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Sample records for stress hypertonic conditions

  1. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  3. Erythroid differentiation and commitment in rat erythroleukemia cells with hypertonic culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kluge, N; Ostertag, W; Furusawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Cell cultures of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat erythroleukemia can be stimulated to synthesize hemoglobin when cultured in hypertonic media. During hypertonic treatment the intracellular osmotic conditions immediately readjust to those of the extracellular medium. None of the Friend virus-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell lines was inducible for differentiation with the same hypertonic culture conditions used for rat cells. Earliest commitment to erythroid terminal differentiati...

  4. Phosphoinositolphosphate (PIP) cascade induction by hypertonic stress of plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Jacoby, B.

    1989-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) was determined by competition with [ 3 H]-IP 3 for binding to an IP 3 specific protein. A hypertonic mannitol, sorbitol or lactose shock induced an increase in the rate of K + uptake and raised the IP 3 content of Beta vulgaris slices, excised Vigna mungo and Sorghum bicolor roots, as well as attached V. mungo roots. Increased K + uptake could also be induced by compounds that artificially induce the PIP cascade, or mimic it's products. A hypertonic shock, administered to intact B. vulgaris slices, further enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kD protein in the plasmalemma. Maximal IP 3 content was found 10 min after hypertonic induction and maximal K + uptake was obtained 10 min later. The effect of a continuous hypertonic treatment on IP 3 content, but not on K + uptake, was transient. Li + decreased the rate of IP 3 metabolism

  5. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  6. Involvement of TRPV1 and AQP2 in hypertonic stress by xylitol in odontoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, M; Fujisawa, M; Miyashita, K; Kawakami, Y; Morimoto-Yamashita, Y; Torii, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the responses of mouse odontoblast-lineage cell line (OLC) cultures to xylitol-induced hypertonic stress. OLCs were treated with xylitol, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, arabinose and lyxose. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium assay. The expression of transient receptor potential vanilloids (TRPV) 1, 3 and 4 was detected using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The expression of aquaporin (AQP) 2 was detected using immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for AQP-2 was used to inhibition assay. Xylitol-induced hypertonic stress did not decrease OLC viability, unlike the other sugars tested. OLCs expressed TRPV1, 3 and 4 as well as AQP2. Xylitol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 expression after 3 h of hypertonic stress. TRPV1 mRNA expression was upregulated by xylitol. Costimulation with HgCl2 (AQP inhibitor) and Ruthenium red (TRPV1 inhibitor) decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs treated with siRNA against TRPV1 exhibited decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs have high-cell viability under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress, which may be associated with TRPV1 and AQP2 expressions.

  7. Inducible nucleosome depletion at OREBP-binding-sites by hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith H Y Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osmotic Response Element-Binding Protein (OREBP, also known as TonEBP or NFAT5, is a unique transcription factor. It is hitherto the only known mammalian transcription factor that regulates hypertonic stress-induced gene transcription. In addition, unlike other monomeric members of the NFAT family, OREBP exists as a homodimer and it is the only transcription factor known to bind naked DNA targets by complete encirclement in vitro. Nevertheless, how OREBP interacts with target DNA, also known as ORE/TonE, and how it elicits gene transcription in vivo, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Using hypertonic induction of the aldose reductase (AR gene activation as a model, we showed that OREs contained dynamic nucleosomes. Hypertonic stress induced a rapid and reversible loss of nucleosome(s around the OREs. The loss of nucleosome(s was found to be initiated by an OREBP-independent mechanism, but was significantly potentiated in the presence of OREBP. Furthermore, hypertonic induction of AR gene was associated with an OREBP-dependent hyperacetylation of histones that spanned the 5' upstream sequences and at least some exons of the gene. Nevertheless, nucleosome loss was not regulated by the acetylation status of histone. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanism of OREBP-dependent transcriptional regulation and provide a basis for understanding how histone eviction and transcription factor recruitment are coupled.

  8. Requirement for the eIF4E binding proteins for the synergistic down-regulation of protein synthesis by hypertonic conditions and mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Michael J; Elia, Androulla; Morley, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the phosphorylation and activity of several proteins that have the potential to control translation, including p70S6 kinase and the eIF4E binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. In spite of this, in exponentially growing cells overall protein synthesis is often resistant to mTOR inhibitors. We report here that sensitivity of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to mTOR inhibitors can be greatly increased when the cells are subjected to the physiological stress imposed by hypertonic conditions. In contrast, protein synthesis in MEFs with a double knockout of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 remains resistant to mTOR inhibitors under these conditions. Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) is blocked by the mTOR inhibitor Ku0063794 equally well in both wild-type and 4E-BP knockout cells, under both normal and hypertonic conditions. The response of protein synthesis to hypertonic stress itself does not require the 4E-BPs. These data suggest that under certain stress conditions: (i) translation has a greater requirement for mTOR activity and (ii) there is an absolute requirement for the 4E-BPs for regulation by mTOR. Importantly, dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and Akt is not sufficient to affect protein synthesis acutely.

  9. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  10. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the oxidative stress responses in traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Hypertonic saline (HTS has advantages as being preferred osmotic agent, but few studies investigated oxidant and antioxidant effects of HTS in TBI. This study was designed to compare two different regimens of HTS 5% with mannitol on TBI-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with TBI were recruited and have randomly received one of the three protocols: 125 cc of HTS 5% every 6 h as bolus, 500 cc of HTS 5%as infusion for 24 h or 1 g/kg mannitol of 20% as a bolus, repeated with a dose of 0.25-0.5 g/kg every 6 h based on patient′s response for 3 days. Serum total antioxidant power (TAP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO were measured at baseline and daily for 3 days. Results: Initial serum ROS and NO levels in patients were higher than control(6.86± [3.2] vs. 1.57± [0.5] picoM, P = 0.001, 14.6± [1.6] vs. 7.8± [3.9] mM, P = 0.001, respectively. Levels of ROS have decreased for all patients, but reduction was significantly after HTS infusion and mannitol (3. 08 [±3.1] to 1.07 [±1.6], P = 0.001, 5.6 [±3.4] to 2.5 [±1.8], P = 0.003 respectively. During study, NO levels significantly decreased in HTS infusion but significantly increased in mannitol. TAP Levels had decreased in all patients during study especially in mannitol (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline 5% has significant effects on the oxidant responses compared to mannitol following TBI that makes HTS as a perfect therapeutic intervention for reducing unfavorable outcomes in TBI patients.

  11. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  12. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

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    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  13. Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment

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    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment promotes disappearance of negative clinical symptoms, normalization of arterial pressure indicators, improvement of system and cerebral hemodynamic. In spite of active using of wideband equipment in treatment for cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertonic disease, the procedures generalizing experience in their use are not enough. Thus further investigation, searching of new treatment methods using up-to-date physiotherapy technology seem to be actual.

  14. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  16. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  17. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  18. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  19. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  20. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  1. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  2. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  3. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  4. Operating room use of hypertonic solutions: a clinical review

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    Gustavo Azoubel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.

  5. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  6. Psychological stress associated with cardiogenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatallah, Nadia; Silverstein, Louise B; Stolerman, Marina; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L; Marion, Robert W; Wasserman, David; Hreyo, Sarah; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2014-09-01

    Genetic testing now makes it possible to identify specific mutations that may lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This article presents data from a qualitative research study that explored the subjective experiences of individuals and families with cardiogenetic conditions. We focus on describing patients' experiences of psychological stresses associated with having a cardiogenetic condition, illustrating the importance of integrating psychological and medical care. This integration of care is particularly important as personalized genomic medicine continues to evolve and the implications of genetic testing have a profound effect on individuals and families. The researchers interviewed 50 participants from 32 families. The research team used a systematic, grounded theory procedure to code and analyze interview and focus group transcripts, incorporating multiple coders at several stages of the data analysis process. Three major themes emerged: a bereavement trajectory associated with sudden death in the absence of prior symptoms; high anxiety about transmitting a genetic mutation; and resilience reflected in positive lifestyle changes and participation in support groups. This article identifies patient perspectives on personalized genomic medicine in cardiogenetics that can improve clinical care, including: specialized bereavement counseling; improving education about cardiogenetic conditions for medical professionals; parent guidelines for discussing cardiogenetic conditions with their children; information about support groups; and the routine inclusion of clinical psychologists in interdisciplinary treatment teams. Given recent advances in technology and decreasing costs, whole-genome sequencing is likely to become common practice in the near future. Therefore, these recommendations are likely to be relevant for other genetic conditions, as well as the entire field of personalized genomic medicine.

  7. Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis: worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralski, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and young children with CF has also been established, recent studies have reported inconclusive evidence about its efficacy. In this editorial, we discuss the evidence behind hypertonic saline use for adults, children and infants with CF.

  8. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  10. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  11. Modeling heat stress under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Logar, B; Bormann, J; Minet, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Díaz, C; Tychon, B; Gengler, N; Hammami, H

    2016-05-01

    Renewed interest in heat stress effects on livestock productivity derives from climate change, which is expected to increase temperatures and the frequency of extreme weather events. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of temperature and humidity on milk production in highly selected dairy cattle populations across 3 European regions differing in climate and production systems to detect differences and similarities that can be used to optimize heat stress (HS) effect modeling. Milk, fat, and protein test day data from official milk recording for 1999 to 2010 in 4 Holstein populations located in the Walloon Region of Belgium (BEL), Luxembourg (LUX), Slovenia (SLO), and southern Spain (SPA) were merged with temperature and humidity data provided by the state meteorological agencies. After merging, the number of test day records/cows per trait ranged from 686,726/49,655 in SLO to 1,982,047/136,746 in BEL. Values for the daily average and maximum temperature-humidity index (THIavg and THImax) ranges for THIavg/THImax were largest in SLO (22-74/28-84) and shortest in SPA (39-76/46-83). Change point techniques were used to determine comfort thresholds, which differed across traits and climatic regions. Milk yield showed an inverted U-shaped pattern of response across the THI scale with a HS threshold around 73 THImax units. For fat and protein, thresholds were lower than for milk yield and were shifted around 6 THI units toward larger values in SPA compared with the other countries. Fat showed lower HS thresholds than protein traits in all countries. The traditional broken line model was compared with quadratic and cubic fits of the pattern of response in production to increasing heat loads. A cubic polynomial model allowing for individual variation in patterns of response and THIavg as heat load measure showed the best statistical features. Higher/lower producing animals showed less/more persistent production (quantity and quality) across the THI scale. The

  12. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution for Patients in Traumatic Haemorrhagic Shock. ... The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock ...

  13. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...

  14. Psychosocial working conditions and stress in UK social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ravalier, J.M

    2018-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to chronic negative working conditions leads to stress. This subsequently impacts sickness absence and attrition, making it a key consideration for policymakers and academics alike. This study therefore seeks to investigate the influence of psychosocial working conditions on stress and related outcomes: sickness presenteeism, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions in UK social workers (SWs). A cross-sectional survey was used, in addition to a single open...

  15. Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cell Death Induced by High-Glucose Hypertonic Solution Involves Ca2+ and Na+ Ions and Oxidative Stress with the Participation of PKC/NOX2 and PI3K/Akt Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Simon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD therapy is equally efficient as hemodialysis while providing greater patient comfort and mobility. Therefore, PD is the treatment of choice for several types of renal patients. During PD, a high-glucose hyperosmotic (HGH solution is administered into the peritoneal cavity to generate an osmotic gradient that promotes water and solutes transport from peritoneal blood to the dialysis solution. Unfortunately, PD has been associated with a loss of peritoneal viability and function through the generation of a severe inflammatory state that induces human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC death. Despite this deleterious effect, the precise molecular mechanism of HPMC death as induced by HGH solutions is far from being understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the pathways involved in HGH solution-induced HPMC death. HGH-induced HPMC death included influxes of intracellular Ca2+ and Na+. Furthermore, HGH-induced HPMC death was inhibited by antioxidant and reducing agents. In line with this, HPMC death was induced solely by increased oxidative stress. In addition to this, the cPKC/NOX2 and PI3K/Akt intracellular signaling pathways also participated in HGH-induced HPMC death. The participation of PI3K/Akt intracellular is in agreement with previously shown in rat PMC apoptosis. These findings contribute toward fully elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism mediating peritoneal mesothelial cell death induced by high-glucose solutions during peritoneal dialysis.

  16. Effective Stress Law in Unconventional Reservoirs under Different Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, S.; Harpalani, S.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional reservoirs have attracted a great deal of research interest worldwide during the past two decades. Low permeability and specialized techniques required to exploit these resources present opportunities for improvement in both production rates and ultimate recovery. Understanding subsurface stress modifications and permeability evolution are valuable when evaluating the prospects of unconventional reservoirs. These reservoir properties are functions of effective stress. As a part of this study, effective stress law, specifically the variation of anisotropic Biot's coefficient under various boundary conditions believed to exist in gas reservoirs by different researchers, has been established. Pressure-dependent-permeability (PdK) experiments were carried out on San Juan coal under different boundary conditions, that is, uniaxial strain condition and constant volume condition. Stress and strain in the vertical and horizontal directions were monitored throughout the experiment. Data collected during the experiments was used to determine the Biot's coefficient in vertical and horizontal directions under these two boundary conditions, treating coal as transversely isotropic. The variation of Biot's coefficient was found to be well correlated with the variation in coal permeability. Based on the estimated values of Biot's coefficients, a theory of variation in its value is presented for other boundary conditions. The findings of the study shed light on the inherent behavior of Biot's coefficient under different reservoir boundary conditions. This knowledge can improve the modeling work requiring estimation of effective stress in reservoirs, such as, pressure-/stress- dependent permeability. At the same time, if the effective stresses are known with more certainty by other methods, it enables assessment of the unknown reservoir boundary conditions.

  17. Emotional Memory Formation Under Lower Versus Higher Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Inna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2010-01-01

    An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under higher versus lower stress conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was de...

  18. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  19. Emotional memory consolidation under lower versus higher stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under high versus low emotionality conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under high emotionality conditions. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under low or high stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials or full (12 trials training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over three days rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.

  20. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  1. Expression and Trafficking of the γ Subunit of Na,K-ATPase in Hypertonically Challenged IMCD3 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihakaski-Maunsbach, Kaarina; Nonaka, Shoichi; Maunsbach, Arvid B.

    2008-01-01

    The γ subunit (FXYD2) of Na,K-ATPase is an important regulator of the sodium pump. In this investigation we have analysed the trafficking of γ to the plasma membrane in cultures of inner medullary collecting duct cells (IMCD3) following acute hypertonic challenge and brefeldin A (BFA) treatment. Following hypertonic challenging for 24 hr immunofluorescence labeling revealed initial co-localization of the γ subunit and 58K Golgi protein in the cytoplasm, but no co-localization of α1 and Golgi protein. Exposure of the challenged cells to BFA prevented the subsequent incorporation of γ into the basolateral plasma membrane. The γ subunit instead remained in cytoplasmic vesicles while cell proliferation and cell viability decreased simultaneously. Following removal of BFA from the hypertonic medium the IMCD3 cells recovered with distinct expression of γ in the basolateral membrane. The α1 subunit was only marginally influenced by BFA. The results demonstrate that the γ subunit trafficks to the plasma membrane via the Golgi apparatus, despite the absence of a signal sequence. The results also suggest that the γ and α subunits do not traffic together to the plasma membrane, and that the γ and α subunit have different turnover rates during these experimental conditions

  2. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  3. Poor working conditions and work stress among Canadian sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, P; Sou, J; Chapman, J; Dobrer, S; Braschel, M; Goldenberg, S; Shannon, K

    2017-10-01

    While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14). A modified standardized 'work stress' scale, multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to longitudinally examine the factors associated with work stress. In multivariable analysis, poor working conditions were associated with increased work stress and included workplace physical/sexual violence (β = 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06, 0.29), displacement due to police (β = 0.26; 95% CI 0.14, 0.38), working in public spaces (β = 0.73; 95% CI 0.61, 0.84). Older (β = -0.02; 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) and Indigenous SWs experienced lower work stress (β = -0.25; 95% CI -0.43, -0.08), whereas non-injection (β = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.49) and injection drug users (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03, 0.31) had higher work stress. Vancouver-based SWs' work stress was largely shaped by poor work conditions, such as violence, policing, lack of safe workspaces. There is a need to move away from criminalized approaches which shape unsafe work conditions and increase work stress for SWs. Policies that promote SWs' access to the same occupational health, safety and human rights standards as workers in other labour sectors are also needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Strength conditions for the elastic structures with a stress error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, A. D.

    2017-10-01

    As is known, the constraints (strength conditions) for the safety factor of elastic structures and design details of a particular class, e.g. aviation structures are established, i.e. the safety factor values of such structures should be within the given range. It should be noted that the constraints are set for the safety factors corresponding to analytical (exact) solutions of elasticity problems represented for the structures. Developing the analytical solutions for most structures, especially irregular shape ones, is associated with great difficulties. Approximate approaches to solve the elasticity problems, e.g. the technical theories of deformation of homogeneous and composite plates, beams and shells, are widely used for a great number of structures. Technical theories based on the hypotheses give rise to approximate (technical) solutions with an irreducible error, with the exact value being difficult to be determined. In static calculations of the structural strength with a specified small range for the safety factors application of technical (by the Theory of Strength of Materials) solutions is difficult. However, there are some numerical methods for developing the approximate solutions of elasticity problems with arbitrarily small errors. In present paper, the adjusted reference (specified) strength conditions for the structural safety factor corresponding to approximate solution of the elasticity problem have been proposed. The stress error estimation is taken into account using the proposed strength conditions. It has been shown that, to fulfill the specified strength conditions for the safety factor of the given structure corresponding to an exact solution, the adjusted strength conditions for the structural safety factor corresponding to an approximate solution are required. The stress error estimation which is the basis for developing the adjusted strength conditions has been determined for the specified strength conditions. The adjusted strength

  5. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioactive compounds in potatoes: Accumulation under drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Wegener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Besides starch, crude fibre, amino acids (AAS, vitamins and minerals, the tubers contain diverse phenolic compounds. These phenolics and AAS confer anti-oxidant protection against reactiveoxygen species, tissue damage, and diseases like atherosclerosis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus,and cancer. Climate change and drought stress may become a major risk for crop production worldwide, resulting in reduced access for those who depend on the nutritional value of this staple crop. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of drought stress on water, lipid soluble antioxidants, anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, free AAS, peroxidase (POD and lipid acyl hydrolase activity (LAH in tuber tissue. Methods: The study was carried out on three potato genotypes comprising one yellow-fleshed cultivar and two purple breeding clones. The plants were grown in pots (from April to September in a glasshouse with sufficient water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of both variants were analysed for antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid (ACE and Trolox equivalent (TXE using a photo-chemiluminescent method. Amounts of anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, as well as POD and LAH activities were analysed using a UV photometer. Finally, free AAS were measured by HPLC. Results: The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduces tuber yield, but has no significant effect on antioxidants, Ac, soluble phenols and POD. Drought stress significantly increased the levels of soluble protein (P < 0.0001 and LAH (P < 0.001. Also, total amounts of free AAS were higher in the drought stressed tubers (+34.2%, on average than in the tubers grown with a sufficient water supply. Above all, proline was elevated due to drought stress.

  7. System for stress corrosion conditions tests on PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Cesar de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The study of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) involves the consideration and evaluation of the inherent compatibility between a material and the environment under conditions of either applied or residual stress. EAC is a critical problem because equipment, components and structure are subject to the influence of mechanical stress, water environment of different composition, temperature and different material history. Testing for resistance to EAC is one of the most effective ways to determine the interrelationships among this variables on the process of EAC. Up to now, several experimental techniques have been developed worldwide, which address different aspects of environmental caused damage. Constant loading of CT specimens test is a typical example of test, which is used for the estimation of parameters of stress corrosion cracking. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment that is close to the actual operation conditions of assessed component. This paper presents a testing facility for stress corrosion cracking to be installed at CDTN, which was designed and developed at CDTN. The facility is used to carry out constant load tests under simulated PWR environment, where temperature, water pressure and chemistry are controlled, which are considered the most important factors in SCC. Also, the equipment operational conditions, its applications, and restrictions are presented. The system was developed to operate at temperature until 380 degree C and pressure until 180 bar. It consists in a autoclave stuck at a mechanical system, responsible of producing load , a water treatment station, and a data acquisition system. This testing facility allows the evaluation of cracking progress, especially at PWR reactor. (author) operational conditions. (author)

  8. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  9. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking.

  10. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  11. Amelioration of Heat-Stress Conditions of Egyptian Summer Season on Friesian Calves Using Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.; Kamal, T.H.; Khalil, W.K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Friesian calves were used to evaluate cool air condition (AC) in alleviating heat stress (HS) determined by Heat Shock Protein genes expression (HSP), hormonal, biochemical and physiological parameters. The animals were exposed to summer heat stress (HS) under shade for two weeks (control). The maximum temperature humidity index (THI) during summer HS was from 81 to 88. Afterward the animals were exposed to AC, inside a climatic chamber for 6 hours daily for two weeks, where, the THI was from 70 to 71. The results revealed that expression level of the Hsp genes (Hsp72, Hsp70.1, Hsp70 and Hsp47) was lower under air condition treatment than under summer heat stress. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly lower (p< 0.01) under air condition treatment than those under heat stress. Total triiodothyronin (T3) level was significantly higher (P< 0.05) in AC cooling treatments than in HS, while cortisol level was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Creatinine and Urea -N levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. Triglycerides, ALT and AST levels were significantly lower (p<0.01), (P< 0.01) and (p<0.05), respectively in AC cooling treatment than in HS calves. These results demonstrated that there is a relationship between the molecular weight of HSPs and the level of HSPs gene exprisson. The higher the molecular weight (HSP 72) the lower is the HSPs gene expression level (0.82 in HS and 0.39 in AC) and vise versa. This holds true in both heat stress and air condition. AC treatment is capable to ameliorate heat stress of Friesian calves under hot summer climate

  12. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune responses...

  13. Triaxial Wetting Test on Rockfill Materials under Stress Combination Conditions of Spherical Stress p and Deviatoric Stress q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A GCTS medium-sized triaxial apparatus is used to conduct a single-line method wetting test on three kinds of rockfill materials of different mother rocks such as mixture of sandstone and slate, and dolomite and granite, and the test stress conditions is the combination of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q. The test results show that (1 for wetting shear strain, the effects of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q are equivalent, and wetting shear strain and deviatoric stress q show the power function relationship preferably. (2 For wetting volumetric strain, the effect of deviatoric stress q can be neglected because it is extremely insignificant, and spherical stress p is the main influencing factor and shows the power function relationship preferably. (3 The wetting strains decrease significantly with the increase in initial water content and sample density generally, but the excessively high dry density will increase the wetting deformation. Also, the wetting strains will decrease with the increase in the saturated uniaxial compressive strength and average softening coefficient of the mother rock. Based on the test results, a wetting strain model is proposed for rockfill materials. The verification results indicate that the model satisfactorily reflects the development law of wetting deformation.

  14. Unsteady exergy destruction of the neuron under dynamic stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, S.; Sorguven, E.; Ozilgen, M.; Aksan Kurnaz, I.

    2013-01-01

    Just like all physical systems, biological systems also obey laws of thermodynamics, and as such the useful work potential of a biological system is its exergy. In some studies, exergy of living systems is considered with respect to work performance of humans in offices or buildings; however the exergy analysis of biochemical reactions in a cell as a closed system goes largely untouched. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to glucose metabolism of a model neuron, and dynamic exergy destructions were calculated for four different conditions, namely normoxia, hypoxia, glucose starvation and excess glucose. Our results showed that neuronal metabolism achieved a new steady state under each condition within 5 min. This dynamic model predicts that, both exergy destruction and work potential rates increase with increasing blood glucose concentration. The ratio of exergy destruction rate to work potential rate increases logarithmically with increasing blood glucose concentration. The neuronal metabolism is thus found to function in an efficient way and switches to lower exergy destruction under stress conditions such as glucose starvation. This behavior seen in this exergy analysis study confirms the assumption of minimum entropy production in living systems. - Highlights: • Unsteady exergy analysis of glucose metabolism of a model neuron is performed. • Dynamic exergy losses were calculated for four different conditions: normoxia, hypoxia, glucose starvation and excess glucose. • Neuronal metabolism achieved a new steady state under each condition within 5 min. • Both exergy loss and work potential rates increase with increasing blood glucose concentration. • Neuronal metabolism functions in an efficient way and switches to lower exergy loss under stress conditions

  15. Performance of diverse wheat genetic stocks under moisture stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, M.; Shabbir, G.; Rasheed, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate divergent wheat germplasm for their performance under drought and control conditions. The germplasm consists of wheat land races of Pakistan, advanced D-genome synthetic derivatives and high yielding varieties of Pakistan. This wide array of germplasm was selected to identify sources, which can be opted later by the wheat breeders while breeding for drought tolerance. The evaluation parameters involved some important physiochemical testing and morphological characteristics in the field under drought and control conditions. Based on these parameters, 13 wheat genotypes were selected on the basis of their best performance regarding morphological and physiological parameters. These genotypes exhibited higher yield under drought stress conditions and increased percentage of proline, sugar, SOD and protein content under laboratory conditions as compared to the susceptible genotypes. Correlation studies revealed that grains per spike (GPS) and thousand grain weight (TGW) had direct relationship with spike length (SL), proline and sugar content under both control and drought conditions. Thus, these parameters can be used as selection criteria for the identification of tolerant genotypes. (author)

  16. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  17. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Modulates Neutrophil Adhesion Molecule Expression of Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizoli, Sandro B; Rhind, Shawn G; Shek, Pang N; Inaba, Kenji; Filips, Dennis; Tien, Homer; Brenneman, Fred; Rotstein, Ori D

    2004-01-01

    .... Experimental data suggests that hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl in 6% dextran-70) exerts antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, reduces multiorgan dysfunction and improves outcome...

