections of the MIR space station. Total dose, particle fluence rate and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of heavy ions, number of nuclear disintegrations and fast neutron fluence rates were determined of each exposure. The dose equivalent received by the Payload specialists (PSs) were calculated from the measurements, they range from 190 muSv d^-1 to 770 muSv d^-1. Finally, a preliminary investigation of results from a particle telescope of two silicon detectors, first used in the last BIORACK mission on STS 76, is reported.

  4. A study of x-ray microbeam stress measurement for local area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Yoshitaka; Miyakawa, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    A new type X-ray microbeam equipment which is capable of three-dimensional oscillation at an X-ray radiation position was used to measure the residual stress of pure iron powder and bending plate specimens as well as that in the vicinity of fatigue crack tip of 1/2 CT specimen. The results obtained are summerized as follows. (1) Diffraction profiles of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size obtained by the present microbeam technique in the beam area of 80 μm in diamether and measuring time more than 800 sec showed Kα 1 and Kα 2 peaks clearly, so that these profiles are good enough for stress measurement. (2) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 10 ∼ 25 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was not equal to 0 MPa. The measured stress varied greatly and was independent of measuring time. (3) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was almost 1 MPa, which shows the good accuracy of this X-ray micro-beam equipment. (4) The relation between the X-ray measured stress and the mechanically applied stress showed good agreement. (5) The distribution of residual stress at the vicinity of fatigue crack tip showed that the residual stress at the fatigue crack tip was compression and the residual stress in front of crack tip was tension. This tensile residual stress in front of crack tip existed in the area from 0.02 mm to 2 mm. (6) The above results show that the present equipment is advantageous in the investigation of local stress, shortening the measuring time without sacrificing the accuracy. (author)

  5. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  6. Transient water stress in a vegetation canopy - Simulations and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Belles, James E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to observational and modeling evidence of transient water stress, the effects of the transpiration plateau on the canopy radiometric temperature, and the factors responsible for the onset of the transpiration plateau, such as soil moisture. Attention is also given to the point at which the transient stress can be detected by remote measurement of surface temperature.

  7. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    The load transfer within agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). Measurements of stress in soil are needed to evaluate model calculations, but may...

  8. Convenient measurement of the residual stress using X-ray penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Takayoshi; Shibano, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The residual stress measured with a characteristic X-ray is usually evaluated as a surface stress. However, it is a weighted mean value over all penetration depth of X-ray. Thus, the classical sin 2 Ψ method with the characteristic X-ray is difficult to use for measuring the steep gradient of residual stress that occurs along the depth direction in a subsurface layer of the material after cold rolling and grinding. This paper presents a convenient method of the residual stress measurement along the depth direction in a subsurface layer using the penetration depth depending on a characteristic X-ray. The residual stress distribution of JIS SKS51 steel plate was measured as an example of applying this method. As a result, it could be confirmed that a residual stress distribution along the depth direction in a subsurface layer could be evaluated nondestructively by this convenient method. (author)

  9. Description and Results: Antenna Measurement Facility Comparisons [Measurements Corner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberica Saporetti, Maria; Foged, Lars; Sierra Castañer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, formalized facility comparison activities have become important for the documentation and validation of laboratory proficiency and competence and mandatory for achieving accreditation such as that of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 17025 or similar...... for Antennas (VISTA) IC1102, including still ongoing campaigns [3]-[5]. Results of these activities have led to improvements in antenna measurement procedures and protocols in facilities and standards [6], [7]. Due to the direct benefits available to the participants, the activities have been very successful...

  10. Manche centre. Environment surveillance. Measurement results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This booklet reports on the environmental radioactivity measurements performed around the Manche plant (France) during the third quarter of 1998 in rainwater, surface and underground waters, air and grass. Measurements concern the alpha and beta activity, tritium, 137 Cs, 241 Am, 7 Be and 40 K. Other pollutant (metals) measurements on rainwater, rivers surface water and sediments are given. (J.S.)

  11. A Comparison between Deep and Shallow Stress Fields in Korea Using Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversions and Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rayeon; Chang, Chandong; Hong, Tae-kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Bae, Seong-Ho; Park, Eui-Seob; Park, Chan

    2016-04-01

    We are characterizing stress fields in Korea using two types of stress data: earthquake focal mechanism inversions (FMF) and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (HF). The earthquake focal mechanism inversion data represent stress conditions at 2-20 km depths, whereas the hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, mostly conducted for geotechnical purposes, have been carried out at depths shallower than 1 km. We classified individual stress data based on the World Stress Map quality ranking scheme. A total of 20 FMF data were classified into A-B quality, possibly representing tectonic stress fields. A total of 83 HF data out of compiled 226 data were classified into B-C quality, which we use for shallow stress field characterization. The tectonic stress, revealed from the FMF data, is characterized by a remarkable consistency in its maximum stress (σ1) directions in and around Korea (N79±2° E), indicating a quite uniform deep stress field throughout. On the other hand, the shallow stress field, represented by HF data, exhibits local variations in σ1 directions, possibly due to effects of topography and geologic structures such as faults. Nonetheless, there is a general similarity in σ1 directions between deep and shallow stress fields. To investigate the shallow stress field statistically, we follow 'the mean orientation and wavelength analysis' suggested by Reiter et al. (2014). After the stress pattern analysis, the resulting stress points distribute sporadically over the country, not covering the entire region evenly. In the western part of Korea, the shallow σ1directions are generally uniform with their search radius reaching 100 km, where the average stress direction agrees well with those of the deep tectonic stress. We note two noticeable differences between shallow and deep stresses in the eastern part of Korea. First, the shallow σ1 orientations are markedly non-uniform in the southeastern part of Korea with their search radius less than 25 km

  12. The measurement of stresses in prestressed concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincmen, T.

    1978-03-01

    This report deals with the measurement of stresses in the prestressed concrete vessel at the research center Seibersdorf during the prestressing and the thermal stabilization period. The thermal stabilization was carried out at 120 0 C. (author)

  13. NPE - close-in stress and motion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    On the Non-Proliferation Experiment we measured stresses and accelerations in the nonlinear regime. Measurements were made in the host rock and in the grout stemming of the access drift. The thrust of the measurements was to provide data for a comparison with waveforms from nuclear events and with calculations of the process. Measured stress waveforms show greater amplitudes than yield-scaled waveforms from nearby nuclear events. Specifically, the five stress peaks suggest an equivalent nuclear yield of more than two kilotons. Material velocity data from NPE also show amplitudes greater than nuclear data. The risetimes of the NPE data are slower than risetimes of scaled nuclear data. The ratio of risetimes is about two; this difference may prove useful in discriminating between nuclear and chemical explosions. Non-radical accelerations show some departure from symmetric wave propagation. Tuff strengths-inferred from differences between radial and hoop stresses-show values that are about twice laboratory determined values.

  14. Depression and oxidative stress: results from a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J; Miller, Edgar R; Szanton, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen's d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen's d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen's d = -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.15). This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress.

  15. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  16. X-ray diffraction and measurement of residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, G.; Lebrun, J.L.; Corcaud, L.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique is a non destructive method for measuring the residual stresses in mechanical parts. This method, called sin 2 PSI method is investigated. It is applied to the measurement of elastic constants in different directions of crystals of Zr alloy (Zircaloy 4) and Ti alloy (TA6V). Stresses in TA6V sheets welded by TIG and electron beam processes are also studied [fr

  17. Recent results on Electroweak measurements from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benekos Nektarios Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ATLAS measurements of multiboson production processes involving combinations of W,Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV and at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z → v v̅, as well as semileptonic channels. Measurements of single and diboson production in association with two forward jets is sensitive to electroweak vector boson fusion and scattering processes. An observation of the electroweak production of the Z boson and an evidence of same sign WW production are reported.

  18. High precision stress measurements in semiconductor structures by Raman microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Stress in silicon structures plays an essential role in modern semiconductor technology. This stress has to be measured and due to the ongoing miniaturization in today's semiconductor industry, the measuring method has to meet certain requirements. The present thesis deals with the question how Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the state of stress in semiconductor structures. In the first chapter the relation between Raman peakshift and stress in the material is explained. It is shown that detailed stress maps with a spatial resolution close to the diffraction limit can be obtained in structured semiconductor samples. Furthermore a novel procedure, the so called Stokes-AntiStokes-Difference method is introduced. With this method, topography, tool or drift effects can be distinguished from stress related influences in the sample. In the next chapter Tip-enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) and its application for an improvement in lateral resolution is discussed. For this, a study is presented, which shows the influence of metal particles on the intensity and localization of the Raman signal. A method to attach metal particles to scannable tips is successfully applied. First TERS scans are shown and their impact on and challenges for high resolution stress measurements on semiconductor structures is explained. (orig.)

  19. Residual stress measurement in veneering ceramic by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2011-05-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion properties between veneering ceramic and metallic or high-strength ceramic cores can induce residual stresses and initiate cracks when combined with functional stresses. Knowledge of the stress distribution within the veneering ceramic is a key factor for understanding and predicting chipping failures, which are well-known problems with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal based fixed partial dentures. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for measuring the stress profile in veneering ceramics and to compare ceramic-fused-to-metal compounds to veneered Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal ceramic. The hole-drilling method, often used for engineering measurements, was adapted for use with veneering ceramic. Because of the high sensitivity needed in comparison with industrial applications, a high sensitivity electrical measurement chain was developed. All samples exhibited the same type of stress vs. depth profile, starting with compressive at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth and becoming tensile at 0.5-1.0mm from the surface, and then becoming slightly compressive again. The zirconia samples exhibited a stress depth profile of larger magnitude. The hole drilling method was shown be a practical tool for measuring residual stresses in veneering ceramics. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remarks on Residual Stress Measurement by Hole-Drilling and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  1. Remarks on residual stress measurement by hole-drilling and electronic speckle pattern interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Claudia; Casavola, Caterina; Pappalettera, Giovanni; Pappalettere, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  2. Diffraction measurements of residual stress in titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Bourke, M.A.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lawson, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Metal matrix composites develop residual strains after consolidation due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix. X-ray and neutron diffraction measured values for the longitudinal residual stress in the matrix of four titanium MMCs are reported. For thick composites (> 6 plies) the surface stress measured by x-ray diffraction matches that determined by neutron diffraction and therefore represents the stress in the bulk region consisting of the fibers and matrix. For thin sheet composites, the surface values are lower than in the interior and increase as the outer rows of fibers are approached. While a rationale for the behavior in the thin sheet has yet to be developed, accounting for composite thickness is important when using x-ray measured values to validate analytic and finite element calculations of the residual stress state

  3. Ground Motion Prediction Equations Empowered by Stress Drop Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, H.; Oth, A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant variation of stress drop is a crucial issue for ground motion prediction equations and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, since only a few ground motion prediction equations take into account stress drop. In addition to average and sigma studies of stress drop and ground motion prediction equations (e.g., Cotton et al., 2013; Baltay and Hanks, 2014), we explore 1-to-1 relationship for each earthquake between stress drop and between-event residual of a ground motion prediction equation. We used the stress drop dataset of Oth (2013) for Japanese crustal earthquakes ranging 0.1 to 100 MPa and K-NET/KiK-net ground motion dataset against for several ground motion prediction equations with volcanic front treatment. Between-event residuals for ground accelerations and velocities are generally coincident with stress drop, as investigated by seismic intensity measures of Oth et al. (2015). Moreover, we found faster attenuation of ground acceleration and velocities for large stress drop events for the similar fault distance range and focal depth. It may suggest an alternative parameterization of stress drop to control attenuation distance rate for ground motion prediction equations. We also investigate 1-to-1 relationship and sigma for regional/national-scale stress drop variation and current national-scale ground motion equations.

  4. Measurement of lattice rotations and internal stresses in over one hundred individual grains during a stress-induced martensitic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachi Younes El

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the properties of polycrystals at a microscopic scale during cyclic mechanical loading we have measured the relationship between grain orientations, their positions inside the sample and their internal stresses. In this work, in-situ 3DXRD technique was performed on over hundred grains during the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy. Information about the position, orientation, and stress field was obtained for each austenitic grain. These results have been used to develop a procedure that allows automatic processing for a large number of grains, matching them during loading and leads to a quantitative stress field. A strong heterogeneity of stress state between the grains at the surface and in the volume is evident.

  5. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  6. Executive functioning performance predicts subjective and physiological acute stress reactivity: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Donny; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kimura, Motohiro; Murakami, Hiroki; Ohira, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in baseline executive functioning (EF) capacities have been shown to predict state anxiety during acute stressor exposure. However, no previous studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between EF and physiological measures of stress. The present study investigated the efficacy of several well-known EF tests (letter fluency, Stroop test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) in predicting both subjective and physiological stress reactivity during acute psychosocial stress exposure. Our results show that letter fluency served as the best predictor for both types of reactivity. Specifically, the higher the letter fluency score, the lower the acute stress reactivity after controlling for the baseline stress response, as indicated by lower levels of state anxiety, negative mood, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance. Moreover, the predictive power of the letter fluency test remained significant for state anxiety and cortisol indices even after further adjustments for covariates by adding the body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. Thus, good EF performance, as reflected by high letter fluency scores, may dampen acute stress responses, which suggests that EF processes are directly associated with aspects of stress regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Method for measuring biaxial stress in a body subjected to stress inducing loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, W. N. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for measuring stress in test articles including the steps of obtaining for a calibrating specimen a series of transit time differentials between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated through the specimen as it is subjected to known stress load of a series of stress loads for thus establishing a series of indications of the magnitudes for stress loads induced in the specimen, and thereafter obtaining a transit time differential between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated in the planes of the stress axes of a test article and comparing the transit time differential thus obtained to the series of transit time differentials obtained for the specimen to determine the magnitude of biaxial stress in the test article.

  8. Assessment on the methods of measuring the tyre-road contact patch stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, A.-R.; Buretea, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper reviews established and modern methods for investigating tri-axial stress distributions in the tyre-road contact patch. The authors used three methods of measuring stress distributions: strain gauge method; force sensing technique; acceleration measurements. Four prototypes of instrumented pins transducers involving mentioned measuring methods were developed. Data acquisitions of the contact patch stresses distributions were performed using each transducer with instrumented pin. The results are analysed and compared, underlining the advantages and drawbacks of each method. The experimental results indicate that the three methods are valuable.

  9. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  10. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  11. A transuranic aerosol measurement system: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  13. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  14. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  15. Combined Risk Measures: Representation Results and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttsche, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of risk play a crucial role in different areas of modern finance. This includes pricing of financial products, capital allocation and derivation of economic capital. Key to this analysis is the quantification of the risk via risk measures. A promising approach is to

  16. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing…

  17. With Great Measurements Come Great Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carl

    Measurements are the foundation for science and modern life. Technologies we take for granted every day depend on them-cell phones, CAT scans, pharmaceuticals, even sports equipment. Metrology, or measurement science, determines what industry can make reliably and what they cannot. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) we specialize in making world class measurements that an incredibly wide range of industries use to continually improve their products - computer chips with nanoscale components, atomic clocks that you can hold in your hand, lasers for both super-strong welds and delicate eye surgeries. Think of all the key technologies developed over the last 100 years and better measurements, standards, or analysis techniques played a role in making them possible. NIST works collaboratively with industry researchers on the advanced metrology for tomorrow's technologies. A new kilogram based on electromagnetic force, cars that weigh half as much but are just as strong, quantum computers, personalized medicine, single atom devices - it's all happening in our labs now. This talk will focus on how metrology creates the future.

  18. Residual stress measurements in thick structural weldments by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. v.d.; Timke, T.

    2000-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in large structural components are a major concern with respect to their performance and lifetime. In large structures reasonable thermal stress relief treatment is usually impossible due to the component size. On the other hand, prediction of welding stresses by numerical modelling has not yet proven to be generally reliable, while the experimental determination of such stresses remains a demanding task. At the high flux reactor (HFR), Petten, a new residual stress diffractometer has been installed recently capable of handling of components up to 1000 kg - the large component neutron diffraction facility (LCNDF). It has facilitated residual stress measurements in two large welded components, of which results are presented here. The first component represents a bi-metallic weld in form of a pipe of 25 mm wall thickness. Three dimensional measurements of residual stress are discussed in detail. The second specimen is a 66 mm wall thickness austenitic steel nuclear piping weld. Results on relief of strain within the weld through post weld heat treatment (PWHT) are presented. Additionally results obtained earlier at former CRNL (CAN) on a section of a thick nuclear piping weld are presented in order to illustrate the variation in the reference lattice parameter trough the weld and the heat affected zone (HAZ). These results clearly show the necessity to determine the reference parameters for each location in all measurement directions by means of measurements in small coupons free of macro-stresses. (orig.)

  19. Modeling of stress-strain diagram on the basis of magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkunov, Eh.S.; Fedotov, V.P.; Bukhvalov, A.B.; Veselov, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The model of a stress-strain diagram with taking into account the strain hardening and the growth of metal damageing is proposed. The model is applied to calculate a stress-strain curve for continuous cast 45 steel using the results of magnetic properties measuring. The latter permits predicting the durability of construction elements with the use of nondestructive magnetic testing

  20. Design and development of a new magnetic sensor for stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggelopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development of a new magnetic sensor for stress measurements using the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the magnetic permeability techniques in ferromagnetic steels. Both techniques together, become an important nondestructive technique, due to its exceptional material and stress characterization capabilities. The correlation of the two methods was investigated. Conclusions were derived based on the experimental results. (paper)

  1. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  2. Tests of the Construct Validity of Occupational Stress Measures with College Students: Failure to Support Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Scott T.

    1991-01-01

    Examined correlations among stress, anxiety, and depression scales in 129 college students, as well as ability of measures of depression and anxiety to add to predictive power of occupational stress for recognition memory task and self-reported physical symptoms. Results indicated that stress, depression, and anxiety measures were moderately to…

  3. Development of stress relaxation measurement by a small size C-ring specimen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanuki, Shizuka; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Kasahara, Shigeki; Kuniya, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    A stress relaxation measurement method has been developed by using C-ring specimens, and a specimen size effect has been evaluated taking radiation-induced stress relaxation into consideration. C-ring specimens were stressed by forcing a wedge in the gap. Giving an appropriate eccentric configuration in the half of the ring opposite the gap, the stress gradient along the circumference was eliminated in the section and the stress level could be varied by changing the gap spacing. The validity of the C-ring test method was confirmed by thermally stress relaxation experiments at annealing temperatures from 300 to 600degC for 1 min to 200 h in carbon steel: considerable stress relaxation could be measured for all levels of applied stress even at relatively low annealing temperatures. The relaxation results obtained from the C-ring test were in good agreement with those from a uniaxial tensile stress relaxation test. The smaller C-ring specimen with about 40 mm diameter, which is required for radiation-induced stress relaxation test, also showed adequate accuracy on stress relaxation at 600 to 830degC in stainless steel, compared with the large size C-ring specimen test. (author)

  4. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  5. Test plan for in situ stress measurement system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-09-01

    The tests are to be performed to provide information regarding the state of stress of the basalt rock beneath the Hanford Site. This test series is designed to obtain information necessary to determine if hydrofracturing stress measurement is feasible in a fractured basalt medium. During the course of these field tests, it will be attempted to adapt the conventional hydrofracturing test method and analysis techniques to the basalt medium. If the test is shown to be feasible, more holes will be identified for testing. A comprehensive in situ stress determination program will be initiated. 2 figs

  6. Residual Stress Measurement of Coarse Crystal Grain in Aluminium Casting Alloy by Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Hanabusa, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Neutron stress measurement can detect strain and stress information in deep region because of large penetration ability of neutron beams. The present paper describes procedure and results in the residual stress measurement of aluminium casting alloy by neutron diffraction. Usually, the aluminium casting alloy includes the large crystal grains. The existence of large crystal grains makes it difficult to estimate the residual stresses in highly accuracy. In this study, the modified three axial method using Hook's equation was employed for neutron stress measurement. These stress measurements were performed under the two kinds of new techniques. One is a rocking curve method to calculate the principal strains in three directions. The peak profiles which appear discretely on rocking curves were translated to principle stresses by the Bragg law and the basic elastic theory. Another is the consideration of measurement positions and the edge effect in the neutron irradiated area (volume gage). The edge effect generates the errors of 2θ-peak position in the neutron stress measurement. In this study, the edge effect was investigated in detail by a small bit of copper single crystal. The copper bit was moved and scanned on three dimensionally within the gage volume. Furthermore, the average strains of symmetrical positions are measure by the sample turning at 180 degrees, because the error distributions of the 2θ-peak position followed to positions inside the gage volume. Form these results of this study, the residual stresses in aluminium casting alloy which includes the large crystal grains were possible to estimate by neutron stress measurement with the rocking curve method and the correction of the edge effect. (author)

  7. The organizational stress measure: an integrated methodology for assessing job-stress and targeting organizational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Peter; Mazelan, Patti; Barwell, Fred

    2012-02-01

    This paper briefly describes the OSM (Organizational Stress Measure) which was developed over a decade ago and has evolved to become a well-established practical method not only for assessing wellbeing at work but also as a cost-effective strategy to tackle workplace stress. The OSM measures perceived organizational pressures and felt individual strains within the same instrument, and provides a rich and subtle picture of both the organizational culture and the personal perspectives of the constituent staff groups. There are many types of organizational pressure that may impact upon the wellbeing and potential effectiveness of staff including skill shortages, ineffective strategic planning and poor leadership, and these frequently result in reduced performance, absenteeism, high turnover and poor staff morale. These pressures may increase the probability of some staff reacting negatively and research with the OSM has shown that increased levels of strain for small clusters of staff may be a leading indicator of future organizational problems. One of the main benefits of using the OSM is the ability to identify 'hot-spots', where organizational pressures are triggering high levels of personal strain in susceptible clusters of staff. In this way, the OSM may act as an 'early warning alarm' for potential organizational problems.