  19. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  20. Upper Limb Hypertonicity in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review Study on Medical and Rehabilitative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rassafiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.

  1. Mediator phosphorylation prevents stress response transcription during non-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian; Matic, Ivan; Maier, Kerstin C; Schwalb, Björn; Roether, Susanne; Strässer, Katja; Tresch, Achim; Mann, Matthias; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-12-28

    The multiprotein complex Mediator is a coactivator of RNA polymerase (Pol) II transcription that is required for the regulated expression of protein-coding genes. Mediator serves as an end point of signaling pathways and regulates Pol II transcription, but the mechanisms it uses are not well understood. Here, we used mass spectrometry and dynamic transcriptome analysis to investigate a functional role of Mediator phosphorylation in gene expression. Affinity purification and mass spectrometry revealed that Mediator from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is phosphorylated at multiple sites of 17 of its 25 subunits. Mediator phosphorylation levels change upon an external stimulus set by exposure of cells to high salt concentrations. Phosphorylated sites in the Mediator tail subunit Med15 are required for suppression of stress-induced changes in gene expression under non-stress conditions. Thus dynamic and differential Mediator phosphorylation contributes to gene regulation in eukaryotic cells.

  2. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  3. Effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on carotenoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on pumpkin calluses carotenoid. Plant elicitors used to create abiotic stress in this study were Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for drought stress, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid for hormones stress and Murashige and Skoog Salt for ...

  4. Anticipatory stress influences decision making under explicit risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.

  5. The Role of Silicon under Biotic and Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay YAVAŞ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity leading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a ro le in reducing the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses (drought, salt stress, disease and insect stress etc. on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especially small grains. The application of silicon may reduce the effects of environmental stresses on plants while making effective use of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Also, silicon may reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals in soil. I t may protect the foliage and increase light uptake and reduce respiration. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the effects of silicon on abiotic and biotic stresses in especially field crops.

  6. Thermomechanical conditions and stresses on the friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atthipalli, Gowtam

    Friction stir welding has been commercially used as a joining process for aluminum and other soft materials. However, the use of this process in joining of hard alloys is still developing primarily because of the lack of cost effective, long lasting tools. Here I have developed numerical models to understand the thermo mechanical conditions experienced by the FSW tool and to improve its reusability. A heat transfer and visco-plastic flow model is used to calculate the torque, and traverse force on the tool during FSW. The computed values of torque and traverse force are validated using the experimental results for FSW of AA7075, AA2524, AA6061 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The computed torque components are used to determine the optimum tool shoulder diameter based on the maximum use of torque and maximum grip of the tool on the plasticized workpiece material. The estimation of the optimum tool shoulder diameter for FSW of AA6061 and AA7075 was verified with experimental results. The computed values of traverse force and torque are used to calculate the maximum shear stress on the tool pin to determine the load bearing ability of the tool pin. The load bearing ability calculations are used to explain the failure of H13 steel tool during welding of AA7075 and commercially pure tungsten during welding of L80 steel. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are developed to predict the important FSW output parameters as function of selected input parameters. These ANN consider tool shoulder radius, pin radius, pin length, welding velocity, tool rotational speed and axial pressure as input parameters. The total torque, sliding torque, sticking torque, peak temperature, traverse force, maximum shear stress and bending stress are considered as the output for ANN models. These output parameters are selected since they define the thermomechanical conditions around the tool during FSW. The developed ANN models are used to understand the effect of various input parameters on the total

  7. Out-of-Hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P.; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J. Steven; Hoyt, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. Intervention A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Main Outcome Measure Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). Results The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, −4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, −4.0% to 9.7%]; P=.67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline

  8. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms

  9. Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) lines. ... Drought stress tolerance is seen in almost all plants but its extent varies from species to species and even within species. ... from 32 Countries:.

  10. Methods for evaluation of mechanical stress condition of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchev Yordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary attention is given to the following methods: method by drilling cylindrical holes (drill method and integrated ultrasonic method using volume (longitudinal and transverse, surface, and sub-surface waves. Drill method allows determination of residual mechanical stress in small depth of material surfaces, assessing type, size, and orientation of principal stresses. For the first time, parallel studies are carried out of mechanical stress in materials using the electroacoustic effect of volume, surface and sub-surface waves on the one hand, and effective mechanical stresses on the other. The experimental results present electroacoustic coefficients for different types of waves in the material of gas pipeline tube of 243 mm diameter and 14 mm thickness. These are used to evaluate mechanical stresses in pipelines, according to active GOST standards.

  11. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  12. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  13. Physiological Signals and Their Fractal Response to Stress Conditions, Environmental Changes and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scafetta, N; Moon, R. E; West, B. J

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of these studies have been intended to develop more reliable methodologies for understanding how biological systems respond to peculiar altered conditions induced by internal stress, environment...

  14. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-05-12

    An interesting discovery in biology is that most genes in an organism are dispensable. That means these genes have minor effects on survival of the organism in standard laboratory conditions. One explanation of this discovery is that some genes play important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms and associated genes of each stress condition responses are usually different. In our analysis, we combined protein abundance data and mutant conditional fitness data into E. coli constraint-based metabolic models to study conditionally essential metabolic genes under temperature and pH stress conditions. Flux Balance Analysis was employed as the modeling method to analysis these data. We discovered lists of metabolic genes, which are E. coli dispensable genes, but conditionally essential under some stress conditions. Among these conditionally essential genes, atpA in low pH stress and nhaA in high pH stress found experimental evidences from previous studies. Our study provides new conditionally essential gene candidates for biologists to explore stress condition mechanisms.

  15. Effects of hypertonic dextrose injections in the rabbit carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D; Low, Phillip A; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different doses of hypertonic dextrose injection on the carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve in a rabbit model. Thirty-eight New Zealand white rabbits weighing 4.0-4.5 kg were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with one of five different treatments: saline-single injection; saline-two injections 1 week apart; 10% dextrose-single injection; 20% dextrose-single injection; or 10% dextrose-two injections 1 week apart. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing and histology. There were significant increases in the energy absorption of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline injection groups. SSCT stiffness was also significantly increased in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the other groups. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group and a significant decrease in the nerve short-long diameter ratio in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group. There were no changes in EP among the groups. SSCT fibrosis is present for up to 12 weeks after dextrose injection; multiple injections have bigger effects, including what appears to be a secondary change in nerve flattening. This model may be useful to study the effects of external fibrosis on nerve morphology and physiology, such as occurs clinically in carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  17. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  18. Odors, Deployment Stress and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  19. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos F. Brosschot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always “on” but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  20. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-07

    Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  1. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  2. Method for accelerated aging under combined environmental stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated aging method which can be used to simulate aging in combined stress environment situations is described. It is shown how the assumptions of the method can be tested experimentally. Aging data for a chloroprene cable jacketing material in single and combined radiation and temperature environments are analyzed and it is shown that these data offer evidence for the validity of the method

  3. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas

  4. Conditions for low stress-risk jobs: Europe's case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Wiezer, N.

    2006-01-01

    The European situation of new forms of work organisation and stress risks in jobs are described against the ‘decentralisationhuman factor orientation model’, which discerns types of work organisation. ‘Flexible firms’ based on lean production have the highest probability of high strain jobs,

  5. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert

    2017-07-27

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under environmental stress conditions.

  6. Hypertonic saline solution and high-dose furosemide infusion in cardiorenal syndrome: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS. Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%, urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10% did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.

  7. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  8. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) were studied in both drought and normal conditions. In each condition, the genotypes were evaluated using a split plot based randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI), mean ...

  9. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  10. Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-03-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for

  11. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  12. Fault condition stress analysis of NET 16 TF coil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the design process of the NET/ITER toroidal field coils (TFCs), the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in some detail. Under fault conditions, either electrical or mechanical, the magnetic loading of the coils becomes extreme and further mechanical failure of parts of the overall structure might occur (e.g. failure of the coil, gravitational support, intercoil structure). The mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has been analysed with a finite element model of the complete TFC system. The analysed fault conditions consist of: a thermal fault, electrical faults and mechanical faults. The mechanical faults have been applied simultaneously with an electrical fault. This report described the work carried out to create the finite element model of 16 TFCs and contains an extensive presentation of the results, obtained with this model, of a normal operating condition analysis and 9 fault condition analyses. Chapter 2-5 contains a detailed description of the finite element model, boundary conditions and loading conditions of the analyses made. Chapters 2-4 can be skipped if the reader is only interested in results. To understand the results presented chapter 6 is recommended, which contains a detailed description of all analysed fault conditions. The dimensions and geometry of the model correspond to the status of the NET/ITER TFC design of May 1990. Compared with previous models of the complete magnetic system, the finite element model of 16 TFCs is 'detailed', and can be used for linear elastic analysis with faulted loads. (author). 8 refs.; 204 figs.; 134 tabs

  13. TPX vacuum vessel transient thermal and stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldshteyn, Y.; Dinkevich, S.; Feng, T.; Majumder, D.

    1995-01-01

    The TPX vacuum vessel provides the vacuum boundary for the plasma and the mechanical support for the internal components. Another function of the vacuum vessel is to contain neutron shielding water in the double wall space during normal operation. This double wall space serves as a heat reservoir for the entire vacuum vessel during bakeout. The vacuum vessel and the internal components are subjected to thermal stresses induced by a nonuniform temperature distribution within the structure during bakeout. A successful Conceptual Design Review in March 1993 has established superheated steam as the heating source of the vacuum vessel. A transient bakeout mode of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components has been analyzed to evaluate transient period duration, proper temperature level, actual thermal stresses and performance of the steam equipment. Thermally, the vacuum vessel structure may be considered as an adiabatic system because it is perfectly insulated by the strong surrounding vacuum and multiple layers of superinsulation. Important aspects of the analysis are described herein

  14. Combining ability studies on yield related traits in wheat under normal and water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A.S.; Khaliq, I.

    2010-01-01

    Six diverse wheat cultivars/lines viz; Baviacore, Nesser, 9247, 9252, 9258 and 9267 were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to develop 30 F1 crosses, which were tested along with their parents under normal and water stress conditions. Numerical analysis was made for spike density, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Significant differences among genotypic mean were observed in all of the traits under both conditions. GCA and SCA differences were significant for all the traits under study except spike density and 100-grain weight in both conditions. Wheat variety Nesser showed maximum general combining ability value for spike density under water stress conditions and maximum GCA value for biological yield and grain yield under irrigated condition. The variety Baviacore proved best general combiner for number of grains per spike and harvest index under both conditions while biological yield and grain yield under water stress condition. Variety 9252 found best general combiner for 100-grain weight under both condition. The cross 9252 x Nesser showed maximum specific combining ability value for spike density and biological yield under irrigated while for 100-grain weight under water stress condition. 9258 x 9252 exhibited maximum SCA for number of grains per spike under irrigated while 9258 x Nesser under water stress condition. 9267 x Nesser showed maximum SCA for 100-grain weight under irrigated condition while spike density under water stress condition. 9258 x 9247 was proved best combiner for grain yield and harvest index irrigated while 9267 x 9258 for biological yield, grain yield and harvest index under water stress condition. (author)

  15. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  16. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickinger, M.; Doll, K.; Roloff, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    .5±2.1 vs. 10.3±3.3cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60min, the base excess decreased from 5.5±6.9 to 4.7±6.2mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6±5.7 to 6.8±5.4mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic...... had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9±4.8 to 2.1±4.4L/100kg vs. 7.0±4.5 to 4.9±3.8L/100kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first...... 10 min of therapy from 7.3±3.5 to 10.8±3.4cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time.Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9...

  17. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  19. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  20. Cytokinins induce transcriptional reprograming and improve Arabidopsis plant performance under drought and salt stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Shirron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nature, annual plants respond to abiotic stresses by activating a specific genetic program leading to early flowering and accelerated senescence. Although, in nature, this phenomenon supports survival under unfavorable environmental conditions, it may have negative agro-economic impacts on crop productivity. Overcoming this genetic programing by cytokinins (CK has recently been shown in transgenic plants that overproduce CK. These transgenic plants displayed a significant increase in plant productivity under drought stress conditions. We investigated the role of CK in reverting the transcriptional program that is activated under abiotic stress conditions and allowing sustainable plant growth. We employed 2 complementary approaches: Ectopic overexpression of CK, and applying exogenous CK to detached Arabidopsis leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with the isopentyltransferase (IPT gene under the regulation of the senescence associated receptor kinase (SARK promoter displayed a significant drought resistance. A transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing was performed to explore the response mechanisms under elevated CK levels during salinity stress. This analysis showed that under such stress, CK triggered transcriptional reprograming that resulted in attenuated stress-dependent inhibition of vegetative growth and delayed premature plant senescence. Our data suggest that elevated CK levels led to stress tolerance by retaining the expression of genes associated with plant growth and metabolism whose expression typically decreases under stress conditions. In conclusion, we hypothesize that CK allows sustainable plant growth under unfavorable environmental conditions by activating gene expression related to growth processes and by preventing the expression of genes related to the activation of premature senescence.

  1. Global Transcriptional Responses to Osmotic, Oxidative, and Imipenem Stress Conditions in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojanovic, Klara; D'Arrigo, Isotta; Long, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    functional roles in the cellular response to stress conditions. The data show a larger fraction of differentially expressed sRNAs than of mRNAs with >5-fold expression changes. The work provides detailed insights into the mechanisms through which P. putida responds to different stress conditions...... intergenic and antisense transcripts, were detected, increasing the number of identified sRNA transcripts in the strain by a factor of 10. Unique responses to each type of stress are documented, including both the extent and dynamics of the gene expression changes. The work adds rich detail to previous......Bacteria cope with and adapt to stress by modulating gene expression in response to specific environmental cues. In this study, the transcriptional response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at two time points was investigated via identification...

  2. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  4. Advances toward the elucidation of hypertonic saline effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Michon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. METHODS: NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. RESULTS: The growth of all isolates (n = 85 from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. CONCLUSIONS: NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations.

  5. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  6. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  7. Effect of experimental stress in 2 different pain conditions affecting the facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; L'heveder, Gildas; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Bodéré, Céline

    2013-05-01

    Chronic facial muscle pain is a common feature in both fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial (MF) pain conditions. In this controlled study, a possible difference in the mode of deregulation of the physiological response to a stressing stimulus was explored by applying an acute mental stress to FM and MF patients and to controls. The effects of the stress test were observed on pain, sympathetic variables, and both tonic and reflex electromyographic activities of masseteric and temporal muscles. The statistical analyses were performed through a generalized linear model including mixed effects. Painful reaction to the stressor was stronger (P < .001) and longer (P = .011) in FM than in MF independently of a higher pain level at baseline. The stress-induced autonomic changes only seen in FM patients did not reach significance. The electromyographic responses to the stress test were strongest for controls and weakest for FM. The stress test had no effect on reflex activity (area under the curve [AUC]) or latency, although AUC was high in FM and latencies were low in both pain groups. It is suggested that FM is characterized by a lower ability to adapt to acute stress than MF. This study showed that an acute psychosocial stress triggered several changes in 2 pain conditions including an increase in pain of larger amplitude in FM than in MF pain. Similar stress-induced changes should be explored as possible mechanisms for differentiation between dysfunctional pain conditions. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV statistical analysis of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Vries, de W.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimates for various environmental stress factors were related with measured crown condition data at a systematic 16 x: 16 km(2) grid over Europe, according to previously stated hypotheses, using a multiple regression approach, including interactions, and lagged effects of stress

  9. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-15

    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pstate condition. The distributions of PSD of tremor were symmetrical, regardless of conditions. Tremor is more evident and typical tremor characteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert; De Zelicourt, Axel; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grö tzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall

  12. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace M. Raio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation, and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology.

  13. Stress analyses of ITER toroidal field coils under fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1990-02-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is intended as an experimental thermonuclear tokamak reactor for testing the basic physics, performance and technologies essential to future fusion reactors. The ITER design will be based on extensive new design work, supported by new physical and technological results, and on the great body of experience built up over several years from previous national and international reactor studies. Conversely, the ITER design process should provide the fusion community with valuable insights into what key areas need further development or clarification as we move forward towards practical fusion power. As part of the design process of the ITER toroidal field coils the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in more detail. This paper describes the work carried out to create a detailed finite element model of two toroidal field coils as well as some results of linear elastic analyses with fault conditions. The analyses have been performed with the finite element code ANSYS. (author). 5 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Evaluation of some advanced wheat lines (F7 in normal and drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikseresht

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For assessment of drought stress effects on agro characteristics of 30 lines and 6 wheat cultivars and for introducing of drought tolerant and susceptible ones one trial were established using split plot base of randomized complete block design with two replications, main plots were stress and non-stress condition and sub plots contain 30 lines and six wheat cultivars in the check trial, irrigation the farm was done with the normal regime, but in stress trial for germination of seeds and one irrigation in Isfand to the end of rooting the farm was irrigated. Within and end of growth season we measured some agronomic and morphological characters such as yield and its component, height, peduncle length, and etc. Responses of cultivars under stress and non-stress conditions were' different, for example drought stress reduced yield. In spite of this general yield reducing, we found some line, such as 2, 29, 23 had relatively high yield (in tree levels. In order to final evaluate using Factor Analysis, Principal Component, Cluster Analysis .Factor Analysis indicated that four important factors accounted for about 80.245 and 79.624 percent of the total variation among traits in normal and drought stress conditions. With cluster analysis of 36 lines and cultivar using Ward procedure based on Euclidean distance were grouped in 4 distance cluster.

  15. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, T.Z.

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK 6 9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs

  16. Hippocampal structural plasticity accompanies the resulting contextual fear memory following stress and fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D; Molina, Victor A

    2013-10-15

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to stress prevented both the enhancement of fear retention and an increase in the density of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. These findings emphasize the role of the stress-induced attenuation of GABAergic neurotransmission in BLA in the promoting influence of stress on fear memory and on synaptic remodeling in DH. In conclusion, the structural remodeling in DH accompanied the facilitated fear memory following a combination of fear conditioning and stressful stimulation.

  17. A study on residual stress mitigation of the HDPE pipe for various annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeong Ho [Korea Laboratory Engineering System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO E and C, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents effects of the annealing condition variables such as temperature and time on the residual stress mitigation. The effects were investigated by using the various measurement methods such as hole-drilling method and slitting method. As a result of the investigation, the residual stress mitigation magnitude increases with increasing the annealing time and temperature. Based on the investigation results, the quantitative correlations between the annealing variables and the residual stress mitigation were derived. Finally, the effect of long-term operation under the normal operating temperature conditions on the residual stress mitigation was investigated by referring to the derived equations and performing some additional tests, and it is identified that the residual stresses are not significantly relaxed over the design lifetime of the safety class III buried HDPE pipes.

  18. A Non-parametric Method for Calculating Conditional Stressed Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Marumo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Value at Risk (VaR of a portfolio under stressed conditions. In practice, the stressed VaR (sVaR is commonly calculated using the data set that includes the stressed period. It tells us how much the risk amount increases if we use the stressed data set. In this paper, we consider the VaR under stress scenarios. Technically, this can be done by deriving the distribution of profit or loss conditioned on the value of risk factors. We use two methods; the one that uses the linear model and the one that uses the Hermite expansion discussed by Marumo and Wolff (2013, 2016. Numerical examples shows that the method using the Hermite expansion is capable of capturing the non-linear effects such as correlation collapse and volatility clustering, which are often observed in the markets.

  19. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  20. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  1. Translocation of 14C-photosynthates under normal and moisture stress conditions in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) gaertin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udayakumar, M.; Rama Rao, S.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Translocation of photosynthates into different sinks was studied following feeding a single leaf with 14 CO 2 in 40 day old stressed and non-stressed plants of Eleusine coracana. The rate of efflux of 14 C-photosynthates was twice as much in non-stressed plants compared to stressed plants. Young developing leaves, stem apex and stem which are the potential sinks under non-stressed conditions received very little activity under stress conditions. Percent activity in the roots was enhanced under stress suggesting the pattern of translocation was altered under stress conditions. In the plants subjected to moisture stress, after feeding with 14 CO 2 the rate of efflux of 14 C-photosynthates from the fed leaf decreased and the pattern of translocation was altered. Though the effect of stress seems to be directly on the translocation system, the photosynthetic rate appears to be more sensitive to stress than translocation. (author)

  2. Occupational stress, working condition and nutritional status of military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Angela Maria C; Gomes, Josiane Keila V; De Marchi, Dione; Girondoli, Yassana M; Rosado, Lina E F P de Lima; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; de Andrade, Isabel Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress, working conditions and the nutritional status of 53 military police officers in a Southeast city of Brazil. In order to evaluate the symptomatology and the stress phase, the Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp for Adults - ISSL was utilized. The assessment of the working conditions was performed by means of socio-demographic questionnaire, direct observation and interviews. The nutritional and health conditions were assessed through anthropometric measures, biochemical tests, blood pressure measurements and cardiovascular disease risk calculator. The sample is of the male gender (92.5%) and aging below 40 years old (73.6%). From these, 35.8% showed stress and 68.4% were in the resistance phase, with 31.6% almost burned out. Through the calculation of Chi-square we could find positive association between the BMI and tiredness (P = 0.0188), between the BMI and irritation (P = 0.0005) and the BMI and the appearance of nervous system problems or emotional problems (P = 0.0304), indicating that these statuses or problems could be related to work. We can conclude then, the stress is present among military police officers. No case of critical stress was found, and the stress phases identified are still susceptible to intervention.

  3. Effects of strain rate, stress condition and environment on iodine embrittlement of Ziracloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy became higher with decreasing strain rate. Critical strain rate, below which high SCC severity was observed, substantially depended on Zircaloy stress condition. This strain rate (7 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under plane strain condition was about 3.5 times as fast as that (2 x 10 -3 min -1 ) under uniaxial condition. The maximum iodine embrittlement in Zircaloy was found in stress ratio α (axial/tangential stress) range of 0.5 to 0.7. No embrittlement occurred at α = infinity because of its texture effect. The SCC fracture stresses were about 39 kg/mm 2 for unirradiated and stress-relieved material, and about 34 kg/mm 2 for recrystallized material, whose ratios to yield strength of each material were 0.8 and 1.2. Impurity gases of oxygen and moisture in the iodine had the effects of reducing Zircaloy SCC susceptibility. Stress-relieved material was more sensitive to environmental impurities than recrystallized material

  4. Acute immobilization stress following contextual fear conditioning reduces fear memory: timing is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaya, Akemi; Lee, Hyunjin; Park, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hosung; Muto, Junko; Nakajima, Sanae; Ohta, Shigeo; Mikami, Toshio

    2016-02-24

    Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo. Mice were subjected to acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 or 90 min after contextual fear conditioning training, and acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) and level of corticosterone were measured using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. A freezing behavior test was performed 24 h after training, and mRNA expression of BDNF was measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Different groups of mice were used for each test. Freezing behavior significantly decreased with the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression caused by acute immobilization stress at 60 min after fear conditioning training owing to the reduction of H3K14 acetylation. However, BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation were not reduced in animals subjected to immobilization stress at 90 min after the training. Further, the corticosterone level was significantly high in mice subjected to immobilization stress at 60 min after the training. Acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 min after fear conditioning training impaired memory formation and reduced BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus of mice owing to the high level of corticosterone.

  5. Effects of Stress and Sex on Acquisition and Consolidation of Human Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Cynthia M.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Zorawski, Michael; Blanding, Nineequa Q.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relationship between stress hormone (cortisol) release and acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear learning in healthy adults. Participants underwent acquisition of differential fear conditioning, and consolidation was assessed in a 24-h delayed extinction test. The acquisition phase was immediately followed by an 11-min…

  6. Global Transcriptional Responses to Osmotic, Oxidative, and Imipenem Stress Conditions in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanovič, Klara; D'Arrigo, Isotta; Long, Katherine S

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria cope with and adapt to stress by modulating gene expression in response to specific environmental cues. In this study, the transcriptional response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at two time points was investigated via identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and small RNAs (sRNAs). A total of 440 sRNA transcripts were detected, of which 10% correspond to previously annotated sRNAs, 40% to novel intergenic transcripts, and 50% to novel transcripts antisense to annotated genes. Each stress elicits a unique response as far as the extent and dynamics of the transcriptional changes. Nearly 200 protein-encoding genes exhibited significant changes in all stress types, implicating their participation in a general stress response. Almost half of the sRNA transcripts were differentially expressed under at least one condition, suggesting possible functional roles in the cellular response to stress conditions. The data show a larger fraction of differentially expressed sRNAs than of mRNAs with >5-fold expression changes. The work provides detailed insights into the mechanisms through which P. putida responds to different stress conditions and increases understanding of bacterial adaptation in natural and industrial settings. IMPORTANCE This study maps the complete transcriptional response of P. putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at short and long exposure times. Over 400 sRNA transcripts, consisting of both intergenic and antisense transcripts, were detected, increasing the number of identified sRNA transcripts in the strain by a factor of 10. Unique responses to each type of stress are documented, including both the extent and dynamics of the gene expression changes. The work adds rich detail to previous knowledge of stress response mechanisms due to the depth of the RNA sequencing data. Almost half of the sRNAs exhibit significant expression changes under at least one

  7. Melatonin Modulates Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress under Insulin Resistance Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-06-10

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival against stress. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates the signaling of neuronal cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress under IR condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Apoptosis cell death signaling markers (cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP), p53, and Bax) and ER stress markers (phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α), ATF4, CHOP, p-IRE1 , and spliced XBP1 (sXBP1)) were measured using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and western blottings. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed for p-ASK1 and p-IRE1 . The mRNA or protein expressions of cell death signaling markers and ER stress markers were increased under IR condition, but significantly attenuated by melatonin treatment. Insulin-induced activation of ASK1 ( p-ASK1 ) was also dose dependently attenuated by melatonin treatment. The regulatory effect of melatonin on neuronal cells under IR condition was associated with ASK1 signaling. In conclusion, the result suggested that melatonin may alleviate ER stress under IR condition, thereby regulating neuronal cell death signaling.