  8. Modeling and Measurement of Stress and Strain Evolution in Cu Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, Paul R.; Zhai, Charlie Jun

    2004-01-01

    The damascene fabrication method and the introduction of low-K dielectrics present a host of reliability challenges to Cu interconnects and fundamentally change the mechanical stress state of Cu lines used as interconnects for integrated circuits. In order to capture the effect of individual process steps on the stress evolution in the BEoL (Back End of Line), a process-oriented finite element modeling (FEM) approach was developed. In this model, the complete stress history at any step of BEoL can be simulated as a dual damascene Cu structure is fabricated. The model was calibrated with both wafer-curvature blanket film measurements and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurement of metal line stress. The Cu line stress evolution was simulated during the process of multi-step processing for dual damascene Cu/TEOS and Cu/low-k structures. The in-plane stress of Cu lines is nearly independent of subsequent processes, while the out-of-plane stress increases considerably with the subsequent process steps. The modeling results will be compared with recent XRD measurements and extended generically to illustrate the relative influence of the dielectric (ILD) modulus (E) and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) on strain/stress in the Cu lines. It will be shown that the stress magnitude and state (hydrostatic, deviatoric) depend on ILD properties. The stress along the line length (longitudinal) is substrate-dominated, while the transverse and normal stresses vary with both CTE and modulus of the dielectric. The hydrostatic stress is primarily determined by ILD modulus and is nearly independent of the ILD CTE, while the Von Mises stress depends on both CTE and E of the ILD. The stress of the Cu line tends to be more deviatoric with spin-on low K ILDs, and more hydrostatic with oxide encapsulation

  9. Residual stress measurement using the pulsed neutron source at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Holden, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can make spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in the crystalline interplanar spacing, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all the lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement which allows anisotropic effects to be studied. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr Neutron Scattering Centre (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 15 refs., 7 figs

  10. Rock stress measurements in the Grimsel Underground Rock Laboratory and their geological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuer, V.; Heusermann, S.; Pahl, A.

    1989-01-01

    Rock stress is being studied as part of the Swiss-German cooperation between the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), the Research Centre for Environmental Sciences (GSF), and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in the Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland. Several methods and various equipment for measuring rock stress have been developed and tested in an approximately 200-m borehole drilled from a gallery at a depth of 450 m. The measurements were made continually during overcoring; the data were recorded and processed in a computer located downhole or outside the borehole. The results of the overcoring tests and of frac tests indicate a principle horizontal stress of 25-40 MPa, directed mainly NW-SE. Detailed geological mapping shows relationships between stress and rock structure. A zone of nearly unfractured rock exhibits an increase in stress and a change in stress direction. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...... to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain...... associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress....

  12. Monthly results of measurements; May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  13. Monthly results of measurements: June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  14. Monthly results of measurements: May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements. Jun 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  16. Monthly results of measurements: November 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  17. Monthly results of measurements: Dec 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  18. Monthly results of measurements: Jul 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  19. Monthly results of measurements: September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  20. Monthly results of measurements: Aug 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  1. Monthly results of measurements: April 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  2. Monthly results of measurements: July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  3. Monthly results of measurements: October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  4. Monthly results of measurements: May 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  5. Monthly results of measurements: Sep 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  6. Monthly results of measurements: Jun 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  7. Monthly results of measurements: Sep 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  8. Monthly results of measurements: February 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  9. Monthly results of measurements. July 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  10. Monthly results of measurements. January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  11. Monthly results of measurements: Jun 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  12. Monthly results of measurements: Dec 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  13. Monthly results of measurements: Feb 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  14. Monthly results of measurements: Nov 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements. Apr 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  16. Monthly results of measurements: Mars 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  17. Monthly results of measurements: December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  18. Monthly results of measurements: Oct 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  19. Monthly results of measurements: July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  20. Monthly results of measurements: November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  1. Monthly results of measurements: November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  2. Monthly results of measurements: January 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  3. Monthly results of measurements: Jan 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  4. Monthly results of measurements: Apr 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  5. Monthly results of measurements. Mar 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  6. Monthly results of measurements: Dec 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  7. Monthly results of measurements: March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  8. Monthly results of measurements: December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  9. Monthly results of measurements: Oct 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  10. Monthly results of measurements: July 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  11. Monthly results of measurements; July 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  12. Monthly results of measurements: Feb 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  13. Monthly results of measurements: Jan 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  14. Monthly results of measurements: April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements: Aug 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  16. Monthly results of measurements. May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  17. Monthly results of measurements: January 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  18. Monthly results of measurements: Feb 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  19. Monthly results of measurements: November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  20. Monthly results of measurements: February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  1. Monthly results of measurements: May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  2. Monthly results of measurements: Jan 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  3. Monthly results of measurements. May 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  4. Monthly results of measurements: March 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  5. Monthly results of measurements: November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  6. Monthly results of measurements; August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  7. Monthly results of measurements: Mar 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  8. Monthly results of measurements: Mars 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  9. Monthly results of measurements: November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  10. Monthly results of measurements; December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  11. Monthly results of measurements: October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  12. Monthly results of measurements, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  13. Monthly results of measurements: Apr 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  14. Monthly results of measurements: January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements; July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  16. Monthly results of measurements; October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  17. Monthly results of measurements: November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  18. Monthly results of measurements, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  19. Monthly results of measurements: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  20. Monthly results of measurements, May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  1. Monthly results of measurements; December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  2. Monthly results of measurements; September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  3. Monthly results of measurements, April 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  4. Monthly results of measurements: October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  5. Monthly results of measurements; March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  6. Monthly results of measurements; February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. 22 tabs

  7. Monthly results of measurements; November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  8. Monthly results of measurements, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  9. Monthly results of measurements; June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  10. Monthly results of measurements; March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  11. Monthly results of measurements; May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  12. Monthly results of measurements; April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  13. Monthly results of measurements, October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  14. Monthly results of measurements; July 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements; September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  16. Monthly results of measurements. August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the main results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  17. Monthly results of measurements, Jul 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  18. Monthly results of measurements: August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  19. Monthly Results of Measurements, February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  20. Monthly results of measurements. February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  1. Monthly results of measurements, February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  2. Monthly Results of Measurements, Jan 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  3. Monthly results of measurements, August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  4. Monthly results of measurements. January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  5. Monthly results of measurements: September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  6. Monthly results of measurements: October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  7. Monthly results of measurements: February 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  8. Monthly results of measurements: Sep 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  9. Monthly results of measurements: Aug 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  10. Monthly results of measurements, Aug 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables [fr

  11. Monthly results of measurements. April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  12. Monthly results of measurements; Jun 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  13. Monthly results of measurements; April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  14. Monthly results of measurements: February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  15. Monthly results of measurements: August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiation) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  16. Monthly results of measurements: Sep 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  17. Monthly results of measurements: Aug 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  18. Monthly results of measurements: February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. 20 refs., 10 tabs

  19. Monthly results of measurements: October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  20. Monthly results of measurements. Jun 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables

  1. Molecular force sensors to measure stress in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, Meenakshi; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly generated forces are essential for most activities of biological cells, but also for the maintenance of steady state or homeostasis. To quantitatively understand cellular dynamics in migration, division, or mechanically guided differentiation, it will be important to exactly measure stress fields within the cell and the extracellular matrix. Traction force microscopy and related techniques have been established to determine the stress transmitted from adherent cells to their substrates. However, different approaches are needed to directly assess the stress generated inside the cell. This has recently led to the development of novel molecular force sensors. In this topical review, we briefly mention methods used to measure cell-external forces, and then summarize and explain different designs for the measurement of cell-internal forces with their respective advantages and disadvantages. (topical review)

  2. Optical residual stress measurement in TFT-LCD panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Sung, Po-Chi

    2017-06-01

    The residual stress of the glass substrate might be one of causes to produce the non-uniform light distribution defect, i.e. Mura, in thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panels. Glass is a birefringent material with very low birefringence. Furthermore, the thinner and thinner thickness request from the market makes the traditional photoelasticity almost impossible to measure the residual stresses produced in thin glass plates. Recently, a low-level stress measurement method called transmissivity extremities theory of photoelasticity (TEToP) was successfully developed to measure the residual stress in glass plate. Besides, to measure the stress of the glass plate in the TFT-LCD panel whose rear surface may has different kinds of coatings, an advanced reflection photoelasticity was also developed. In this paper, three commercially available glass plates with 0.33mm nominal thickness and three glass circular disks with different coatings were inspected to verify the feasibility of the TEToP and the advanced reflection photoelasticity, respectively.

  3. Feasibility of ultrasonic and eddy current methods for measurement of residual stress in shot peened metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Stucky, Paul A.; Veronesi, William A.

    2000-01-01

    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing compressive residual stresses near their surfaces. The capability to nondestructively evaluate the near surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper presents preliminary results from a feasibility study examining the use of ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods for residual stress measurement in components where the stress has been introduced by shot peening. With an ultrasonic method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity was measured. Near surface conductivity was measured by eddy current methods. Since the effective penetration depth of both methods employed is inversely related to the excitation frequency, by making measurements at different frequencies, each method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. Experiments were conducted on aluminum specimens (alloy 7075-T7351) peened within the Almen peening intensity range of 4C to 16C. The experimental results obtained demonstrate a correlation between peening intensity and Rayleigh wave velocity and between peening intensity and conductivity. The data suggests either of the methods may be suitable, with limitations, for detecting unsatisfactory levels of shot peening. Several factors were found to contribute to the measured responses: surface roughness, near surface plastic deformation (cold work) and residual stress. The contribution of each factor was studied experimentally. The feasibility of residual stress determination from the measured data is discussed

  4. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  5. An analysis of static loading results on slotted ring samples to allow for further investigation of stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, J.; Ferrier, G.A.; Farahani, M.; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail: Joseph.Metzler@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking can cause failures of CANDU Zircaloy-4 fuel sheathing. A series of static loading tests were performed on slotted ring samples in support of ongoing efforts to analyze the effects of iodine concentration, temperature, and stress levels on the corrosion of Zircaloy-4. The corrosive degradation of Zircaloy-4 was evaluated using deflection measurements. A regression analysis determined that iodine concentration and temperature have had a linear effect on deflection results thus far, while the stress level has not. (author)

  6. Stress measurement and bolt tensioning by ultrasonic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.F.; Greiner, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to approx. 1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability

  7. Stress Measurement and Bolt Tensioning by Ultrasonic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. F.; Greiner, John D.

    1980-07-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to ˜1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability.

  8. Rock stress measurements. Preparatory stage of the equipment development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononen, S.; Hakala, M.; Mikkola, P.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the rock stress measurement methods used in Finland have been overcoring and hydraulic fracturing. There have been mainly two companies involved in these measurements, namely Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) and SwedPower AB. Smoy has done measurements for mines and for rock engineering projects, whereas SwedPower AB has mainly been involved in nuclear waste disposal investigations and conducted hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes. Smoy together with its partners started in February 2001 a project named JTM, which was a preliminary stage for a future project, which aims to develop a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finland. The partners in the project were HUT Rock Engineering, Posiva Oy, Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Gridpoint Finland Oy and Geopros Oy. Tekes, the National Technology Agency, provided almost half of the project funding. In the management group of the project were Pekka Mikkola (chairman) and Tero Laurila from Smoy, Pekka Saerkkae and Sakari Mononen (full-time researcher) from HUT, Aimo Hautojaervi (Posiva Oy), Erik Johansson (Saanio and Riekkola Oy), Matti Hakala (Gridpoint Finland Oy) and Heikki Haemaelaeinen (Geopros Oy). The aim of the JTM-project was to find out the needs for the development of a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finnish mines and rock engineering projects. During the project work was done to find out the range of rock stress measurement devices available, to find out the needs for measurements, and to get acquainted to the measurements done in Scandinavia. Also a report of the most suitable methods for Finnish rock conditions was done based on literature and on interviews of rock stress experts. Based on all the information collected during the project a clear picture of the needs for rock stress measurements in Finland could be formed and a preliminary plan of a future project was done. The aim of the suggested project is to build a device based on hydraulic fracturing

  9. Residual stresses measurement by using ring-core method and 3D digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Huaixi; Lu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Ring-core method/three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) residual stresses measurement is proposed. Ring-core cutting is a mechanical stress relief method, and combining with 3D DIC system the deformation of the specimen surface can be measured. An optimization iteration method is proposed to obtain the residual stress and rigid-body motion. The method has the ability to cut an annular trench at a different location out of the field of view. A compression test is carried out to demonstrate how residual stress is determined by using 3D DIC system and outfield measurement. The results determined by the approach are in good agreement with the theoretical value. Ring-core/3D DIC has shown its robustness to determine residual stress and can be extended to application in the engineering field. (paper)

  10. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  11. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

  12. Rock stress measurements in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto at depth of 120 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecker, E.

    2007-04-01

    In November and December 2006 overcoring stress measurements have been conducted in the boreholes ONK-PP74, ONK-PP75 and ONK-PP77 in a niche of the access tunnel of the ONKALO underground characterisation facility at the Olkiluoto site. Measurements have been done using the CSIRO 3D stress measuring cell. This cell is one of the mostly used cells in the whole world for estimation of the state of stress in rock when doing the borehole measurements. The boreholes are at a depth of about 120 m under the ground surface. The rock where the measurements have been conducted is a foliated migmatitic gneiss (subtypes veined and diatexitic gneiss). Parallel to the overcoring measurements a glue test has been conducted in the laboratory to check the quality of the bonding of the stress cells to the rock. The result showed that the glue makes a good contact between the rock and the stress cell, but air bubbles, which have normally been observed within the glue and at the edges, proved this time to be disadvantageous. Normally such air bubbles have dimensions of about one millimetre, but sometimes certain bubbles may become notably bigger. In the ONKALO overcored probes sawn apart such air bubbles were found both in wet and dry probe conditions. In the test series eight stress measurements have been provided, three of them failed for technical reasons. At one of these three tests the glue has extruded too early, at the other two tests the overcoring was not conducted deep enough. At the remaining five tests in spite of the glue test results a calculation of the stress tensor could be made. Four of these five measurements can be seen as relatively successful. The results of these measurements show a major principal stress of 14.8 MPa in average, trending northwest - southeast, and with a dipping of 11 degrees in average. (orig.)

  13. Measures against heat stress in the city of Gelsenkirchen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dütemeyer, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the near-surface atmosphere, heat waves during the summer cause situations that may lead to human-biometeorological impairment. Because of their high population density, overheated cities are particularly strongly affected by heat stress. In the future, due to the effects of climate change, heat stress will increase in terms of its intensity and spatial expansion in the areas of concern. Taking the example of the city of Gelsenkirchen, Germany, this article presents a method for the identification of areas requiring adaptation or protection. A scenario of the future increase of heat stress events is presented, based on data of the German climate change model STAR II. For the identification of areas requiring adaptation and protection, spatial analyses of the urban heat island, land use and demographic aspects were performed using GIS tools. The application and assessment of adaptation measures is investigated for an urban quarter using the microscale numerical model ENVI-met. Finally adaptation measures in urban planning against heat stress are discussed. The relevant urban planning adaptation measures, which are also important in view of climate change, not only involve heat stress reduction in the residential areas already affected, but also involve the protection and optimisation of existing favourable and compensation areas.

  14. Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Große, S; Schröder, W

    2008-01-01

    A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress

  15. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and relationship to the regional stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, J.M.; Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and acoustic borehole televiewer logs were run in holes USW G-1 and USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the U. S. Department of Energy. Eight tests in the saturated zone, at depths from 646 to 1288 m, yielded values of the least horizontal stress S/sub h/ that are considerably lower than the vertical principal stress S/sub v/. In tests for which the greatest horizontal principal stress S/sub H/ could be determined, it was found to be less than S/sub v/, indicating a normal faulting stress regime. The borehole televiewer logs showed the presence of long (in excess of 10 m), vertical, drilling-induced fractures in the first 300 m below the water table. These are believed to form by the propagation of small preexisting cracks under the excess downhole fluid pressures (up to 5.2 MPa) applied during drilling. The presence of these drilling-induced hydrofractures provides further confirmation of the low value of the least horizontal stresses. A least horizontal principal stress direction of N60 0 W--N65 0 W is indicated by the orientation of the drilling-induced hydrofractures (N25 0 E--N30 0 E), and the orientation of stress-induced well bore breakouts in the lower part of USW G-2 (N65 0 W). This direction is in good agreement with indicators of stress direction from elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site. The observed stress magnitudes and directions were examined for the possibility of slip on preexisting faults. Using these data, the Coulomb criterion for frictional sliding suggests that for coefficients of friction close to 0.6, movement on favorably oriented faults could be expected

  16. Quantitative stress measurement of elastic deformation using mechanoluminescent sensor: An intensity ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Guo, Songtao; Li, Yongzeng; Peng, Di; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yingzheng

    2018-04-01

    The mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor is a newly developed non-invasive technique for stress/strain measurement. However, its application has been mostly restricted to qualitative measurement due to the lack of a well-defined relationship between ML intensity and stress. To achieve accurate stress measurement, an intensity ratio model was proposed in this study to establish a quantitative relationship between the stress condition and its ML intensity in elastic deformation. To verify the proposed model, experiments were carried out on a ML measurement system using resin samples mixed with the sensor material SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+. The ML intensity ratio was found to be dependent on the applied stress and strain rate, and the relationship acquired from the experimental results agreed well with the proposed model. The current study provided a physical explanation for the relationship between ML intensity and its stress condition. The proposed model was applicable in various SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+-based ML measurement in elastic deformation, and could provide a useful reference for quantitative stress measurement using the ML sensor in general.

  17. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  18. Measuring stations for gamma radiation - measured results 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma radiation is recorded continuously at 25 stations in Sweden. The evaluation of the data from five of the stations is made in a most accurate way, and the results are presented in this report. (G.B.)

  19. Practical Application of Residual Stress Measurements on Maritime Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    is alloyed with copper, zinc or magnesium. While these alloys still have reasonably good overall corrosion characteristics they are all vulnerable to...welding. Four welding passes were utilized, three on the top side and once along the root. Upon cooling all excess and slag was ground off of the...stress in this area. Further investigation showed that this result most likely came from compressive stresses caused by grinding off slag and spill from

  20. Ultrasonic measurements on residual stress in autofrettged thick walled petroleum pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woias, G.; Mizera, J.

    2008-01-01

    optimal specimen length as 60 mm required beam time is for three slices measurements in depth of wall. This work is to compare the neutron stresses on ultrasound technique and FEM. Results of FEM modeling shows the axial compression zone in the inner side of the pipe. The residual stresses are growing while the pipe is in exploitation. Non-destructive method of measurements - ultrasonic - will be the best way of life time assessment and degradation monitoring. That's why the results obtained with other residual stresses measuring methods are significant. The measurements using neutron gauge are planned to be done on the inner surface of the pipe. According to the FEM model the dimensions of the sample to rule out any risk of residual stresses relaxation are described in inferences by FEM analysis. To assess residual stresses with 5% accuracy it is required to measure slice cut samples not less that two pipe's thickness length - 60 cm. Three samples were prepared to be measured: 1) New pipe after autofrettaging [Np]; 2) Pipe after exploitation from the upper part of the reactor - heating zone [11/1]; 3) Pipe from lower part - cooling zone [75]. In the first part of the experiment, the pipe no [11/1] has been measured for axial and hoop stresses. The pipe [Np] was measured for axial stresses. The aim of these measurements will be measuring hoop residual stress on a non-used pipe after autofrettaging [Np] as well as hoop and axial stresses in a pipe taken from the lower part of the reactor - the cooling zone. (author)

  1. Towards an artificial therapy assistant: Measuring excessive stress from speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; Dijkstra, Ton; Traver, V.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of (excessive) stress is still a challenging endeavor. Most tools rely on either introspection or expert opinion and are, therefore, often less reliable or a burden on the patient. An objective method could relieve these problems and, consequently, assist diagnostics. Speech was

  2. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  3. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  4. Intraindividual change and variability in daily stress processes: Findings from two measurement-burst diary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little longitudinal information on aging-related changes in emotional responses to negative events. The present manuscript examined intraindividual change and variability in the within-person coupling of daily stress and negative affect (NA) using data from two-measurement burst daily diary studies. Three main findings emerged. First, average reactivity to daily stress increased longitudinally, and this increase was evident across most the adult lifespan. Second, individual differences in emotional reactivity to daily stress exhibited long-term temporal stability, but this stability was greatest in midlife and decreased in old age. And third, reactivity to daily stress varied reliably within-persons (across-time), with individual exhibiting higher levels of reactivity during times when reporting high levels of global subject stress in previous month. Taken together, the present results emphasize the importance of modeling dynamic psychosocial and aging processes that operate across different time scales for understanding age-related changes in daily stress processes. PMID:20025399

  5. The measurement of in-situ stress in near surface environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garritty, P.; Irvin, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    One of the major unknowns affecting aspects of underground construction and the geohydrology of rock masses is the magnitude and direction of the geostatic principal stresses in the earth's crust. This is particularly the case in near surface rocks where there are indications that high horizontal stresses may exist. The measurement of stress in near surface environments is particularly difficult. The techniques, experience and results of a geostatic stress measurement programme using four commercially available devices at shallow depth in the Carnmenellis Granite are critically discussed and compared. This report also brings together some of the conclusions of two previous reports in the series, Garritty (1983) and Garritty and Irvin (1983), and emphasises the fundamental relationship between the state of stress in the earth's crust and the geohydrology of rock masses. (author)

  6. Pressure pain sensitivity: A new method of stress measurement in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    to induce hyperalgesia.The aim of the present study was to evaluate hyperalgesia by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) in patients with IHD, and compare PPS to questionnaires measuring depressive symptoms, reduced psychological wellbeing, and QOL as markers of stress. Design. A cross-sectional study of 361......Abstract Background. Chronic stress is prevalent in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and worsens the long-term prognosis. Chronic stress is vaguely defined, but is associated with depressive symptoms, reduced psychological wellbeing, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Stress seems...... subjects with IHD. Methods. PPS was measured on the sternum, and compared to the questionnaires: Clinical stress symptoms score (CSS), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, and SF-36 QOL score. Results. PPS correlated to CSS (r = 0.20, p

  7. Measuring multiple residual-stress components using the contour method and multiple cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pagliaro, Pierluigi [U. PALERMO; Zuccarello, Bernardo [U. PALERMO

    2009-01-01

    The conventional contour method determines one component of stress over the cross section of a part. The part is cut into two, the contour of the exposed surface is measured, and Bueckner's superposition principle is analytically applied to calculate stresses. In this paper, the contour method is extended to the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts with subsequent applications of superposition. The theory and limitations are described. The theory is experimentally tested on a 316L stainless steel disk with residual stresses induced by plastically indenting the central portion of the disk. The stress results are validated against independent measurements using neutron diffraction. The theory has implications beyond just multiple cuts. The contour method measurements and calculations for the first cut reveal how the residual stresses have changed throughout the part. Subsequent measurements of partially relaxed stresses by other techniques, such as laboratory x-rays, hole drilling, or neutron or synchrotron diffraction, can be superimposed back to the original state of the body.

  8. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongge Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible.

  9. Overcoring rock stress measurements in drillholes ONK-PP169 and ONK-PP170 Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Sjoeberg, J.

    2009-03-01

    Three-dimensional overcoring rock stress measurements were conducted in drillholes ONK-PP169 and ONK-PP170 at the 230 m depth level in the ONKALO site ramp. The measurements were performed during the spring of 2008. The objective of the measurements was to obtain better understanding of the in situ stress field for the measured depth levels. Another objective was to increase the confidence and reliability and to diminish the uncertainties concerning the state of stress at shallow depth of ONKALO. Due to problems with bonding of strain gauges, which may have been caused by a thin layer/coating of unknown material on the pilot hole wall, stress measurements results were only achieved in drillhole ONK-PP170 at -230 m level. The initial plan was to conduct measurements at three depth levels, -120 m, -180 m and -220 m levels, in the ONKALO ramp. Two (2) of the conducted measurements could be rated as successful (rating a) two (2) measurement were partly successful (rating b). The results from the measurements assuming isotropic condition, the major principal stress is plunging between 18deg and 35deg and trending between S and WSW. Stress magnitudes (for σ 1 ) varied between 12 and 16 MPa except for test 2:3:3 where a much higher value (47 MPa) was obtained. The orientation of the major principal stress are similar for test 2:3:3 and 2:4:3 (WSW), but are different from the orientation of the major principal stress for test 2:5:1 and 2:6:1 (S). Likewise, the horizontal stresses have the highest values for test 2:3:3 but in this case the orientation is similar to test 2:5:1 and 2:4:3. The horizontal stress magnitudes of test 2:4:3, 2:5:1 and 2:6:1 are similar but the orientation for test 2:6:1 are different from the other three tests. The results from two of the measurements assuming transversely isotropic conditions, the major principal stress is 12.3 MPa and 12.7 MPa, trending WSW and S, plunging 30 deg. (orig.)

  10. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  11. Residual stress measurements in coil, linepipe and girth welded pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Prask, H.; Luzin, V.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines come from forming operations in producing the coil and pipe, seam welding the pipe, and girth welding pipes together to form a gas pipeline. Welding is used extensively in gas pipelines, the welds are made without post weld heat treatment. The three normal stresses were measured by neutron diffraction for three types of sample: coil, unwelded rings cut from the pipe made from this coil, and girth welded rings cut from linepipe. All three specimens came from three thicknesses of manufacture (5.4, 6.4, and 7.1 mm). The welds are manual metal arc cellulosic electrode welds made in X70 linepipe, these were measured at 5 through-thickness positions at 19 locations (from the center of the weld up to 35 mm away from the weld) with a spatial resolution of 1 mm 3 . The coil and unwelded rings were measured at the same five through-thickness positions

  12. Non-destructive measurement of residual stresses in U-0.8 wt.% Ti by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, A.; Root, J.H.; Holden, T.M.; Macewen, S.R.; Ludtka, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The macroscopic residual stress distribution in γ-quenched and stress levelled U-0.8wt% Ti alloy tubes was studied using neutron diffraction techniques. Residual strains were evaluated from the difference in d-spacings measured in the tubes and in small reference samples machined from each tube. Residual stresses were calculated with the isotropic bulk value of the elastic constraints for polycrystalline α-U. Quenching from the γ field resulted in a nearly equi-biaxial stress state at every point across the wall thickness of the tube. The magnitude of the radial stress was very small compared with that of the axial and hoop stresses which were compressive at the surfaces and tensile in the interior. Stress levelling relieved almost completely the hoop residual stress without affecting the radial stress. The axial residual stress becomes tensile through the wall thickness and remains constant at about 20% of its magnitude in the as-quenched condition

  13. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  16. X-ray stress measurement by use of synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsui, Hisaaki; Moro-oka, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of X-ray stress measurement of polycrystalline materials, a diffraction plane at higher Bragg angle has to be selected in order to obtain the precise value of stress. However, the stress measurement on an optional (hkl) plane desired is not always possible because the X-ray beam exited from a metal target has a dispersive wave length. Recently, we have been able to use the synchrotron radiation source (SR) as an excellent X-ray source. In Japan, the facility of synchrotron radiation (Photon Factory, PF) was constructed in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) at Tsukuba academic city. The use of this SR enables the stress measurements on many (hkl) planes with high accuracy in the higher Bragg angle region by providing an X-ray beam having an optional wave length. We have started the X-ray stress analysis by use of the synchrotron radiation source. This paper reports the system of measurement and some results of preliminaly experiments. Since a monochromatic X-ray beam is required for the stress measurement, we used a beam line which consists of a double crystal monochrometer and a focusing mirror. X-rays between 4 KeV (λ = 0.31 nm) and 10 KeV (λ = 0.12 nm) are available with this optical system. We adopted a constant Bragg angle of 2θ = 154 deg for all the diffraction planes. A PSPC having a carbon fiber anode is made and used as a detector with the use of a fast digital signal processor. We could observe the diffraction profiles from (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321) crystal plane of alpha iron, respectively, and the residual stresses in these planes except the (200) plane were measured with high accuracy in a short time. Such feature especially suits the stress analysis of the material which has preferred orientation or stress gradient. (author)

  17. X-ray stress measurement of ferritic steel using fourier analysis of Debye-Scherrer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, X-ray stress measurements of ferritic steel based on Fourier analysis are conducted. Taira et al. developed the cosα method for X-ray stress measurements using a two-dimensional X-ray detector. Miyazaki et al. reported that the cosα method can be described more concisely by developing the Fourier series (the Fourier analysis method). The Fourier analysis method is expected to yield the stress measurement with an imperfect Debye-Scherrer ring and there is a possibility that the materials evaluation is different compared with the conventional method, that is, the sin 2 ψ method. In the Fourier analysis method, the strain measured by X-rays is developed as a Fourier series, and all the plane-stress components can be calculated from the Fourier series. In this study, the normal stress calculation was confirmed. In addition, the Fourier-analysis and cosα methods were used for X-ray stress measurements during a four-point bending test on a S45C test piece, and the effectiveness of the Fourier analysis method was confirmed. It was found that the experimental results from the Fourier analysis and cosα methods were nearly identical. In addition, the measurement accuracies of both the methods were equivalent. (author)

  18. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoids in parrotfishes to assess stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J.W.; Nemeth, R.; Rogers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide from a combination of natural and human forces. The environmental compromises faced by coral reef habitats and their associated fishes are potentially stressful, and in this study we examined the potential for assessing stress levels in coral reef fish. We determined the feasibility of using fecal casts from parrotfishes for remote assessment of stress-related hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), and the response of these hormones to the stress of restraint and hypoxia. Measurement of these hormones in fecal extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated using mass spectrometry, chemical derivitization, and radioactive tracer methods. In aquarium-adapted parrotfish, baseline levels of cortisol and corticosterone averaged 3.4??1.1 and 14.8??2.8ng/g feces, respectively, across 32 days. During 13 days of periodic stress these hormones, respectively, average 10.8-fold and 3.2-fold greater than baseline, with a return to near baseline during a 23-day follow-up. Testosterone was also measured as a reference hormone which is not part of the stress-response axis. Levels of this hormone were similar across the study. These fecal hormones were also measured in a field study of parrotfish in 10 fringing coral reef areas around the Caribbean Island of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Extracts of remotely collected fecal casts of three parrotfish species revealed no difference in respective average hormone levels among these species. Also, there was no difference in respective hormone levels between aquarium and field environments. However, levels of both cortisol and corticosterone, but not testosterone, were elevated in two of the 10 reef sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that parrotfish fecals can be collected in aquarium and field conditions and that steroid hormones in these fecals can be extracted and reliably measured. The study also demonstrates that cortisol and corticosterone in parrotfish fecals can

  19. Evaluation of Package Stress during Temperature Cycling using Metal Deformation Measurement and FEM Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeglauer, J.; Bohm, C.; Otremba, R.; Maerz, J.; Nelle, P.; Stecher, M.; Alpern, P.

    2006-01-01

    Plastic encapsulated devices that are exposed to Temperature Cycling (TC) tests undergo an excessive mechanical stress due to different Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the various materials used in the system. Especially in the corners of the die, passivation cracks and shifted metal lines can be observed, which demonstrates an increasing mechanical stress from chip center to the corners of the die. This effect has been known for a long time. This paper presents a simple measurement technique to quantify the mechanical shear stress at the chip-Mold Compound (MC) interface by measuring the deformation of a periodical metal structure. Based on this deformation measurement, we evaluated the stress distribution within the package, and the influence of different parameters such as number of cycles and chip size. Furthermore, these experimental results were compared with FEM simulation, and showed good agreement but could not account in all cases for the total amount of observed shift

  20. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Within the scope of work, to provide the necessary rock mechanics support for the site investigations, SKB has studied some available pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements in deep boreholes. A project with the objective to compare three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements under similar conditions has been carried out. The main objective for the project is to compare the three different pieces of equipment for in situ stress measurements and find a strategy for SKB's Site Investigations to determine the state of stress in the rock mass. Two units of equipment use the overcoring method while the third uses the hydraulic fracturing method. The overcoring was performed by AECL, using Deep Door stopper Gauge System (DDGS), and SwedPower, using their triaxial strain measuring instrument (Borre Probe). MeSy Geo Systeme GmbH performed the hydraulic fracturing. The DDGS system is a new method to SKB while the experience of the SwedPower overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing methods are long. The tests were performed in the same orthogonal boreholes at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Oskarshamn, Sweden. The measured results have been verified against known conditions at the Aespoe HRL. The results from the three in situ stress measurement methods rose more questions than answers. Which illustrate the complexity to determine the in situ stresses in a rock mass. To understand the difference in results and answer the questions, it was necessary to do deeper investigations such as laboratory tests and theoretical calculations such as geological structure model, analysis of the influence of a nearby fracture, P-wave measurements, uniaxial tests on small cores from the HQ-3 core, theoretical and numerical analyses of the hole bottom (theoretical strains, stress concentrations and microcracking), auditing of DDGS measurements results and assumptions in the DDGS analyse and microscopy investigations on the cores. The following

  1. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  2. Residual stress measurements of 2-phase sprayed coating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Hanabusa, Takao

    1997-01-01

    In a series of the already reported single phase metal and ceramic melt sprayed films, on two phase melt sprayed films, their stress and thermal stress changes due to their bending load are tried to test. In order to prepare two phase state, austenitic stainless steel wire is used by a laser melt spraying method. In this method, CO 2 laser is used for a thermal source, and proceeding direction of its laser is selected to cross melt spraying direction. As a result, the following facts can be elucidated. The stress values at α- and γ-phase in the stainless steel film are linearly responsive to the bending load, and the stress change in α-phase is smaller than that in γ-phase. In a heat and cool cycle, α-phase shows a trend of extension with increasing temperature but γ-phase shows a trend of compression inversely. And, stress behavior at α- and γ-phases in the stainless steel film does not agree with a mixing rule in common two-phase materials. (G.K.)

  3. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  4. A New Method of Stress Measurement Based upon Elastic Deformation of Core Sample with Stress Relief by Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Tamagawa, T.; Tezuka, K.; Yabe, Y.; Abe, S.; Ishida, A.; Ogasawara, H.

    2017-12-01

    When rock is cored at depth by drilling, anisotropic expansion occurs with the relief of anisotropic rock stresses, resulting in a sinusoidal variation of core diameter with a period of 180 deg. in the core roll angle. The circumferential variation of core diameter is given theoretically as a function of rock stresses. These new findings can lead various ideas to estimate the rock stress from circumferential variation of core diameter measured after the core retrieving. In the simplest case when a single core sample is only available, the difference between the maximum and minimum components of rock stress in a plane perpendicular to the drilled hole can be estimated from the maximum and minimum core diameters (see the detail in, Funato and Ito, IJRMMS, 2017). The advantages of this method include, (i) much easier measurement operation than those in other in-situ or in-lab estimation methods, and (ii) applicability in high stress environment where stress measurements need pressure for packers or pumping system for the hydro-fracturing methods higher than their tolerance levels. We have successfully tested the method at deep seismogenic zones in South African gold mines, and we are going to apply it to boreholes collared at 3 km depth and intersecting a M5.5 rupture plane several hundred meters below the mine workings in the ICDP project of "Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines" (DSeis) (e.g., http://www.icdp-online.org/projects/world/africa/orkney-s-africa/details/). If several core samples with different orientation are available, all of three principal components of 3D rock stress can be estimated. To realize this, we should have several boreholes drilled in different directions in a rock mass where the stress field is considered to be uniform. It is commonly carried out to dill boreholes in different directions from a mine gallery. Even in a deep borehole drilled vertically from the ground surface, the

  5. Stress analysis and mitigation measures for floating pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenpeng, Guo; Yuqing, Liu; Chao, Li

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline-floating is a kind of accident with contingency and uncertainty associated to natural gas pipeline occurring during rainy season, which is significantly harmful to the safety of pipeline. Treatment measures against pipeline floating accident are summarized in this paper on the basis of practical project cases. Stress states of pipeline upon floating are analyzed by means of Finite Element Calculation method. The effectiveness of prevention ways and subsequent mitigation measures upon pipeline-floating are verified for giving guidance to the mitigation of such accidents.

  6. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Mathew, Supriya; Garnett, Stephen T

    2018-02-26

    Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%), 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected temperature

  7. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%, 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected

  8. Rock stress measurements in the deep boreholes at Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Eurajoki and Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, H.; Leijon, B.

    1990-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurements, conducted in five boreholes are presented. The boreholes are located in different site investigation areas in Finland: Kuhmo-Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi-Veitsivaara, Sievi-Syyry, Eurajoki-Olkiluoto and Konginkangas-Kivetty. The aim of the measurements was to provide rock stress data, forming input to the site selection process for an underground facility for disposal of high level radioactive waste from the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. A summary is given of the theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method, whilst the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case are described in more detail. All results obtained are presented and subjected to critical discussion. The final stress parameters evaluated are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to the clan at Syyry, Olkiluoto and Kivetty. Testing was partly successful at Romuvaara but unsuccessful in the borehole at Veitsivaara

  9. Project ES3: attempting to quantify and measure the level of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Jordi; Ferrer-Salvans, Pau; García-Rozo, Antonio; Armario, Antonio; Corbí, Ángel; Cambra, Francisco J; Bailón, Raquel; González-Marcos, Ana; Caja, Gerardo; Aguiló, Sira; López-Antón, Raúl; Arza-Valdés, Adriana; Garzón-Rey, Jorge M

    2015-11-01

    The WHO has qualified stress as a 'world epidemic' due to its increasingly greater incidence on health. The work described in this paper represents an attempt to objectively quantify the level of stress. The aim of the method developed here is to measure how close or how far a subject is from a situation that can be considered 'normal' in medical and social terms. The literature on the pathophysiology of stress and its methods of study in experiments on both animals and humans was reviewed. Nine prospective observational studies were undertaken with different types of subjects and stressors covering the different types of stress. The results of the literature review made it possible to identify the different types of stress, the indicators that yield significant results, the psychometric tests and the well-documented 'stressors'. This material was then used to design the general method and the details of the nine clinical trials. The preliminary results obtained in some of the studies were used to validate the indicators as well as the efficacy of the techniques used experimentally to diminish stress or to produce it. The early results obtained in the experimental trials show that we are on the right path towards defining and validating multivariable markers for quantifying levels of stress and also suggest that the method can be applied in a similar way to the study of mental disorders.

  10. Turbulent stress measurements with phase-contrast magnetic resonance through tilted slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Jordan; Soederberg, Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden-Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    Aiming at turbulent measurements in opaque suspensions, a simplistic methodology for measuring the turbulent stresses with phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry is described. The method relies on flow-compensated and flow-encoding protocols with the flow encoding gradient normal to the slice. The experimental data is compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS), both directly but also, more importantly, after spatial averaging of the DNS data that resembles the measurement and data treatment of the experimental data. The results show that the most important MRI data (streamwise velocity, streamwise variance and Reynolds shear stress) is reliable up to at least anti r = 0.75 without any correction, paving the way for dearly needed turbulence and stress measurements in opaque suspensions. (orig.)

  11. Direct measurement of wall shear stress in a reattaching flow with a photonic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz, U K; Ioppolo, T; Ötügen, M V

    2013-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements are carried out in a planar backward-facing step flow using a micro-optical sensor. The sensor is essentially a floating element system and measures the shear stress directly. The transduction method to measure the floating element deflection is based on the whispering gallery optical mode (WGM) shifts of a dielectric microsphere. This method is capable of measuring floating element displacements of the order of a nanometer. The floating element surface is circular with a diameter of ∼960 µm, which is part of a beam that is in contact with the dielectric microsphere. The sensor is calibrated for shear stress as well as pressure sensitivity yielding 7.3 pm Pa −1 and 0.0236 pm Pa −1 for shear stress and pressure sensitivity, respectively. Hence, the contribution by the wall pressure is less than two orders of magnitude smaller than that of shear stress. Measurements are made for a Reynolds number range of 2000–5000 extending to 18 step heights from the step face. The results are in good agreement with those of earlier reports. An analysis is also carried out to evaluate the performance of the WGM sensor including measurement sensitivity and bandwidth. (paper)

  12. The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Title: The impact of training process on the stress tests results of women cross country skiing representation. Aim: The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the results of stress tests carried out preparatory period before and after the preparation period and whether the results were influenced by the applied training process. Methods: In this thesis was used background research of professional publications, content analyzes of documents and comparison of the results of stress tests and c...

  13. Stress identification in steam generator tubes from profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Voldoire, F.