  8. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  9. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Weon

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses

  10. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  11. Evaluation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To study drought stress effect on grain quality properties of wheat, an experiment was conductedusing 169 recombinant inbreed lines (RILS under water stress and non-stress condition and with two separated lattice designs. Grain yield, protein yield, protein content, volume of Zeleny sediment, grain hardness, water absorption, grain moisture content and grain dry matter were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for all traits. Moreover, comparison between two lines in two environmental conditions showed, the quality in bread wheat under drought stress conditions due to increment of protein yield is improved. Protein yield in both irrigation regimes has a significant and negative correlation with grain moisture and in the other hand, significant and positive correlation with the grain hardiness dry matter, Zeleny sedimentation and water intake in both conditions. The results showed that the identification of favorable quality characteristics in optimum and stressed conditions were possible and the lines with high grain quality can be used in breeding programs for improving of baking quality. Although some drought sensitive genotypes possessed a favorable baking quality but their grain yield was low.

  12. A Transdiagnostic Minority Stress Treatment Approach for Gay and Bisexual Men’s Syndemic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Developing and deploying separate treatments for separate conditions seems ill-suited to intervening upon the co-occurring, and possibly functionally similar, psychosocial conditions facing gay and bisexual men. This article argues for the need to create transdiagnostic interventions that reduce multiple syndemic conditions facing gay and bisexual men at the level of their shared source in minority stress pathways. This article first reviews psychosocial syndemic conditions affecting gay and bisexual men, then suggests pathways that might link minority stress to psychosocial syndemics based on recent advancements in emotion science, psychiatric nosology, and cognitive-affective neuroscience, and finally suggests cross-cutting psychosocial treatment principles to reduce minority stress–syndemic pathways among gay and bisexual men. Because minority stress serves as a common basis of all psychosocial syndemic conditions reviewed here, locating the pathways through which minority stress generates psychosocial syndemics and employing overarching treatment principles capable of simultaneously alleviating these pathways will ultimately create a transdiagnostic approach to improving gay and bisexual men’s health. Clinical research and training approaches are suggested to further validate the pathways suggested here, establish the efficacy of treatment approaches tied to those pathways, and generate effective methods for disseminating a transdiagnostic minority stress treatment approach for gay and bisexual men’s psychosocial syndemic health. PMID:26123065

  13. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  14. Effect of the combined stress on the life of components under thermal cycling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L.

    1987-01-01

    The life of structural components subjected to temperature changes is affected, among other factors, by the nature of the stress field. If life prediction for axially stressed components can be accomplished with a number of well established techniques, the behaviour under a complex state of stress and varying temperature conditions still is the object of intensive research. The present study was aimed at assessing the influence of the stress field upon the life of specimens made of chromium-nickel H23N18 steel under thermal cycling conditions. The designation of steel is in accordance with Polish Standards. The experiments were made on thin-walled tubular specimens loaded with various combinations of a static axial force and a static torque. (orig./GL)

  15. Life Balance and Stress in Adults With Medical Conditions or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuska, Kathleen; Bass, Julie

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional research examined differences in life balance and perceived stress by body mass index (BMI) levels and self-reported medical conditions that limited physical activity. The sample consisted of 2,338 participants between the ages of 18 and 49 years who took the Life Balance Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and provided demographic information including height and weight. Findings showed that individuals who were obese (BMI > 30.0) reported significantly lower life balance scores and higher stress scores than participants without obesity (p life balance and more stress than individuals without medical conditions (p < .001). These findings highlight the importance of addressing activity participation as a means to promote health and wellness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  17. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-01-01

    Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentratio...

  18. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  19. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Swapna; Korukkanvilakath Samban Shylaraj

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000), and followed by the pot...

  20. [The role of arteriovenous interrelations in the formation of clinical-pathogenetic variants of hypertonic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, L A

    2012-01-01

    We studied 209 patients with chronic brain ischemia due to arterial hypertension (hypertonic encephalopathy). 93 patients (44.5%) had clinical-anamnestic features of constitutional phlebopathy and 116 (55.5%) had not. Based on the conception of 5 functional-morphological levels of the vascular brain system, a complex ultrasound study was conducted. The control group included 30 people without cerebrovascular pathology. In hypertonic encephalopathy, pathological processes developing in the 1st and 2nd structural-functional levels (extra- and intracerebral arteries) correspond to remodeling, that is characteristic of arterial hypertension, and do not depend on the presence of the constitutional venous insufficiency. Changes in parameters of the blood flow in the 3rd, 4th and 5th structural-functional levels of the brain's blood supply (microcirculatory bed, head venous system, jugular and spine veins) form a dopplerographic pattern of the cerebral venous dyscirculation which is mostly pronounced in constitutional phlebopathy in patients with hypertonic encephalopathy. This pattern includes the reduction of linear blood flow velocity in nitroglycerine test, lower values of the resistance index and the increase in the linear blood flow velocity in the sinus transversus and Rosenthal vein, lack of ostial valves of the inner jugular veinas well as the decrease of linear and increase in the volume blood flow velocity along it. The methodology of the system approach based on using clinical and instrumental method in the study of cerebral hemodynamics is important for treatment optimization in patients with chronic brain ischemia.

  1. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  2. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  4. Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking under multiaxial deformation conditions: technique and application to admiralty brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.K.; Heldt, L.A.; Koss, D.

    1984-01-01

    A set of straightforward experimental techniques are described for the examination of slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sheet deforming under nearly all multiaxial deformation conditions which result in sheet thinning. Based on local fracture strain as a failure criterion, the results contrast stress corrosion susceptibility in uniaxial tension with those in both plane strain and balanced biaxial tension. These results indicate that the loss of ductility of the brass increases as the stress state changes from uniaxial toward balanced biaxial tension

  5. Analytical solutions of couple stress fluid flows with slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devakar M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the exact solutions for fundamental flows namely Couette, Poiseuille and generalized Couette flows of an incompressible couple stress fluid between parallel plates are obtained using slip boundary conditions. The effect of various parameters on velocity for each problem is discussed. It is found that, for each of the problems, the solution in the limiting case as couple stresses approaches to zero is similar to that of classical viscous Newtonian fluid. The results indicate that, the presence of couple stresses decreases the velocity of the fluid.

  6. Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontigo, Sofía; Ribera, Alejandra; Gianfreda, Liliana; de la Luz Mora, María; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cartes, Paula

    2015-07-01

    So far, considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of Si uptake and transport in vascular plants. This review presents a comprehensive update about this issue, but also provides the new insights into the role of Si against mineral stresses that occur in acid soils. Such information could be helpful to understand both the differential Si uptake ability as well as the benefits of this mineral element on plants grown under acidic conditions. Silicon (Si) has been widely recognized as a beneficial element for many plant species, especially under stress conditions. In the last few years, great efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanisms involved in uptake and transport of Si by vascular plants and recently, different Si transporters have been identified. Several researches indicate that Si can alleviate various mineral stresses in plants growing under acidic conditions, including aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency all of which are highly detrimental to crop production. This review presents recent findings concerning the influence of uptake and transport of Si on mineral stress under acidic conditions because a knowledge of this interaction provides the basis for understanding the role of Si in mitigating mineral stress in acid soils. Currently, only four Si transporters have been identified and there is little information concerning the response of Si transporters under stress conditions. More investigations are therefore needed to establish whether there is a relationship between Si transporters and the benefits of Si to plants subjected to mineral stress. Evidence presented suggests that Si supply and its subsequent accumulation in plant tissues could be exploited as a strategy to improve crop productivity on acid soils.

  7. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  8. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  9. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  10. Tolerance to winemaking stress conditions of Patagonian strains of Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origone, A C; Del Mónaco, S M; Ávila, J R; González Flores, M; Rodríguez, M E; Lopes, C A

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the winemaking stress tolerance of a set of both Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum strains from diverse Patagonian habitats. Yeast strains growth was analysed under increasing ethanol concentrations; all of them were able to grow until 8% v/v ethanol. The effect of different temperature and pH conditions as well as at SO 2 and hexose concentrations was evaluated by means of a central composite experimental design. Only two S. uvarum strains (NPCC 1289 and 1321) were able to grow in most stress conditions. Kinetic parameters analysed (μ max and λ) were statistically affected by temperature, pH and SO 2 , but not influenced by sugar concentration. The obtained growth model was used for predicting optimal growth conditions for both strains: 20°C, 0% w/v SO 2 and pH 4·5. Strains from human-associated environments (chichas) presented the highest diversity in the response to different stress factors. Two S. uvarum strains from chichas demonstrated to be the most tolerant to winemaking conditions. This work evidenced the potential use of two S. uvarum yeast strains as starter cultures in wines fermented at low temperatures. Saccharomyces eubayanus was significantly affected by winemaking stress conditions, limiting its use in this industry. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Distinct age and differentiation-state dependent metabolic profiles of oligodendrocytes under optimal and stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghava T S Rao

    Full Text Available Within the microenvironment of multiple sclerosis lesions, oligodendrocytes are subject to metabolic stress reflecting effects of focal ischemia and inflammation. Previous studies have shown that under optimal conditions in vitro, the respiratory activity of human adult brain-derived oligodendrocytes is lower and more predominantly glycolytic compared to oligodendrocytes differentiated in vitro from post natal rat brain oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In response to sub-lethal metabolic stress, adult human oligodendrocytes reduce overall energy production rate impacting the capacity to maintain myelination. Here, we directly compare the metabolic profiles of oligodendrocytes derived from adult rat brain with oligodendrocytes newly differentiated in vitro from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells obtained from the post natal rat brain, under both optimal culture and metabolic stress (low/no glucose conditions. Oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates were measured using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our findings indicate that under optimal conditions, adult rat oligodendrocytes preferentially use glycolysis whereas newly differentiated post natal rat oligodendrocytes, and the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from which they are derived, mainly utilize oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP. Metabolic stress increases the rate of ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation and significantly reduces glycolysis in adult oligodendrocytes. The rate of ATP production was relatively unchanged in newly differentiated post natal oligodendrocytes under these stress conditions, while it was significantly reduced in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our study indicates that both age and maturation influence the metabolic profile under optimal and stressed conditions, emphasizing the need to consider these variables for in vitro studies that aim to model adult human disease.

  12. Residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened half-space under creep conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Radchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed the method for solving the problem of residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened layer of half-space under creep conditions. At the first stage we made the reconstruction of stress-strain state in half-space after plastic surface hardening procedure based on partial information about distribution for one residual stress tensor component experimentally detected. At the second stage using a numerical method we solve the problem of relaxation of self-balanced residual stresses under creep conditions. To solve this problem we introduce the following Cartesian system: x0y plane is aligned with hardened surface of half-space and 0z axis is directed to the depth of hardened layer. We also introduce the hypotheses of plane sections parallel to x0z and y0z planes. Detailed analysis of the problem has been done. Comparison of the calculated data with the corresponding test data was made for plane specimens (rectangular parallelepipeds made of EP742 alloy during T=650°C after the ultrasonic hardening with four hardening modes. We use half-space to model these specimens because penetration's depth of residual stresses is less than specimen general size in two digit exponent. There is enough correspondence of experimental and calculated data. It is shown that there is a decay (in modulus of pressing residual stresses under creep in 1.4–1.6 times.

  13. Effect of surface stress state on dissolution property of Alloy 690 in simulated primary water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Shim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Eun Hee; Seo, Myung Ji; Han, Jung Ho; Hur, Do Haeng

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution control of nickel is important to reduce the radioactive dose rate and deterioration of fuel performance in the operation of nuclear power plants (PWR). The corrosion properties are affected by the metal surface residual stress introduced in manufacture process such as work hardening. This work studied the effect of surface modification on the release rate of Alloy 690, nickel-base alloy for a steam generator tube, in the test condition of simulated primary water chemistry in PWRs. The surface stress modification was applied by the electro-polishing and shot peening method. Shot peening process was applied using ceramic beads with different intensities through the variation of air pressure. The corrosion release tests performed at 330degC with LiOH 2 ppm and H 3 BO 4 1200 ppm, DH(dissolved hydrogen) 35 cc/kg (STP) and about 20 ppb of DO(dissolved oxygen) condition. The corrosion release rate was evaluated by a gravimetric analysis method and the surface analysed by SEM and optical microscope. The surface residual stress was measured by an X-ray diffractometer, and the distribution of stress state was evaluated by a micro-hardness tester. The metal ion release rate of alloy 690 was evaluated from the influence of the stress state on the metal surface. The oxide property and structure was affected by the residual stress in the oxide layer. (author)

  14. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swapna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, and followed by the pot planted experiments in the rain-out-zone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, relative water content, cell membrane stability, photosynthetic pigments, proline content, along with plant growth parameters of the varieties under drought condition were evaluated. Moreover, the standard scores of these rice varieties were assessed under stress and recovery conditions based on the scoring scale of the Standard Evaluation System for rice. Among the 42 rice varieties, we identified 2 rice varieties, Swarnaprabha and Kattamodan, with less leaf rolling, better drought recovery ability as well as relative water content, increased membrane stability index, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities pointed towards their degree of tolerance to drought stress. The positive adaptive responses of these rice varieties towards drought stress can be used in the genetic improvement of rice drought resistance breeding program.

  15. Influence of rearing conditions on voluntary ethanol intake and response to stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, G E; Hall, A M; Markert, L E; Glavin, G B

    1988-03-01

    The effects of exposure to four environmental rearing conditions on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake and response to immobilization stress were examined. Male weanling rats were reared in an enriched environment, with a female partner, with a male partner, or individually, for 90 days. At 111 days of age, voluntary consumption of ethanol in increasing concentrations (3 to 9%, v/v) was assessed. Following the ethanol-exposure period, rats were randomly divided into stressed and nonstressed groups and exposed to 3 h of immobilization. Results indicated that the enriched animals consumed greater amounts of ethanol as compared to all other groups, suggesting that the enriched environment and not handling, housing conditions, or the presence of another male or female is responsible for the observed increase in ethanol drinking behavior. Ulcer data indicated that among environmentally enriched rats, ethanol attenuated stress ulcer development relative to their non-ethanol-exposed but stressed controls. In nonstressed enriched rats, ethanol alone exacerbated stomach damage. We suggest that environmental rearing conditions markedly influence the complex interaction between ethanol intake and the response to stress.

  16. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  17. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  18. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Oenococcus oeni adaptation to wine stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Margalef-Català

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oenococcus oeni, the main lactic acid bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine, has to adapt to stressful conditions, such as low pH and high ethanol content. In this study, the changes in the transcriptome and the proteome of O. oeni PSU-1 during the adaptation period before MLF start have been studied. DNA microarrays were used for the transcriptomic analysis and two complementary proteomic techniques, 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ labeling were used to analyze the proteomic response. One of the most influenced functions in PSU-1 due to inoculation into wine-like medium (WLM was translation, showing the over-expression of certain ribosomal genes and the corresponding proteins. Amino acid metabolism and transport was also altered and several peptidases were up regulated both at gene and protein level. Certain proteins involved in glutamine and glutamate metabolism showed an increased abundance revealing the key role of nitrogen uptake under stressful conditions. A strong transcriptional inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism related genes was observed. On the other hand, the transcriptional up-regulation of malate transport and citrate consumption was indicative of the use of L-malate and citrate associated to stress response and as an alternative energy source to sugar metabolism. Regarding the stress mechanisms, our results support the relevance of the thioredoxin and glutathione systems in the adaptation of O. oeni to wine related stress. Genes and proteins related to cell wall showed also significant changes indicating the relevance of the cell envelop as protective barrier to environmental stress. The differences found between transcriptomic and proteomic data suggested the relevance of post-transcriptional mechanisms and the complexity of the stress response in O. oeni adaptation. Further research should deepen into the metabolisms mostly altered due to wine conditions to elucidate the role of each mechanism in the O. oeni ability to

  19. Exploring valid internal-control genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiaceae) during stress response conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; He, Linwen; Wei, Yifan; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-07-01

    To screen the stable expression genes related to the stress (strong light, dehydration and temperature shock) we applied Absolute real-time PCR technology to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species responding the stress conditions in the intertidal. Absolute real-time PCR technology was applied to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species in stress responding. According to the results of photosynthesis parameters, we observed that Y(II) and F v/ F m were significantly affected when stress was imposed on the thalli of P orphyra yezoensis, but underwent almost completely recovered under normal conditions, which were collected for the following experiments. Then three samples, which were treated with different grade stresses combined with salinity, irradiation and temperature, were collected. The transcription numbers of seven constitutive expression genes in above samples were determined after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Finally, a general insight into the selection of internal control genes during stress response was obtained. We found that there were no obvious effects in terms of salinity stress (at salinity 90) on transcription of most genes used in the study. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene had the highest expression level, varying remarkably among different tested groups. RPS8 expression showed a high irregular variance between samples. GAPDH presented comparatively stable expression and could thus be selected as the internal control. EF-1α showed stable expression during the series of multiple-stress tests. Our research provided available references for the selection of internal control genes for transcripts determination of P. yezoensis.

  20. [Emigration in hard conditions: the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress (Ulysses' Syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui, Joseba

    2005-01-01

    During the latest years, immigrant populations have been living in very hard conditions. To million people, migration is becoming a process with a high level of stress surpassing the human being capacity of adaptation. This people are prone to suffer the Immigrant Syndrome with chronic and multiple stress and the so called Ulysses Syndrome, what is becoming a serious health problem in the countries that receive the immigrants. This situation is the by-product of the unjust globalization and of the worsening of the living and health conditions of those undergoing such a displacement. In this article, the author postulates a relationship between the high level of stress suffered by the immigrants and their presentation of psychopathological symptoms.

  1. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, T Z [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK{sub 6}9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of stress conditions on the generation of negative bias temperature instability-associated interface traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Pu Shi; Lei Xiao-Yi; Chen Qing; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    The exponent n of the generation of an interface trap (N it ), which contributes to the power-law negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation, and the exponent's time evolution are investigated by simulations with varying the stress voltage V g and temperature T. It is found that the exponent n in the diffusion-limited phase of the degradation process is irrelevant to both V g and T. The time evolution of the exponent n is affected by the stress conditions, which is reflected in the shift of the onset of the diffusion-limited phase. According to the diffusion profiles, the generation of the atomic hydrogen species, which is equal to the buildup of N it , is strongly correlated with the stress conditions, whereas the diffusion of the hydrogen species shows V g -unaffected but T-affected relations through the normalized results

  4. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  5. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h{sup −1} and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y{sub X/S} of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m{sup 2}.

  6. Physical robustness of canopy temperature models for crop heat stress simulation across environments and production conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webber, Heidi; White, Jeffrey W; Kimball, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    to simulate Tc. Model performance in predicting Tc was evaluated for two experiments in continental North America with various water, nitrogen and CO2 treatments. An empirical model fit to one dataset had the best performance, followed by the EBSC models. Stability conditions explained much of the differences...... between modeling approaches. More accurate simulation of heat stress will likely require use of energy balance approaches that consider atmospheric stability conditions....

  7. Pseudomonas putida response in membrane bioreactors under salicylic acid-induced stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Sergio; Rosas, Irene; González, Elena; Gutierrez-Lavin, Antonio; Diaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MBR under feed-induced stress conditions: starvation and changing feeding conditions. • High capacity of MBR to withstand high variations in feed loads. • Slow biofilm formation under starvation conditions during the first days. • Observed growth of P. putida for substrate to microorganism ratio higher than 0.6 g/g. • Maximum specific growth rate and growth yield values of around 37.5 h −1 and 0.5 g/g. - Abstract: Starvation and changing feeding conditions are frequently characteristics of wastewater treatment plants. They are typical causes of unsteady-state operation of biological systems and provoke cellular stress. The response of a membrane bioreactor functioning under feed-induced stress conditions is studied here. In order to simplify and considerably amplify the response to stress and to obtain a reference model, a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was selected instead of an activated sludge and a sole substrate (salicylic acid) was employed. The system degraded salicylic acid at 100–1100 mg/L with a high level of efficiency, showed rapid acclimation without substrate or product inhibition phenomena and good stability in response to unsteady states caused by feed variations. Under starvation conditions, specific degradation rates of around 15 mg/g h were achieved during the adaptation of the biomass to the new conditions and no biofilm formation was observed during the first days of experimentation using an initial substrate to microorganisms ratio lower than 0.1. When substrate was added to the reactor as pulses resulting in rapidly changing concentrations, P. putida growth was observed only for substrate to microorganism ratios higher than 0.6, with a maximum Y X/S of 0.5 g/g. Biofilm development under changing feeding conditions was fast, biomass detachment only being significant for biomass concentrations on the membrane surface that were higher than 16 g/m 2

  8. Realizability conditions for the turbulent stress tensor in large-eddy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman, A.W.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The turbulent stress tensor in large-eddy simulation is examined from a theoretical point of view. Realizability conditions for the components of this tensor are derived, which hold if and only if the filter function is positive. The spectral cut-off, one of the filters frequently used in large-eddy

  9. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah

    2018-01-01

    that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt

  10. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  11. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  12. Condition of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems in guinea pigs’ lungs under the condition of immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Stepanovych Reheda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the results of alterations in indices of pro-oxidant (conjugated diene and malondialdehyde and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, catalase systems in guinea pigs’ lungs  under the conditions of immobilization stress. The experiment was conducted on 40 female guinea pigs weighing 0.18-0.20 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each contained 10 guinea pigs: I – intact guinea pigs ( control, II–guinea pigs with model of IS on1st day of experiment;Ш–animals on 2nd  day of experiment;IV- group of animals on 34th day of experimental model of IS. The results of our experimental work showed  a significant accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the lung`s tissure in different periods ( on 1st, 2nd and 34th days of immobilization stress. The state of antioxidant defence was characterized by moderate decrease of inzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ceruloplasmin. disorders of balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems couse oxidative stress development.

  13. A comparison of sputum induction methods: ultrasonic vs compressed-air nebulizer and hypertonic vs isotonic saline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L C; Eg, K P; Puspanathan, P; Tang, S P; Yip, K S; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Kumar, S

    2004-03-01

    Airway inflammation can be demonstrated by the modem method of sputum induction using ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline. We studied whether compressed-air nebulizer and isotonic saline which are commonly available and cost less, are as effective in inducing sputum in normal adult subjects as the above mentioned tools. Sixteen subjects underwent weekly sputum induction in the following manner: ultrasonic nebulizer (Medix Sonix 2000, Clement Clarke, UK) using hypertonic saline, ultrasonic nebulizer using isotonic saline, compressed-air nebulizer (BestNeb, Taiwan) using hypertonic saline, and compressed-air nebulizer using isotonic saline. Overall, the use of an ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline yielded significantly higher total sputum cell counts and a higher percentage of cell viability than compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. With the latter, there was a trend towards squamous cell contaminations. The proportion of various sputum cell types was not significantly different between the groups, and the reproducibility in sputum macrophages and neutrophils was high (Intraclass correlation coefficient, r [95%CI]: 0.65 [0.30-0.91] and 0.58 [0.22-0.89], p compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. We conclude that in normal subjects, although both nebulizers and saline types can induce sputum with reproducible cellular profile, ultrasonic nebulizers and hypertonic saline are more effective but less well tolerated.

  14. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (n=33 and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP (n=14 using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person. Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  15. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  16. Effects of city expansion on heat stress under climate change conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Argüeso

    Full Text Available We examine the joint contribution of urban expansion and climate change on heat stress over the Sydney region. A Regional Climate Model was used to downscale present (1990-2009 and future (2040-2059 simulations from a Global Climate Model. The effects of urban surfaces on local temperature and vapor pressure were included. The role of urban expansion in modulating the climate change signal at local scales was investigated using a human heat-stress index combining temperature and vapor pressure. Urban expansion and climate change leads to increased risk of heat-stress conditions in the Sydney region, with substantially more frequent adverse conditions in urban areas. Impacts are particularly obvious in extreme values; daytime heat-stress impacts are more noticeable in the higher percentiles than in the mean values and the impact at night is more obvious in the lower percentiles than in the mean. Urban expansion enhances heat-stress increases due to climate change at night, but partly compensates its effects during the day. These differences are due to a stronger contribution from vapor pressure deficit during the day and from temperature increases during the night induced by urban surfaces. Our results highlight the inappropriateness of assessing human comfort determined using temperature changes alone and point to the likelihood that impacts of climate change assessed using models that lack urban surfaces probably underestimate future changes in terms of human comfort.