    1993-01-01

    An identification method devoted to the determination of stresses in tubes, by means of profile measurements, provided by on site non-destructive evaluations, is presented here. From the only available data (the radial displacement w on the inner wall), the computation of the strains, and consequently the stresses in the elastoplastic range, is made within the framework of the shell theory. For this purpose, we need to determine the associated curvature w'': this step is an ill-posed problem, because of the lack of continuity with respect to the discrete data. This difficulty is overridden by means of an appropriate regularization procedure. The predictive ability of the method has been tested by comparison with direct simulations; we present an industrial application. (author)

  14. Review of Stress and the Measurement of Stress in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary -thyroid (HPT) axes across multiple matrices. APPROACH Task 1 – Natural...performance. Hair samples will be collected from the anterior back region of seals for determination of cortisol as a measure of chronic stress (Davenport...and 5 juveniles. Task 3 – TSH challenges Thyroid hormones (thyroxin, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are

  15. Discussion on accuracy of weld residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction. Influence of strain free reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is required to evaluate a strain-free reference, α 0 , to perform accurate stress measurement using neutron diffraction. In this study, accuracy of neutron stress measurement was quantitatively discussed from α 0 evaluations on a dissimilar metal butt-weld between a type 304 austenitic stainless steel and an A533B low alloy ferritic steel. A strain-free standard specimen and a sliced specimen with 10 mm thickness taken from the dissimilar metal butt-weld were utilized. In the lattice constant evaluation using the standard specimen, average lattice constant derived from multiple hkl reflections was evaluated as the stress-free reference with cancelling out an intergranular strain. Comparing lattice constant distributions in each reflection with average lattice constant distribution in the standard specimen, αFe211 and γFe311 reflections were judged as a suitable reflection for neutron strain measurement to reduce intergranular strain effects. Residual stress distribution in the sliced specimen evaluated using α 0 measured here exhibited higher accuracy than that measured using strain gauges. On the other hand, α 0 distributions were evaluated using the sliced specimen under the plane-stress condition. Existence of slight longitudinal residual stresses near the weld center decreased accuracy of the α 0 evaluations, which means that it is required to optimize the thickness of the sliced specimen for accurate α 0 evaluation under plane strain condition. As a conclusion of this study, it was confirmed that procedures of accurate α 0 evaluation, optimization of the measurement condition, and multiple evaluations on the results play an important role to improve accuracy of the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction. (author)

  16. Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits and Parenting Stress: The Utility of Using a Physiological Measure of Parental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Reina S.; Swain, Deanna M.; Scarpa, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report greater stress due to unique parenting demands (e.g.; Estes et al. in "Brain Dev" 35(2):133-138, 2013). Stress is often studied through self-report and has not been extensively studied using physiological measures. This study compared parenting stress in mothers of…

  17. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, R; Helms-Lorenz, M.; Maulana, R; van Veen, K; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the

  18. Residual stress measurements in the dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Paula, Raphael G.; Souto, Joao P.R.S.; Carvalho Junior, Ideir T.

    2013-01-01

    Weld residual stresses have a large influence on the behavior of cracking that could possibly occur under normal operation of components. In case of an unfavorable environment, both stainless steel and nickel-based weld materials can be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Stress corrosion cracks were found in dissimilar metal welds of some pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. In the nuclear reactor primary circuit the presence of tensile residual stress and corrosive environment leads to so-called Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The PWSCC is a major safety concern in the nuclear power industry worldwide. PWSCC usually occurs on the inner surface of weld regions which come into contact with pressurized high temperature water coolant. However, it is very difficult to measure the residual stress on the inner surfaces of pipes or nozzles because of inaccessibility. A mock-up of weld parts of a pressurizer safety nozzle was fabricated. The mock-up was composed of three parts: an ASTM A508 C13 nozzle, an ASTM A276 F316L stainless steel safe-end, an AISI 316L stainless steel pipe and different filler metals of nickel alloy 82/182 and AISI 316L. This work presents the results of measurements of residual strain from the outer surface of the mock-up welded in base metals and filler metals by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. (author)

  19. The influence of texture on residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, N.B. de.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the orientation distribution function (ODF) from incomplete pole figures has been developed for rolled materials with a cubic structure. This program is based on Bunge's series expansion. The use of incomplete pole figures results in the loss of orthogonality among symmetric spherical harmonic functions and makes it necessary to explicitly evaluate the integrals. The ODF has been used to quantitatively evaluate the influence of texture in determining residual stresses. This has been done by calculating theoretically the strain undergone by each cell as a function of its orientation to residual stress relationship. To test the ODF program, cold rolled Cu and Al specimens were used and to evaluate residual stresses as a function of texture, cold rolled AISI 430 and 324 specimens were used. Simulations have also be presented based on the texture for each of the materials, to verify the nature of the curve d x sin 2 ψ as a function of each stress tensor components. (author)

  20. Natural Variation in Stress Hormones, Comparisons Across Matrices, and Impacts Resulting from Induced Stress in the Bottlenose Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M; Cockrem, John; Romano, Tracy; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge regarding stress hormones and how they vary in response to seasonality, gender, age, and reproductive status for any marine mammal is limited. Furthermore, stress hormones may be measured in more than one matrix (e.g., feces, blood, blubber), but the relationships between levels of a given hormone across these matrices are unknown, further complicating the interpretations of hormones measured in samples collected from wild animals. A study is underway to address these issues in a population of bottlenose dolphins trained for voluntary participation in sample collections from different matrices and across season and time of day.

  1. Measurement of residual stress in quenched 1045 steel by the nanoindentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lina; Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Wang Chengbiao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the residual stress in quenched AISI 1045 steel was measured by a recently developed nanoindentation technique. Depth control mode was adopted to measure the residual stress. It was found that residual compressive stress was generated in the quenched steel. The material around nanoindents exhibits significant pile-up deformation. A new method was proposed to determine the real contact area for pile-up material on the basis of invariant pile-up morphology of the loaded or unloaded states. The results obtained by the new method were in good agreement with the residual stresses measured by the classical X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. - Research Highlights: → A new method was proposed to measure the real contact area for pile-up materials. → The real contact depth is defined as the sum of h max and the pile-up height h p . → The value of residual stress measured by the nanoindentation method was in good agreement with that by the XRD method.

  2. Residual stress measurement of EB-welded plates with contour method. Part 2: FEM analysis of contour profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)

  3. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  4. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A.; Johansson, E.; Hudson, J.A.; Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the ∼ 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely different to the NW-SE regional

  5. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  6. In situ stress measurements at 250m gallery off the ventilation shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Yutaka; Kato, Harumi

    2011-06-01

    From FY2000 to FY2005, JAEA had been making research at ground surface of Horonobe town for repository of high-level radioactive waste. During this period, geological investigation, hydrogeology investigation, rock mechanics investigation, geochemical investigation using boreholes were carried out in Hokushin area which is about 3kmx3km in surface area of Horonobe town in order to construct a geological environment model and to confirm the methodology for safety assessment. Now the research program proceeds to the next stage where the underground drifts and shafts are under construction. In the underground rock mass, in situ stress is the sum of tectonic stress as well as overlying stress due to gravity. In situ stresses enter into excavation design and are required in order to predict the response of rock masses to the disturbance associated with those structures. For these reasons, JAEA has carried out in situ stress measurements using vertical boreholes drilled from ground surface to evaluate the state of horizontal stress in the area. In the research during the underground construction, comparison between the stress measurements carried out at surface and at underground is conducted. And if inconsistency between these two measurements is found, the state of stress will be updated based on more reliable information. In order to study the 3D in situ state of stress around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, hydraulic fracturing tests and stress relief method (Conical-ended borehole method) were conducted at the 250m gallery located near the bottom of the ventilation shaft. Three 20.0m long boreholes, 09-V250-M01(slightly upwards), 09-V250-M02(slightly upwards) and 09-V250-M03(vertical), were drilled from the gallery using 76mm diameter bit. The results of the measurements are summarized as follows: (1) Hydraulic fracturing technique. Hydraulic fracturing technique using the test equipment with sufficiently small compliance was carried out in the three

  7. Development of two short measures for recovery and stress in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässi, Anu; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale were first established in German for the purposes of monitoring athletes' current recovery-stress states in an economical and multidimensional manner. The aim of this paper is to document the development and initial validation of the English versions of these two psychometric monitoring tools. A total of 267 English-speaking athletes from a variety of team and individual sports participated in the study. The English versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency for both instruments (Cronbach α of .74-.89). Furthermore, good model fit was found for the eight scales of the ARSS, matching the structure and results of the German counterparts. Correlations among and between the scales reciprocate the theoretical constructs of stress and recovery, supporting the construct validity of the scales. Correlation coefficients within stress and recovery ranged between r s  = .29 and .68. The correlations between stress and recovery varied between r s  = -.29 and -.64. These constructs were further supported by correlations with the scores of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, thereby showing convergent validity. The findings demonstrate initial validity and reliability of the two measures and reflect the results of the German versions. However, further research is needed before applying these scales in practical settings.

  8. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction method. Standard method using angular dispersion method and trial of using neutron IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takago, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlined a stress measurement method using neutrons, and introduced the application examples to stress measurement for metal-based composite materials. In the angular dispersion type measurement using a steady-state reactor type neutron source, the white beams taken out from a nuclear reactor are monochromatized (wavelength λ is a constant value) with a single crystal monochromator and utilized. As an example of measurement, there was the case as follows: the stress of a sintered material which has been put to practical use as valve seat part for automobiles was measured by the neutron method, and the deformation behavior during load was studied. This study performed neutron diffraction measurement using a residual stress analyzer (RESA: Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis) installed at JAEA's experimental reactor JRR-3. As a result, it was found that the stress state of the sintered composite material of Fe-Cr and TiN can be predicted with a micromechanics model. A neutron diffraction ring can be obtained using a neutron image plate (IP), where fine powder of gadolinium (Gd) was incorporated into IP for X-rays, and it can be used as an IP reader in the same way as the case of X-rays. A report has been introduced on the examination results of the highly accurate stress measurement by applying the cos α method devised for X-ray stress measurement to neutron diffraction ring. (A.O.)

  9. X-ray measurement of residual stress in metals at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegar, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    X-ray diffraction is used at CRNL to measure residual stress in metals. This report summarizes the basic principles of stress measurement, and reviews factors affecting accuracy of measurement. The technique and equipment described were developed at CRNL to give reliable measurements. Accuracy of measurement is achieved by using fixed-count step-scanning and by computer analysis of intensity data using a cubic spline curve smoothing routine. Specific reference is made to the measurement of residual stress in Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 boiler tubing. Because it measures stress in thin surface layers, the X-ray method can also be used to measure the depth profile of stresses. As there are no standardized procedures for measuring residual stress, this report will be useful both to those unfamiliar with the measurement of residual stress and to those already making such measurements in other laboratories. (auth)

  10. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Jonas; Steuwer, Axel; Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans; Haakanen, Merja; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  11. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.holmberg@swerea.se [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); University West, 461 86 Trollhättan (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); Haakanen, Merja [Stresstech OY, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40 800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Berglund, Johan [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden)

    2016-06-14

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  12. Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Evensen, Katinka; Weydahl, Andi; Andersson, Kim; Patil, Grete; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUC(G) and CAR AUC(I)) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p <  0.001) and Positive Affect (p <  0.01), along with improved CAR AUC(I) (p = 0.04) and, marginally, diastolic BP (p = 0.05). The nature group also reported higher ratings of Positive Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUC(G) and cortisol levels measured in serum. Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the

  13. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  14. Results of the 1988 Baden-Wuerttemberg stress inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, E.E.; Schoepfer, W.; Hanack, C.; Kublin, E.; Trefz-Malcher, G.

    1993-01-01

    As a comparison of the 1983 and 1988 needle-analysis inventories showed, Mg and K deficiency situations, in particular, and conditions of inadequate calcium supply tend to persist and were clearly to be distinguished from fluctuations due to weather during the five-year observation period. Obviously, therefore, a complete, lasting recovery of the nutrition situation in such regions without aimed interventions is rather unlikely. Restoring stable nutritive element cycles will also in the future require application of nutritive elements and buffer substances as part of site-specific melioration measures. Sulfur contents show for the greater part a decreasing tend, which indicates a generally reduced deposition of this element. (orig./EF) [de

  15. Uncertainty Quantification and Comparison of Weld Residual Stress Measurements and Predictions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In pressurized water reactors, the prevention, detection, and repair of cracks within dissimilar metal welds is essential to ensure proper plant functionality and safety. Weld residual stresses, which are difficult to model and cannot be directly measured, contribute to the formation and growth of cracks due to primary water stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, the uncertainty in weld residual stress measurements and modeling predictions is not well understood, further complicating the prediction of crack evolution. The purpose of this document is to develop methodology to quantify the uncertainty associated with weld residual stress that can be applied to modeling predictions and experimental measurements. Ultimately, the results can be used to assess the current state of uncertainty and to build confidence in both modeling and experimental procedures. The methodology consists of statistically modeling the variation in the weld residual stress profiles using functional data analysis techniques. Uncertainty is quantified using statistical bounds (e.g. confidence and tolerance bounds) constructed with a semi-parametric bootstrap procedure. Such bounds describe the range in which quantities of interest, such as means, are expected to lie as evidenced by the data. The methodology is extended to provide direct comparisons between experimental measurements and modeling predictions by constructing statistical confidence bounds for the average difference between the two quantities. The statistical bounds on the average difference can be used to assess the level of agreement between measurements and predictions. The methodology is applied to experimental measurements of residual stress obtained using two strain relief measurement methods and predictions from seven finite element models developed by different organizations during a round robin study.

  16. Internal Stress Distribution Measurement of TIG Welded SUS304 Samples Using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, M. Refai; Sumirat, I.; Sairun; Purwanta

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of residual stress of SUS304 samples that were undergone TIG welding process with four different electric currents has been measured. The welding has been done in the middle part of the samples that was previously grooved by milling machine. Before they were welded the samples were annealed at 650 degree Celsius for one hour. The annealing process was done to eliminate residual stress generated by grooving process so that the residual stress within the samples was merely produced from welding process. The calculation of distribution of residual stress was carried out by measuring the strains within crystal planes of Fe(220) SUS304. Strain, Young modulus, and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 were measured using DN1-M neutron diffractometer. Young modulus and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 sample were measured in-situ. The result of calculations showed that distribution of residual stress of SUS304 in the vicinity of welded area is influenced both by treatments given at the samples-making process and by the electric current used during welding process.

  17. Statistical analysis of x-ray stress measurement by centroid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori; Amano, Jun; Sakamoto, Isao

    1982-01-01

    The X-ray technique allows a nondestructive and rapid measurement of residual stresses in metallic materials. The centroid method has an advantage over other X-ray methods in that it can determine the angular position of a diffraction line, from which the stress is calculated, even with an asymmetrical line profile. An equation for the standard deviation of the angular position of a diffraction line, σsub(p), caused by statistical fluctuation was derived, which is a fundamental source of scatter in X-ray stress measurements. This equation shows that an increase of X-ray counts by a factor of k results in a decrease of σsub(p) by a factor of 1/√k. It also shows that σsub(p) increases rapidly as the angular range used in calculating the centroid increases. It is therefore important to calculate the centroid using the narrow angular range between the two ends of the diffraction line where it starts to deviate from the straight background line. By using quenched structural steels JIS S35C and S45C, the residual stresses and their standard deviations were calculated by the centroid, parabola, Gaussian curve, and half-width methods, and the results were compared. The centroid of a diffraction line was affected greatly by the background line used. The standard deviation of the stress measured by the centroid method was found to be the largest among the four methods. (author)

  18. Residual Stresses in DC cast Aluminum Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Thermomechanical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Evans, A.; Pirling, T.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-induced residual stresses, generated during the industrial Direct Chill casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns as well as the formation of defects during down-stream processing. Although these thermally induced strains can be partially relieved by permanent deformation, cracks will be generated either during solidification (hot tears) or post-solidification cooling (cold cracks) when stresses exceed the deformation limit of the alloy. Furthermore, the thermally induced strains result in the presence of large internal stresses within the billet before further processing steps. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. In the present work, the variation in residual elastic strains and stresses in the steady state regime of casting has been measured as a function of radial position using neutron diffraction in an AA6063 grain-refined cylindrical billet. These measurements have been carried out on the same billet section at Poldi at PSI-Villigen and at Salsa at ILL-Grenoble and compare favorably. The results are used to validate a thermo-mechanical finite element casting model and to assess the level of stored elastic energy within the billet.

  19. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  20. Effective X-ray elastic constant measurement for in situ stress measurement of biaxially strained AA5754-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadicola, Mark A.; Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress–strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.

  1. Statistics on Near Wall Structures and Shear Stress Distribution from 3D Holographic Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.

    2007-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy performs 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. Resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50) is sufficient for resolving buffer layer and lower log layer structures, and for measuring instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the viscous sublayer. Results, based on 700 instantaneous realizations, provide detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall stress components along with characteristic flow structures. Conditional sampling based on maxima and minima of wall shear stresses, as well as examination of instantaneous flow structures, lead to development of a conceptual model for a characteristic flow phenomenon that seems to generating extreme stress events. This structure develops as an initially spanwise vortex element rises away from the surface, due to local disturbance, causing a local stress minimum. Due to increasing velocity with elevation, this element bends downstream, forming a pair of inclined streamwise vortices, aligned at 45^0 to freestream, with ejection-like flow between them. Entrainment of high streamwise momentum on the outer sides of this vortex pair generates streamwise shear stress maxima, 70 δν downstream, which are displaced laterally by 35 δν from the local minimum.

  2. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  3. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  4. Indirect Measurement of Energy Density of Soft PZT Ceramic Utilizing Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruan, Muangjai; Unruan, Sujitra; Inkong, Yutthapong; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on an indirect measurement of energy density of soft PZT ceramic utilizing mechanical stress. The method works analogous to the Olsen cycle and allows for a large amount of electro-mechanical energy conversion. A maximum energy density of 350 kJ/m3/cycle was found under 0-312 MPa and 1-20 kV/cm of applied mechanical stress and electric field, respectively. The obtained result is substantially higher than the results reported in previous studies of PZT materials utilizing a direct piezoelectric effect.

  5. Notes on the measurement of stress by resistance gauges in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, G.; Lapujoulade, J.

    1961-01-01

    The technique of stress measurement by resistance gauges is well known. Although it is not yet perfect it possesses many advantages and shows great possibilities. In the presence of a magnetic field the measurement is perturbed by certain phenomena, and we have undertaken to calculate their order of magnitude with a view to establishing the error involved in the measurement. Our problem was to measure the stresses on the various parts of the magnet in the synchrotron Saturne. It is known that the induction passes from a value of about nil to 15000 gauss in 0.8 second, and returns to zero in the same time interval; this cycle recurs every 3.2 seconds. In order to isolate the effects the problem of measurements in a static field will be examined first, after which the results obtained will be extended to the case of dynamic fields. (author) [fr

  6. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  7. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  8. Residual stresses in a composite steel tube measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.; Balagurov, A.M.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Schreiber, J.; Stuhr, U.; Kockelmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    The triaxial residual stresses in a composite tube from an austenitic stainless steel with a welded ferritic steel cladding were measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction method on the POLDI instrument at the PSI SINQ facility. The POLDI results are compared to the results obtained by the destructive turning out method and theoretical predictions of calculations by the finite element method. Only for the tangential component of the stress tensor the semiquantitative agreement of all used methods was observed. There is a clear discrepancy between the results of the different methods in the axial component. For the radial component all methods reveal quite small stresses, however, with some distinct differences in their distributions

  9. Application of advanced one sided stress wave velocity measurement in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovices, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    It is of interest to reliably measure the velocity of stress waves in concrete. At present, reliable measurement is not possible for dispersive and attenuating materials such as concrete when access to only one surface of the structure is available, such as in the case of pavement structures. In this paper, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity determination in concrete is applied to investigate the effects of composition, age and moisture content. This method uses a controlled impact as a stress wave source and two sensitive receivers mounted on the same surface as the impact sites. The novel aspect of the technique is the data collection system which automatically determines the arrival of the generated longitudinal and surface wave arrivals. A conventional ultrasonic through transmission method is used to compare with the results determined by the one-sided method.

  10. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  11. On fully stressed design and p-norm measures in structural optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This brief note revisits the fully stressed design schemes and p-norm measures used in stress-based structural optimization. Two simple shape optimization cases are used to remind the reader that fully stressed designs only are optimal when unimpeded by geometrical restrictions and that high valu...... of the stress norm are needed in order to achieve satisfactory designs....

  12. The internal stress measurement the neutron diffraction bring happiness to your country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The first reactor was constructed by the USA in 1942. After that, the research and development of reactors advanced. Numbers of reactors were constructed in Europe and in the US. The researches, which use the neutron, were performed actively and excellent results were obtained in wide fields. The penetrating power of the neutron and the neutron diffraction method began to attract attention for the application to the internal stress measurement, too. In Japan, the neutron diffractometer for the residual stress measurement exclusive was installed in the JRR-3M research reactor of JAERI in 1992, and the research was started. At present, we are using it for the stress measurements of the parts of aircrafts, railways, automobiles, buildings, machines, home electronics products and so on including nuclear reactors. Reliable science must be introduced in order to support safety and long life operation and to supply them at reasonable cost. Among the various scientific probes to find faults in materials, diffraction technique is used to measure the strain distribution in materials by observing the local changes of the distance between crystallographic planes and the stress distribution is computed to improve manufacturing processes. It is only neutron diffraction that can be used to measure the strain inside the materials. Here, I present an overview of the utilization of neutron scattering research for the industrial uses and the history of the neutron scattering research in JAERI briefly. (J.P.N.)