  17. Mechanism of laser ablation for aqueous media irradiated under confined-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oraevsky, A.A.; Jacques, S.L.; Tittel, F.K.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of aqueous medium irradiated under conditions of temporal confinement of thermal stress is described. Time-resolved measurements of laser-induced transient stress waves with simultaneous imaging of ablation process by laser-flash photography were performed. Stress transients induced in aqueous solution of K 2 CrO 4 by ablative nanosecond laser pulses at 355 nm were studied by a broad-band lithium niobate acoustic transducer. Recoil momentum upon material ejection was measured from the temporal profiles of the acoustic transducer signal as a function of incident laser fluence. Cavitation bubbles produced in the irradiated volume during the tensile phase of thermoelastic stress were shown to drive material ejection at temperatures substantially below 100 degree C. Experimental data are evident that nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of aqueous media (when temporal stress-confinement conditions are satisfied) include the following two main stages of material ejection: (1) ejection of water microdroplets due to expansion and rupture of subsurface cavitation bubbles; (2) ejection of liquid streams with substantial volume upon collapse of initial crater and large cavitation bubbles in the depth of irradiated volume (after coalescence of smaller bubbles). copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Fluorescent differential display analysis of Lactobacillus sakei strains under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Sico, Maria Anna; Grieco, Simona; Salzano, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Lactobacillus (Lb.) sakei is widely used as starter in the production process of Italian fermented sausages and its growth and survival are affected by various factors such as temperature, pH and salt concentration. We studied the behaviour of Lb. sakei strains under various growth conditions relative to acid, osmotic and heat stress treatments by a novel fluorescent differential display (FDD) technique. This study obtained the development and the optimization of a technique that allows the identification of genome expression changes, associated with differential microbial behaviour under different stress conditions with a better stress response definition and a better discrimination of starter cultures. DNA sequence information from the FDD products provided an important tool to assess and observe the response to a variety of environmental stimuli and the adaptation to bacterial stress. Our work provided an innovative FDD method, with a high level of reproducibility and quality for studying and probing the knowledge of the relation between differential genome expression and different stresses tolerance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of extrinsic stress on somatic markers and behavior are dependent on animal housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzard, Damien; Mumby, Dave G; Sandi, Carmen; Poirier, Guillaume L; van der Kooij, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Properties of the environment play an important role in animal wellbeing and may modulate the effects of external threats. Whereas stressors can affect emotion and impair cognition, environmental enrichment may prevent the occurrence of such negative sequelae. Animals exposed to semi-natural group-housing experience a complex environment; whereas environmental enrichment might protect against stressors, a socially-enriched environment(SEE) could entail aggressive inter-male encounters with additive stress effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to external stressors, footshocks and forced swimming, on adrenal gland and body weights as well as on behavior in rats housed under SEE or standard, non-enriched environment (NEE), conditions. We found that SEEs reduced the anxiogenic effects of stress. Moreover, SEEs improved the performance in an operant task and prevented the increase in impulsive behavior produced by external stressors on NEE animals. Whereas these findings are indicative of stress-buffering effects of SEEs, adrenal gland weights were increased while total body weights were decreased in SEE rats, suggesting that SEEs may simultaneously exacerbate physiological measurements of stress. Finally, in the SEE, total aggressive behaviors and body wounds were paradoxically reduced in animals that received external stressors in comparison to non-stressed controls. The consequences of the external stressors applied here are not uniform, varying according to the housing condition and the outcome considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Academic Stress Influences Periodontal Health Condition and Interleukin-1 beta Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O. Kuswandani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a risk factor for periodontal disease, causing increase levels of interleukin-1 beta that involve in periodontal destruction. Objective: To analyze the relationship between academic stress in residency program students conditions and levels of interleukin-1 beta in gingival crevicular fluid. Methods: Thirty eight subjects filled the questionnaire of Graduate Dental Environtmental Stress (GDES, periodontal examination and samples of gingival crevicular fluid were tested for interleukin-1 beta with the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: There were significant differences between academic stress to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.038, bleeding on probing index (p=0.02, but no significant differences in pocket depth and loss of attachment (p=0.972. There were significant differences between academic stress to levels of interleukin-1 beta (p=0.03, but no significant differences between levels of interleukin-1 beta to periodontal tissue in oral hygiene (p=0.465, bleeding on probing index (p=0.826, pocket depth (p=0.968, and loss of attachment (p=0.968. Conclusion: Academic stress influences the periodontal risk factor and level of interleukin-1 beta.

  1. Early growth response of six wheat varieties under artificial osmotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakwani, A.A.; Dennett, M.D.; Munir, M

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions where seeds of six wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were raised in Petri dishes and were either treated with distilled water (control) or 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 solution. Seeds were treated with 15% PEG solution to establish an artificial osmotic stress condition (water stress) and observe its effect on germination percentage, coleoptile length, shoot and root length, fresh weight of shoot and root. A significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between varietal and treatment means regarding all traits. Variety Hashim-8 gave maximum germination percentage (93.33%) whereas maximum coleoptile (1.78 cm) and shoot length (5.77 cm) was observed in variety DN-73 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. Similarly, root length (3.63 g), fresh shoot (0.15 g) and root weight (0.12 g) was maximum in variety Dera-98 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. A second experiment was carried out under glass house environment where plants were treated with non-stress (100% field capacity) and water stress (35% field capacity) treatments. Although total grain yield was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all six wheat varieties when grown in water stress condition however Hashim-8 showed the lowest reduction (13%) while Zam-04 showed the highest (32%). The outcome of both experiments indicated that these varieties have great potential to incorporate with the existing commercial wheat varieties in order to obtain high yield in water stress regions. (author)

  2. Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Warinporn; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-07-25

    Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics-such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters-but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits ( p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions.

  3. Evaluation of some sorghum genotypes under normal and moisture-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Assar, A. H.; Salih, M.; Wagner, C.; Friedt, W.; Abdelmula, A. A.; Ordon, F.; Steffens, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the morphological and physiological attributes related to drought tolerance in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (L) Moench). Eight genotypes were tested in a pot experiment carried out at Giessen, Germany. Drought conditions were imposed by withholding watering of the plants when filed water-holding capacity was at 40% and 70%. The tested genotypes differed significantly in most of the measured traits. Grain yield under drought stress ranged from 28 to 61 g/ plant, and relative yield ranged 30% to 56% with an average of 47%. Based on yield/plant, the genotypes Wad Ahmed (61g). SAR 41 (55 g) and ICSR 91030 (54 g) were the best under drought stress conditions, and based on relative yield, the best genotypes were SAR 41 (56%), Wad Ahmed (55%), and Red Mugud (53%). The mean potassium content was 18 mg/g, with a range of 14 mg/g (Red Mugud) to 22 mg/g (Arfa Gadamak). Significant difference were obtained for protein percentage of the dry matter under conditions of drought stress. The values ranged form 14.1% (Red Mugud) to 16.7% (Tabat) with a mean of 15.3%. Grain yield under drought stress was positively correlated with relative yield (r= 0.89), total biomass (r= 0.56), number of seeds per panicle (r= 0.66) and harvest index (r= 0.81), but negatively correlated with 1000-grain (r= 0.37). (Author)

  4. Characterization of sensitization and stress corrosion cracking behavior of stabilized stainless steels under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, R.; Ilg, U.; Meier, V.; Teichmann, H.; Wachter, O.

    1995-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking occurs if the three parameters -- material condition, tensile stress and water chemistry -- are in a critical range. In this study the material conditions especially of Ti- and Nb-stabilized steels are considered. The purpose of this work is to show the influence of the degree of sensitization of Ti- and Nb-stabilized stainless steels on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in BWR water chemistry. This is an on-going research program. Preliminary results will be presented. Different types of stabilized, and for comparison unstabilized, stainless steels are examined in various heat treatment conditions with regard to their sensitization behavior by EPR tests (double loop) and TEM. The results are plotted in sensitization diagrams. The sensitization behavior depends on many parameters such as carbon content, stabilization element, stabilization ratio and materials history, e.g. solution heat treatment or cold working. The obtained EPR sensitization diagrams are compared with the well known sensitization diagrams from the literature, which were determined by standard IC test according to e.g. German standard DIN 50914 (equivalent to ASTM A 262, Pract. E). Based on the obtained EPR sensitization diagrams material conditions for SSRT tests were selected. The EPR values (Ir/Ia x 100%) of the tested Ti-stabilized stainless steel are in the range of ∼ 0.1--20%. The SSRT tests are carried out in high-temperature water with 0.4 ppm O 2 , a conductivity of 0.5 microS/cm and a strain rate of 1x10 -6-1 . The test temperature is 280 C. Ti-stabilized stainless steel with Ir/Ia x 100% > 1% suffered intergranular stress corrosion cracking under these conditions. The SCC tests for Nb-stabilized stainless steel are still in progress. The correlation between EPR value, chromium depletion and SSRT result will be shown for a selected material condition of sensitized Ti-stabilized stainless steel

  5. Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: From physiological to pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances.

  6. Effect of Contact Conditions on Void Coalescence at Low Stress Triaxiality Shearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    , the deformed voids develop into shapes that closely resemble micro-cracks. It is found that the predictions using the frictionless pseudo-contact approach are in rather good agreement with corresponding simulations that fully account for frictionless contact. In particular, good agreement is found at close...... to zero stress triaxiality. Furthermore, it is shown that accounting for friction at the void surface strongly postpones the onset of coalescence, hence, increasing the overall material ductility. The changes in overall material behavior are here presented for a wide range of initial material and loading...... conditions, such as various stress triaxialities, void sizes, and friction coefficients....

  7. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  8. [Changes induced by hypertonic solutions in the transportation of calcium by the cardiac reticular sarcoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M; Holguín, J A

    1979-01-01

    In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.

  9. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  10. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  11. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  12. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...... of the primary estimate was assessed by TSA. RESULTS: Two trials (n = 63) were included; both were judged to have high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (random effects model RR (95 % CI) 0.73 (0.09-5.77); P = 0.24; I (2) = 30 %). TSA could not be conducted because less...

  13. Clinical application of multislice CT enterography with hypertonic mannitol saline as oral contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guixin; Wang Haitao; Chen Wenjing; Liu Wenya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and value of multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with large dose economy and convenience orally administered hypertonic mannitol salt water (2.5% mannitol and 1.5% NaCl salt water) as negative contrast in demonstrating normal and abnormal small bowel. Methods: 81 patients suffered from digestive disease and suspected of various kinds of small intestinal diseases were examined (male/female=47/34, 26-81 years old, average 57.8 years). About 1500 ml∼3000 ml hypertonic mannitol saline was oral administered within 90 minutes and 20 mg of raceanisodamine hydrochloride injection was injected intramuscularly. CT scanning was performed 20 minutes later. Imaging data were post processed with coronal, sagittal and oblique reconstruction, multiplanar reformation (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volumer rendering technique (VRT). The filling degree of stomach, intestine and colon was classified as satisfactory, better and unsatisfactory. The length and superposition of small intestine was classified as dense-type, uniformity-type and straggling-type. The maximum outer diameters of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured respectively in different segments. The degree of bowel wall enhancement in arterial phase and venous phase was classified as obvious enhancement (>90 HU), medium enhancement (60-90 HU) and mild enhancement (<60 HU). CT features of various kinds of small bowel diseases were analyzed. Results: The hypertonic mannitol saline was acceptable by patients, except 5 patients with diarrhea. The filling degree of stomach, intestine and and colon was classified as satisfactory in 46 cases, better in 23 cases and unsatisfactory in 12 cases. The maximum outer diameters of small bowel in different segments were 24 mm ± 4.5 mm at duodenum, 24 mm ±3.9 mm at jejunum and 23 mm ±3.3 mm at ileum respectively. The length and superposition of small intestine were classified as dense-type in 7 cases, uniformity-type in 58

  14. Cth2 Protein Mediates Early Adaptation of Yeast Cells to Oxidative Stress Conditions.

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    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available Cth2 is an mRNA-binding protein that participates in remodeling yeast cell metabolism in iron starvation conditions by promoting decay of the targeted molecules, in order to avoid excess iron consumption. This study shows that in the absence of Cth2 immediate upregulation of expression of several of the iron regulon genes (involved in high affinity iron uptake and intracellular iron redistribution upon oxidative stress by hydroperoxide is more intense than in wild type conditions where Cth2 is present. The oxidative stress provokes a temporary increase in the levels of Cth2 (itself a member of the iron regulon. In such conditions Cth2 molecules accumulate at P bodies-like structures when the constitutive mRNA decay machinery is compromised. In addition, a null Δcth2 mutant shows defects, in comparison to CTH2 wild type cells, in exit from α factor-induced arrest at the G1 stage of the cell cycle when hydroperoxide treatment is applied. The cell cycle defects are rescued in conditions that compromise uptake of external iron into the cytosol. The observations support a role of Cth2 in modulating expression of diverse iron regulon genes, excluding those specifically involved in the reductive branch of the high-affinity transport. This would result in immediate adaptation of the yeast cells to an oxidative stress, by controlling uptake of oxidant-promoting iron cations.

  15. Behavior of stressed and unstressed 304L specimens in tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhas, M.C.; McCright, R.D.; Garrison, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of an investigation of the behavior of candidate barrier material for high-level nuclear waste storage, Type 304L stainless steel, in tuff repository environmental conditions. Tuff is a densely welded, devitrified, igneous rock common to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results discussed include: irradiation corrosion tests, U-bend irradiation corrosion tests, slow strain rate tests, and bent beam stress corrosion tests. Results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel shows excellent resistance to general, localized, and stress corrosion under the environmental and microstructural conditions tested so far. The environmental test conditions are 50 to 100 0 C J-13 well water (non-saline, near neutral pH, and oxic in nature) and saturated steam at 100 0 C. Microstructural conditions include solution annealed and long furnace heat treatments to provoke a sensitized structure. However, this particular type of stainless steel may be susceptible to long-term, low-temperature sensitization because of the combination of expected time at elevated temperature and residual stress in the container after emplacement in the repository. Other grades of austenitic stainless steels are reported to be more resistant to low-temperature sensitization. Future work will therefore include more extensive testing of these grades. 15 references, 5 figures, 7 tables

  16. Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Thitaram, Chatchote; Courtiol, Alexandre; Towiboon, Patcharapa; Min-Oo, Zaw; Htut-Aung, Ye; Brown, Janine L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Establishing links between ecological variation, physiological markers of stress and demography is crucial for understanding how and why changes in environmental conditions affect population dynamics, and may also play a key role for conservation efforts of endangered species. However, detailed longitudinal studies of long-lived species are rarely available. We test how two markers of stress and body condition vary through the year and are associated with climatic conditions and large-scale mortality and fertility variation in the world's largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants employed in the timber industry in Myanmar. Glucocorticoid metabolites (used as a proxy for stress levels in 75 elephants) and body weight (used as a proxy for condition in 116 elephants) were monitored monthly across a typical monsoon cycle and compared with birth and death patterns of the entire elephant population over half a century (n = 2350). Our results show seasonal variation in both markers of stress and condition. In addition, this variation is correlated with population-level demographic variables. Weight is inversely correlated with population mortality rates 1 month later, and glucocorticoid metabolites are negatively associated with birth rates. Weight shows a highly positive correlation with rainfall 1 month earlier. Determining the factors associated with demography may be key to species conservation by providing information about the correlates of mortality and fertility patterns. The unsustainability of the studied captive population has meant that wild elephants have been captured and tamed for work. By elucidating the correlates of demography in captive elephants, our results offer management solutions that could reduce the pressure on the wild elephant population in Myanmar.

  17. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  18. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Some Antioxidant Markers In Pregnant Cows Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the heat stress and the decrease of antioxidants, the oxidative stress is produced which has a negative impact on the efficiency of productive and reproductive functions in cows. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the status of some antioxidant markers as well as measuring the level of progesterone as a criterion essential for duration of pregnancy besides the stress hormone cortisol in heat stressed pregnant and non-pregnant cows under hot summer conditions. Twelve healthy Brown Swiss cows with average body weight 350 kg were divided into two groups, six cows in each according to pregnancy status. The 1 st group consisted of 6 pregnant cows while the 2 nd included 6 non-pregnant cows. The rectal temperature (RT) was measured and blood samples were collected during three months to determine total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT) enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), cortisol and progesterone hormones.The result showed that there was an increase of rectal temperature for pregnant cows than in non-pregnant but didn't reach the critical value. In addition, there were significant increases in total antioxidant, progesterone and cortisol as compared with non-pregnant heat stressed cows while non-significant decrease in catalase enzyme in pregnant cows and non-significant increase in malondialdehyde in pregnant cows were observed. It could be concluded that total antioxidants, progesterone and cortisol hormones are a good biomarkers for oxidative stress in pregnant heat stressed cows while the non-significant changes in catalase and malondialdehyde may attributed to the small number of animals used and further studies on large number are recommended to evaluate the validity of those markers.

  19. Mixotrophic transition induced lipid productivity in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under stress conditions for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Ratnapuram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP and stress phase (SP was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode. Higher lipid productivity of 284 g/kg and 154.3 g/kg of neutral lipids was achieved in SP in mixotrophic-mixotrophic (MM and mixotrophic-heterotrophic (MH modes, respectively. Stress conditions resulted in high unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in MH mode. In addition, neutral lipid content was 58% in MH and 52% in MM, that can be attributed to carbon source that is supplemented even in stress phase. Exploring such novel strategies can generate sustainable avenues for biodiesel production.

  20. Tolerance of Mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, H; Saeidi-Sar, S; Afshari, H; Abdel-Wahhab, M A

    2012-05-01

    The influence of Glomus etunicatum colonization on plant growth and drought tolerance of 3-month-old Pistacia vera seedlings in potted culture was studied in two different water treatments. The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculation and plant growth (including plant shoot and root weight, leaf area, and total chlorophyll) were higher for well-watered than for water-stressed plants. The growth of AM-treated seedlings was higher than non-AM-treatment regardless of water status. P, K, Zn and Cu contents in AM-treated shoots were greater than those in non-AM shoots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. N and Ca content were higher under drought stress, while AM symbiosis did not affect the Mg content. The contents of soluble sugars, proteins, flavonoid and proline were higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal-treated plants under the whole water regime. AM colonization increased the activities of peroxidase enzyme in treatments, but did not affect the catalase activity in shoots and roots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. We conclude that AM colonization improved the drought tolerance of P. vera seedlings by increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds, nutritional and antioxidant enzyme activity. It appears that AM formation enhanced the drought tolerance of pistachio plants, which increased host biomass and plant growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Temper Condition on Stress Relaxation Behavior of an Aluminum Copper Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumeet; Beura, Vikrant Kumar; Singh, Amit; Yadava, Manasij; Nayan, Niraj

    2018-04-01

    Deformation behavior of an Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions (solutionized and T8) is investigated using stress relaxation tests. Fundamental parameters such as the apparent and physical activation volume, strain rate sensitivity, effective stress, and exhaustion rate of mobile dislocation density are determined from single and multiple relaxation tests. It was found that dislocation-dislocation interaction controls the kinetics of plastic deformation in the solutionized sample, whereas dislocation-precipitate interaction is the overriding factor in the presence of T1 precipitates. The apparent activation volume was found to be significantly lower in the presence of T1 precipitates compared with solutionized samples. Strain rate sensitivity and effective stress were found to be higher in the presence of T1 precipitates. In addition, multiple relaxation tests showed that irrespective of microstructural features (solutes, semi-coherent precipitates), the mobile dislocation density reduces during the relaxation period. Further evidence regarding reduction in mobile dislocation density is obtained from uniaxial tensile tests carried out after stress relaxation tests, where both solutionized and T8 samples show an increase in strength. Additional discussion on relaxation strain is included to provide a complete overview regarding the time-dependent deformation behavior of the Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions.

  2. Low-temperature strain ageing in In-Pb alloys under stress relaxation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, L.S.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic strain ageing (DSA) of In-Pb (6 and 8 at. % Pb) substitutional solid solution single crystals is studied at temperatures 77-205 K under stress relaxation conditions. The dependences of the stress increment after relaxation connected with DSA on stress relaxation time, stress relaxation rate at the end of the relaxation, temperature, alloy content, flow stress, and strain are determined. It is shown that the DSA kinetic is described by a Harper-type equation with the exponent equal to 1/3 and a low activation energy value (0.3-0.34 eV). This provides a low temperature of the DSA onset (∼ 0.17 T m , where T m is the melt temperature) and is evidence of pipe-mode diffusion. It is supposed that the obstacles to dislocation motion in the crystals studied consist of the groups of solutes, and the strength of the obstacles increases during the DSA due to the pipe diffusion of the solute atoms along the dislocations

  3. Prediction of the remaining lifetime of stainless steels under conditions of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandler, M.; Vehovar, L.; Dolecek, V.; Rotnik, U.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the lifetime of metal structures and equipment under conditions of stress corrosion is very complicated because of the complexity of this process of degradation. Recently a new method, based on the so-called corrosion elongation curves, has been found, which can be used to predict the time to failure under these conditions. By upgrading of these curves (and thus obtaining Upgraded Corrosion Elongation Curves - UCEC's) it has been possible to obtain a precise definition of the time needed for the initiation of the corrosion crack, and for its stable growth. It is upon this basis that diagrams for the prediction of remaining lifetime (DPRL's) have been developed. DPRL's can also be used to predict the values of various critical parameters which have to be achieved if a stress corrosion crack is to occur. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  4. FUNCTION OF MALATDEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX OF MAIZE MESOPHYLL AND BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еprintsev А.Т.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-induced changes in malatdehydrogenase system activity make the essential contribution to cell adaptation to stress condition. The enzyme systems of C4-plants are most interesting due to their ability for adaptation to environment conditions. The role of separate components of malatdehydrogenase complex of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn in formation of adaptive reaction in stressful conditions is investigated in presented work.The activation of all enzymes of malatdehydrogenase system and the subsequent decrease in their activity was observed in mesophyll durring the first stage of adaptation to salt influence. In bundle sheath cells such parameters are differed from control less essentially. Fast accumulation of piruvate in cells and malate in both investigated tissues was induced. The further salinity led to falling of concentration this intermediate. The concentration of piruvate was below control level, and it was raised by the end of an exposition.The results show that sodium chloride causes induction of Krebs-cycle in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn and intensification of Hatch-Slack cycle. The described differences in function malatdehydrogenase systems of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of leaves of corn under salinity mainly consist of the activity of enzymes of a studied complex in bundle sheath cells is subject to the minimal changes in comparison with mesophyll. Role of this enzymesystem in mechanisms of adaptive reaction of various tissues of corn to salt stress is discussed.

  5. The Lcn2-engineered HEK-293 cells show senescence under stressful condition

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    Bahareh Bahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Lipocalin2 (Lcn2 gene is highly expressed in response to various types of cellular stresses. The precise role of Lcn2 has not been fully understood yet. However, it plays a key role in controlling vital cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism. Recently it was shown that Lcn2 decreases senescence and increases proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC with finite life span under either normal or oxidative stress conditions. However, Lcn2 effects on immortal cell line with infinite proliferation are not defined completely.  Materials and Material and Methods: HEK-293 cells were transfected with recombinant pcDNA3.1 containing Lcn2 fragment (pcDNA3.1-Lcn2. Expression of lipocalin2 in transfected cells was evaluated by RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, and ELISA. Different cell groups were treated with H2O2 and WST-1 assay was performed to determine their proliferation rate. Senescence was studied by β-galactosidase and gimsa staining methods as well as evaluation of the expression of senescence-related genes by real time RT-PCR. Results: Lcn2 increased cell proliferation under normal culture condition, while the proliferation slightly decreased under oxidative stress.  This decrease was further found to be attributed to senescence. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that under harmful conditions, Lcn2 gene is responsible for the regulation of cell survival through senescence.

  6. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  7. Dynamic of bioelectric activity back hypothalamus changes in conditions of pyroxan application on the background of stress-reaction developmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Chaus

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of changes of capacity of electroencephalogram’s rhythms back hypothalamus at animals of control group and group in stress conditions in parallel with rats who on a background of stress development accepted pyroxan is analyzed. The submitted results have shown influence of a pharmacological preparation pyroxan on bioelectric activity of back hypothalamus in stress conditions that restoration of electric activity under action of this preparation was more shown at 3 weeks of its application.

  8. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  9. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  10. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of desiccation and heat exposure stress on Salmonella tolerance to acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kurt E; Cox, Nelson A; Cosby, Douglas E; Berrang, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    In a recent study, the pH of commonly used Salmonella pre-enrichment media became acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) when feed or feed ingredients were incubated for 24 h. Acidic conditions have been reported to injure or kill Salmonella. In this study, cultures of four known feed isolates (S. montevideo, S. senftenberg, S. tennessee, and S. schwarzengrund) and four important processing plant isolates (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, and S. heidelberg) were grown on meat and bone meal and later subjected to desiccation and heat exposure to stress the microorganism. The impact of stress on the isolates ability to survive in acidic conditions ranging from pH 4.0 to 7.0 was compared to the non-stressed isolate. Cell injury was determined on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) and cell death determined on nutrient agar (NA). When measured by cell death in non-stressed Salmonella, S. typhimurium was the most acid tolerant and S. heidelberg was the most acid sensitive whereas in stressed Salmonella, S. senftenberg was the most acid tolerant and S. tennessee was the most acid sensitive. The pH required to cause cell injury varied among isolates. With some isolates, the pH required for 50% cell death and 50% cell injury was similar. In other isolates, cell injury occurred at a more neutral pH. These findings suggest that the pH of pre-enrichment media may influence the recovery and bias the serotype of Salmonella recovered from feed during pre-enrichment.

  12. Experimental stress during molt suggests the evolution of condition-dependent and condition-independent ornaments in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Dobson, F Stephen; Saadaoui, Hédi; Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species. Whereas some ornamental features showed strong condition-dependence (yellow auricular feather chroma, yellow and UV chroma of the beak), others were condition-independent and remained highly correlated before and after the molt (auricular patch size and beak UV hue). Our study provides a rare examination of the links between ornament determinism and selection processes in the wild. We highlight the coexistence of ornaments costly to produce that may be honest signals used in mate choice, and ornaments for which honesty may be enforced by social mediation or rely on genetic constraints.

  13. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  14. Study of sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenphing Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah was studied under water stress conditions using the «beny-cup» technique. After veraison, berry growth, the potential Exposed Leaf Area (pELA and photosynthetic activity are clearly reduced in water-stressed vines (- 0.5 > Ψb > - 0.6 MPa as compared to normal 1 Ψ-watcred vines (Mb = - 0.2 MPa. The ratio pELA/yield is also reduced, which is particular to this experiment. The beiries' ripening period (between veraison and maturity can be divided into three growth phases, Illa, Illb and IIlc. During phase Ma, the berries grow rapidly; at this point, water stress severely inhibits cell expan¬ sion of the berries but does not impact on daily sugar accumulation. During phase Mb, the berries grow slowly in both water-stressed and control vines. Water stress can shorten this phase and reduce sugar accumulation in the berries by decreasing daily sugar unloading. During phase II le, the Iresh weight and volume of the berries decreases as does the daily sugar unloading. During the day, sugar unloading in ripening berries occurs mainly in the morning (7 am to 10.30 am and at noon (1 to 1.30 pm; little sugar is unloaded in the afternoon (4 pm to 4.30 pin. Moderate water stress from veraison to maturity affects végétative growth (i.e. the growth of primary and secoridary shoots, and reduces the exposed leaf area, photosynthetic activity, berry growth, and the accumulation of sugar at the end of ripening (phases Mb and IIlc.