  13. The internal stress measurement the neutron diffraction will bring happiness to your country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2003-01-01

    The neutron was discovered by Chadwick in 1932. The first reactor was constructed by the USA in 1942. After that, the research and development of reactors advanced. Numbers of reactors were constructed in Europe and in the US. The researches, which use the neutron, were performed actively and excellent results were obtained in wide fields. The penetrating power of the neutron and the neutron diffraction method began to attract attention for the application to the internal stress measurement, too. In Japan, the neutron diffractometer for the residual stress measurement exclusive was installed in the JRR-3M research reactor of JAERI in 1992, and the research was started. At present, we are using it for the stress measurements of the parts of air crafts, railways, automobiles, buildings, machines, home electronics products and so on including nuclear reactors. Reliable science must be introduced in order to support safety and long life operation and to supply them at reasonable cost. Among the various scientific probes to find faults in materials, diffraction technique is used to measure the strain distribution in materials by observing the local changes of the distance between crystallographic planes and the stress distribution is computed to improve manufacturing processes. It is only neutron diffraction that can be used to measure the strain inside the materials. Here, I present an overview of the utilization of neutron scattering research for the industrial uses and the history of the neutron scattering research in JAERI briefly. (J.P.N.)

  14. A study for high accuracy measurement of residual stress by deep hole drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Houichi; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    The deep hole drilling technique (DHD) received much attention in recent years as a method for measuring through-thickness residual stresses. However, some accuracy problems occur when residual stress evaluation is performed by the DHD technique. One of the reasons is that the traditional DHD evaluation formula applies to the plane stress condition. The second is that the effects of the plastic deformation produced in the drilling process and the deformation produced in the trepanning process are ignored. In this study, a modified evaluation formula, which is applied to the plane strain condition, is proposed. In addition, a new procedure is proposed which can consider the effects of the deformation produced in the DHD process by investigating the effects in detail by finite element (FE) analysis. Then, the evaluation results obtained by the new procedure are compared with that obtained by traditional DHD procedure by FE analysis. As a result, the new procedure evaluates the residual stress fields better than the traditional DHD procedure when the measuring object is thick enough that the stress condition can be assumed as the plane strain condition as in the model used in this study.

  15. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  16. Results of stress tests of European nuclear power plants after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the European Council laid down the requirement that a transparent and comprehensive risk assessment exercise ('stress tests') be carried out at each European nuclear power plant. The stress tests concentrated on the nuclear power plants' safety margins in the light of the lessons learned from the accident. The reviews focused on natural external events including earthquake, tsunami and extreme weather, loss of safety functions, and severe accident management. The stress test procedure comprised 3 steps: (i) The nuclear facility operators performed the stress tests and prepared proposals for safety improvements. (ii) The national regulators performed independent reviews of the stress tests and prepared national reports. (iii) The reports submitted by the national regulators were subjected to review at a European level. The article describes the scope of the stress tests and their results, verified at the European level. (orig.)

  17. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, R; Helms-Lorenz, M.; Maulana, R; van Veen, K; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the beginning teachers (BTs) context was investigated using a sample of 356 beginning teachers from 52 different secondary school locations in the Netherlands. Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Principal Compone...

  18. Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, Ruth; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan; van Veen, Klaas; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to adjust the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW) in order to measure stress causes and stress responses of beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. First, the suitability of the original QEEW stress scales for use in the beginning teachers (BTs) context was investigated using a sample of 356 beginning teachers from 52 different secondary school locations in the Netherlands. Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Principal Compone...

  19. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...

  20. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  1. The Relationship Between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related to stress involving the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings highlight specific areas of stress experienced by mothers of children with ASD that are related to the child's symptoms, providing information for caregiver support and intervention.

  2. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  3. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.; Briesmeister, Judith F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k eff measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a 252 Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented

  4. FEM Analysis and Measurement of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction on the Dissimilar Overlay Weld Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Woo, Wan Chuck; Seong, Baek Seok; Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo; Jung, In Chul

    2010-01-01

    Much research has been done to estimate the residual stress on a dissimilar metal weld. There are many methods to estimate the weld residual stress and FEM (Finite Element Method) is generally used due to the advantage of the parametric study. And the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling technique for an experimental method are also usually used. The aim of this paper is to develop the appropriate FEM model to estimate the residual stresses of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe. For this, firstly, the specimen of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was manufactured. The SA 508 Gr3 nozzle, the SA 182 safe end and SA376 pipe were welded by the Alloy 182. And the overlay weld by the Alloy 52M was performed. The residual stress of this specimen was measured by using the Neutron Diffraction device in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) research reactor, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Secondly, FEM Model on the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was made and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code (ABAQUS, 2004). Thermal analysis and stress analysis were performed, and the residual stress was calculated. Thirdly, the results of the FEM analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods

  5. A new quantitative approach to measure perceived work-related stress in Italian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Gabriele; Fratini, Ilaria; Gambassi, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We propose a method for a reliable quantitative measure of subjectively perceived occupational stress applicable in any company to enhance occupational safety and psychosocial health, to enable precise prevention policies and intervention and to improve work quality and efficiency. A suitable questionnaire was telephonically administered to a stratified sample of the whole Italian population of employees. Combined multivariate statistical methods, including principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses, were used to identify risk factors and to design a causal model for understanding work-related stress. The model explained the causal links of stress through employee perception of imbalance between job demands and resources for responding appropriately, by supplying a reliable U-shaped nonlinear stress index, expressed in terms of values of human systolic arterial pressure. Low, intermediate and high values indicated demotivation (or inefficiency), well-being and distress, respectively. Costs for stress-dependent productivity shortcomings were estimated to about 3.7% of national income from employment. The method identified useful structured information able to supply a simple and precise interpretation of employees' well-being and stress risk. Results could be compared with estimated national benchmarks to enable targeted intervention strategies to protect the health and safety of workers, and to reduce unproductive costs for firms.

  6. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  7. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  8. A computer program (COSTUM) to calculate confidence intervals for in situ stress measurements. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, E.J.; Walker, J.R.; Martin, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    The state of in situ stress is one of the parameters required both for the design and analysis of underground excavations and for the evaluation of numerical models used to simulate underground conditions. To account for the variability and uncertainty of in situ stress measurements, it is desirable to apply confidence limits to measured stresses. Several measurements of the state of stress along a borehole are often made to estimate the average state of stress at a point. Since stress is a tensor, calculating the mean stress and confidence limits using scalar techniques is inappropriate as well as incorrect. A computer program has been written to calculate and present the mean principle stresses and the confidence limits for the magnitudes and directions of the mean principle stresses. This report describes the computer program, COSTUM

  9. Practical Use of the Braking Attributes Measurements Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruš Ján

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of braking the passenger car. The measurement of braking deceleration of the vehicle Kia Cee´d 1,6 16 V was carried out by an optical device Correvit system. The measurement was carried out on the airport of the village of Rosina located close to Zilina. 10 drivers of different age, praxis, and kilometers driven participated in the measurement. The measured process was the vehicle full braking with the service brake of the initial speed of approximately 50 km.h-1. Each of the drivers had 10 attempts. In the closure of this contribution the results of the performed measurements, their evaluation and comparison are presented. Practical result from the contribution is mainly the measurement set of braking deceleration of the respective vehicle during intensive braking.

  10. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  11. Test plan for suitability assessment of five overcoring stress measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.C.; Rundle, T.A.; McCabe, W.M.; Kim, K.

    1982-08-01

    Tests are to be conducted at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) to assess the suitability of five overcoring techniques for in situ stress determination in a jointed basalt. The overcoring methods to be investigated use the following instrumentation to measure strain relief by overcoring a pilot borehole: USBM borehole deformation gage, CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell, cast epoxy inclusion, the Lulea triaxial strain cell and the ''doorstopper'' biaxial strain cell. The tests are to provide data regarding the state of stress below the NSTF. This information is to be used in the evaluation of each method of overcoring. During the course of field testing, an attempt is to be made to adapt conventional overcoring techniques and analytical methods to the basalt medium. If overcoring stress determination in basalt is shown suitable, then additional studies will be identified to further adapt a technique for use at depth. In addition to the five overcoring techniques to be tested at the NSTF, stress measurements by Hydrofracturing are to be conducted to provide data for direct comparison with overcoring results. 16 refs., 18 figs

  12. Stress tensor and viscosity of water: Molecular dynamics and generalized hydrodynamics results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Davide; Tani, Alessandro

    1995-08-01

    The time correlation functions (CF's) of diagonal and off-diagonal components of the stress tensor of water have been calculated at 245 and 298 K in a molecular dynamics (MD) study on 343 molecules in the microcanonical ensemble. We present results obtained at wave number k=0 and at a few finite values of k, in the atomic and molecular formalism. In all cases, more than 98% of these functions are due to the potential term of the stress tensor. At k=0, their main features are a fast oscillatory initial decay, followed by a long-time tail more apparent in the supercooled region. Bulk and shear viscosities, calculated via Green-Kubo integration of the relevant CF at k=0, are underestimated with respect to experimental data, mainly at low temperature, but their ratio (~=2) is correctly reproduced. Both shear and bulk viscosity decrease as a function of k, the latter more rapidly, so that they become almost equal at ~=1 Å-1. Also, both viscosities drop rapidly from their maximum at ω=0. This behavior has been related to the large narrowing observed in the acoustic band, mainly in the supercooled region. The infinite frequency bulk and shear rigidity moduli have been shown to be in fair agreement with the experimental data, provided the MD value used for comparison is that corresponding to the frequency range relevant to ultrasonic measurements. The MD results of stress-stress CF's compare well with those predicted by Bertolini and Tani [Phys. Rev. E 51, 1091 (1995)] at k=0, by an application of generalized hydrodynamics [de Schepper et al., Phys. Rev. A 38, 271 (1988)] in the molecular formalism, to the same model of water (TIP4P) [Jorgensen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)]. These CF's are essentially equal in the atomic and molecular formalism, the only minor difference being restricted to the high frequency librational region of the shear function. By a comparison of atomic and molecular results, we show here that neglecting libration has no effect on the

  13. A strategy for accommodating residual stresses in the assessment of repair weldments based upon measurement of near surface stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, E.J.; Hallam, K.R.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    On many occasions repairs are undertaken to ferritic steel weldments on plant either during construction or to remove service induced defects. These repaired weldments are subsequently put into service with or without a post-weld heat treatment. In either case, but particularly for the latter, there is a need to accommodate the associated residual stresses in structural integrity assessments such as those based upon the R6 failure avoidance procedure. Although in some circumstances the residual macro-stresses developed within weldments of components and structures can be calculated this is not so readily achieved in the case of residual stresses introduced by repair welds. There is a range of physical and mechanical techniques available to undertake the measurement of macro-residual stresses. Of these X-ray diffraction has the advantage that it is essentially non-destructive and offers the potential for evaluating stresses, which exist in the near surface layer. Although for many structural integrity assessments both the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses have to be accommodated it is not practical to make destructive measurements on weld repaired components and structures to establish the through section distribution of stresses. An approach is to derive a description of the appropriate macro-stresses by a combination of measurement and calculation on trial ferritic steel repair weldments. Surface measurements on the plant can then be made to establish the relationship between the repaired component or structure and the trial weld and thereby improve confidence in predicted stresses and their distribution from the near-surface measured values. Hence X-ray diffraction measurements at the near-surface of the plant weldment can be used to underwrite the quality of the repair by confirming the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses used for the integrity assessment to demonstrate continued safe operation

  14. In situ stress measurement with the new LVDT - Cell - method description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Christiansson, R.; Martin, D.; Siren, T.; Kemppainen, K.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy and SKB (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB) tested the suitability a new LVDT-cell (Linear Variable Differential Transducer cell) to measure the induced stresses in the vicinity of an excavated surface and further to use these results to interpret the in situ state of stress. It utilises the overcoring methodology, measuring the radial convergence of four diameters using eight LVDTs, and is similar in concept to the USBM-gauge. A 127 mm diameter pilot-hole is required and the overcore diameter is 200 mm. The minimum overcoring length is 350 mm, and hence a compact drill can be utilised. Extensive testing of the LVDT-cell shows it to be robust and suitable for use in an underground environment. Sensitivity tests also show that the cell can withstand a range of operating conditions and still provide acceptable results. The in situ stress at the measurement location can be solved by numerical inversion using the results of at least three overcoring measurements around the three-dimensional tunnel section. The large dimensions of the measurement tool and the ability to utilise multiple measurements at various locations in a tunnel section, provides flexibility in selecting an appropriate rock mass volume. Because the inversion technique relies on knowing the exact location of the measurements and the geometry profile of the tunnel, modern survey techniques such as Lidar or photogrammetric technology should be used. Checks using traditional surveying techniques should also be used to ensure adequate survey resolution, specially in case of sidecoring measurements. To evaluate the suitability of the LVDT-cell to provide the in situ state of stress, tests were carried out in the drill-and-blast TASS tunnel and TBM tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The state of stress established using the LVDT-cell was in agreement with the state of stress established previously using traditional overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods. In this study, the

  15. In situ stress measurement with the new LVDT - Cell - method description and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Christiansson, R. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Martin, D. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Siren, T.; Kemppainen, K.

    2013-11-15

    Posiva Oy and SKB (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB) tested the suitability a new LVDT-cell (Linear Variable Differential Transducer cell) to measure the induced stresses in the vicinity of an excavated surface and further to use these results to interpret the in situ state of stress. It utilises the overcoring methodology, measuring the radial convergence of four diameters using eight LVDTs, and is similar in concept to the USBM-gauge. A 127 mm diameter pilot-hole is required and the overcore diameter is 200 mm. The minimum overcoring length is 350 mm, and hence a compact drill can be utilised. Extensive testing of the LVDT-cell shows it to be robust and suitable for use in an underground environment. Sensitivity tests also show that the cell can withstand a range of operating conditions and still provide acceptable results. The in situ stress at the measurement location can be solved by numerical inversion using the results of at least three overcoring measurements around the three-dimensional tunnel section. The large dimensions of the measurement tool and the ability to utilise multiple measurements at various locations in a tunnel section, provides flexibility in selecting an appropriate rock mass volume. Because the inversion technique relies on knowing the exact location of the measurements and the geometry profile of the tunnel, modern survey techniques such as Lidar or photogrammetric technology should be used. Checks using traditional surveying techniques should also be used to ensure adequate survey resolution, specially in case of sidecoring measurements. To evaluate the suitability of the LVDT-cell to provide the in situ state of stress, tests were carried out in the drill-and-blast TASS tunnel and TBM tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The state of stress established using the LVDT-cell was in agreement with the state of stress established previously using traditional overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods. In this study, the

  16. Reliable practical technique for in-situ rock stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed primary output of this research project is the development of a set of equipment and method of in situ stress measurements in a high stress environment typical of the deep level gold mines....

  17. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  18. Measuring stress in medical education: validation of the Korean version of the higher education stress inventory with medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Shim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students face a variety of stressors associated with their education; if not promptly identified and adequately dealt with, it may bring about several negative consequences in terms of mental health and academic performance. This study examined psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (K-HESI. Methods The reliability and validity of the K-HESI were examined in a large scale multi-site survey involving 7110 medical students. The K-HESI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and questions regarding quality of life (QOL and self-rated physical health (SPH were administered. Results Exploratory factor analysis of the K-HESI identified seven factors: Low commitment; financial concerns; teacher-student relationship; worries about future profession; non-supportive climate; workload; and dissatisfaction with education. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis supported the 7-factor model. Internal consistency of the K-HESI was satisfactory (Cronbach’s α = .78. Convergent validity was demonstrated by its positive association with the BDI. Known group validity was supported by the K-HESI’s ability to detect significant differences on the overall and subscale scores of K-HESI according to different levels of QOL and SPH. Conclusions The K-HESI is a psychometrically valid tool that comprehensively assesses various relevant stressors related to medical education. Evidence-based stress management in medical education empirically guided by the regular assessment of stress using reliable and valid measure is warranted.

  19. Residual stress measurement by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The authors derived the fundamental relations between the measured stress by X-ray and the residual stress distribution from the consideration of the contribution of internal stress in definite subsurface layer of metal to X-ray diffraction and proposed the exact formulas and their applications of residual stress measurements by successive thin layer removal in a plate, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere. (author)

  20. Relationship between the onset of depression and stress response measured by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire among Japanese employees: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proportion of Japanese workers experiencing intense worry or stress during working life is in excess of 60%, and the incidence of psychiatric disorders and suicide due to psychological burden from work duties is increasing. To confirm whether the stress response measured by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ can identify risk for depression, a cohort study was conducted to evaluate whether the stress response measured by BJSQ was associated with the onset of depression. METHODS: A total of 1,810 participants aged 20-70 years in 2005 completed the stress response of the BJSQ and were followed-up until August, 2007 by examining sick pay records. Depression was defined by a description in sick pay records that included "depression" or "depressive symptoms" as a reason for sick leave according to a physician's medical certificate. The participants were divided into quartiles (Ql, Q2, Q3, and Q4 according to the total stress response score of BJSQ at baseline. Furthermore, the participants were divided into a higher score category (Q4 and a lower score category (Q1-Q3. Risk ratios of the stress response of the BJSQ for onset of depression were calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Among 1,810 participants, 14 developed depression during a mean of 1.8 years of follow-up. The risk ratio was 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-8.42, p for trend = 0.002 when the higher stress response score category of BJSQ was compared with the low stress response score category for sick leave due to depression. After adjusting for gender, age, marital status, and having children, the risk ratios were similar to no adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the stress response measured by the BJSQ can demonstrate risk for the onset of depression.

  1. Results of tritium measurement in environmental samples and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Ryoji; Hirai, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    In Ibaraki prefecture, the tritium concentration in the drainage from the nuclear facilities has been measured since 1974. Then, with the start of operation of the fuel reprocessing plant in 1977, the tritium concentration in environmental samples was to be measured also in order to examine the effect of the drainage on the environment. The results of the tritium measurement in Ibaraki prefecture up to about 1980 are described: sampling points, sampling and measuring methods, the tritium concentration in the drainage, air, inland water and seawater, respectively. The drainages have been taken from Japan Atomic Power Company, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (with the fuel reprocessing plant). The samples of air, inland water and seawater have been taken in the areas concerned. The tritium concentration was measured by a low-background liquid scintillation counter. The measured values in the environment have been generally at low level, not different from other areas. (Mori, K.)

  2. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones ( glucocorticoids ...either cortisol or corticosterone) are easily measured in blood and are an important measure of stress. However, a large proportion of glucocorticoids ...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid ” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  3. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence-first results from CICLoPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H

    2017-03-13

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10 4 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A 2 ≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A 2,w ≈A 2 /2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Results of fatigue tests and prediction of fatigue life under superposed stress wave and combined superposed stress wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shunji; Horikawa, Takeshi; Tsunenari, Toshiyasu; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    In order to examine fatigue life prediction methods at high temperatures where creep damage need not be taken into account, fatigue tests were carried out on plane bending specimens of alloy steels (SCM 435, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo) under superposed and combined superposed stress waves at room temperature and 500 0 C. The experimental data were compared with the fatigue lives predicted by using the cycle counting methods (range pair, range pair mean and zero-cross range pair mean methods), the modified Goodman's equation and the modified Miner's rule. The main results were as follows. (1) The fatigue life prediction method which is being used for the data at room temperature is also applicable to predict the life at high temperatures. The range pair mean method is especially better than other cycle counting methods. The zero-cross range pair mean method gives the estimated lives on the safe side of the experimental lives. (2) The scatter bands of N-bar/N-barsub(es) (experimental life/estimated life) becomes narrower when the following equation is used instead of the modified Goodman's equation for predicting the effect of mean stress on fatigue life. σ sub(t) = σ sub(a) / (1 - Sigma-s sub(m) / kσ sub(B)) σ sub(t); stress amplitude at zero mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(B); tensile strength (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(m); mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(a); stress amplitude (kg/mm 2 ) k; modified coefficient of σ sub(B) (author)

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    have been performed at RISO (Roskilde, DK) and HMI-BENSC (Berlin, D), for the determination of residual stress in AA2124 + 17% SiCp and AA359 + 20% SiCp specimens, submitted to tensile and fatigue tests. For each of the investigated samples, the macrostress has been separated from the elastic......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Measuring Stress in Young Children Using Hair Cortisol: The State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Randi; Salsberry, Pamela; Ford, Jodi

    2017-10-01

    Extensive literature suggests that adverse experiences in early childhood may deleteriously impact later health. These effects are thought to be related to the impact of persistent or chronic stress on various biological processes, mediated by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and ultimately irregularities in cortisol levels. Ameliorating persistent stress in young children requires accurately measuring the chronicity of physiologic stress, which is difficult in young children because of unreliable self-report and the burden and inaccuracy associated with using invasive acute-stress biomeasures. A better way to approximate persistent stress in young children is measuring hair cortisol concentration (HCC), as it only requires one noninvasive collection to measure months of HPA-axis activity or experienced stress. However, few studies measure HCC in young children despite wide use in adult stress research. This article reviews and synthesizes research that uses HCC to approximate persistent stress in healthy children, 12-60 months of age. Reviewed studies indicate that HCC is elevated in young children who are experiencing forms of persistent stress such as low socioeconomic status and maternal distress. Hair cortisol is thus a promising measure of early childhood persistent stress, but due to the limited use of HCC in this population, much research is still needed. Specifically, nurse researchers may need to measure several factors associated with early childhood persistent stress and HCC to identify which children are at risk for stress-related disease.