  15. Deficiency in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway reveals the toxic potential of autophagy under ER stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Logue, Susan E; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Samali, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death is normally associated with activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is characterized by CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) release, apoptosome formation, and caspase activation, resulting in cell death. In this study, we demonstrate that under conditions of ER stress cells devoid of CASP9/caspase-9 or BAX and BAK1, and therefore defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, still undergo a delayed form of cell death associated with the activation of caspases, therefore revealing the existence of an alternative stress-induced caspase activation pathway. We identified CASP8/caspase-8 as the apical protease in this caspase cascade, and found that knockdown of either of the key autophagic genes, ATG5 or ATG7, impacted on CASP8 activation and cell death induction, highlighting the crucial role of autophagy in the activation of this novel ER stress-induced death pathway. In line with this, we identified a protein complex composed of ATG5, FADD, and pro-CASP8 whose assembly coincides with caspase activation and cell death induction. Together, our results reveal the toxic potential of autophagy in cells undergoing ER stress that are defective in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and suggest a model in which the autophagosome functions as a platform facilitating pro-CASP8 activation. Chemoresistance, a common problem in the treatment of cancer, is frequently caused by the downregulation of key mitochondrial death effector proteins. Alternate stress-induced apoptotic pathways, such as the one described here, may become of particular relevance for tackling the problem of chemoresistance in cancer cells.

  16. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  17. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  18. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  19. Proteomic analysis on roots of Oenothera glazioviana under copper-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2017-09-06

    Proteomic studies were performed to identify proteins involved in the response of Oenothera glazioviana seedlings under Cu stress. Exposure of 28-d-old seedlings to 50 μM CuSO4 for 3 d led to inhibition of shoot and root growth as well as a considerable increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in the roots. Cu absorbed by O. glazioviana accumulated more easily in the root than in the shoot. Label-free proteomic analysis indicated 58 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) of the total 3,149 proteins in the roots of O. glazioviana seedlings, of which 36 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated under Cu stress conditions. Gene Ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins could be annotated to signal transduction, detoxification, stress defence, carbohydrate, energy, and protein metabolism, development, and oxidoreduction. We also retrieved 13 proteins from the enriched Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes and the protein-protein interaction databases related to various pathways, including the citric acid (CA) cycle. Application of exogenous CA to O. glazioviana seedlings exposed to Cu alleviated the stress symptoms. Overall, this study provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant response to Cu at the protein level in relation to soil properties.

  20. Determination of internal controls for quantitative gene expression of Isochrysis zhangjiangensis at nitrogen stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhou, Jiannan; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-02-01

    Isochrysis zhangjiangensis is a potential marine microalga for biodiesel production, which accumulates lipid under nitrogen limitation conditions, but the mechanism on molecular level is veiled. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides the possibility to investigate the gene expression levels, and a valid reference for data normalization is an essential prerequisite for firing up the analysis. In this study, five housekeeping genes, actin (ACT), α-tubulin (TUA), ß-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI), 18S rRNA (18S) and one target gene, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were used for determining the reference. By analyzing the stabilities based on calculation of the stability index and on operating the two types of software, geNorm and bestkeeper, it showed that the reference genes widely used in higher plant and microalgae, such as UBI, TUA and 18S, were not the most stable ones in nitrogen-stressed I. zhangjiangensis, and thus are not suitable for exploring the mRNA expression levels under these experimental conditions. Our results show that ACT together with TUB is the most feasible internal control for investigating gene expression under nitrogen-stressed conditions. Our findings will contribute not only to future qPCR studies of I. zhangjiangensis, but also to verification of comparative transcriptomics studies of the microalgae under similar conditions.

  1. Comparisons of urban and rural heat stress conditions in a hot–humid tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Balogun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the developing world, much of which is located in the tropical countries, has seen dramatic growth of its urban population associated with serious degradation of environmental quality. Climate change is producing major impacts including increasing temperatures in these countries that are considered to be most vulnerable to the impact of climate change due to inadequate public health infrastructure and low income status. However, relevant information and data for informed decision making on human health and comfort are lacking in these countries. Objective: The aim of this paper is to study and compare heat stress conditions in an urban (city centre and rural (airport environments in Akure, a medium-sized tropical city in south-western Nigeria during the dry harmattan season (January–March of 2009. Materials and methods: We analysed heat stress conditions in terms of the mean hourly values of the thermohygrometric index (THI, defined by simultaneous in situ air temperature and relative humidity measurements at both sites. Results: The urban heat island (UHI exists in Akure as the city centre is warmer than the rural airport throughout the day. However, the maximum UHI intensity occurs at night between 1900 and 2200 hours local time. Hot conditions were predominant at both sites, comfortable conditions were only experienced in the morning and evenings of January at both sites, but the rural area has more pleasant morning and evenings and less of very hot and torrid conditions. January has the lowest frequency of hot and torrid conditions at both sites, while March and February has the highest at the city centre and the airport, respectively. The higher frequencies of high temperatures in the city centre suggest a significant heat stress and health risk in this hot humid environment of Akure. Conclusions: More research is needed to achieve better understanding of the seasonal variation of indoor and outdoor heat stress

  2. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  3. Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip A. Ghuge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are aliphatic polycations present in all living organisms. A growing body of evidence reveals their involvement as regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological events. They are oxidatively deaminated by amine oxidases (AOs, including copper amine oxidases (CuAOs and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs. The biologically-active hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a shared compound in all of the AO-catalyzed reactions, and it has been reported to play important roles in PA-mediated developmental and stress-induced processes. In particular, the AO-driven H2O2 biosynthesis in the cell wall is well known to be involved in plant wound healing and pathogen attack responses by both triggering peroxidase-mediated wall-stiffening events and signaling modulation of defense gene expression. Extensive investigation by a variety of methodological approaches revealed high levels of expression of cell wall-localized AOs in root xylem tissues and vascular parenchyma of different plant species. Here, the recent progresses in understanding the role of cell wall-localized AOs as mediators of root xylem differentiation during development and/or under stress conditions are reviewed. A number of experimental pieces of evidence supports the involvement of apoplastic H2O2 derived from PA oxidation in xylem tissue maturation under stress-simulated conditions.

  4. Development of stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for the modeling of solids deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet-Grellier, Thomas; Pramanik, Ranjan; Pan, Kai; Albaiz, Abdulaziz; Jones, Bruce D.; Williams, John R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper develops a method for imposing stress boundary conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with and without the need for dummy particles. SPH has been used for simulating phenomena in a number of fields, such as astrophysics and fluid mechanics. More recently, the method has gained traction as a technique for simulation of deformation and fracture in solids, where the meshless property of SPH can be leveraged to represent arbitrary crack paths. Despite this interest, application of boundary conditions within the SPH framework is typically limited to imposed velocity or displacement using fictitious dummy particles to compensate for the lack of particles beyond the boundary interface. While this is enough for a large variety of problems, especially in the case of fluid flow, for problems in solid mechanics there is a clear need to impose stresses upon boundaries. In addition to this, the use of dummy particles to impose a boundary condition is not always suitable or even feasibly, especially for those problems which include internal boundaries. In order to overcome these difficulties, this paper first presents an improved method for applying stress boundary conditions in SPH with dummy particles. This is then followed by a proposal of a formulation which does not require dummy particles. These techniques are then validated against analytical solutions to two common problems in rock mechanics, the Brazilian test and the penny-shaped crack problem both in 2D and 3D. This study highlights the fact that SPH offers a good level of accuracy to solve these problems and that results are reliable. This validation work serves as a foundation for addressing more complex problems involving plasticity and fracture propagation.

  5. Workshop on initiation of stress corrosion cracking under LWR conditions: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Cubicciotti, D.; Licina, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    A workshop titled ''Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking under LWR Conditions'' was held in Palo Alto, California on November 13, 1986, hosted by the Electric Power Research Institute. Participants were experts on the topic from nuclear steam supply and component manufacturers, public and private research laboratories, and university environments. Presentations included discussions on the definition of crack initiation, the effects of environmental and electrochemical variables on cracking susceptibility, and detection methods for the determination of crack initiation events and measurement of critical environmental and stress parameters. Examination of the questions related to crack initiation and its relative importance to the overall question of cracking of LWR materials from these perspectives provided inputs to EPRI project managers on the future direction of research efforts designed to prevent and control cracking. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately

  6. Spore inactivation and DPA release in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris under different stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Ciuffreda, Emanuela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the inactivation of spores of 5 strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris under different stress conditions (acidic and alkaline pH, high temperature, addition of lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide and p-coumaric acid). The research was divided into two different steps; first, each stress was studied alone, thus pointing out a partial uncoupling between spore inactivation and DPA release, as H2O2 reduced spore level below the detection but it did not cause the release of DPA. A partial correlation was found only for acidic and alkaline pH. 2nd step was focused on the combination of pH, temperature and H2O2 through a factorial design; experiments were performed on both fresh and 4 month-old spores and pinpointed a different trend for DPA release as a function of spore age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  8. Assessment Impact of Foot Sensory Modulation on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Diplegia Spastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Fatoureh-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess impact of foot sensory modulation on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 24 selected children (aged 2.5 to 4.5 years were randomly assigned to a control and experimental groups. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive Range of motion by goniameter (Pedretti, neurodevelopmental level by Bobath scale. All children were pre-post tested in an interval of ten weeks. Results: Significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of hip extensor (p<0/1 and ankle planter flexor (P<0/05. Significant increase was observed in passive Range of motion of hip flexion (P<0/1, knee extension (P<0/05 and ankle dorsi flexion (P<0/05. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of knee flexor and improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip extensor (P<0/05 and improvement of neurodevelopmental level (P<0/05. Conclusion: Impact of sensory modulation on children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy reduces spasticity of lower limb and also extends joints domain of motion.

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines (Zea mays L. under heat stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High temperature adversely affects the plant physiological processes: limits plant growth and reduction in grain yield. Heat stress is often encountered to spring sowing of maize in spring season. Twenty maize inbred lines were studied for days to 50 % anthesis and silking, anthesis–silking interval, leaf firing, tassel blast, SPAD reading and leaf senescence, plant and ear height, leaf area index, ear per plant, cob length and diameter, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel row, silk receptivity, shelling percentage, thousand kernel weight and grain yield in alpha lattice design at National Maize Research Program at Rampur, Chitwan,Nepal with the objective to identify superior heat stress tolerant lines. Analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits. Result of multivariable analysis revealed that twenty inbred lines formed four clusters. The resistance inbred lines and susceptible inbred lines formed different clusters. The members of cluster 4 were found to be tolerant to heat stress due to they had lowest value of tassel blast, leaf firing, and leaf area index with highest value of cob diameter and length, ear per plant, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row, shelling percentage, silk receptivity and grain yield whereas as members of cluster 1were found most susceptible due to they had longer anthesis silking interval, with maximum tassel blast and leaf firing along with no grain yield under heat stress condition. From this study inbred lines RL-140, RML-76, RML-91 and RML-40 were found most tolerant to heat stress. These inbred lines belonging to superior cluster could be considered very useful in developing heat tolerant variety and other breeding activities.

  10. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  11. Environmental conditions can modulate the links among oxidative stress, age, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Stier, Antoine; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Heidinger, Britt; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the links between environmental conditions and longevity remains a major focus in biological research. We examined within-individual changes between early- and mid-adulthood in the circulating levels of four oxidative stress markers linked to ageing, using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): a DNA damage product (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), protein carbonyls (PC), non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (OXY), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). We further examined whether such within-individual changes differed among birds living under control (ad lib food) or more challenging environmental conditions (unpredictable food availability), having previously found that the latter increased corticosterone levels when food was absent but improved survival over a three year period. Our key findings were: (i) 8-OHdG and PC increased with age in both environments, with a higher increase in 8-OHdG in the challenging environment; (ii) SOD increased with age in the controls but not in the challenged birds, while the opposite was true for OXY; (iii) control birds with high levels of 8-OHdG died at a younger age, but this was not the case in challenged birds. Our data clearly show that while exposure to the potentially damaging effects of oxidative stress increases with age, environmental conditions can modulate the pace of this age-related change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the stress-deformed condition of the disassembly parabolic antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, M. N.; Kaygorodtseva, N. V.; Krysova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Active development of satellite communications and computer-aided design systems raises the problem of designing parabolic antennas on a new round of development. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the design of the mirror of a parabolic antenna on its endurance under wind load. The research task was an automated analysis of the stress-deformed condition of various designs of computer models of a paraboloid mirror (segmented or holistic) at modeling the exploitation conditions. The peculiarity of the research was that the assembly model of the antenna’s mirror was subjected to rigid connections on the contacting surfaces of the segments and only then the finite element grid was generated. The analysis showed the advantage of the design of the demountable antenna, which consists of cyclic segments, in front of the construction of the holistic antenna. Calculation of the stress-deformed condition of the antennas allows us to conclude that dividing the design of the antenna’s mirror on parabolic and cyclic segments increases it strength and rigidity. In the future, this can be used to minimize the mass of antenna and the dimensions of the disassembled antenna. The presented way of modeling a mirror of a parabolic antenna using to the method of the finite-element analysis can be used in the production of antennas.

  13. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  14. Wild trout responses to a stress experience following confinement conditions during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmo (trutta marmoratus is an endemic specie in the North of Italy, subjected to hybridization with domesticated strains of trout. Native populations are managed by supportive release in the rivers. Wild breeders are captured, confined in facility for short periods and then released in the river after artificial fertilization. Premature mortality during confinement and post release mortality in river have been observed in breeders supporting the view that confinement stress could be the cause. Twenty-six adult individuals of trout were captured from a river by electrofishing and stocked in two tanks, the first one (RF provided with artificial refuges to simulate the natural environment and covered by dark panels; the second tank (TR was only partially covered by dark panels and without artificial refuges. All the other conditions were identical and animals were fed ad libitum with natural food collected in the same river. After 50 days, from a third group of 8 trout (WD captured in the same river by a 5 minute electrofishing session, blood samples were sequentially collected for the assessment of serum cortisol response to serial repeated handlings. With the same sequential method, individuals of the RF and TR experimental groups were sampled. Cortisol levels were compared between groups by ANOVA. Biomass densities decreased during the experiment due to premature mortality of the largest individuals in both the RF (7.69% and TR (30.77% groups. At the end of the experiment, data clearly demonstrated that after a stressing confinement, the TR group shown a reduced poststress response to the successive serial handlings. Vice versa the group RF, that experienced a more careful confinement, responded to the second serial acute stressing manipulation in conformity as the group WD that was not confined. Cortisol data support the hypothesis of impaired cortisol response as a consequence of oversecretion due to uneasiness during the short

  15. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  16. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants showed cold allodynia. This study showed that repeated injections of HS can induce a hypersensitivity that outlasts the acute response, and the development of this hypersensitivity can be reliably attenuated with minocycline pretreatment. Four repeated injections of HS at 48-hour intervals induce a state of persistent hypersensitivity in

  17. Assessment the effect of NO inhibition on hippocampal normetanephrine level in stress and non-stress conditions in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Molahoveizeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO has a role in the regulation of neurotransmitters release such as norepinephrine, in the hippocampus.Normetanephrine (NMN is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT on norepinephrine. Several studies have shown that various stresses increased release of norepinephrine and its metabolites. Therefore in the present study, the role of Nitric oxide in regulation of norepinephrine release and its metabolism was investigated by administration of L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor in stressed and non-stressed rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 50 adult rats were divided into 10 groups, of which 5 groups were exposed to restraint stress while another 5 groups were without stress. These two set of groups included intact, saline and L-NAME (20, 40, 80 mg/kg. Thirty minutes after intraperituneal injection of L-NAME, brains removed, the hippocampus dissected, weighed, homogenized and centrifuged then amount of NMN measured by ELISA kit. Results: The results showed that in non-stressed condition amount of NMN were significantly increased in group that received L-NAME (80 mg/kg in comparison with other groups but in stress condition, amount of NMN was significantly decreased in groups that received L-NAME (20,40,80 mg/kg, in comparison with control and saline groups. Comparison between stress and non-stressed groups showed that stress alone cause an increase in amount of NMN in control and saline groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, NO synthesis inhibition produced opposite responses with respect to NMN amount in the presence or absence of stress, and probably L-NAME preventing the effect of stress on increasing NMN levels mediated by nitrergic pathway.

  18. Stress induced conditioning and thermal relaxation in the simulation of quasi-static compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalerandi, M; Delsanto, P P; Johnson, P A

    2003-01-01

    Local interaction simulation approach simulations of the ultrasonic wave propagation in multi-grained materials have succeeded in reproducing most of the recently observed nonclassical nonlinear effects, such as stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasi-static experiments and a downwards shift of the resonance frequency and the generation of odd harmonics at specific amplitude rates in dynamics experiments. By including a simple mechanism of thermally activated random transitions, we can predict the occurrence of experimentally observed effects, such as the conditioning and relaxation of the specimen. Experiments are also suggested for a quantitative assessment of the validity of the model

  19. Stress induced conditioning and thermal relaxation in the simulation of quasi-static compression experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Scalerandi, M; Johnson, P A

    2003-01-01

    Local interaction simulation approach simulations of the ultrasonic wave propagation in multi-grained materials have succeeded in reproducing most of the recently observed nonclassical nonlinear effects, such as stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasi-static experiments and a downwards shift of the resonance frequency and the generation of odd harmonics at specific amplitude rates in dynamics experiments. By including a simple mechanism of thermally activated random transitions, we can predict the occurrence of experimentally observed effects, such as the conditioning and relaxation of the specimen. Experiments are also suggested for a quantitative assessment of the validity of the model.

  20. On the influence of abiotic stress conditions on growth of barley and bean and their predisposition for pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerke, E.C.; Schoenbeck, F.

    1986-01-01

    Shorttime changes of environmental conditions stressed barley and bean and affected plant growth and their predisposition for various pathogens. Moderate stress intensities as low or high temperatures, water or light deficits, increased the susceptibility to Erysiphe graminis var. hordei or Uromyces phaseoli and reduced disease level of spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus, respectively. There was only little effect on plant growth in that case. Intensive stress as a result of combinations of unfavorable environmental conditions or longtime continuance of moderate stress reduced the plant growth and turned the predisposing effect to the opposite: after the treatment, plants were more resistent to diseases caused by biotrophic fungi, whereas there was increased susceptibility to the perthotrophic fungus. High intensities of fertilization acted as an additional stress and intensified the plant reaction to environmental alterations. The variation of the predisposition is discussed in relation to stress intensity.

  1. The transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: hypotonic and hypertonic turgor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2002-11-01

    The time course of hypertonic and hypotonic turgor regulation was studied in Ventricaria (Valonia) using pressure probe and I/V(current-voltage) analysis. Of 11 cells, 9 exhibited hypertonic turgor regulation, ranging from 100% regulation in 150 min to 14% regulation (14% recovery of the decrease in turgor) in 314 min. Some cells began regulating immediately, others took up to 90 min to begin. The resting PD (potential difference) became more positive in most cells. The I/V characteristics became more nonlinear with high resistance between -150 and -20 mV and negative conductance region near -70 mV. Prolonged (16 sec) voltage clamps to negative levels (-100 to -150 mV) showed progressively more rapid current turn-off, but subsequent I/V characteristics were not affected. Clamping to +150 mV, however, abolished the high conductance between -50 and +100 mV to yield a uniform high resistance I/V characteristic, similar to that in high [K+]o. Decreasing illumination from 2.02 micromol sec(-1) m(-2) to 0.5 micromol sec(-1)1 m(-2) had a similar effect. Two out of a total of three cells exhibited hypotonic turgor regulation. Both cells started regulating within minutes and achieved near 50% regulation within 50 min. The PD became more negative. The I/V curves exhibited high resistance between +50 and +150 mV. The characteristics were similar to those in cells exposed to low [K+]o. Prolonged voltage clamps to both negative and positive levels showed slow current increase. Decreased illumination increased the membrane resistance.

  2. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  3. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh

  4. Characterization of degradation products of amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate under solid state stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara K; Prasad, Bhagwat; Paudel, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the stress degradation studies on amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate. The objective was to characterize the degradation products and postulate mechanism of decomposition of the drug under solid state stress conditions. For that, amorphous form, ...

  5. Effect of Filter Cake on Morphophysiological and Yield of Sweet Corn Under Late Season Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Siadat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plot design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications. Treatments were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tonha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that drought stress increased electrolyte leakage (EL and proline content (PC while height of plant, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll stability index and ear and grain yield were decreased. The intensive drought stress had the greatest effect on EL and PC (54% increase, and decreased ear and grain yield by21 and 37% compared to control, respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress condition increased height of plant and economic yield. But Filter Cake in intensive stress reduced RWC and yield and increased EL compared to control. Also, the application of 30 tonha-1 of Filter Cake in intensive stress condition decreased ear and grain yield by 14.5 and 10.7% respectively. Thus, positive effect of Filter Cake application was clear on non-stress condition, but on drought stress condition it decreased the economic yield.

  6. Macro-mesoscopic Fracture and Strength Character of Pre-cracked Granite Under Stress Relaxation Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Yang, Haiqing; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2018-05-01

    The fracture characters are important index to study the strength and deformation behavior of rock mass in rock engineering. In order to investigate the influencing mechanism of loading conditions on the strength and macro-mesoscopic fracture character of rock material, pre-cracked granite specimens are prepared to conduct a series of uniaxial compression experiments. For parts of the experiments, stress relaxation tests of different durations are also conducted during the uniaxial loading process. Furthermore, the stereomicroscope is adopted to observe the microstructure of the crack surfaces of the specimens. The experimental results indicate that the crack surfaces show several typical fracture characters in accordance with loading conditions. In detail, some cleavage fracture can be observed under conventional uniaxial compression and the fractured surface is relatively rough, whereas as stress relaxation tests are attached, relative slip trace appears between the crack faces and some shear fracture starts to come into being. Besides, the crack faces tend to become smoother and typical terrace structures can be observed in local areas. Combining the macroscopic failure pattern of the specimens, it can be deduced that the duration time for the stress relaxation test contributes to the improvement of the elastic-plastic strain range as well as the axial peak strength for the studied material. Moreover, the derived conclusion is also consistent with the experimental and analytical solution for the pre-peak stage of the rock material. The present work may provide some primary understanding about the strength character and fracture mechanism of hard rock under different engineering environments.

  7. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: A structural equation modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Edimansyah Bin; Rusli Bin; Naing Lin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Or...

  8. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  9. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – A Model Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G Schreurs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Not everyone exposed to trauma suffers flashbacks, bad dreams, numbing, fear, anxiety, sleeplessness, hyper-vigilance, hyperarousal, or an inability to cope, but those who do may suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD is a major physical and mental health problem for military personnel and civilians exposed to trauma. There is still debate about the incidence and prevalence of PTSD especially among the military, but for those who are diagnosed, behavioral therapy and drug treatment strategies have proven to be less than effective. A number of these treatment strategies are based on rodent fear conditioning research and are capable of treating only some of the symptoms because the extinction of fear does not deal with the various forms of hyper-vigilance and hyperarousal experienced by people with PTSD. To help address this problem, we have developed a preclinical eyeblink classical conditioning model of PTSD in which conditioning and hyperarousal can both be extinguished. We review this model and discuss findings showing that unpaired stimulus presentations can be effective in reducing levels of conditioning and hyperarousal even when unconditioned stimulus intensity is reduced to the point where it is barely capable of eliciting a response. These procedures have direct implications for the treatment of PTSD and could be implemented in a virtual reality environment.

  10. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  11. Eyeblink classical conditioning and post-traumatic stress disorder - a model systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Burhans, Lauren B

    2015-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to trauma suffers flashbacks, bad dreams, numbing, fear, anxiety, sleeplessness, hyper-vigilance, hyperarousal, or an inability to cope, but those who do may suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a major physical and mental health problem for military personnel and civilians exposed to trauma. There is still debate about the incidence and prevalence of PTSD especially among the military, but for those who are diagnosed, behavioral therapy and drug treatment strategies have proven to be less than effective. A number of these treatment strategies are based on rodent fear conditioning research and are capable of treating only some of the symptoms because the extinction of fear does not deal with the various forms of hyper-vigilance and hyperarousal experienced by people with PTSD. To help address this problem, we have developed a preclinical eyeblink classical conditioning model of PTSD in which conditioning and hyperarousal can both be extinguished. We review this model and discuss findings showing that unpaired stimulus presentations can be effective in reducing levels of conditioning and hyperarousal even when unconditioned stimulus intensity is reduced to the point where it is barely capable of eliciting a response. These procedures have direct implications for the treatment of PTSD and could be implemented in a virtual reality environment.