  7. Hippocampal structural plasticity accompanies the resulting contextual fear memory following stress and fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D; Molina, Victor A

    2013-10-15

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to stress prevented both the enhancement of fear retention and an increase in the density of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. These findings emphasize the role of the stress-induced attenuation of GABAergic neurotransmission in BLA in the promoting influence of stress on fear memory and on synaptic remodeling in DH. In conclusion, the structural remodeling in DH accompanied the facilitated fear memory following a combination of fear conditioning and stressful stimulation.

  8. Responding to Emotional Stress in Pediatric Hospitals: Results From a National Survey of Chief Nursing Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetsch, Michael; Green, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify leadership awareness of emotional stress and employee support efforts in pediatric hospitals. The current pediatric environment has seen increases in treatment intensity, care duration, and acuity of patients resulting in increased likelihood of being exposed to emotional events. Mail survey was sent to chief nursing officers at 87 pediatric hospitals. A total of 49 responses (56%) were received. Hospitals with less than 250 beds were significantly more likely to rate emotional stress as a large to very large problem, whereas ANCC Magnet® hospitals felt better about support efforts after patient deaths. Most commonly used support offerings focused on staff recovery after a traumatic event as opposed to training for prevention of emotional stress. Emotional stress is a well-recognized issue in pediatric hospitals with comparatively large resource commitment. Further focus on caregiver prevention training and unit leadership recognition of stress may be needed.

  9. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  10. Systematic Review of Uit Parameters on Residual Stresses of Sensitized AA5456 and Field Based Residual Stress Measurements for Predicting and Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    University Press, 2009, pp. 820–824. [30] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2003. [31] M. N.James et al...around welds in aluminum ship structures both in the laboratory and in the field. Tensile residual stresses are often generated during welding and, in...mitigate and even reverse these tensile residual stresses. This research uses x-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses around welds in AA5456 before

  11. Stressful life events and Graves' disease: Results of a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintor, A.B.; Barrenechea, E.A.; Laureta, E.G.; Ligon, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged worry has generally been acknowledged as one of the main precipitating factors of the onset of Graves' disease. A review of literature reveals that emotional stresses of considerable severity precede the onset of hyperthyroidism in about 90% of cases. However, not everyone subscribes to the Stress/Graves' disease hypothesis. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus on whether a correlation can be shown between the magnitude of antecedent life events and the disease. Hence the main objective of the present study was to identify the possible association between stressful life events and Graves' disease. This paper presents the results of a case-control study, involving patents and subjects from the Veterans Memorial Medical Centre of Manila. A total of 224 patients of Graves' disease, newly or previously diagnosed, representing the 'patient's' arm were interviewed. All patients were questioned regarding various stresses, which greatly affected their life style spanning over a 12-month period prior to the onset of the disease. Simultaneously, 224 control subjects were also interviewed, and their stresses spanning over a similar period preceding the dates of interviews were recorded in quantifiable terms. Different stresses were given different intensity scores based on a social readjustment scale taking into consideration the life situations, emotions and diseases. In cases of multiple stresses, intensity scores were added to obtain the total stress intensity. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and percent distribution. Scatter plot was also constructed for intensity of stressful life events. To determine association of different factors with Graves' disease, Students t-test and chi-square tests were applied to the data. Odds ratio (OR) was also computed to determine risk attributed to each factor. Since there was significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and controls, stratified Mantel

  12. Consideration of microstructure evolution and residual stress measurement near severe worked surface using high energy x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Shobu, Takahisa

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to establish a measurement method that can evaluate accurate stress on the surface. However, the microstructure evolution takes place near the surface due to severe plastic deformation, since structural members have been superpositioned a lot of working processes to complete. As well known, a plane stress can't be assumed on the severe worked surface. Therefore we have been proposed the measurement method that can be measured the in-depth distribution of residual stress components by using high energy X-ray from a synchrotron radiation source. There is the combination of the constant penetration depth method and tri-axial stress analysis. Measurements were performed by diffraction planes for the orientation parameter Γ=0.25 of which elastic constants are nearly equal to the mechanical one. The stress components obtained must be converted to the stress components in real space by using optimization technique, since it corresponds to the weighted average stress components associated with the attenuation of X-ray in materials. The predicted stress components distribution agrees very well with the corrected one which was measured by the conventional removal method. To verify the availability of the proposed method, thermal aging variation of residual stress components on the severe worked surface under elevated temperature was investigated using specimen superpositioned working processes (i.e., welding, machining, peening). It is clarified that the residual stress components increase with thermal aging, using the diffraction planes in hard elastic constants to the bulk. This result suggests that the thermal stability of residual stress has the dependence of the diffraction plane. (author)

  13. Proceedings: Primary water stress corrosion cracking: 1989 EPRI remedial measures workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    A meeting on ''PWSCC Remedial Measures'' was organized to give those working in this area an opportunity to share their results, ideas and plans with regard to development and application of remedial measures directed against the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) phenomenon affecting alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Topics discussed included: utility experience and strategies; nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for PWSCC; technical topics ranging from predictive methods for occurrence of PWSCC to results of corrosion tests; and services provided by vendors that can help prevent the occurrence of PWSCC or can help address problems caused by PWSCC once it occurs

  14. Effect of degree of lipomobilization on results of glucose test in dairy cows in heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincović M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cows exposed to heat stress exhibit a decreased ability to mobilize lipids due to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is expressed in a decreased concentration of NEFA. However, certain cows can preserve the level of lipid mobilization after adapting to heat stress. We assumed that cows that have a preserved ability to mobilize lipids are less sensitive to insulin and that they have a lower tolerance for glucose. The aim of this work was to compare the results of an intravenous glucose tolerance test in cows that exhibited, in prolonged heat stress, a decreased (NEFA0.30 mmol/l ability for lipid mobilization. Glucose concentration and NEFA concentration were measured following intravenous application of glucose. The mean glycaemic index value did not differ statistically significantly between the two groups of cows at 10, 15 and 20 minutes after glucose application (p>0.05, but there was a tendency at 10 and 15 minutes for the glycaemia to be higher in cows with preserved lipomobilization (p<0.1. At 30, 60 and 90 minutes after glucose application, glycaemia was statistically significantly higher (p<0.01; p<0.05 and p<0.05 in the group of cows with preserved lipomobilization. The glycaemic index values (mmol/l shown in the same order (30, 60 and 90 minutes were as follows 9.91±0.21: 9.23±0.41; 5.41±0.5: 4.67±0.33 and 4.31±0.39: 3.47±0.37. The mean value for NEFA concentration in samples originating from the two experimental groups of cows did not differ statistically significantly following glucose application. The NEFA concentration showed a tendency to be higher in cows with preserved lipid mobilization in comparison with cows with decreased lipomobilization at 20 and 30 minutes after glucose application (p<0.1. Following the intravenous glucose tolerance test, NEFA and glucose concentrations were in a significant negative correlation, and that correlation was more expressed in cows with decreased lipomobilization. Cows with preserved

  15. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  16. Evaluation of measuring results, statement of uncertainty in dosimeter calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, H.

    1978-05-01

    The method described starts from the requirement that the quantitative statement of a measuring result in dosimetry should contain at least three figures: 1) the measured value or the best estimate of the quantity to be measured, 2) the uncertainty of this value given by a figure, which indicates a certain range around the measured value, and which is strongly linked with 3) a figure for the confidence level of this range, i.e. the probability that the (unknown) correct value is embraced by the given uncertainty range. How the figures 2) and 3) can be obtained and how they should be quoted in calibration certificates is the subject of these lectures. In addition, the means by which the method may be extended on determining the uncertainty of a measurement performed under conditions which deviate from the calibration conditt ions is briefly described. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of a micrometre-scale radiographic measuring method for residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.

    1999-01-01

    The radiographic method described uses micrometre X-ray diffraction for high-resolution residual stress analysis in single crystals. The focus is on application of two x-ray optics (glass capillaries) for shaping a sufficiently fine and intensive primary beam. Due to application of a proper one-grain measuring and analysis method, the resolution results are applicable to the characteristic grain sizes of many materials. (orig.) [de

  18. Social buffering by God: prayer and measures of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Jennifer N; Howard, Malcolm G; McGuire, Anne M; Schwartz, Amanda C; Wilson, Janie H

    2010-06-01

    Social buffering is characterized by attenuation of stress in the presence of others, with supportive individuals providing superior buffering. We were interested in learning if the implied presence of a supportive entity, God, would reduce acute stress. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: prayer, encouraging self-talk, and control. They were subsequently placed in a stressful situation. Self ratings of stress were lower among the prayer and self-talk conditions relative to controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures only among those who prayed were lower than controls; however, prayer and self-talk did not differ. Prayer alone did not significantly reduce stress, perhaps because the majority of students in the prayer condition did not consider reading a prayer to constitute praying.

  19. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Mañanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12 Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36 Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features.

  20. Measurement and Clinical Significance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Marrocco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is the result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and of the health-enhancing effects of antioxidants. We aim to discuss the major methodological bias of methods used for the evaluation of oxidative stress in humans. There is a lack of consensus concerning the validation, standardization, and reproducibility of methods for the measurement of the following: (1 ROS in leukocytes and platelets by flow cytometry, (2 markers based on ROS-induced modifications of lipids, DNA, and proteins, (3 enzymatic players of redox status, and (4 total antioxidant capacity of human body fluids. It has been suggested that the bias of each method could be overcome by using indexes of oxidative stress that include more than one marker. However, the choice of the markers considered in the global index should be dictated by the aim of the study and its design, as well as by the clinical relevance in the selected subjects. In conclusion, the clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans must come from a critical analysis of the markers that should give an overall index of redox status in particular conditions.

  1. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  2. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  3. Determining Quiescent Colloidal Suspension Viscosities Using the Green-Kubo Relation and Image-Based Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neil Y. C.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Cohen, Itai

    2017-09-01

    By combining confocal microscopy and stress assessment from local structural anisotropy, we directly measure stresses in 3D quiescent colloidal liquids. Our noninvasive and nonperturbative method allows us to measure forces ≲50 fN with a small and tunable probing volume, enabling us to resolve the stress fluctuations arising from particle thermal motions. We use the Green-Kubo relation to relate these measured stress fluctuations to the bulk Brownian viscosity at different volume fractions, comparing against simulations and conventional rheometry measurements. We find that the Green-Kubo analysis gives excellent agreement with these prior results, suggesting that similar methods could be applied to investigations of local flow properties in many poorly understood far-from-equilibrium systems, including suspensions that are glassy, strongly sheared, or highly confined.

  4. Measurement of stress in vocal folds during phonation using spatiotemporal synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.; Zhang, Yu

    2007-01-01

    A method based on spatiotemporal synchronization is proposed to measure stress distribution in the vocal folds. It is theoretically proved that a measurement system can be synchronized with a vocal fold vibration system by coupling their surface dynamic variables. Therefore, the stress in the vocal folds is predicted by the synchronized continuous model. Numerical experiments are employed to verify this method. The influences of the different coupling variables and the parameter mismatches on stress measurement are also investigated

  5. Measurement of stress in vocal folds during phonation using spatiotemporal synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Chao [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)]. E-mail: jiang@surgery.wisc.edu; Zhang, Yu [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)

    2007-02-19

    A method based on spatiotemporal synchronization is proposed to measure stress distribution in the vocal folds. It is theoretically proved that a measurement system can be synchronized with a vocal fold vibration system by coupling their surface dynamic variables. Therefore, the stress in the vocal folds is predicted by the synchronized continuous model. Numerical experiments are employed to verify this method. The influences of the different coupling variables and the parameter mismatches on stress measurement are also investigated.

  6. Measurement and analysis of temperature, strain and stress of foundation mat concrete in nuclear and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Akira; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Abe, Hirotoshi

    1981-01-01

    The problems of the thermal stress in concrete structures are roughly divided into the initial stress due to setting heat and the stress due to external temperature after hardening. The initial stress exists in every concrete structure, and it is usually neglected in beams and columns, but it must be taken into account in case of the foundation mat structures in nuclear power stations, for example. In this paper, (1) the results of measurement of temperature, strain and stress in each lift at the time of and after placing concrete in the foundation mat of a nuclear power station and the comparison of them with the results of analysis, (2) the results of measurement of the temperature and stress in a foundation mat, which was carried out to rationalize the design method for the raft type foundation mats in thermal power stations, and (3) the results of examination on the analysis model, external force conditions and boundary conditions used for the design are reported. The analysis method for temperature and thermal stress by finite element method, developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, can take the changes in the heat of hydration in placed concrete, the creep phenomenon of concrete and the restraint at construction joints in consideration. It is necessary to collect the data on the measurement of mat concrete and to develop the accurate analysis method. (Kako, I.)

  7. Unified Hall-Petch description of nano-grain nickel hardness, flow stress and strain rate sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Balasubramanian, N.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that: (i) nano-grain nickel flow stress and hardness data at ambient temperature follow a Hall-Petch (H-P) relation over a wide range of grain size; and (ii) accompanying flow stress and strain rate sensitivity measurements follow an analogous H-P relationship for the reciprocal "activation volume", (1/v*) = (1/A*b) where A* is activation area. Higher temperature flow stress measurements show a greater than expected reduction both in the H-P kɛ and in v*. The results are connected with smaller nano-grain size (tested at very low imposed strain rates.

  8. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress in a powder metallurgy component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.C.R.; Hainsworth, S.V.; Cocks, A.C.F.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stresses in a typical industrial green component were determined using neutron diffraction. The measured residual stresses were found to correlate with cross-sectional variations. Residual stress at the edge of the compact in contact with the die wall during compaction reached up to +80 MPa (tension) and -100 MPa (compression)

  9. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  10. Diamagnetic measurements on ISX-B: method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    A diamagnetic loop is used on the ISX-B tokamak to measure the change in toroidal magnetic flux, sigma phi, caused by finite plasma current and perpendicular pressure. From this measurement, the perpendicular poloidal beta β/sub I perpendicular to/ is determined. The principal difficulty encountered is in identifying and making corrections for various noise components which appear in the measured flux. These result from coupling between the measuring loops and the toroidal and poloidal field windings, both directly and through currents induced in the vacuum vessel and coils themselves. An analysis of these couplings is made and techniques for correcting them developed. Results from the diamagnetic measurement, employing some of these correction techniques, are presented and compared with other data. The obtained values of β/sub I perpendicular to/ agree with those obtained from the equilibrium magnetic analysis (β/sub IΔ/) in ohmically heated plasmas, indicating no anisotropy. However, with 0.3 to 2.0 MW of tangential neutral beam injection, β/sub IΔ/ is consistently greater than β/sub I pependicular to/ and qualitatively consistent with the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution and with toroidal rotation. Quantitatively, the difference between β/sub IΔ/ and β/sub I perpendicular to/ is more than can be accounted for on the basis of the usual classical fast ion calculations and spectroscopic rotation measurements

  11. Measurement model choice influenced randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Rosalie; Fox, Jean-Paul; Apeldoorn, Adri; Twisk, Jos

    2016-11-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), outcome variables are often patient-reported outcomes measured with questionnaires. Ideally, all available item information is used for score construction, which requires an item response theory (IRT) measurement model. However, in practice, the classical test theory measurement model (sum scores) is mostly used, and differences between response patterns leading to the same sum score are ignored. The enhanced differentiation between scores with IRT enables more precise estimation of individual trajectories over time and group effects. The objective of this study was to show the advantages of using IRT scores instead of sum scores when analyzing RCTs. Two studies are presented, a real-life RCT, and a simulation study. Both IRT and sum scores are used to measure the construct and are subsequently used as outcomes for effect calculation. The bias in RCT results is conditional on the measurement model that was used to construct the scores. A bias in estimated trend of around one standard deviation was found when sum scores were used, where IRT showed negligible bias. Accurate statistical inferences are made from an RCT study when using IRT to estimate construct measurements. The use of sum scores leads to incorrect RCT results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved structural integrity through advances in reliable residual stress measurement: the impact of ENGIN-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.; Santisteban, J. R.

    The determination of accurate reliable residual stresses is critical to many fields of structural integrity. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within engineering components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within engineering, leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise lifing procedures. This paper describes the likely impact of the next generation of dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being constructed and the utility of the technique using examples of residual stresses both beneficial and detrimental to structural integrity.

  13. Assessment of quality of measurement results in interlaboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Matel, L.; Rajec, P.

    2009-01-01

    Testing laboratory accredited according to ISO/IEC 17025:2005 has to ensure the quality of their results. Important aspect of correct evaluation of the result is the accuracy and uncertainty. Requirement of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 is the accredited laboratories to express their results with the corresponding uncertainty. Participation of laboratories in interlaboratory comparisons provides objective evidence of the level of reliability and quality of their results. Thereby the competency of accredited laboratories verified, including the verification of the declared measurement uncertainty. Some interlaboratory comparisons in which took participation the Testing Laboratory of Radiochemical Analysis (LARCHA) are presented.

  14. Measurement of residual stresses by the moire method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Albertazzi, A., Jr.

    Three different applications of the moire method to the determination of residual stresses and strains are presented. The three applications take advantage of the property of ratings to record the changes of the surface they are printed on. One of the applications deals with thermal residual stresses, another with contact residual stress and the third one is a generalization of the blind hole technique. This last application is based on a computer assisted moire technique and on the generalization of the quasi-heterodyne techniques of fringe pattern analysis.

  15. Sensor for direct measurement of the boundary shear stress in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  16. Managing for Results--Linking Performance Measures and Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William L.; Fountain, James R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board notion of service efforts and accomplishments reporting is one step in a process of managing for results that includes strategic planning, development and use of performance measures of managing ongoing programs, and outputs to budgetary appropriation. Reports a trial application to one school district.…

  17. First results and future projects for Petula ECE measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, J.; Melin, G.; Girard, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics are being installed on the Petula-B tokamak. First results include extensive measurements of the total ECE radiation, integrated over 50-1000 GHz, during ohmic and current drive operation, and preliminary interferograms from the polarizing interferometer. Future plans are discussed

  18. Recent results on Higgs measurements and searches in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The excellent operation of the LHC, and a fast processing and analysis, has enabled ATLAS to produce many new results during the last months with similar or better sensitivity than the one reached during Run 1 of the LHC. The seminar will give an overview of the Standard Model Higgs boson measurements and of searches for non-standard scalar states or decay modes.

  19. A Study on Residual Stress Measurements by Using Laser Speckle Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Kyung Wan; Kang, Young June; Hong, Seong Jin; Kang, Hyung Soo

    1999-01-01

    Residual stress is one of the causes which make defects in engineering components and materials. And interest in the measurement of residual stress exists in many industries. There are commonly used methods by which residual stresses are currently measured. But these methods have a little demerits: time consumption and other problems. Therefore we devised a new experimental technique to measure residual stress in materials with a combination of laser speckle pattern interferometry, finite element method and spot heating. The speckle pattern interferometer measures in-plane deformations while the heating provides for very localized stress relief. FEM is used for determining heat temperature and other parameters. The residual stresses are determined by the amount of strain that is measured subsequent to the heating and cool-down of the region being interrogated. A simple model is presented to provide a description of the method. In this paper, the ambiguity problem for the fringe patterns has solved by a phase shifting method

  20. Survey of horizontal stresses in coal mines from available measurements and mapping.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frith, R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available of work for the project was outlined in the proposal submitted to SIMRAC in mid-2000 and is summarised as follows: (i) to undertake a peer review of available in-situ stress measurements relating to the Witbank and Highveld coalfields in South Africa... OF HORIZONTAL STRESS IN THE WITBANK AND HIGHVELD COALFIELDS 21 4.1 Is Horizontal Stress at Work in Roadway Roof Behaviour? 21 4.2 Summary of Measured Horizontal Stresses 24 4.3 Proposed Model for the Origin of Horizontal Stress Within the Coalfields 27 4...

  1. Evaluation of Stress Parameters Based on Heart Rate Variability Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Fatma; Tokmakçı, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    In this study, heart rate variabilitymeasurements and analysis was carried with help of the ECG recordings to showhow autonom nervous system activity changes. So as to evaluate the parametersrelated to stress of the study, the situation of relaxation, Stroop color/wordtest, mental test and auditory stimulus that would stress someone out wereapplied to six volunteer participants in a laboratory environment. Being takentotally seven minutes ECG recording and made analysis in time and frequencyd...

  2. Race and gender matter: a multidimensional approach to conceptualizing and measuring stress in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci

    2008-07-01

    Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Results support the multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization of stress. Race-related, gender-related, and generic stress contributed equally to the global stress factor, and global stress predicted a significant amount of variance in distress symptoms and intensity. This model exhibited better fit than a model without a global stress factor, in which each stress component predicted distress directly. Furthermore, race-related, gender-related, and generic stress did not contribute to distress beyond their representation in the global stress factor. These findings illustrate that stress related to central elements of identity, namely race and gender, cohere with generic stress to define the stress experience of African American women. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method Based On Dynamic Invariant Stress Resultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the vibration based damage detection methods are based on changes in frequencies, mode shapes, mode shape curvature, and flexibilities. These methods are limited and typically can only detect the presence and location of damage. Current methods seldom can identify the exact severity of damage to structures. This paper will present research in the development of a new non-destructive evaluation method to identify the existence, location, and severity of damage for structural systems. The method utilizes the concept of invariant stress resultants (ISR. The basic concept of ISR is that at any given cross section the resultant internal force distribution in a structural member is not affected by the inflicted damage. The method utilizes dynamic analysis of the structure to simulate direct measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement simultaneously. The proposed dynamic ISR method is developed and utilized to detect the damage of corresponding changes in mass, damping and stiffness. The objectives of this research are to develop the basic theory of the dynamic ISR method, apply it to the specific types of structures, and verify the accuracy of the developed theory. Numerical results that demonstrate the application of the method will reflect the advanced sensitivity and accuracy in characterizing multiple damage locations.

  4. Perturbation of parabolic kinetics resulting from the accumulation of stress in protective oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.E.; Norfolk, D.J.; Swan, T.

    1978-01-01

    A frequent observation in metal oxidation is the development of subparabolic kinetics, variously described as cubic or quartic. Although a number of detailed mechanisms have been proposed to account for this effect, none seem generally applicable. A model is presented of the oxidation process which is divorced from such restrictions. It is argued that deviations from parabolic behavior occur as a result of the concurrent development of stresses within the oxide. It is shown that the presence of stress fields can influence significantly the rate of transport of vacancy defects within the oxide such that tensile stresses produce positive deviations and compressive stresses, negative deviations from parabolic behavior. The model is applied in detail to Zircaloy-2 oxidation at 773 0 K. It is predicted that the kinetics should be insensitive to the oxygen potential of the environment and this has been confirmed by previous experimental work. 31 refs

  5. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  6. Recent results from the MISTRAL mass measurement program at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Lunney, M D; Audi, G; Bollen, G; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Gaulard, C; Henry, S; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C; Toader, C F; Vieira, N

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment (Mass measurements at ISOLDE with a Transmission and Radiofrequency spectrometer on-Line), conceived for very short-lived nuclides, has reached the end of its commissioning phase. Installed in 1997, results have been obtained consistent with all aspects of the projected spectrometer performance: nuclides with half-lives as short as 30 ms have been measured and accuracies of $\\pm$0.4 have been achieved, despite the presence of a systematic shift and difficulties with isobaric contamination. Masses of several nuclides, including $^{25-26}\\!$Ne and $^{32}$Mg that forms the famous island of inversion around N=20, have been significantly improved.

  7. Isolated systems with wind power. Results of measurements in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Saleh, L.; Hafiez, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    different sites. Three of the sites were in Hurghada, where the power system is rather large. The last two measurement sites were at village systems: one large system and one with only power ca. five hours perday. The measured load profiles were quite different at the different sites. The power quality...... at the different sites was adequate even at the small village sites where the load is almost constant. The impact of different load profiles on the technicaland economic performance of a wind diesel system in the feasibility phase was investigated. The results indicate that when the profile has low values...

  8. Automatic Earthquake Shear Stress Measurement Method Developed for Accurate Time- Prediction Analysis of Forthcoming Major Earthquakes Along Shallow Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serata, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Serata Stressmeter has been developed to measure and monitor earthquake shear stress build-up along shallow active faults. The development work made in the past 25 years has established the Stressmeter as an automatic stress measurement system to study timing of forthcoming major earthquakes in support of the current earthquake prediction studies based on statistical analysis of seismological observations. In early 1982, a series of major Man-made earthquakes (magnitude 4.5-5.0) suddenly occurred in an area over deep underground potash mine in Saskatchewan, Canada. By measuring underground stress condition of the mine, the direct cause of the earthquake was disclosed. The cause was successfully eliminated by controlling the stress condition of the mine. The Japanese government was interested in this development and the Stressmeter was introduced to the Japanese government research program for earthquake stress studies. In Japan the Stressmeter was first utilized for direct measurement of the intrinsic lateral tectonic stress gradient G. The measurement, conducted at the Mt. Fuji Underground Research Center of the Japanese government, disclosed the constant natural gradients of maximum and minimum lateral stresses in an excellent agreement with the theoretical value, i.e., G = 0.25. All the conventional methods of overcoring, hydrofracturing and deformation, which were introduced to compete with the Serata method, failed demonstrating the fundamental difficulties of the conventional methods. The intrinsic lateral stress gradient determined by the Stressmeter for the Japanese government was found to be the same with all the other measurements made by the Stressmeter in Japan. The stress measurement results obtained by the major international stress measurement work in the Hot Dry Rock Projects conducted in USA, England and Germany are found to be in good agreement with the Stressmeter results obtained in Japan. Based on this broad agreement, a solid geomechanical

  9. Residual stress measurement in worked and heat treated steel by X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.K.; Godaba, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations were made for residual stress measurement by X-ray diffractometry in the 1.14% C, 0.46% Mn, 0.16% Si, 0.11% S and 0.04% P steel samples subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation (cold upsetting in the range 7.7-21%), thermal gradient (quenching from 630 deg. C) and phase transformation (quenching from 850 deg. C), respectively. The results indicated that compressive residual stress at the surface increased in the samples with increasing deformation acquiring values in the range, -269.5 MPa to -374.7 MPa. In the samples quenched from 630 deg. C, the thermal stresses acquired increasing values in the range -83.9 MPa (compressive) to -188.1 MPa (compressive) with increased cooling rate. In the samples quenched from 850 deg. C, volume increase on account of austenite to martensite phase transformation ultimately dominated the thermal contraction resulting in residual stress at the surface from -329.3 MPa (compressive) to +61.7 MPa (tensile)

  10. Residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction with the Gaussian curve method and its automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray technique with the Gaussian curve method and its automation are described for rapid and nondestructive measurement of residual stress. A simplified equation for measuring the stress by the Gaussian curve method is derived because in its previous form this method required laborious calculation. The residual stress can be measured in a few minutes, depending on materials, using an automated X-ray stress analyzer with a microcomputer which was developed in the laboratory. The residual stress distribution of a partially induction hardened and tempered (at 280 0 C) steel bar was measured with the Gaussian curve method. A sharp residual tensile stress peak of 182 MPa appeared right outside the hardened region at which fatigue failure is liable to occur

  11. Comparison of Measured Residual Stress in an Extra Thick Multi-pass Weld Using Neutron Diffraction Method and Inherent Strain Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JeongUng; An, GyuBaek; Woo, Wan Chuck

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of large-scale containership, a large amount of high-strength steels with extra thick plates is being extensively used. The welding stress existing in the extra thick welded plates has a significant effect on the integrity of the component in terms of brittle fracture and fatigue behavior. It has been reported that welding residual stress distribution in an extra thick plate can affect the propagation path of the crack. Therefore, it is important to measure the distribution of welding residual stresses for the reliable design of the welded structures. So far various researches have been carried out for the determination of residual stresses on the surface of steels. In this paper, the total residual stresses in the 70 mm thick multipass FACW butt joint were measured by integrating initial stress into ISM. Concretely, two methods named as initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were employed to determine the total residual stresses. Furthermore, the distributions of residual stresses were compared with the results of the Neutron Diffraction Method(NDM). In order to measure the three dimensional residual stresses in the welded joint with initial stresses existing before welding, initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were developed. The residual stresses in 70 mm-thick butt joint by flux cored arc welding were carried out with a good accuracy using the two developed methods. The residual stresses in welded joint using both initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM agreed well with the results measured by Neutron Diffraction Method. This suggests that the integrated ISM is a reliable method for residual stress measurement if initial stress existed

  12. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  13. Evaluation of cladding residual stresses in clad blocks by measurements and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Moinereau, D.

    1996-01-01

    Reactor pressure vessels are internally clad with austenitic stainless steel. This welding operation generates residual stresses which can have an important role in integrity assessments. In order to evaluate these stresses, an experimental and numerical programme has been conducted. The experiments includes cladding operations, macrographic analyses, temperature and residual stresses measurements with different methods. According to these measurements, transversal stresses (perpendicular to the welding direction) and longitudinal stresses (parallel to the welding direction) are highly tensile in stainless steel and they are compressive in the HAZ. Finite element calculations were used to simulate both welding operations and post weld heat treatment. These calculations coupled the thermal, metallurgical and mechanical aspects in a 2D representation. Different models were studied including effect of generalised plane strain, transformation plasticity, creep and tempering. The transversal stresses calculated are similar to the measured ones, but the longitudinal stresses showed to be very sensitive to the model used. As expected because of the two-dimension model, the longitudinal stresses can't be well estimated. More work is needed to improve measurements of stresses in depth (important differences appeared between the different methods). A predictive model would be also very useful to determine the thermal loading which is at present dependant on measurements. A 3D calculation appears to be necessary to evaluate longitudinal stresses. (orig.)

  14. Finite element analysis and measurement for residual stress of dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle mockup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jai Hak

    2009-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis and experiment for weld residual stress (WRS) in the pressurizer safety nozzle mockup is described in various processes and results. Foremost of which is the dissimilar simulation metal welding (DMW) between carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel. Thermal and structural analyses were compared with actual residual stress, and actual measurements of. Magnitude and distribution of WRS in the nozzle mockup were assessed. Two measurement methods were used: hole-drilling method (HDM) with strain gauge for residual stress on the surface of the mockup, and block removal and splitting layer (BRSL) method for through-thickness. FE analysis and measurement data showed good agreement. In conclusion, the characteristics of weld residual stress of DMW could be well understood and the simplified FE analysis was verified as acceptable for estimating WRS

  15. Finite element analysis and measurement for residual stress of dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Finite element (FE) analysis and experiment for weld residual stress (WRS) in the pressurizer safety nozzle mockup is described in various processes and results. Foremost of which is the dissimilar simulation metal welding (DMW) between carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel. Thermal and structural analyses were compared with actual residual stress, and actual measurements of. Magnitude and distribution of WRS in the nozzle mockup were assessed. Two measurement methods were used: hole-drilling method (HDM) with strain gauge for residual stress on the surface of the mockup, and block removal and splitting layer (BRSL) method for through-thickness. FE analysis and measurement data showed good agreement. In conclusion, the characteristics of weld residual stress of DMW could be well understood and the simplified FE analysis was verified as acceptable for estimating WRS

  16. Oxidative Stress Resulting From Helicobacter pylori Infection Contributes to Gastric CarcinogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay D. Butcher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects the stomach and can lead to, among other disorders, the development of gastric cancer. The inability of the host to clear the infection results in a chronic inflammatory state with continued oxidative stress within the tissue. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by the immune and epithelial cells damage the host cells and can result in DNA damage. H pylori has evolved to evoke this damaging response while blunting the host’s efforts to kill the bacteria. This long-lasting state with inflammation and oxidative stress can result in gastric carcinogenesis. Continued efforts to better understand the bacterium and the host response will serve to prevent or provide improved early diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Keywords: AP Endonuclease, DNA Damage, H pylori, Gastric Cancer, Oxidative Stress

  17. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical...... evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...... alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis...

  18. Results form RESUME 95. Measurements with mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstroem, K.; Ulvsand, T.; Aagren, G. [National Defence Research Establisment, Div. of Ionising Radiation and Fallout, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained during the NKS, (EKO-3), Exercise Resume-95 by a group from the Division of Ionising Radiation and Fallout, FOA, Umeaa, Sweden. Field gamma measurements were performed in two areas with a HPGe-detector (p-type, 50% relative efficiency) mounted vertically 1 m above the ground or horizontally in a car. One of the areas was an airfield, Vesivehmaa, where 19 measurements were done. The calculated Cs-137 activity was 52.1 {+-} 4.5 kBq/m{sup 2} assuming a two slice distribution model with a homogenous density and activity distribution in each slice. The report contains also the results from a task which included the finding, classification and estimation of the activity of hidden sources within two 10{sup *} 10 m-areas. (au).

  19. Results form RESUME 95. Measurements with mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstroem, K; Ulvsand, T; Aagren, G [National Defence Research Establisment, Div. of Ionising Radiation and Fallout, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained during the NKS, (EKO-3), Exercise Resume-95 by a group from the Division of Ionising Radiation and Fallout, FOA, Umeaa, Sweden. Field gamma measurements were performed in two areas with a HPGe-detector (p-type, 50% relative efficiency) mounted vertically 1 m above the ground or horizontally in a car. One of the areas was an airfield, Vesivehmaa, where 19 measurements were done. The calculated Cs-137 activity was 52.1 {+-} 4.5 kBq/m{sup 2} assuming a two slice distribution model with a homogenous density and activity distribution in each slice. The report contains also the results from a task which included the finding, classification and estimation of the activity of hidden sources within two 10{sup *} 10 m-areas. (au).

  20. R6 validation exercise: through thickness residual stress measurements on an experiment test vessel ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.

    1988-06-01

    A series of bursting tests on thick-walled pressure vessels has been carried out as part of a validation exercise for the CEGB R6 failure assessment procedure. The objective of these tests was the examination of the behaviour of typical PWR primary vessel material subject to residual stresses in addition to primary loading with particular reference to the R6 assessment procedure. To this end, a semi-elliptic part-through defect was sited in the vessel longitudinal seam, which was a submerged arc weld in the non stress-relieved condition; it was then pressure tested to failure. Prior to the final assembly of this vessel, a ring of material was cut from it to act as a test-piece on which a residual stress survey could be made. Surface measurements using the centre-hole technique were made by CERL personnel, and this has been followed by two through- thickness measurements at BNL using the deep-hole technique. This paper describes these deep-hole measurements and presents the results from them. (author)

  1. Relationships Among Stress Measures, Risk Factors, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L.; Downing, Nancy R.; Franke, Warren D.; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Alasagheirin, Mohammad H.

    2011-01-01

    Law enforcement officers suffer higher morbidity and mortality rates from all causes than the general population. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for a significant portion of the excess illness, with a reported prevalence as high as 1.7 times that of the general population. To determine which occupational hazards cause this increased risk and morbidity, it is imperative to study law enforcement officers before they retire. The long-range goal of our research is to reduce the incidence of CVD-related illness and death among aging law enforcement officers. The purpose of the present study was to measure pro- and anti-atherogenic inflammatory markers in blood samples from law enforcement officers (n = 71) and determine what types of occupation-related stress correlate with differences in these markers. For each outcome variable of interest, we developed separate regression models. Two groups of potential predictors were examined for inclusion in the models. Selected measures of stress were examined for inclusion in the models, in addition to general covariates, such as gender, ethnicity, years in law enforcement, and body mass index. Our results revealed statistically significant relationships between several physiologic variables and measures of stress. PMID:21362637

  2. Residual stress measurement in a metal microdevice by micro Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Qi, Leijie; Li, Yu; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Yuanqi

    2017-01-01

    Large residual stress induced during the electroforming process cannot be ignored to fabricate reliable metal microdevices. Accurate measurement is the basis for studying the residual stress. Influenced by the topological feature size of micron scale in the metal microdevice, residual stress in it can hardly be measured by common methods. In this manuscript, a methodology is proposed to measure the residual stress in the metal microdevice using micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS). To estimate the residual stress in metal materials, micron sized β -SiC particles were mixed in the electroforming solution for codeposition. First, the calculated expression relating the Raman shifts to the induced biaxial stress for β -SiC was derived based on the theory of phonon deformation potentials and Hooke’s law. Corresponding micro electroforming experiments were performed and the residual stress in Ni–SiC composite layer was both measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and MRS methods. Then, the validity of the MRS measurements was verified by comparing with the residual stress measured by XRD method. The reliability of the MRS method was further validated by the statistical student’s t -test. The MRS measurements were found to have no systematic error in comparison with the XRD measurements, which confirm that the residual stresses measured by the MRS method are reliable. Besides that, the MRS method, by which the residual stress in a micro inertial switch was measured, has been confirmed to be a convincing experiment tool for estimating the residual stress in metal microdevice with micron order topological feature size. (paper)

  3. Residual stress measurement in a metal microdevice by micro Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Qi, Leijie; Li, Yu; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Yuanqi

    2017-10-01

    Large residual stress induced during the electroforming process cannot be ignored to fabricate reliable metal microdevices. Accurate measurement is the basis for studying the residual stress. Influenced by the topological feature size of micron scale in the metal microdevice, residual stress in it can hardly be measured by common methods. In this manuscript, a methodology is proposed to measure the residual stress in the metal microdevice using micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS). To estimate the residual stress in metal materials, micron sized β-SiC particles were mixed in the electroforming solution for codeposition. First, the calculated expression relating the Raman shifts to the induced biaxial stress for β-SiC was derived based on the theory of phonon deformation potentials and Hooke’s law. Corresponding micro electroforming experiments were performed and the residual stress in Ni-SiC composite layer was both measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and MRS methods. Then, the validity of the MRS measurements was verified by comparing with the residual stress measured by XRD method. The reliability of the MRS method was further validated by the statistical student’s t-test. The MRS measurements were found to have no systematic error in comparison with the XRD measurements, which confirm that the residual stresses measured by the MRS method are reliable. Besides that, the MRS method, by which the residual stress in a micro inertial switch was measured, has been confirmed to be a convincing experiment tool for estimating the residual stress in metal microdevice with micron order topological feature size.

  4. Comparison of neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stress in bead-on-plate weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, A.M.; Price, J.W.; Finlayson, T.R.; Lienert, U.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

  5. Measurement of the temperature-dependent threshold shear-stress of red blood cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Yong-Jin; Shin, Sehyun

    2009-09-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is becoming an important hemorheological parameter, which typically exhibits temperature dependence. Quite recently, a critical shear-stress was proposed as a new dimensional index to represent the aggregative and disaggregative behaviors of RBCs. The present study investigated the effect of the temperature on the critical shear-stress that is required to keep RBC aggregates dispersed. The critical shear-stress was measured at various temperatures (4, 10, 20, 30, and 37 degrees C) through the use of a transient microfluidic aggregometry. The critical shear-stress significantly increased as the blood temperature lowered, which accorded with the increase in the low-shear blood viscosity with the lowering of the temperature. Furthermore, the critical shear-stress also showed good agreement with the threshold shear-stress, as measured in a rotational Couette flow. These findings assist in rheologically validating the critical shear-stress, as defined in the microfluidic aggregometry.

  6. Instruction manual for the use of CSIR triaxial rock stress measuring equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, SJ

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an updated version of CSIR Report no ME 1763 entitled "Instruction manual for the use for the CSIR triaxial rock stress measuring equipment" by F A Vreede. The manual contains a detailed description of CSIR Triaxial rock stress measuring...

  7. Results of ozone measurements in Northern Germany: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    At most of the German ozone recording stations which have records over a sufficiently long period, the results of the summer months of 1989 showed the highest values since the beginning of the measurements. One of the reasons for this phenomenon was the high duration of sunshine in that summer; for example, in Potsdam near Berlin in May 1989 the sunshine duration was the highest in May since the beginning of the records in 1893. For that reason we selected this summer for a case study. The basis for the study was mainly the ozone measuring stations of the network of Lower Saxony and the Federal Office of Environment (Umweltbundesamt). The results of these summer measurements point to intense sources of ozone, probably in form of gaseous precursors, in the Middle German industrial areas near Leipzig and Halle and in Northwestern Czechoslovakia, with coal-mining, chemical and petrochemical industries, coking plants and others. The maps of average ozone concentrations, number or days with high ozone maxima, ozone-windroses of the stations, etc., suggest that these areas could be a main source of precursors and of photochemical ozone production in summer smog episodes in Central Europe. Stations on the North Sea coast, at which early ozone measurements were made by our institute in 1973/74 are compared with similarly located stations of the Lower Saxon network in 1989 and the results show a reversal of the ozone-windroses. In 1973/74, the highest ozone concentrations were correlated with wind directions from the sea while in 1989 these concentrations were correlated with directions from the continent. In the recent years, photochemical ozone production on the continent is probably predominant, while in former years the higher ozone content of the maritime subpolar air masses has been explained by stratospheric-tropospheric exchange.