  12. Stress Calculation of a TRISO Coated Particle Fuel by Using a Poisson's Ratio in Creep Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon-Sung; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    KAERI, which has been carrying out the Korean VHTR (Very High Temperature modular gas cooled Reactor) project since 2004, has been developing a performance analysis code for the TRISO coated particle fuel named COPA (COated Particle fuel Analysis). COPA predicts temperatures, stresses, a fission gas release and failure probabilities of a coated particle fuel in normal operating conditions. KAERI, on the other hand, is developing an ABAQUS based finite element(FE) model to cover the non-linear behaviors of a coated particle fuel such as cracking or debonding of the TRISO coating layers. Using the ABAQUS based FE model, verification calculations were carried out for the IAEA CRP-6 benchmark problems involving creep, swelling, and pressure. However, in this model the Poisson's ratio for elastic solution was used for creep strain calculation. In this study, an improvement is made for the ABAQUS based finite element model by using the Poisson's ratio in creep condition for the calculation of the creep strain rate. As a direct input of the coefficient in a creep condition is impossible, a user subroutine for the ABAQUS solution is prepared in FORTRAN for use in the calculations of the creep strain of the coating layers in the radial and hoop directions of the spherical fuel. This paper shows the calculation results of a TRISO coated particle fuel subject to an irradiation condition assumed as in the Miller's publication in comparison with the results obtained from the old FE model used in the CRP-6 benchmark calculations

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  14. Relationship between accumulated heat stress during the dry period, body condition score, and reproduction parameters of Holstein cows in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Fuquay, John W; Moore, Reuben B; Liu, Zhanglin; Clark, Bruce L; Vierhout, C

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between heat stress during the last 60 days prepartum, body condition score and certain reproductive traits in the subsequent lactation of Holstein cows, 564 multiparous cows and 290 primiparous cows from four dairy herds were used in a hot, humid region. Maximum prepartum degree days were estimated to quantify the degree of heat stress. Multiple regressions analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the effect of prepartum heat stress and body condition change on reproductive parameters, which were obtained from DHIA forms at the end of the lactation. Multiparous and primiparous cows which gained body condition score from calving to 60 d postpartum exhibited 28 and 27 fewer days open (P 0.05) of heat stress measurement on days open or services per conception in either multiparous or primiparous cows. During hotter months of calving, multiparous cows showed higher services per conception and primiparous cows showed higher days open and services per conception (P score. Multiparous cows with high body condition score at calving were 1.47 times more likely to present a very difficult calving than cows that calved in October (P reproductive performance was not affected by cumulative prepartum heat stress although it was associated with very difficult calving score.

  15. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.; Mansour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  16. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified

  17. Influence of conditioned psychological stress on immunological recovery in mice exposed to low-dose x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Flood, J.F.; Makinodan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effects of psychological stress on the immune response in BALB/c mice recovering from exposure to a low dose of ionizing radiation. Mice were first subjected to conditioning training for 12 days, then exposed to 200 R, subjected to psychological stress for 14 days, and assessed for peak anti-sheep RBC response. The seven treatment groups included two unirradiated groups and five irradiated groups. Mice exposed to 200 R and then subjected to conditioned psychological stress responded less vigorously to antigenic stimulation than those of the other irradiated groups. The psychological stress imposed upon these mice did not influence the antibody-forming capacity of unirradiated mice. These results indicate that a psychological stress which did not affect the immunological activity of unirradiated mice can curtail the immunological recovery of mice exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

  18. Mental skills training effectively minimizes operative performance deterioration under stressful conditions: Results of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, N E; Beane, J; Yurco, A M; Howley, L D; Bean, E; Myers, E M; Stefanidis, D

    2018-02-01

    Stress can negatively impact surgical performance, but mental skills may help. We hypothesized that a comprehensive mental skills curriculum (MSC) would minimize resident performance deterioration under stress. Twenty-four residents were stratified then randomized to receive mental skills and FLS training (MSC group), or only FLS training (control group). Laparoscopic suturing skill was assessed on a live porcine model with and without external stressors. Outcomes were compared with t-tests. Twenty-three residents completed the study. The groups were similar at baseline. There were no differences in suturing at posttest or transfer test under normal conditions. Both groups experienced significantly decreased performance when stress was applied, but the MSC group significantly outperformed controls under stress. This MSC enabled residents to perform significantly better than controls in the simulated OR under unexpected stressful conditions. These findings support the use of psychological skills as an integral part of a surgical resident training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of drought stress on water status, electrolyte leakage and enzymatic antioxidants of kochia (kochia scoparia) under saline condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, A.; Kafi, M.; Khazaei, Z.; Davari, K.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is considered as the main factor of yield limitations in arid and semi-arid areas, where drought and salinity stresses are usually combined. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characters. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station (36 deg. 15'N, 59 deg. 28' E) of Ferdowsi University, ashhad, Iran in 2008, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage (recovery treatment) and no irrigation at reproductive stage for one month (stress treatment)), and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd) were allocated as main and sub-plots, respectively. Relative water content (RWC), membrane permeability and antioxidant enzymes were assayed at the beginning of anthesis. Stress treatment caused a significant decrease in the leaf RWC and increase in electrolyte leakage compared with control and recovered conditions. Furthermore, stress treatment caused a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activities except of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX). The Birjand ecotype was significantly more tolerant to drought than Borujerd ecotype. According to the results, there were no difference between recovered plants and control treatment, therefore, Kochia can recover quickly after removing drought stress. Kochia showed high tolerance against drought and salinity stresses and different antioxidant enzymes had different behavior under stress conditions. (author)

  20. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé ; Patet, Camille; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Suys, Tamarah; Bouzat, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Meuli, Reto; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy

  1. Field Performance of Five Soybean Mutants Under Drought Stress Conditions and Molecular Analysis Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yuliasti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research wereto evaluate (1 the performance of soybean mutant lines under drought stress conditions, and(2 the genetic diversity and relationship among the mutant lines using SSR markers.The field evaluation was conducted during the dry season of 2011 and 2012 at the experimental Farm of Mataram University, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The field experiment was set up in a randomized block design. Ten mutant lines and two control varieties were evaluated in four replications. Genetic distance among evaluated lines were determined based on allelic diversity analysis using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci. Under drought stress conditions, two mutant lines, Kdl3 and Kdl8,showed a better performance compared to the other ones. The high yielding mutant lines were Kdl3and Kdl8, which yielded 1.75 t ha-1and 1.69 t ha-1, respectively, compared to the parent and national control, Panderman 1.43 t ha-1 and Muria 1.32 t ha-1. These mutant linesrequired 30.75 to 32days to flower and 79.75 to 83.75 day to harvest with relatively short plant height 28.25 and 23.35 cmrespectively. Those mutant characters were better than those of the other three mutants, the original parents, and the control soybean species. Since the evaluated soybean mutant lines yielded more under drought stress conditions than the standard varieties, they can be used and registered as drought-tolerant soybean mutants. Moreover, the evaluated soybean accessions showed a wide genetic distance. The accessions were clustered into two groups according to their genetic background, namelygroup I (the Panderman with three mutant lines and group II (the Muria with two mutant lines. Twenty-three out of 40 evaluated SSR loci, including AW31, BE806, CMAC7L, S080, S126, S57, S171, S224, S285, S294, S393, S294, S383, S511, S511, S520, S540, S547, S551, S571, S577, and S578, provided polymorphic alleles between the parents and their mutants and could be used to differentiate

  2. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Gabler

    Full Text Available The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration, competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also

  3. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  4. Thermal stress analysis of reactor containment building considering severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun; Kim, Yun-Yong; Hyun, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Gyeum

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine that through-wall crack risk in cold weather is high. • It is predicted that cracking in concrete wall will not happen in hot region. • Cracking due to hydration heat can be controlled by appropriate curing condition. • Temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small in hot weather. - Abstract: Prediction of concrete cracking due to hydration heat in mass concrete such as reactor containment building (RCB) in nuclear power plant is a crucial issue in construction site. In this study, the numerical analysis for heat transfer and stress development is performed for the containment wall in RCB by considering the severe weather conditions. Finally, concrete cracking risk in hot and cold weather is discussed based on analysis results. In analyses considering severe weather conditions, it is found that the through-wall cracking risk in cold weather is high due to the abrupt temperature difference between inside concrete and the ambient air in cold region. In hot weather, temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small, and accordingly the relevant cracking risk is relatively low in contrast with cold weather

  5. Evaluating stress analysis and failure criteria for offshore structures for Pechora Sea conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, S.; Donskoy, Y.; Zolotukhin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources has faced many challenges due to sensitive environmental conditions including low temperatures, ice cover and terrestrial permafrost and extreme seasonal variation in sunlight. Russian offshore field development in Arctic region is usually associated with annual ice cover, which can cause serious damage on the offshore platforms. The Pechora Sea has claimed as one of the most perspective oil and gas region of the Russian Arctic with seven discovered oil and gas fields and several dozens of structures. Our rough assessment, based on in-place hydrocarbon volumes and recovery factor evaluation concept, indicates that Pechora Sea alone has in-place volumes amounting to ca. 20 billion barrel oil equivalent (BOE). This quantity is enough to secure produced volumes by 2040 exceeding 3 billion BOE [1] that indicates huge resource potential of the region. The environmental conditions are primarily function of water dynamics and ice cover. The sea is covered by the ice for greatest part of the year. In this article, the ice load simulations were performed using explicit dynamic analysis system in ANSYS software to determine best shape and size of an offshore platform for the Pechora Sea ice conditions. Different gravity based structures (GBS) were analyzed: artificial island, hollow cylindrical and conical concrete structures and four-leg GBS. Relationships between the stress, deformations and time were analyzed and important observations from the simulation results were a basis for selecting the most preferable structures.

  6. Evaluation of Spur Gear Pair on Tooth Root Bending Stress in Radial Misalignment Contact Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lias M.R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of radial misalignment contact on the tooth root bending stress values of spur gear pair during the gear meshing cycle. Radial misalignment (H is denoted as the deviation of the pinion nominal position with respect to the gear tooth along the pinion axis to the gear which happened from manufacturing assembly errors (AE. A model based on involute 3D parametric CAD geometry, of spur gear design ISO 6336:2006 is analysed with allowable AE values from minimum 10μm to maximum 40μm with Finite-Element Method (FEM model based methodology using a dynamics module from ANSYS. Main parameters of interest are the Tooth root bending stress (TRBS in H condition with AE along the critical region with respect to face width of pinion-gear section. A comparison between standard High point single tooth contact models (HPSTC to this model showed a good agreement that H with AE had great influence on TRBS as the values’ increase. Radial misalignment influence factor (RMIF was introduced as indication of TRBS values in consideration of H due to AE shows and inverted patterns higher for pinion, give a good justification that the pinion is weaker compared to the gear.

  7. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Lucy J.; Leith, Ian D.; Crossley, A.; Van Dijk, N.; Fowler, D.; Sutton, M.A.; Woods, C.

    2008-01-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 μg m -3 , while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4 mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha -1 year -1 above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha -1 year -1 . Ammonia concentrations, >8 μg m -3 have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH 3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status. - Exposure to NH 3 reduces stress resistance and increases visible damage in mature Calluna

  8. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  9. Study of Sesame (Sesame indicum L. Cultivars based on Morphological Characteristics Under Water Deficit Stress Condition Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asghari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation sesame cultivars based on morphological characteristics under water deficit stress condition using factor analysis, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2009 in Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Parsabad. In this experiment, irrigation as the main factor at three levels (50, 75 and 100 percent of crop water requirement and ten sesame cultivars as the sub-factor were studied. The water requirement of sesame was calculated using CROPWAT software (Penman-Monteith method according to FAO-56. Results showed significant differences between the cultivars and the irrigation levels for all studied traits. Interaction between cultivars and irrigation levels was significant for some of traits. Comparisons of means showed that in water deficit condition, yield and all of traits reduced. In all traits the greatest amounts observed in complete irrigation treatment. In 50 percent of water requirement treatment, amount of leaf chlorophyll, root length, root branches and root length/plant height ratio were greater than other treatments. The Karaj1, Ultan, Naze and IS cultivars were better than other cultivars in stress and non stress condition. In factor analysis 5 and 4 first factors in non stress and stress condition explained 91.36 and 89.52 percent of trait variance, respectively. Grouping of sesame cultivars based on first and second factors in non stress conditions showed that Karaj1, Ultan and Naze cultivars were better than other cultivars. Also, in stress conditions Karaj1 and Ultan cultivars grouped as water deficit stress and better cultivars.

  10. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Corpas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO, is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants.

  11. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  12. Elastic wave velocity and acoustic emission monitoring during Gypsum dehydration under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; David, E. C.; Héripré, E.; Schubnel, A. J.; Zimmerman, R. W.; Gueguen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Dehydration experiments were performed on natural Gypsum polycrystal samples coming from Volterra, Italy in order to study contemporaneously the evolution of P and S elastic wave velocities and acoustic emission (AE) triggering. During these experiments, temperature was slowly raised at 0.15 degrees C per minute under constant stress conditions. Two experiments were realized under quasi-hydrostatic stress (15 and 55 MPa respectively). The third experiment was realized under constant triaxial stress (σ3=45MPa, σ1=75MPa). All three were drained (10MPa constant pore pressure). In each experiments, both P and S wave velocities reduced drastically (as much as approx. 50% in the low confining pressure case) at the onset of dehydration. Importantly, the Vp/Vs ratio also decreased. Shortly after the onset of decrease in P and S wave velocities, the dehydration reaction was also accompanied by bursts of AEs. Time serie locations of the AEs show that they initiated from the pore pressure port, ie from where the pore fluid could easily be drained, and then slowly migrated within the sample. In each experiments, the AE rate could be positively correlated to the reaction rate, inferred from pore volumetry. In such a way, the AE rate reached a peak when the reaction was the fastest. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed they had a large volumetric component in compaction, confirming that AEs were indeed related to pore closure and/or collapse. In addition, the AE rate also increased with confinement, ie when a larger amount of compaction was observed. Interestingly, when under differential stress conditions, AE focal mechanisms were mainly in shear. Additional dehydration experiments performed within an environmental scanning electron microscope under low vacuum highlight that, in drained conditions at least, the reaction seems to take place in two phases. First, cracks are being opened along cleavage planes within a single gypsum crystal, which allows for the

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of age-hardenable nickel-base alloys in LWR-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, T.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    At present it seems that the microstructure most resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in high temperature water is obtained by a solution annealing treatment at a relatively high temperature (appr. 1100 deg C) followed by water quenching and a single aging treatment (appr. 700 deg C/20 h). This should produce a microstructure with a high M 23 Cc 6 :MC ratio, semi-continous coherent M 23 C 6 precipitation, and an evenly distributed gamma prime in the matrix. However, since the actual mechanism of SCC in age-hardenable Ni-base alloys is unclear, the microstructural features resulting in the good resistance to SCC cannot be specified. Furthermore, the possible microstructural changes caused by prolonged use in LWR-conditions are unknown

  14. Analysis of molecular responses in plants under the conditions of excess-aluminium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaoka, Yoshikuni; Arakawa, Yusuke; Asanuma, Shuichi [Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Kumamoto (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    Recent soil environments in Kyushu and Okinawa regions have a possibility to impair agricultural products because elution of aluminum (Al) from the soil has been progressing because of its elution by soil acidification. In this study, {sup 26}Al-tracing method using tandem accelerator mass spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effects of aluminum in the soil on a few plants. The results showed that Al accumulation in mitochondria was several times of higher in Dayton, a Al-resistant strain of barley than kearney, a sensitive one. It was thus suggested that mitochondria, which has been known to participates in respiration and cell death (apoptosis), has also an important role in the physiological functions of Al. The growth of barley on the soil of pH 5.0 was significantly inhibited with Al and such growth inhibition was also observed in barley grown in hydroponics, especially, the growth of kearney was markedly inhibited. When the effects of 1 mM Al were compared between Dayton and kearney strains, there were large differences in the growth of their leaves. Then, the correlative resistance to Al and barley leaf stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was examined in these two barley strains. The virus concentration in kearney leaves 30 days after an inoculation of BSMV was similar to that in Dayton ones. Under stress conditions with a low level Al, both strains infected with BSMW developed necrotic damages, whereas under the stress condition at a high level Al (100 {mu}M), they developed severe necrosis even without inoculation with BSMW. As an increase of the amount of absorbed Al, the phosphate concentration in the cell was decreased and the decrease was marked in the resistant strain, Dayton. (M.N.)

  15. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses are one of the main causes of severe yield reductions. Drought is still a serious agronomic problem and also one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss in arid and semi-arid areas in the world. Filter Cake is a byproduct of sugarcane industry and experiments on corn showed that the use of 20 tons per hectare Filter Cake increases crop productivity, total amount of dry matter, protein and forage yield compared with the control. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the Ramin Agricultural University of Khuzestan in 2012. The experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress at the end of the growth period in three levels, non-stress, mild and severe drought stress, respectively irrigated after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water, and was considered as the main factor. Drought stress was applied in early stage of the male inflorescence of plants to maturity for 35 days, due to the critical stage of the plant in late spring. Soil moisture was determined by gravimetric method. Different doses of Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare were considered as subplot factor and was added to the soil two days before the seeding. The final harvest as green corn was performed in the first phase of dough by hand in three times and two midfields of each subplot was considered as the margin of half a meter for each side. Finally, the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at probability level of 5%. Results and discussion In non-stress conditions, Filter Cake is significantly increased plant height, So the amounts of 20 and 30 tons per hectare increased by 11.7% and 10.1% of the plant’s height, respectively, but the use of 10 tons of Filter Cake did not have a significant effect on it. In severe stress conditions, the use of

  16. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  17. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  18. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  19. Effect of the Evaporative Cooling on the Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal sensation and heat stress were evaluated in a plastic greenhouse, with and without evaporative cooling, under arid climatic conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Suitable thermal comfort and heat stress scales were selected for the evaluation. Experiments were conducted in hot sunny days to measure the required parameters (i.e., the dry and wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature, natural wet bulb temperature, and solar radiation flux in the greenhouse. The results showed that in the uncooled greenhouse, workers are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel very hot most of the day time; they are safe from heat stress risk and would feel comfortable during night. An efficient evaporative cooling is necessary during the day to reduce heat stress and to improve the comfort conditions and is not necessary at night. In the cooled greenhouse, workers can do any activity: except at around noon they should follow a proposed working schedule, in which the different types of work were scheduled along the daytimes based on the heat stress value. To avoid heat stress and to provide comfort conditions in the greenhouses, the optimum ranges of relative humidity and air temperature are 48–55% and 24–28°C, respectively.

  20. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Effect of heat treatment conditions on stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloy X-750 in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Onimura, Kichiro; Sakamoto, Naruo; Sasaguri, Nobuya; Susukida, Hiroshi; Nakata, Hidenori.

    1984-01-01

    In order to improve the resistance of the Alloy X-750 in high temperature and high purity water, the authors investigated the influence of heat treatment condition on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the alloy. This paper describes results of the stress corrosion cracking test and some discussion on the mechanism of the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy X-750 in deaerated high temperature water. The following results were obtained. (1) The stress corrosion cracking resistance of Alloy X-750 in deaerated high temperature water remarkably depended upon the heat treatment condition. The materials solution heat treated and aged within temperature ranges from 1065 to 1100 0 C and from 704 to 732 0 C, respectively, have a good resistance to the stress corrosion cracking in deaerated high temperature water. Especially, water cooling after the solution heat treatment gives an excellent resistance to the stress corrosion cracking in deaerated high temperature water. (2) Any correlations were not observed between the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy X-750 in deaerated high temperature water and grain boundary chromium depleted zones, precipitate free zones and the grain boundary segregation of impurity elements and so on. It appears that there are good correlations between the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the alloy in the environment and the kinds, morphology and coherency of precipitates along the grain boundaries. (author)

  2. Comparison of different test methods to assess thermal stresses of metal oxide surge arresters under pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; de Nigris, M.; Pigini, A.; Sironi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report deals with the research conducted by ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board, to assess the performance of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution condition, with special reference to the consequent thermal stress on internal active parts which can affect the energy handling capabality of the arrester and may lead, in particular conditions, even to thermal runaway

  3. Functional loss of GABA transaminase (GABA-T expressed early leaf senescence under various stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzma Jalil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GABA-transaminase (GABA-T involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism during the plant development process via GABA shunt and GABA-T mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism, is ideal model to examine the role of GABA-T in plant development and leaf senescence of plant. We have characterized GABA transaminase knock out mutant pop2-1 that is transition and pop2-3 which is T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.The GABA-T knockout mutant plants displayed precocious leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the assays of physiological parameters of leaf senescence during various stress conditions. Furthermore, our physiological evidence indicates that pop2-1 and pop2-3 mutations rapidly decreased the efficiency of leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, GABA content, GABA-T, and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity and on the other hand increases membrane ion leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA level in stress induced leaves. However, cell viability assay by trypan blue and insitu Hydrogen peroxidation assay by 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB in stress induced leaves also display that pop2-1 and pop2-3 mutant leaves show oversensitivity in response to different stress conditions as compared to wild type. These results strongly indicate that the loss-of-function of GABA transaminase gene induces early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.

  4. Stress reaction in crayfish: chlorides help to withstand stress in high nitrite concentration conditions – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozák P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-invasive method of recording cardiac activity (heart rate – HR and stress reaction (stress index – SI was used to understand the immediate and ongoing stress reaction of crayfish to the chemical stimuli. This method detects changes in the shape and amplitude parameters of the response to the stress factors, which characterized the crayfish functional state. Experimental animals (Astacus leptodactylus were divided to the two groups with (400 mg·L-1 Cl− and without added chlorides and then exposed to a stepwise increased level of nitrite to the final (sublethal-lethal concentration of 60 mg·L-1 N-NO\\hbox{$_{2}^{-}$}−2 within 24 hours. The course of crayfish reaction was evident and provided information about their reaction to the sublethal-lethal concentration over time. As expected, a less prominent stress reaction was detected in the group with chlorides. The non-invasive method successfully evaluated the sensing of chemical stimuli in water through HR and SI changes.

  5. Generating chimeric mice from embryonic stem cells via vial coculturing or hypertonic microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The generation of a fertile embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived or F0 (100 % coat color chimerism) mice is the final criterion in proving that the ESC is truly pluripotent. Many methods have been developed to produce chimeric mice. To date, the most popular methods for generating chimeric embryos is well sandwich aggregation between zona pellucida (ZP) removed (denuded) 2.5-day post-coitum (dpc) embryos and ESC clumps, or direct microinjection of ESCs into the cavity (blastocoel) of 3.5-dpc blastocysts. However, due to systemic limitations and the disadvantages of conventional microinjection, aggregation, and coculturing, two novel methods (vial coculturing and hypertonic microinjection) were developed in recent years at my laboratory.Coculturing 2.5-dpc denuded embryos with ESCs in 1.7-mL vials for ~3 h generates chimeras that have significantly high levels of chimerism (including 100 % coat color chimerism) and germline transmission. This method has significantly fewer instrumental and technological limitations than existing methods, and is an efficient, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for "mass production" of chimeric embryos. For laboratories without a microinjection system, this is the method of choice for generating chimeric embryos. Microinjecting ESCs into a subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos can generate germline-transmitted chimeras including 100 % coat color chimerism. However, this method is adopted rarely due to the very small and tight space between ZP and blastomeres. Using a laser pulse or Piezo-driven instrument/device to help introduce ESCs into the subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos demonstrates the superior efficiency in generating ESC-derived (F0) chimeras. Unfortunately, due to the need for an expensive instrument/device and extra fine skill, not many studies have used either method. Recently, ESCs injected into the large subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos in an injection medium containing 0.2-0.3 M sucrose very efficiently generated

  6. Chondrogenic Effect of Intra-articular Hypertonic-Dextrose (Prolotherapy) in Severe Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Giraldo, Marcia Mallma; Johnson, Lanny L; Grasso, Raul; Jamín, Alexis; Clark, Tom; Rabago, David

    2016-11-01

    Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen

  7. Transcriptional Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to Oxidative Stress Mimicking Environmental Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-12

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are anaerobes readily found in oxic-anoxic interfaces. Multiple defence pathways against oxidative conditions were identified in these organisms and proposed to be differentially expressed under different concentrations of oxygen, contributing to their ability to survive oxic conditions. In this study, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cells were exposed to the highest concentration of oxygen that sulphate-reducing bacteria are likely to encounter in natural habitats, and the global transcriptomic response was determined. 307 genes were responsive, with cellular roles in energy metabolism, protein fate, cell envelope and regulatory functions, including multiple genes encoding heat shock proteins, peptidases and proteins with heat shock promoters. Of the oxygen reducing mechanisms of D. vulgaris only the periplasmic hydrogen-dependent mechanism is up-regulated, involving the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase(s) and the Hmc membrane complex. The oxidative defence response concentrates on damage repair by metal-free enzymes. These data, together with the down regulation of the Fur operon, which restricts the availability of iron, and the lack of response of the PerR operon, suggest that a major effect of this oxygen stress is the inactivation and/or degradation of multiple metalloproteins present in D. vulgaris as a consequence of oxidative damage to their metal clusters.