  8. Detection of Stress Levels from Biosignals Measured in Virtual Reality Environments Using a Kernel-Based Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongrae; Ham, Jinsil; Oh, Jooyoung; Park, Jeanho; Kim, Sayup; Lee, Nak-Kyu; Lee, Boreom

    2017-10-24

    Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technique that creates an artificial environment composed of realistic images, sounds, and other sensations. Many researchers have used VR devices to generate various stimuli, and have utilized them to perform experiments or to provide treatment. In this study, the participants performed mental tasks using a VR device while physiological signals were measured: a photoplethysmogram (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), and skin temperature (SKT). In general, stress is an important factor that can influence the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart-rate variability (HRV) is known to be related to ANS activity, so we used an HRV derived from the PPG peak interval. In addition, the peak characteristics of the skin conductance (SC) from EDA and SKT variation can also reflect ANS activity; we utilized them as well. Then, we applied a kernel-based extreme-learning machine (K-ELM) to correctly classify the stress levels induced by the VR task to reflect five different levels of stress situations: baseline, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress, and recovery. Twelve healthy subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiological signals were measured in stress environment generated by VR device. As a result, the average classification accuracy was over 95% using K-ELM and the integrated feature (IT = HRV + SC + SKT). In addition, the proposed algorithm can embed a microcontroller chip since K-ELM algorithm have very short computation time. Therefore, a compact wearable device classifying stress levels using physiological signals can be developed.

  9. NORMAL PRESSURE AND FRICTION STRESS MEASUREMENT IN ROLLING PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Lagergren, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    the output from the transducer, the friction stress and normal pressure in the contact zone can be determined. The new concept differs from existing pin designs by a lower disturbance of lubricant film and material flow and limited penetration of material between transducer and roll. Aluminum, cupper...

  10. Residual stresses in multilayer ceramic capacitors: measurement and computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonder, den J.M.J.; Rademaker, C.W.; Hu, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a combined experimental and computational study of the thermomechanical reliability of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC's). We focus on residual stresses introduced into the components during the cooling down step of the sintering process. The technique of

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  12. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Investigations at Depth in Slim Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Ask, D.; Cornet, F. H.; Nilsson, T.; Talib, M.; Sundberg, J.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the state of stress is essential to most underground work in rock mechanics as it provides means to analyze the mechanical behavior of a rock mass, serve as boundary condition in rock engineering problems, and help understand rock mass stability and groundwater flow. Luleå University of Technology (LTU) has developed and built a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements in slim boreholes together with the University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The system consists of a downhole- and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The surface unit comprises of a 40-foot container permanently mounted on a trailer, which is equipped with a tripod, wire-line winches, water hydraulics, and a generator. The surface unit serves as a climate-independent on-site operations center, as well as a self-supporting transport vessel for the entire system. Three hydraulic stress testing methods can be applied: hydraulic fracturing, sleeve fracturing and hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. The three-dimensional stress tensor and its variation with depth within a continuous rock mass can be determined in a scientific unambiguously way by integrating results from the three test methods. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions, (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture (which is highlighted); (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. These aspects highly reduce measurement-related uncertainties of stress determination. Commissioning testing and initial field tests are scheduled to occur in a 1200

  13. Stress measurements in the Stripa granite. Technical project report No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, H.

    1978-08-01

    Rock stress measurements at the 348 m level of the Stripa Mine have been carried out with the Leeman tri-axial equipment. The largest principal stress is found to be 20.0 MPa and directed parallel with the strike of the contact between the granite and the orebody. The intermediate principal stress is 11.4 MPa and directed almost horizontal and perpendicular to the contact. The minor principal stress has a magnitude of 5.4 MPa. The deduced vertical stress is approximately of the same value as can be theoretically calculated

  14. Results of radioactivity measurements on foodstuffs in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdes, O [National Agency for Atomic Energy, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocariu, T [Institute for Food Research, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    There are presented the results of gamma-spectrometric measurements performed between 1986-1995 on: milk and dairy products; meat and meat products; fish; wheat flour; fresh fruits and vegetables. The foodstuffs are sampled from some representative areas like: Bucharest, Bechet (affected by Kozloduj NPP, Bulgaria), Cernavoda, middle of Transylvania, Neamt. The radioactivity measurements are performed by high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry. There are identified and analysed mainly {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K and, sometimes, other radionuclides. There are pointed out: the constancy of natural radionuclides amounts; the drastic increasing in radioactive concentration in May 1986; the seasonal variation of radioactivity in some food items; the time - exponential diminution of radioactivity in 1991-1995; and the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs following a nuclear accident. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs.

  15. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Results of radioactivity measurements on foodstuffs in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Cojocariu, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are presented the results of gamma-spectrometric measurements performed between 1986-1995 on: milk and dairy products; meat and meat products; fish; wheat flour; fresh fruits and vegetables. The foodstuffs are sampled from some representative areas like: Bucharest, Bechet (affected by Kozloduj NPP, Bulgaria), Cernavoda, middle of Transylvania, Neamt. The radioactivity measurements are performed by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. There are identified and analysed mainly 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K and, sometimes, other radionuclides. There are pointed out: the constancy of natural radionuclides amounts; the drastic increasing in radioactive concentration in May 1986; the seasonal variation of radioactivity in some food items; the time - exponential diminution of radioactivity in 1991-1995; and the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs following a nuclear accident. (author)

  17. The LUT-Gauge for overcoring rock stress measurements - Technical description and laboratory evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1988-03-01

    The development of the LUT-Gauge - a triaxial borehole instrument for overcoring rock stress measurements - is reported. The borehole gauge and the associated equipment is described in some detail. The experimental procedures applicable to field measurements with the device are presented. A series of laboratory tests, aimed at investigating the performance of the instrumentation, are reported, This included basic tests of mechanical and electrical reliability, as well as investigations of the thermal sensitivity of the measuring method. These factors are significant with respect to the applicability of the method under field conditions. The results from the laboratory tests showed that instrument performance was in all respects satisfactory. Furthermore, that the effects of temperature changes, expressed as the corresponding measuring error to be expected under typical field conditions, was less than ± 1 MPa. (author)

  18. Measuring systems of hard to get objects: problems with analysis of measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewska, Grazyna

    2005-02-01

    The problem accessibility of metrological parameters features of objects appeared in many measurements. Especially if it is biological object which parameters very often determined on the basis of indirect research. Accidental component predominate in forming of measurement results with very limited access to measurement objects. Every measuring process has a lot of conditions limiting its abilities to any way processing (e.g. increase number of measurement repetition to decrease random limiting error). It may be temporal, financial limitations, or in case of biological object, small volume of sample, influence measuring tool and observers on object, or whether fatigue effects e.g. at patient. It's taken listing difficulties into consideration author worked out and checked practical application of methods outlying observation reduction and next innovative methods of elimination measured data with excess variance to decrease of mean standard deviation of measured data, with limited aomunt of data and accepted level of confidence. Elaborated methods wee verified on the basis of measurement results of knee-joint width space got from radiographs. Measurements were carried out by indirectly method on the digital images of radiographs. Results of examination confirmed legitimacy to using of elaborated methodology and measurement procedures. Such methodology has special importance when standard scientific ways didn't bring expectations effects.

  19. Measurements of the residual stresses in the welded steel columns based on the x-ray diffraction method, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Kiyoshi; Nishizawa, Hidekazu; Arashiyama, Masaki.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of two kinds of techniques of the X-ray stress analysis, namely, the standard sin 2 psi method and the newly developed phi-sin 2 psi method, bending tests have been performed. The test results have proved that the values of the stresses measured by means of the mechanical devices and of those measured by the two kinds of the X-ray techniques coincide each other. Then, these two methods have been applied to measure the surface residual stresses of the box-typed, welded steel columns and the following conclusions have been drawn. 1. The principal stress of the surface residural stresses is, in most cases, oriented to the rolled directions at the center of the steel plates, and it tends to rotate in the neighborhood of the heat affected zones. 2. Tensile residual stresses of a large magnitude have been observed in the direction parallel to the beads of the weld, and the moderate compressive residual stresses can be detected in the direction normal to the beads. (author)

  20. The Applicability of Different Fluid Media to Measure Effective Stress Coefficient for Rock Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective stress coefficient for permeability (ESCK is the key parameter to evaluate the properties of reservoir stress sensitivity. So far, little studies have clarified which ESCK is correct for a certain reservoir while rock ESCK is measured differently by different fluid media. Thus, three different fluids were taken to measure a fine sandstone sample’s ESCK, respectively. As a result, the ESCK was measured to be the smallest by injecting nitrogen, the largest by injecting water, and between the two by brine. Besides, those microcharacteristics such as rock component, clay mineral content, and pore structure were further analyzed based on some microscopic experiments. Rock elastic modulus was reduced when water-sensitive clay minerals were encountered with aqua fluid media so as to enlarge the rock ESCK value. Moreover, some clay minerals reacting with water can spall and possibly block pore throats. Compared with water, brine can soften the water sensitivity; however, gas has no water sensitivity effects. Therefore, to choose which fluid medium to measure reservoir ESCK is mainly depending on its own exploitation conditions. For gas reservoirs using gas to measure ESCK is more reliable than water or brine, while using brine is more appropriate for oil reservoirs.

  1. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer processing of the Δlambda/lambda measured results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draguniene, V.J.; Makariuniene, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    For the processing of the experimental data on the influence of the chemical environment on the radioactive decay constants, five programs have been written in the Fortran language in the version for the monitoring system DUBNA on the BESM-6 computer. Each program corresponds to a definite stage of data processing and acquirement of the definite answer. The first and second programs are calculation of the ratio of the pulse numbers measured with different sources and calculation of the mean value of dispersions. The third program is the averaging of the ratios of the pulse numbers. The fourth and the fifth are determination of the change of the radioactive decay constant. The created programs for the processing of the measurement results permit the processing of the experimental data beginning from the values of pulse numbers obtained directly in the experiments. The programs allow to treat a file of the experimental results, to calculated various errors in all the stages of the calculations. Printing of the obtained results is convenient for usage

  3. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acarturk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective: Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method: Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15 or wait-list control (n=14. The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64. The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92. Conclusion: The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost- effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed.

  4. The whole brain diffusion tensor imaging study on acute phase of the posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from the single-prolonged stress based on tract based spatial statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yibin; Liu Kang; Zhe Xia; Mu Yunfeng; Yin Hong; Huan Yi; Yang Xiaobin; Du Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the brain white matter microstructure at the acute stage of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from a single-prolonged stress. Methods: DTI scans were performed on 17 survivors buried more than 190 h in Shanxi Wangjialing mine disaster and 17 cases of normal controls using Siemens 3.0 T MR. The differences of the FA values measured from the whole brain DTI between the two groups were analyzed based on tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). FA data were statistically compared between the two groups based on nonparametric random permutation test (RPT), and the brain areas of the PTSD patients with abnormal FA were defined. Results: Compared with control group, FA values in the PTSD (at acute stage) group decreased in genu, rostral body of corpus callosum, and increased in the left thalamic and corticospinal tract region of bilateral corona radiata and the posterior limb of the left internal capsule, the left cerebral peduncle. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01 TFCE-corrected). Conclusions: TBSS is a comprehensive and accurate method for evaluating the changes of whole brain DTI in PTSD cases. The fiber structural abnormalities in the genu, rostral body of bilateral corpus callosum, anterior radiation of left thalamic may be due to stress. TBSS can provide a more objective basis for the early diagnosis and intervention of PTSD. (authors)

  5. On to what extent stresses resulting from the earth's surface trigger earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    The debate on static versus dynamic earthquake triggering mainly concentrates on endogenous crustal forces, including fault-fault interactions or seismic wave transients of remote earthquakes. Incomprehensibly, earthquake triggering due to surface processes, however, still receives little scientific attention. This presentation continues a discussion on the hypothesis of how “tiny” stresses stemming from the earth's surface can trigger major earthquakes, such as for example, China's M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. This seismic event is thought to be triggered by up to 1.1 billion metric tons of water (~130m) that accumulated in the Minjiang River Valley at the eastern margin of the Longmen Shan. Specifically, the water level rose by ~80m (static), with additional seasonal water level changes of ~50m (dynamic). Two and a half years prior to mainshock, static and dynamic Coulomb failure stresses were induced on the nearby Beichuan thrust fault system at <17km depth. Triggering stresses were equivalent to levels of daily tides and perturbed a fault area measuring 416+/-96km^2. The mainshock ruptured after 2.5 years when only the static stressing regime was predominant and the transient stressing (seasonal water level) was infinitesimal small. The short triggering delay of about 2 years suggests that the Beichuan fault might have been near the end of its seismic cycle, which may also confirm what previous geological findings have indicated. This presentation shows on to what extend the static and 1-year periodic triggering stress perturbations a) accounted for equivalent tectonic loading, given a 4-10kyr earthquake cycle and b) altered the background seismicity beneath the valley, i.e., daily event rate and earthquake size distribution.

  6. In situ stress and pore pressure in the Kumano Forearc Basin, offshore SW Honshu from downhole measurements during riser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Boutt, D.; Doan, M.-L.; Ito, T.; McNeill, L.; Byrne, T.; Conin, M.; Lin, W.; Kano, Y.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-05-01

    situ stress and pore pressure are key parameters governing rock deformation, yet direct measurements of these quantities are rare. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition #319, we drilled through a forearc basin at the Nankai subduction zone and into the underlying accretionary prism. We used the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool (MDT) for the first time in IODP to measure in situ minimum stress, pore pressure, and permeability at 11 depths between 729.9 and 1533.9 mbsf. Leak-off testing at 708.6 mbsf conducted as part of drilling operations provided a second measurement of minimum stress. The MDT campaign included nine single-probe (SP) tests to measure permeability and in situ pore pressure and two dual-packer (DP) tests to measure minimum principal stress. Permeabilities defined from the SP tests range from 6.53 × 10-17 to 4.23 × 10-14 m2. Pore fluid pressures are near hydrostatic throughout the section despite rapid sedimentation. This is consistent with the measured hydraulic diffusivity of the sediments and suggests that the forearc basin should not trap overpressures within the upper plate of the subduction zone. Minimum principal stresses are consistently lower than the vertical stress. We estimate the maximum horizontal stress from wellbore failures at the leak-off test and shallow MDT DP test depths. The results indicate a normal or strike-slip stress regime, consistent with the observation of abundant active normal faults in the seaward-most part of the basin, and a general decrease in fault activity in the vicinity of Site C0009.

  7. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  8. Results from preliminary FlowAct measurements during June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, P.

    1997-02-01

    Flow measurements based on the pulsed neutron activation (PNA) method have been done and analysed. The results show that the accuracy of the PNA based FlowAct method is, under certain conditions, in the same range as the reference flow meter used. Also, the behaviour of the time distributions obtained is discussed, though the influence of velocity profile, radial mixing or other hydrodynamical questions is not taken into account. However, the objective of this work was to gain sufficient confidence in the method, and sufficient experience to be able to design and build a dedicated loop with stable flow and high-accuracy calibration. 4 refs, 12 figs

  9. Status inconsistency in groups : How discrepancies between instrumental and expressive status result in symptoms of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brake, Hendrik; Grow, André; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    This study examines whether a mismatch between the positions that individuals hold in different status hierarchies results in symptoms of stress. Prior research has focused on inconsistencies between socioeconomic status dimensions (e.g., education and income) and did not find a significant relation

  10. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  11. Predischarge stress test after myocardial infarction in the old stage : results and prognostic value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); R.W. Brower (Ronald); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); J.A.J.M. Beelen; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the results of predischarge stress testing in the elderly, and to assess the prognostic value of the test during one-year follow-up. The database consisted of 48 patients older than 64 years of age and 109 patients 55-64 years of age, who survived

  12. Stress analysis of feeder bends using neutrons: new results and cumulative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, D.; Donaberger, R. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Leitch, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Rogge, R.B. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Neutron diffraction has played a vital role in stress analysis of bends in carbon steel pipes, known as feeder pipes, in CANDU reactors. Due to incidents of cracking of feeders, extensive R&D programs to manage feeder cracking have been implemented over about ten years. We review the cumulative impacts of this research from the view point of the stress analysis using neutrons, and present new results by examining a feeder bend with a partial crack both experimentally using neutron diffraction and theoretically using a finite element model. (author)

  13. Application of Terahertz Radiation to Soil Measurements: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. PMID:22163737

  14. Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Petra; Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-02-01

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  16. Effect of Escitalopram on Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia: The Results of the REMIT Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Velazquez, Eric J.; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen H.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Becker, Richard C.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Williams, Redford B.; Rogers, Joseph G.; O’Connor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Importance Mental-stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is an intermediate surrogate endpoint representing the pathophysiological link between psychosocial risk factors and adverse outcomes of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing MSIMI have not been well studied. Objective To examine the effects of 6 weeks of escitalopram treatment vs. placebo on MSIMI and other psychological stress-related biophysiological and emotional parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants The REMIT study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients with clinically stable CHD and laboratory MSIMI. Enrollment occurred from 7/24/2007–8/24/2011 at a tertiary medical center. Interventions Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive escitalopram (dose began at 5 mg with titration to 20 mg/day in 3 weeks) or placebo over 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Occurrence of MSIMI, defined as (1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; (2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or (3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1mm in ≥2 leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during ≥1 of 3 mental tasks. Results 127 participants were randomized to escitalopram (n=64) or placebo (n=63); 112 (96.1%) completed endpoint assessments (n=56 in each arm). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients taking escitalopram (34.2% [95% CI, 25.4 to 43.0]) had absence of MSIMI during the 3 mental stressors compared with patients taking placebo (17.5% [95% CI, 10.4 to 24.5]) based on unadjusted multiple imputation model for intention-to-treat analysis. A significant difference favoring escitalopram was observed (OR=2.62 [95% CI, 1.06 to 6.44]). Rates of exercise-induced ischemia were slightly lower at 6 weeks in the escitalopram group (45.8% [95% CI, 36.6 to 55.0]) than in patients receiving placebo (52.5% [95% CI, 43.3 to 61.7]), compared with baseline escitalopram (49.2% [95% CI, 39.9 to

  17. Expanding the functionality of speech recognition in radiology: creating a real-time methodology for measurement and analysis of occupational stress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2013-02-01

    While occupational stress and fatigue have been well described throughout medicine, the radiology community is particularly susceptible due to declining reimbursements, heightened demands for service deliverables, and increasing exam volume and complexity. The resulting occupational stress can be variable in nature and dependent upon a number of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors. Intrinsic stressors largely account for inter-radiologist stress variability and relate to unique attributes of the radiologist such as personality, emotional state, education/training, and experience. Extrinsic stressors may account for intra-radiologist stress variability and include cumulative workload and task complexity. The creation of personalized stress profiles creates a mechanism for accounting for both inter- and intra-radiologist stress variability, which is essential in creating customizable stress intervention strategies. One viable option for real-time occupational stress measurement is voice stress analysis, which can be directly implemented through existing speech recognition technology and has been proven to be effective in stress measurement and analysis outside of medicine. This technology operates by detecting stress in the acoustic properties of speech through a number of different variables including duration, glottis source factors, pitch distribution, spectral structure, and intensity. The correlation of these speech derived stress measures with outcomes data can be used to determine the user-specific inflection point at which stress becomes detrimental to clinical performance.

  18. Acute Lung Injury Results from Innate Sensing of Viruses by an ER Stress Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike R. Hrincius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Incursions of new pathogenic viruses into humans from animal reservoirs are occurring with alarming frequency. The molecular underpinnings of immune recognition, host responses, and pathogenesis in this setting are poorly understood. We studied pandemic influenza viruses to determine the mechanism by which increasing glycosylation during evolution of surface proteins facilitates diminished pathogenicity in adapted viruses. ER stress during infection with poorly glycosylated pandemic strains activated the unfolded protein response, leading to inflammation, acute lung injury, and mortality. Seasonal strains or viruses engineered to mimic adapted viruses displaying excess glycans on the hemagglutinin did not cause ER stress, allowing preservation of the lungs and survival. We propose that ER stress resulting from recognition of non-adapted viruses is utilized to discriminate “non-self” at the level of protein processing and to activate immune responses, with unintended consequences on pathogenesis. Understanding this mechanism should improve strategies for treating acute lung injury from zoonotic viral infections.

  19. Methods of Measuring Stress Relaxation in Composite Tape Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    10 3. Cure Cycle Recommended for Patz F7 Prepreg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Typical Stress...unique and dimensionally complex parts. Hand lay-up is the method by which prepreg tape or fibers are laid down and then the matrix is then ‘painted’ on...structure. Hand lay-up using a prepreg tape stands out as the inexpensive choice for the unique low number production of tape springs and should

  20. Anisotropic stress in narrow sGe fin field-effect transistor channels measured using nano-focused Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytten, T.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Witters, L.; Eneman, G.; Hantschel, T.; Schulze, A.; Favia, P.; Bender, H.; De Wolf, I.; Vandervorst, W.

    2018-05-01

    The continued importance of strain engineering in semiconductor technology demands fast and reliable stress metrology that is non-destructive and process line-compatible. Raman spectroscopy meets these requirements but the diffraction limit prevents its application in current and future technology nodes. We show that nano-focused Raman scattering overcomes these limitations and can be combined with oil-immersion to obtain quantitative anisotropic stress measurements. We demonstrate accurate stress characterization in strained Ge fin field-effect transistor channels without sample preparation or advanced microscopy. The detailed analysis of the enhanced Raman response from a periodic array of 20 nm-wide Ge fins provides direct access to the stress levels inside the nanoscale channel, and the results are validated using nano-beam diffraction measurements.