  8. Cracks propagation by stress corrosion cracking in conditions of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes C, P.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assays carried out in the Laboratory of Hot Cells of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to a type test tube Compact Tension (CT), built in steel austenitic stainless type 304L, simulating those conditions those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), at temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa, to determine the speed to which the cracks spread in this material that is of the one that different components of a reactor are made, among those that it highlights the reactor core vessel. The application of the Hydrogen Chemistry of the Water is presented (HWC) that is one alternative to diminish the corrosion effect low stress in the component, this is gets controlling the quantity of oxygen and of hydrogen as well as the conductivity of the water. The rehearsal is made following the principles of the Mechanics of Elastic Lineal Fracture (LEFM) that considers a crack of defined size with little plastic deformation in the tip of this; the measurement of crack advance is continued with the technique of potential drop of direct current of alternating signal, this is contained inside the standard Astm E-647 (Method of Test Standard for the Measurement of Speed of Growth of Crack by fatigue) that is the one that indicates us as carrying out this test. The specifications that should complete the test tubes that are rehearsed as for their dimensions, it forms, finish and determination of mechanical properties (tenacity to the fracture mainly) they are contained inside the norm Astm E-399, the one which it is also based on the principles of the fracture mechanics. The obtained results were part of a database to be compared with those of other rehearsals under different conditions, Normal Chemistry of the Water (NWC) and it dilutes with high content of O 2 ; to determine the conditions that slow more the phenomena of stress corrosion cracking, as well as the effectiveness of the used chemistry and of the method of

  9. Peroxisomal monodehydroascorbate reductase. Genomic clone characterization and functional analysis under environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A

    2005-08-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5' untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns of

  10. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  11. A Stress-Induced Shift from Trace to Delay Conditioning Depends on the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Oplaat, Krista T.; Krugers, Harm J.; Oitzl, Melly S.; Joëls, Marian; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Background Fear learning in stressful situations is highly adaptive for survival by steering behavior in subsequent situations, but fear learning can become disproportionate in vulnerable individuals. Despite the potential clinical significance, the mechanism by which stress modulates fear learning

  12. Impact of Mental and Physical Stress on Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure under Normobaric versus Hypoxic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Egger, Josef W.; Domej, Wolfgang; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Avian, Alexander; Rohrer, Peter M.; Hörlesberger, Nina; Magometschnigg, Dieter; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila; Komericki, Peter; Velik, Rosemarie; Baulmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP). We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car. Methods 36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress task (KLT-R), period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R) and physical task (bicycle ergometry) and a last period of rest both at Graz, Austria (353 m asl) and at the top station Dachstein (2700 m asl). Beat-to-beat heart rate and BP were analysed both during the test procedures at Graz and at Dachstein and during passive 1000 m elevation by cable car (from 1702 m to 2700 m). Results A significant interaction of kind of stress (mental vs. combined mental and physical) and study location (Graz vs. Dachstein) was found in the systolic BP (p = .007) and PP (p = .002) changes indicating that during the combined mental and physical stress task sBP was significantly higher under hypoxic conditions whereas sBP and PP were similar during mental stress both under normobaric normoxia (Graz) and under hypobaric hypoxia (Dachstein). During the passive ascent in cable car less trivialization (psychological coping strategy) was associated with an increase in PP (p = .004). Conclusion Our data show that combined mental and physical stress causes a significant higher raise in sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions whereas isolated mental stress did not affect sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions. PP-reaction to ascent in healthy subjects is not uniform. BP reactions to ascent that represents an accumulation of physical (mild hypobaric hypoxia) and psychological stressors depend on predetermined psychological traits (stress coping strategies). Thus divergent cardiovascular reactions can be explained by applying the multidimensional aspects of the

  13. Impact of mental and physical stress on blood pressure and pulse pressure under normobaric versus hypoxic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trapp

    Full Text Available Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP and pulse pressure (PP. We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car.36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress task (KLT-R, period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R and physical task (bicycle ergometry and a last period of rest both at Graz, Austria (353 m asl and at the top station Dachstein (2700 m asl. Beat-to-beat heart rate and BP were analysed both during the test procedures at Graz and at Dachstein and during passive 1000 m elevation by cable car (from 1702 m to 2700 m.A significant interaction of kind of stress (mental vs. combined mental and physical and study location (Graz vs. Dachstein was found in the systolic BP (p = .007 and PP (p = .002 changes indicating that during the combined mental and physical stress task sBP was significantly higher under hypoxic conditions whereas sBP and PP were similar during mental stress both under normobaric normoxia (Graz and under hypobaric hypoxia (Dachstein. During the passive ascent in cable car less trivialization (psychological coping strategy was associated with an increase in PP (p = .004.Our data show that combined mental and physical stress causes a significant higher raise in sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions whereas isolated mental stress did not affect sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions. PP-reaction to ascent in healthy subjects is not uniform. BP reactions to ascent that represents an accumulation of physical (mild hypobaric hypoxia and psychological stressors depend on predetermined psychological traits (stress coping strategies. Thus divergent cardiovascular reactions can be explained by applying the multidimensional aspects of the biopsychosocial concept.

  14. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskircioglu, H.; Tuyluer, I.; Sagel, Z.; Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M 2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M 4 generations. In M 6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.

  15. The role of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on endurance performance in uncompensable heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on the development of thermal and cardiovascular strain in uncompensable heat stress conditions. In three separate trials, eight aerobically trained and eight untrained subjects cycled to exhaustion at 60% (H60%) and 75% (H75%) of maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] in 40°C conditions, and for 60 min at 60% [Formula: see text] in 18°C conditions (CON). Training status had no influence on time to exhaustion between trained (61 ± 10 and 31 ± 9 min) and untrained (58 ± 12 and 26 ± 10 min) subjects (H60% and H75%, respectively). Rectal temperature at exhaustion was also not significantly different between trained (39.8 ± 0.3, 39.3 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 0.3°C) and untrained (39.4 ± 0.5, 38.8 ± 0.5 and 38.2 ± 0.4°C) subjects, but was different between trials (H60%, H75% and CON, respectively; P exercise was terminated on reaching the ethics approved rectal temperature limit in four trained subjects in the H60% trial and two in the H75% trial, it is speculated that increased rectal temperature may have further occurred in this cohort. Nonetheless, exhaustion occurred >96% of maximum heart rate in both cohorts and was accompanied by significant declines in stroke volume (15-26%), cardiac output (5-10%) and mean arterial pressure (9-13%) (P aerobic exercise in the heat in both trained and untrained subjects.

  16. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behav...

  17. Effect of potassium chloride supplementation in drinking water on broiler performance under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, T; Khalid, T; Mushtaq, T; Mirza, M A; Nadeem, A; Babar, M E; Ahmad, G

    2008-07-01

    The effect of water supplementation of KCl on performance of heat-stressed Hubbard broilers was evaluated in the present experiment. The 3 experimental treatments (i.e., control, 0.3 and 0.6% KCl) were allocated to 3 replicates of 15 birds each. The control group was kept on dugout tap water, whereas the other 2 groups were supplied water supplemented with 0.3 and 0.6% KCl (wt/vol) by supplementing 3 and 6 g of KCl, respectively, per liter of drinking water. Broilers were provided ad libitum access to feed and water for the experimental period of 7 to 42 d of age and kept in open-sided house. The birds were reared under continuous thermostress (minimum 28.2 +/- 1.02 and maximum 37.5 +/- 0.78 degrees C) environment. Supplementing drinking water with 0.6% KCl reduced panting-phase blood pH to 7.31 and significantly increased live BW gain by 14.5 (P = 0.036) and 7.9% (P = 0.029) at 28 and 42 d of age, respectively, relative to control. An improved (P = 0.04) feed:gain and lowered body temperature were noted in groups supplemented with 0.6% KCl as compared with control and 0.3% KCl. Enhanced physiological adaptation with 0.6% KCl was evidenced by a more favorable pH during the panting phase in the present study. These findings demonstrated a possibility of better broiler live performance through KCl supplementation under conditions of severe heat stress (35 to 38 degrees C).

  18. Pivotal role of oxidative stress in tumor metastasis under diabetic conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Mai; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kusamori, Kosuke; Fukuoka, Miho; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2013-09-10

    Diabetic patients are reported to have a high incidence and mortality of cancer, but little is known about the linkage. In this study, we investigated whether high oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis in diabetic mice. Murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells stably labeled with firefly luciferase (B16-BL6/Luc) were inoculated into the tail vein of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated or untreated mice. A luciferase assay demonstrated that tumor cells were present largely in the lung of untreated mice, whereas large numbers of tumor cells were detected in both the lung and liver of STZ-treated mice. Repeated injections of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-catalase), a long-circulating derivative, reduced the elevated fasting blood glucose levels and plasma lipoperoxide levels of STZ-treated mice, but had no significant effects on these parameters in untreated mice. In addition, the injections significantly reduced the number of tumor cells in the lung and liver in both untreated and STZ-treated mice. Culture of B16-BL6/Luc cells in medium containing over 45 mg/dl glucose hardly affected the proliferation of the cells, whereas the addition of plasma of STZ-treated mice to the medium significantly increased the number of cells. Plasma samples of STZ-treated mice receiving PEG-catalase exhibited no such effect on proliferation. These findings indicate that a hyperglycemia-induced increase in oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis, and the removal of systemic hydrogen peroxide by PEG-catalase can inhibit the progression of diabetic conditions and tumor metastasis in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  20. A reference stress approach for the characterisation of the creep failure of dissimilar welds under isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.D.; Williams, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    In high temperature power plant, welds between austenitic and ferritic steels are required to operate under plant conditions for up to 250,000h. The experience and failure modes for such joints are briefly surveyed in this report. A semi-empirical reference stress approach is used to define the failure life of joints under isothermal conditions. The reference stress is based on a previously published form for multiaxial creep fracture of homogeneous materials but modified to include an additional factor to reflect the complex strains present close to the interface in a dissimilar weld. This reference stress can be modified to give approximate bounds characterised by the equivalent stress or the axial stress on the weld. The reference stress, when applied to the 21/4Cr1Mo:Type 316 welded component data base, gives conservative results for the test data available although conservatism is low for the 9Cr1Mo:Alloy 600 combination. The existing data base for welded components is limited. More data are needed covering a wider range of stress ratios and incorporating bending loads. (author)

  1. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  2. AgRISTARS: Early warning and crop condition assessment. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator); Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Emissive (10.5 to 12.5 microns) and reflective (0.55 to 1.1 microns) data for ten day scenes and infrared data for six night scenes of southern Texas were analyzed for plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration. Heat capacity mapping mission radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures, significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration, and related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures.

  3. Investigation of effect of post weld heat treatment conditions on residual stress for ITER blanket shield blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun-Chea, E-mail: hcjung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Hee [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Wook [Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su; Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • PWHT for ITER blanket shield block should be performed for dimensional stability. • Investigation of the effect of PWHT conditions on properties was performed. • Instrumented indentation method for evaluation of properties was used. • Residual stress and hardness decreased with increasing PWHT temperature. • Optimization of PWHT conditions would be needed for satisfaction of requirement. - Abstract: The blanket shield block (SB) shall be required the tight tolerance because SB interfaces with many components, such as flexible support keypads, First Wall (FW) support contact surfaces, FW central bolt, electrical strap contact surfaces and attachment inserts for both FW and Vacuum Vessel (VV). In order to fulfil the tight tolerance requirement, stress relieving shall be performed for dimensional stability after cover welding operation. In this paper, effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) conditions, temperature and holding time, was investigated on the residual stress and hardness. The 316L Stainless Steel (SS) was prepared and welded by manual TIG welding by using filler material with 2.4 mm of diameter. Welded 316L SS plate was machined to prepare the specimen for PWHT. PWHT was implemented at 250, 300, 400 °C for 2 and 3 h (400 °C only) and residual stress after relaxation were determined. The evaluation of residual stress and hardness for each specimen was carried out by instrumented indentation technique. The residual stress and hardness were decreased with increasing the heat treatment temperature and holding time.

  4. Oral Hypertonic Saline Is Effective in Reversing Acute Mild-to-Moderate Symptomatic Exercise -Associated Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Eileen; Altherwi, Tawfeeq; Correa, José A; Hew-Butler, Tamara

    2018-01-23

    To determine whether oral administration of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) is as efficacious as intravenous (IV) 3% saline in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in athletes during and after a long-distance triathlon. Noninferiority, open-label, parallel-group, randomized control trial to IV or oral HTS. We used permuted block randomization with sealed envelopes, containing the word either "oral" or "IV." Annual long-distance triathlon (3.8-km swim, 180-km bike, and 42-km run) at Mont-Tremblant, Quebec, Canada. Twenty race finishers with mild to moderately symptomatic EAH. Age, sex, race finish time, and 9 clinical symptoms. Time from treatment to discharge. We successfully randomized 20 participants to receive either an oral (n = 11) or IV (n = 9) bolus of HTS. We performed venipuncture to measure serum sodium (Na) at presentation to the medical clinic and at time of symptom resolution after the intervention. The average time from treatment to discharge was 75.8 minutes (SD 29.7) for the IV treatment group and 50.3 minutes (SD 26.8) for the oral treatment group (t test, P = 0.02). Serum Na before and after treatment was not significantly different in both groups. There was no difference on presentation between groups in age, sex, or race finish time, both groups presented with an average of 6 symptoms. Oral HTS is effective in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate hyponatremia in EAH.

  5. Temporal versus spatial variation in leaf reflectance under changing water stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf reflectance changes associated with changes in water stress were analyzed in two separate experiments. Results indicate that the variation in reflectance among collections of leaves of a given species all at the same level of water stress is at least as great as the variation in reflectance associated with changes in water stress for a given leaf collection of that species. The implications is that results from leaf reflectance-water stress studies have only limited applicability to the remote sensing of plant canopy water stress.

  6. Relationship between depression, stress and stressors in pregnant teenagers under different marital status conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on depression and stress has become important because of its high relevance especially in teenage pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the relationship between depression and stress levels and number of stressors faced by 82 first-time pregnant teenagers, who responded to the assessment instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Life Events Questionnaire. According to the results, adolescents who live with their own family are those with the highest means of stress and depression. Therefore, it can be concluded that adolescents who live with their own family are more prone to develop depression and stress during pregnancy, since this could be a contributing factor.

  7. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na-Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells, as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+ was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and diethyl maleate (DEM significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus.

  8. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  10. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    , the same mechanisms determine both in vitro and in vivo variability. Stress during tissue culture can induce somaclonal variation. For example during cryopreservation the callus cells experience stress caused by exposure to a complex of various factors, which may induce free radical formation and provide conditions for the appearance of genetic changes. ISSR and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP markers were applied to study the influence of individual steps of dehydration cryopreservation technique on DNA in calli and regenerated plants of bread wheat. The precultivation with sucrose and freezing had no influence on the genetic stability of plant material. After the dehydration step, a new fragment appeared in the REMAP profiles for one DNA sample in calli of one line. The most likely cause of the this change is triggered by the stress experienced by cells during dehydration, insertion of a new copy of retrotransposon close to the microsatellite sequence complementary to the ISSR primer.

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Salem Al Rowaihi

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  12. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grötzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Eppinger, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:29698424

  13. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  14. Context-dependent memory under stressful conditions: the case of skydiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Williams, K L; L'Esperance, P; Cornelius, J

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of differing levels of emotional arousal on learning and memory for words in matching and mismatching contexts. In Experiment 1, experienced skydivers learned words either in the air or on the ground and recalled them in the same context or in the other context. Experiment 2 replicated the stimuli and design of the first experiment except that participants were shown a skydiving video in lieu of skydiving. Recall was poor in air-learning conditions with actual skydiving, but when lists were learned on land, recall was higher in the matching context than in the mismatching context. In the skydiving video experiment, recall was higher in matching learn-recall contexts regardless of the situation in which learning occurred. We propose that under extremely emotionally arousing circumstances, environmental and/or mood cues are unlikely to become encoded or linked to newly acquired information and thus cannot serve as cues to retrieval. Results can be applied to understanding variations in context-dependent memory in occupations (e.g., police, military special operations, and Special Weapons and Tactics teams) in which the worker experiences considerable emotional stress while learning or recalling new information.

  15. A Review on the Assessment of Stress conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpreet kaur Minhas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions.

  16. A Review on the Assessment of Stress Conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Amritpreet K.; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J.; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids) under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions. PMID:27199903

  17. Particularities of the human genome immunological effects under radiogenic stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the immunological effects and individual dosimeter control results of the occupationally exposed workers (OEW) employed in the radiological therapy and radiological diagnostic are presented. The peripheral blood lymphocytes immunological phenotypization has been made by using monoclonal antibodies ('Sorbent' LTD, Moscow, Russia). The number of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ T-lymphocytes and CDHLA DR has been determined by utilizing 'FACS-COUNT' flow cytometry and 'LOMO' luminescent microscope. Length of service (seniority) in the radiogenic stress conditions, age and individual accumulated doses of the OEW were taken into consideration during the results' analysis. The thermoluminescent dosimeters have been used in the process of individual dosimeter monitoring of the OEW. A data base was created in Access and afterwards exported to Microsoft Excel, the latter being used for descriptive statistic. The results demonstrated the general dysfunction of the OEW immunological system, which manifested itself through the diminution, balance or co-expression of the superficial determinants responsible with immunity system. The individual doses of the investigated OEW were within admissible levels according to Fundamental Norms of Radiation Protection standards. (authors)

  18. Optical stimulation of the hearing and deaf cochlea under thermal and stress confinement condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.; Baumhoff, P.; Kallweit, N.; Sato, M.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.; Lenarz, T.; Kral, A.

    2014-03-01

    There is a controversy, to which extend cochlear stimulation with near infrared laser pulses at a wavelength of 1860 nm is based on optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells or -in contrast- is based on direct stimulation of the nerve cells in absence of functional hair cells. Thermal and stress confinement conditions apply, because of the pulse duration range (5 ns, 10 μs-20 ms) of the two lasers used. The dependency of the signal characteristics on pulse peak power and pulse duration was investigated in this study. The compound action potential (CAP) was measured during stimulation of the cochlea of four anaesthetized guinea pigs, which were hearing at first and afterwards acutely deafened using intracochlear neomycin-rinsing. For comparison hydrophone measurements in a water tank were performed to investigate the optoacoustic signals at different laser interaction regimes. With rising pulse peak power CAPs of the hearing animals showed first a threshold, then a positively correlated and finally a saturating dependency. CAPs also showed distinct responses at laser onset and offset separated with the pulse duration. At pulse durations shorter than physiological response times the signals merged. Basically the same signal characteristics were observed in the optoacoustic hydrophone measurements, scaled with the sensitivity and response time of the hydrophone. Taking together the qualitative correspondence in the signal response and the absence of any CAPs in deafened animals our results speak in favor of an optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells rather than a direct stimulation of nerve cells.

  19. Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hung, E-mail: hhhsu@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Lungtan Township, Taoyuan County 325, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Tsay, Leu-Wen [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 Degree-Sign C and 300 Degree-Sign C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 Degree-Sign C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 Degree-Sign C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

  20. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem

    2018-04-26

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  1. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  2. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/ P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  4. Potentially stressful situations for nurses considering the condition of accreditation of hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Higashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of perceived/self-reported stress by nurses in hospitals with and without accreditation. One conducted in an accredited and two non-accredited hospitals in São Paulo in 2010 and 2011. Data collection included a questionnaire and the Stress Inventory for Nurses, with 262 participants, who evaluated stressful situations in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work, Interpersonal Relationships at Work and Stressful Roles in Career. The differences among hospitals concerning nurses’ perception/self-declaration about potentially stressful factors were evaluated by the chi-square test, considering p <0.05 the critical level. Working in an accredited hospital protected against perception/self-declaration of stress caused by stressful factors in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work and Stressful Roles in their Career, being a risk factor related to the category Relationships at Work. One concludes that nurses from the accredited hospital perceived/self-reported more stressful factors in situations related to interpersonal relationships.

  5. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  6. Parametric peak stress functions of 90o pipe bends with ovality under steady-state creep conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghi, A.H.; Hyde, T.H.; Becker, A.A.; Sun, W.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-based life prediction techniques are commonly used to estimate the failure life of pressurised pipe-related components, such as welds and bends, under creep conditions. Previous research has shown that reasonable life predictions can be obtained, based on the steady-state peak stresses, compared with the life predictions obtained from creep damage modelling. In this work, a series of parametric steady-state peak rupture stress functions of right-angled pipe bends with ovality are presented, which are based on the results obtained from finite element (FE) analyses, covering a number of material property and geometry parameters in practical ranges. Methods used to determine the stress functions are described. The FE analyses have been performed using axisymmetric models, subjected to internal pressure only, with a Norton creep law. Typical examples of parametric peak stress curve fitting are shown. In particular, the accuracy of the interpolation and extrapolation abilities of the stress functions is assessed. The results show that in most cases the interpolated and extrapolated peak stresses are accurate to within ±3% and ±5%, respectively.

  7. Expression stabilities of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR under different stress conditions in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    Full Text Available Due to its accuracy, sensitivity and high throughput, real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used in analysing gene expression. The quality of data from such analyses is affected by the quality of reference genes used. Expression stabilities for nine candidate reference genes widely used in soybean were evaluated under different stresses in this study. Our results showed that EF1A and ACT11 were the best under salinity stress, TUB4, TUA5 and EF1A were the best under drought stress, ACT11 and UKN2 were the best under dark treatment, and EF1B and UKN2 were the best under virus infection. EF1B and UKN2 were the top two genes which can be reliably used in all of the stress conditions assessed.

  8. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Bin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246. The final model shows that social support (JCQ was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS. Job demand (JCQ was directly related to stress (DASS and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF. Job control (JCQ was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Stress (DASS was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Anxiety (DASS was directly related to depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF. Depression (DASS was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF. Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases

  9. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Bin Nordin; Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Naing, Lin

    2008-02-06

    The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (chi2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246). The final model shows that social support (JCQ) was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS). Job demand (JCQ) was directly related to stress (DASS) and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF). Job control (JCQ) was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Stress (DASS) was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Anxiety (DASS) was directly related to depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF). Depression (DASS) was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS) mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ) to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases the self-perceived quality of life related to

  10. Working conditions, self-perceived stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Bin Nordin; Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Naing, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246). The final model shows that social support (JCQ) was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS). Job demand (JCQ) was directly related to stress (DASS) and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF). Job control (JCQ) was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Stress (DASS) was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Anxiety (DASS) was directly related to depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF). Depression (DASS) was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS) mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ) to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases the self

  11. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  12. Supervisors' attitudes and skills for active listening with regard to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinate workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineyama, Sachiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takao, Soshi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-03-01

    We investigated whether supervisors' listening attitudes and skills were related to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among their subordinates. The subjects included 41 male supervisors and their immediate subordinates (n=203). The supervisors completed a short version of the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS) consisting of two subscales: Listening Attitude and Listening Skill for Active Listening. The subordinates rated working conditions and their psychological stress reactions using selected scales of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill reported a more favorable psychological stress reaction than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Skill reported higher worksite support than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude reported higher job control than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude. A supervisor's listening attitude and skill appeared to affect psychological stress reactions predominantly among male subordinates than among female subordinates. Psychological stress reactions were lower among younger subordinates who worked under supervisors with high listening skill, while no statistically difference was observed among older subordinates. These findings suggest that a supervisor's listening attitude and skill have an effect on working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinates and that the effects vary according to the subordinates' sex and age.

  13. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...

  14. Arsenic uptake, transformation, and release by three freshwater algae under conditions with and without growth stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaowen; Liu, Jinxin; Yang, Fen; Feng, Hanxiao; Wei, Chaoyang; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-05-04

    As speciation for the other two algae with Cu 2+ inhibition and all the three algae with isothiazolinone inhibition, corroborating the above hypothesis again. All the algae tested in this study demonstrated great abilities for As transformation and release, as seen by the much higher rates of 86.11-99.98% and 81.11-99.89% for transformation and release when compared to the control, respectively. When inhibitors were added, the transformation and release values of only A. flosaquae decreased remarkably down to 72.37-86.79% and 64.67-85.24%, respectively, while no changes were seen for these values in the other two algae, indicating that growth stress did not affect the As transformation and release of the other algae. The biological productivity of As by the three algae followed the order of M. aeruginosa, Chlorella sp., and A. flosaquae, which was generally consistent with the As transformation and release in conditions with and without inhibitors, suggesting that the As behavior in the algae that was related to growth stress largely differed among algae species.

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  16. The sensitivity of Sphagnum to surface layer conditions in a re-wetted bog: a simulation study of water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenaars, J.M.; Gosen, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of the water table in re-wetted bogs varies widely between different locations so that recolonising Sphagnum is vulnerable to water stress, especially when the water table is drawn down in summer. It is important to understand how physical site conditions influence the occurrence of

  17. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  18. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part I: hypotheses and approach to the study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Klap, J.M.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of four, describing the hypothesis and approach of a correlative study between observed data on crown condition in Europe, monitored since 1986 at a systematic 16 x 16 km grid, and site-specific estimations of various natural and anthropogenic stress factors. The

  19. Fear conditioning and shock intensity: the choice between minimizing the stress induced and reducing the number of animals used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersen, C.Y.; Bosker, F.J; Posterna, F.; Den Boer, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many fear conditioning studies use electric shock as the aversive stimulus. The intensity of shocks varies throughout the literature. In this study, shock intensities ranging from 0 to 1.5 mA were used, and the effects on the rats assessed by both behavioural and biochemical stress parameters.

  20. Fear conditioning and shock intensity : the choice between minimizing the stress induced and reducing the number of animals used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersen, CY; Bosker, FJ; Posterna, F; den Boer, JA

    Many fear conditioning studies use electric shock as the aversive stimulus. The intensity of shocks varies throughout the literature. In this study, shock intensities ranging from 0 to 1.5 mA were used, and the effects on the rats assessed by both behavioural and biochemical stress parameters.

  1. Effects of social conditions during early development on stress response and personality traits in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Floercke, C.; Oers, van K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions during early development play a crucial role in shaping an organism's phenotype. To test how social group size affects stress response and behavioral characteristics, we used great tits (Parus major) from selection lines for exploratory behavior, a proxy for an avian

  2. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  3. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na + /K + ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K + channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na + and K + homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na + /K + ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na + and K + ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na + /K + under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  5. Zinc is released by cultured astrocytes as a gliotransmitter under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions and regulates microglial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Shohei; Nishiura, Takeshi; Furuta, Takahiro; Ohsato, Yuki; Tani, Misaki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-01-17

    Astrocytes contribute to the maintenance of brain homeostasis via the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP and glutamate. Here we examined whether zinc was released from astrocytes under stress-loaded conditions, and was involved in the regulation of microglial activity as a gliotransmitter. Hypoosmotic stress was loaded to astrocytes using balanced salt solution prepared to 214-314 mOsmol/L, and then intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels were assessed using Newport Green DCF diacetate (NG) and ICP-MS, respectively. Microglial activation by the astrocytic supernatant was assessed by their morphological changes and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer accumulation. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoosmotic buffer, increased the extracellular ATP level in osmolarity-dependent manners, indicating a load of hypoosmotic stress. In hypoosmotic stress-loaded astrocytes, there were apparent increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels. Incubation of microglia in the astrocytic conditioned medium transformed them into the activated "amoeboid" form and induced PAR formation. Administration of an extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA, to the astrocytic conditioned medium almost completely prevented the microglial activation. Treatment of astrocytes with an intracellular zinc chelator, TPEN, suppressed the hypoosmotic stress-increased intracellular, but not the extracellular, zinc level, and the increase in the intracellular zinc level was blocked partially by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, but not by CaEDTA, indicating that the mechanisms underlying the increases in the intra- and extra-cellular zinc levels might be different. These findings suggest that under hypoosmotic stress-loaded conditions, zinc is released from astrocytes and then plays a primary role in microglial activation as a gliotransmitter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of thermal stress condition in long metal cylinder under heating by continuous laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglov, A.A.; Uglov, S.A.; Kulik, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The method of determination of temperature field and unduced thermal stresses in long metallic cylinder under its heating by cw-laser normally distributed heat flux is offered. The graphically presented results of calculation show the stress maximum is placed behind of center of laser heat sport along its movement line on the cylinder surface

  7. Association between supervisors' behavior and wage workers' job stress in Korea: analysis of the fourth Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin Uk; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kim, ByoungGwon; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Woo

    2017-01-01

    In modern society, many workers are stressed. Supervisors' support or behavior can affect the emotional or psychological part of the worker. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of supervisor's behavior on worker's stress. The study included 19,272 subjects following the assignment of weighted values to workers other than soldiers using data from the Fourth Korean Working Condition Survey. Supervisors' behavior was measured using 5 items: "supervisor feedback regarding work," "respectful attitude," "good conflict-resolution ability," "good work-related planning and organizational ability," and the encouragement of participation in important decision making. Job stress was measured using 1 item: "I experience stress at work." Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of supervisors' behavioral, general, occupational, and psychosocial characteristics on job stress in workers. Organizational characteristics associated with supervisors' behavior were also analyzed. The results showed that supervisors' provision of feedback regarding work increased workers' job stress (OR = 1.329, 95% CI = 1.203 ~ 1.468). When a supervisor respect workers (OR = 0.812, 95% CI = 0.722 ~ 0.913) or good at planning and organizing works (OR = 0.816, 95% CI: 0.732 ~ 0.910), workers' job stress decreased. In particular, the two types of supervisor behaviors, other than feedback regarding work, were high in private-sector organizations employing less than 300 employees. Supervisors' behavior influenced job stress levels in workers. Therefore, it is necessary to increase education regarding the effects of supervisors' behavior on job stress, which should initially be provided in private-sector organizations with up to 300 employees.

  8. Impact of oxidative stress defense on bacterial survival and morphological change in Campylobacter jejuni under aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen, inescapably faces high oxygen tension during its transmission to humans. Thus, the ability of C. jejuni to survive under oxygen-rich conditions may significantly impact C. jejuni viability in food and food safety as well. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxidative stress resistance on the survival of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions by examining three mutants defective in key antioxidant genes, including ahpC, katA, and sodB. All the three mutants exhibited growth reduction under aerobic conditions compared to the wild type (WT, and the ahpC mutant showed the most significant growth defect. The CFU reduction in the mutants was recovered to the WT level by complementation. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were accumulated in C. jejuni under aerobic conditions than microaerobic conditions, and supplementation of culture media with an antioxidant recovered the growth of C. jejuni. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the mutants compared to WT. Additionally, the mutants exhibited different morphological changes under aerobic conditions. The ahpC and katA mutants developed coccoid morphology by aeration, whereas the sodB mutant established elongated cellular morphology. Compared to microaerobic conditions, interestingly, aerobic culture conditions substantially induced the formation of coccoidal cells, and antioxidant treatment reduced the emergence of coccoid forms under aerobic conditions. The ATP concentrations and PMA-qPCR analysis supported that oxidative stress is a factor that induces the development of a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC state in C. jejuni. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress resistance plays an important role in the survival and morphological changes of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions.

  9. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  10. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  11. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  12. Evaluation of Drought Stress Thresholds in Ornamental Barberry (Berberis thunbergii cv. Atropurpurea Shrub in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhane Setayesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The population growth and water requirement for domestic consumption, industry, agriculture and urban development in Mashhad megacity, increase pressures on freshwater resources. Therefore, planning for water use optimization is necessary. The new allocation of water resources for landscape greenish, especially in arid and semi-arid is difficult. Therefore, water allocation to landscape is valuable and should be used efficiently. According to water resource limitation, using drought-tolerant plant species and determine threshold of drought tolerance in landscape can improve water use management. Plants that naturally survive in your area are the ones best adapted to your soil, climate and rainfall. By selecting plants that either avoid or tolerate dry conditions, a beautiful, thriving landscape can be made possible. Drought-tolerant plants survive long periods of drought by storing water internally or by developing extensive root systems that sink deep into the soil. Many drought-tolerant plants have additional protection through a waxy coating that reduces evaporation or hairs on the leaf surface that reflect some of the light, insulating the plant. Most drought-tolerant plants use several of these features to survive on low amounts of precipitation. Japanese barberry is a compact woody deciduous shrub with arching branches. Leaf colours include green, bluish-green to dark red and purple. B. thunbergii's progress in the United States has, to date, been held in check to the south by, probably, its need for cold winter temperatures for stratification of the seeds, and to the west by, probably, drought conditions. Although very drought tolerant once established, a very dry terrain would tend to discourage its incursion. Rugged, adaptable, no serious problems or pests, easy to maintain, transplants readily, shade and drought tolerant, deer resistant is typical ad copy found at any site offering this shrub of colourful fall foliage. In

  13. Preliminary evidence for a unique role of disgust-based conditioning in posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-04-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress reactions even after accounting for the more frequently studied affective states of fear and anxiety. The current investigation provided a preliminary test of a model of disgust in posttraumatic stress among a sample of 54 community-recruited women with a history sexual victimization. Both peritraumatic disgust (r = .31) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity (r = .42) in response to an idiographic traumatic event script were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity. After accounting for variability-associated peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic anxious reactivity, an indirect effect of peritraumatic disgust through posttraumatic disgust reactivity also was found, suggesting that one mechanism through which peritraumatic disgust relates to posttraumatic stress is through its relation with increased posttraumatic disgust reactivity. These findings highlight the importance of further elucidating the nature of disgust in relation to traumatic events and subsequent posttraumatic stress reactions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-04-30

    An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 μM). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on Screening of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids under Drought Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. Two experiments (lab and wire house) were conducted to screen out the most tolerant and most sensitive maize hybrids (7386, 6525, Hycorn, 9696, 32B33, 3672, MMRI and 31P41) under artificial imposing drought stress by PEG-6000 and under water stress applied after seedling emergence. In first experiment five water stress levels such as zero (control), -0.2 MPa, -0.4 MPa, -0.6 MPa, and -0.8 M...

  17. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  18. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  19. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  20. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  1. Associations between headache and stress, alcohol drinking, exercise, sleep, and comorbid health conditions in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Funazu, Kazuo; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Shuji; Hosoai, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 12,988 subjects aged 20-79 years (5,908 men and 7,090 women) receiving health checkups at a Tokyo clinic. They filled out a self-administered structured questionnaire, and 5.4% of the men and 15.4% of the women reported having headaches. Younger subjects were more prone to having headaches. The likelihood of having headaches increased with stress level and decreased ability to relieve stress in both genders. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between having headaches and alcohol consumption, and less walking/exercise and sleep problems increased the likelihood of headaches in both genders. Headache sufferers of both genders were more likely to report multiple additional poor health conditions. A multivariate stepwise logistic analysis showed that age, self-estimated degree of stress, reported number of additional poor health conditions, and less alcohol consumption were independently correlated with having headaches. In conclusion, although women were more susceptible to headache, Japanese men and women in Tokyo shared factors associated with headache, including age, stress, having other poor health conditions, alcohol consumption, sleep, and exercise.

  2. Response of Barley Double Haploid Lines to the Grain Yield and Morphological Traits under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Khalily

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships of grain yield and some of agro-morphological traits in 40 doubled haploid (DH lines along with parental and three check genotypes in a randomized complete block design with two replications under two water regimes (normal and stress were evaluated during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons. Combined analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits in terms of the year, water regimes, lines, and and line × year. Comparison of group means, between non-stress and stress conditions, showed that DH lines had the lowest reduction percentage for the number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield as opposed to check genotypes. The correlation between grain yield with biological yield, harvest index, thousand grain weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight in both conditions, were highly significant and positive. Based on stepwise regression the peduncle length, number of seeds per spike, thousand seed weight, and hectoliter of kernel weight had important effect on increasing seed yield. The result of path analysis showed that these traits had the highest direct effect on grain yield. Based on mean comparisons of morphological characters as well as STI and GMP indices it can be concluded that lines No.11, 13, 14, 24, 29, 30, 35 and 39 were distinguished to be desirable lines for grain yield and their related traits and also tolerant lines in terms of response to drought stress conditions.

  3. Evaluation of some chemical and technological properties of induced erect chickpea mutant lines developed under drought stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of the chickpea variety Flip 99-47 C were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 50 and 75 Gy and sown in the winter season of 2004/2005 to raise M1 generation under ordinary (normal) irrigation conditions. Bulked seeds from each treatment were planted in the subsequent growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 to advance M2 and M3 generations, respectively under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stress condition. In the third generation, three erect mutant lines were derived from 75 Gy mutagenic treatment under drought stress compared to semi spreading growth habit of the initiated variety Flip 99-47 C. In the winter season of 2007/2008, M4 bulked seeds from the three erect lines as well as unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation (2152.5 m 3 /fad.) or drought (1159.2 m 3 /fad.) conditions were analyzed for the chemical composition and nutritional values. Obtained results indicated that there were slight decreases in protein and fat contents accompanied with marginal increases in both ash and carbohydrates in seed samples of the erect mutant developed under drought stress as compared to unirradiated seeds of the original variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation treatment. An opposite trend was noticed between seed samples derived from the erect lines compared to seeds of the parent variety developed under drought condition. Negligible changes in levels of the minerals (iron, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were detected between seeds of the erect lines and the original variety that grown under either ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought conditions. Cooking time (min) and hydration coefficient values did not much differ between the three tested seed samples. Marginal differences in essential and non-essential amino acids were detected between seeds of the erect mutants and those of the initial variety grown under ordinary (normal) irrigation or drought stressed conditions

  4. PIXE analysis of mineral composition of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Mae, Tadahiko; Ojima, Kunihiko; Ishii, Keizo.

    1994-01-01

    PIXE analysis was applied to study alteration of mineral composition (Al, P, K, and Cl) of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress. These minerals were detectable using one or two pieces of root-tips. Short-term (within 4 h) decreases in K/P and Cl/P ratios were observed under low pH and aluminum stress conditions. However, degree of the decrease was not same. Differences in toxic effects of low pH and Al on the root-tip of alfalfa are discussed. (author)

  5. Thermal stresses at nozzles of nuclear steel containments under LOCA-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Bergmann, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a PWR-nuclear power plant, a considerable heating of the containment atmosphere is expected to occur. Transient thermal stresses will appear at the containment as a consequence of a non-uniform rise of its temperature. Applying computer codes based on the finite element method, dimensionless general thermal stresses at nozzles of spherical steel containment have been calculated, varying the principal geometrical parameters and the Biot number for the containment internal surface. Atmosphere temperature and Biot number are assumed constant after the accident. Several plots of the maximum principal stresses are provided, which constitute general results applicable to stress analysis of any particular containment of this kind. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Housing Conditions on Stress Responses, Feeding, and Drinking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-07

    and biochemical changes indicative of a stress response (Singh, D’Souza, & Singh, 1991 ; Peng, Lang, Drozdowicz, & Ohlsson-Wilhelm, 1989; Armario ...immunological, and biochemical changes indicative of stress (Peng et aI., 1989; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Armario , Ortiz...et aI. , 19~9; Armario et aI. , 1987; Gamallo et aI. , 1986; Calhoun, 1962). Hypothesis 2. It was hypothesized that male rats would decrease food

  7. Preliminary Evidence for a Unique Role of Disgust-Based Conditioning in Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress...

  8. Various Wolbachia genotypes differently influence host Drosophila dopamine metabolism and survival under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntenko, Nataly Е; Ilinsky, Yury Yu; Adonyeva, Natalya V; Burdina, Elena V; Bykov, Roman A; Menshanov, Petr N; Rauschenbach, Inga Yu

    2017-12-28

    One of the most widespread prokaryotic symbionts of invertebrates is the intracellular bacteria of Wolbachia genus which can be found in about 50% of insect species. Wolbachia causes both parasitic and mutualistic effects on its host that include manipulating the host reproductive systems in order to increase their transmission through the female germline, and increasing the host fitness. One of the mechanisms, promoting adaptation in biological organisms, is a non-specific neuroendocrine stress reaction. In insects, this reaction includes catecholamines, dopamine, serotonin and octopamine, which act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones. The level of dopamine metabolism correlates with heat stress resistance in Drosophila adults. To examine Wolbachia effect on Drosophila survival under heat stress and dopamine metabolism we used five strains carrying the nuclear background of interbred Bi90 strain and cytoplasmic backgrounds with different genotype variants of Wolbachia (produced by 20 backcrosses of Bi90 males with appropriate source of Wolbachia). Non-infected Bi90 strain (treated with tetracycline for 3 generations) was used as a control group. We demonstrated that two of five investigated Wolbachia variants promote changes in Drosophila heat stress resistance and activity of enzymes that produce and degrade dopamine, alkaline phosphatase and dopamine-dependent arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. What is especially interesting, wMelCS genotype of Wolbachia increases stress resistance and the intensity of dopamine metabolism, whereas wMelPop strain decreases them. wMel, wMel2 and wMel4 genotypes of Wolbachia do not show any effect on the survival under heat stress or dopamine metabolism. L-DOPA treatment, known to increase the dopamine content in Drosophila, levels the difference in survival under heat stress between all studied groups. The genotype of symbiont determines the effect that the symbiont has on the stress resistance of the host

  9. The influence of stress conditions on the growth of selected lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of certain stress conditions on selected lactic acid bacteria. Where recontamination occurred, lactic acid bacteria was already the dominant bacterial group, with counts of higher than 10 6 /g in vacuum-packaged 'shelf stable' meat products after 1 week storage at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius respectively. Some of the isolates were capable of growing at a pH of 3,9. The minimum pH for growth of a specific culture was dependant on the type of acid that was used to lower the pH. Lactic and acetic acid had the highest inhibitory action. Hydrochloric and citric acid showed similar inhibitory effects, while the effects when using ascorbic acid or gluconic acid for lowering the pH were also fairly similar. Increase in the activity of certain lactic acid bacteria was noticed where the ratio of undissociated to dissociated citric acid in the medium was increased. After exceeding a concentration of 0,048 moles/l undissosiated citric acid in the medium, the activity of the majority of cultures was progressively inhibited. This phenomenon was also found with acetic acid for certain cultures. Selected lactic acid bacteria were resistant to an water activity (a (sub w)) of 0,94 in MRS broth, where NaCl or glycerol was used as a humectant. The minimum a (sub w) for growth was dependent on the type of humectant used. Concentrations of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were necessary to inhibit the majority of strains. The % inhibition by sodium benzoate and methyl paraben did not significantly change with a lowering in the pH of the growth medium. Except in the case of lactic acid, the different acids used to lower the pH of the medium did not have a significant effect on the % inhibition by the chemical preservatives. For the cocci, gamma D 10 values of between 0,82 and 1,29 kGy were recorded, whereas the lactobacilli were less resistant to gamma rays, with D 10 values of between 0,21 and 0,54 kGy

  10. Creep-Fatigue Life Design with Various Stress and Temperature Conditions on the Basis of Lethargy Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Eun; Yang, Sung Mo; Han, Jae Hee; Yu, Hyo Sun

    2011-01-01

    High temperature and stress are encounted in power plants and vehicle engines. Therefore, determination of the creep-fatigue life of a material is necessary prior to fabricating equipment. In this study, life design was determined on the basis of the lethargy coefficient for different temperatures, stress and rupture times. SP-Creep test data was compared with computed data. The SP-Creep test was performed to obtain the rupture time for X20CrMoV121 steel. The integration life equation was considered for three cases with various load, temperature and load-temperature. First, the lethargy coefficient was calculated by using the obtained rupture stress and the rupture time that were determined by carrying out the SP-Creep test. Next, life was predicted on the basis of the temperature condition. Finally, it was observed that life decreases considerably due to the coupling effect that results when fatigue and creep occur simultaneously

  11. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  12. Experimental study of vertical stress profiles of a confined granular bed under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, S; Cuq, B; Ruiz, T

    2012-07-01

    In a wet agglomeration process inside a low shear mixer, the blade function is to induce i) homogenization of the liquid sprayed on the powder surface and ii) a stress field able to transfer the mechanical energy at the particle scale. In this work we study the mechanical state of a confined powder bed through the analysis of stress distributions (by force measurements) in a rectangular cell in two cases: for a classical model powder (i.e. glass beads) and a complex powder (i.e. wheat semolina). Two types of vertical stress profiles are obtained according to the type of measurements carried out in the powder bed, either locally (at different positions in the cell) or globally (at the entire base). The global vertical stress profile follows Janssen's model and the local vertical stress profile highlights a critical length, identified as the percolation threshold of the force network, and a shielding length near the bottom, which is similar to an influence length of the side walls. In the context of wet agglomeration, the results allow to consider the role of the characteristic lengths in the mixing bowl under vertical mechanical solicitation.

  13. Evaluation of Relationship Between Auxin and Cytokinine Hormones on Yield and Yield Components of Maize under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahrokh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the major environmental conditions that adversely affects plant growth and crop yield. In the face of a global scarcity of water resources, water stress has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide. Drought is the major restriction in maize production. The plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions could be an outcome of altered hormonal balance and hence the exogenous application of growth regulators under stress conditions could be the possible means for reversing the effects of abiotic stress. Phytohormones such as auxine and cytokinine are known to be involved in the regulation of plant response to the adverse effects of stress conditions. Previous studies have shown that endogenous hormones are essential regulators for translocation and partitioning of photoassimilates for grain filling in cereal crops, and therefore could be involved in the regulation of grain weight and yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in three separately environments included non-drought stress environment (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity, drought stress in vegetative stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage, but irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage and drought stress in reproductive stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage and irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage. Cytokinin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in V5 –V6 and V8-V10 stages and auxin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in silk emergence stage and 15 days after that were laid out as a factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications in each environment at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII

  14. [NEUROSEMANTIC AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF RHYTHM-SUGGESTIVE CORRECTION OF STRESS CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Ivanov, A V; Kvasovets, S V; Bubeev, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of successful rhythm-suggestive compensation of stress in sportsmen with neurotic symptoms developed in consequence of painful experience of failure were studied. Effectiveness of the rhythm-suggestive and rational psychological methods was compared by measuring the evoked potentials response to emotionally significant extramental verbal stimuli and images, and using psychophysiological test MASTER to track dynamics of a number of body functional parameters. The rational compensation has been shown to reduce the psychic tension and to set right the voluntary control process. Rhythm-suggestive programs are good for compensation of post-stress emotions and affectations, and the involuntary control process. It was found that correction potentialities of the rhythm-suggestive programs together with the psychodiagnostic advantages of test MASTER are promising instruments for dynamic monitoring of the mental state with the aim to prevent workplace stresses and to provide rehabilitation treatment of aftermaths.

  15. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani

    2017-06-01

    minimum productivity index. Therefore, in water deficit conditions, the priority of water distribution in all options is for tomatoes and the last priority for sugar beets. In all of the options, wheat, barley and canola ascend in productivity index and corn and sugar beets descend in productivity index. Conclusion: Studying water- production index shows that considering instructions will result in optimal productivity that in turn will increase production and network total income. Optimal model results show that drought effects can be satisfied with optimal and targeted management in allocating water, so that network total income has not reduced in stress occurrences compared to network net income. Optimization method in model development has been selected according to aim of model and it is proposed that model results to be assessed by non- linear optimization methods. It is proposed that, different scenarios of climate are studied in region according to climate changes and optimal allocation of water is prepared according to the effect of these scenarios on temperature increase, raining decrease and products water need increase in present cultivation method. For model efficiency increase, it is proposed that using neural networks capabilities, intelligent prediction of the input discharge to the network is done and the possibility of comprehensive management and timely combining of network with water allocation optimal model is provided.

  16. Effect of Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application under Water Deficit Stress Conditions on Agronomical and Physiological Traits of Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghiasvand Ghiasi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of zeolite and nitrogen fertilizer application effect on agronomic and physilogical traits of rapeseed (cv RGS003 under water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 in Qazvin region, Iran. In the where, the two levels of irrigation factor as the normal irrigation (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan as control and irrigation cease from stem elongation stage till end of growth, nitrogen factor was at three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 and zeolite factor (0 and 10tons per hectare were studied. Results showed that drought stress decreased evaluated traits such as silique per plant (41%, grain per silique (26%, 1000 seed weight (33%, grain yield (52.5%, oil percent (14%, RWC (31.5% and chlorophyll content (35%. Non-application of nitrogen had adverse effects on total traits and reduced them. However, zeolite application at water deficit stress conditions had positive and significant effect on total traits except of oil percent and chlorophyll content, specially improved grain yield and oil yield. Based on the results of this experiment, application of zeolite (10ton/ha-1 through storage and maintenance of water and nutrients, reduced the intensity and harmful effects of stress in plants and enhances crop yield.

  17. "Yes, I Can": the protective role of personal self-efficacy in hindering counterproductive work behavior under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Roberta; Paciello, Marinella; Tramontano, Carlo; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Farnese, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Within the stressor-emotion model, counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is considered a possible result of stress. It is well-known that self-efficacy mitigates the detrimental effects of stress and the stressor-strain relation. We aim to extend the stressor-emotion model of CWB by examining the additive and moderating role of work and regulatory emotional self-efficacy dimensions. A structural equation model and a set of hierarchical regressions were conducted on a convenience sample of 1147 Italian workers. Individuals who believed in their capabilities to manage work activities had a lower propensity to act counterproductively. Workers who believed in their capabilities to cope with negative feelings had a lower propensity to react with negative emotions under stressful conditions. Finally, results showed that self-efficacy moderates at least some of the relationships between stressors and negative emotions, and also between stressors and CWB, but did not moderate the relationship between negative emotions and these types of conduct. Self-efficacy beliefs proved to be a protective factor that can reduce the impact of stressful working conditions.

  18. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Yvonne; Amory, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a humane process that can reduce stress and improve welfare. This study details the use of operant conditioning using positive reinforcement training (PRT) and target training to train a family of 5 captive red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in a wildlife park to voluntarily enter a transportation box and remain calm for 1 min after 54 training sessions. Observations of 2 unrelated net-capture processes provided measures of locomotion and vocalizations as indicators of stress behavior that were compared with those of the trained tamarins. Net-captured monkeys exhibited rapid erratic locomotion and emitted long, high-frequency vocalizations during capture whereas the trained tamarins exhibited minimal locomotion and emitted only 4 brief vocalizations (root mean square 35 dB) during capture. This indicates that the use of PRT considerably reduced potential for stress and improved welfare during the capture and containment of the tamarins. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  20. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  2. Influence of overelastic loading on the stress intensity factor under thermal fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.; Munz, D.

    1983-10-01

    Thermal shock loading often creates high thermal stresses which may exceed yield strength of the material in a surface layer. In this report the application of the linear elastic ΔK-concept in the case of cyclic thermal loading within the shakedown region is discussed. To this K-factors for an edge crack in a linear elastic - perfectly plastic plate are calculated using the weight function method and are compared with results obtained with the Finite Element Method. It is shown, that rearrangement stresses during plastic flow in the first cycle must be taken into account developing conservative approximation procedures. (orig.) [de

  3. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions. © 2013.

  4. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarai Tabrizi; H. Babazadeh; M. Homaee; F. Kaveh Kaveh; M. Parsinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil respon...

  5. Nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions regulate thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fernando Toshio; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Sartori, Adriano; Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Masutani, Hiroshi; Arai, Roberto Jun; Yodoi, Junji; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo Pequeno

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX-1) is a multifunctional protein that controls the redox status of other proteins. TRX-1 can be found in the extracellular milieu, cytoplasm and nucleus, and it has distinct functions in each environment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of TRX-1 and its relationship with the activation of the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases signaling pathway. In situations where this pathway was activated by stress conditions evoked by a nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), TRX-1 accumulated in the nuclear compartment due to nitrosylation of p21Ras and activation of downstream ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Presently, we demonstrate that ERK1/2 MAP Kinases activation and spatial distribution within cells trigger TRX-1 nuclear translocation through down-regulation of the physiological inhibitor of TRX-1, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP). Once activated by the oxidants, SNAP and H₂O₂, the ERK1/2 MAP kinases migrate to the nucleus. This is correlated with down-regulation of TXNIP. In the presence of the MEK inhibitors (PD98059 or UO126), or in cells transfected with the Protein Enriched in Astrocytes (PEA-15), a cytoplasmic anchor of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, TRX-1 nuclear migration and TXNIP down-regulation are no longer observed in cells exposed to oxidants. On the other hand, over-expression of TXNIP abolishes nuclear migration of TRX-1 under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions, whereas gene silencing of TXNIP facilitates nuclear migration even in the absence of stress conditions. Studies based on the TXNIP promoter support this regulation. In conclusion, changes in TRX-1 compartmentalization under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions are dependent on the expression levels of TXNIP, which are regulated by cellular compartmentalization and activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases.

  6. Nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions regulate thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP expression and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Toshio Ogata

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (TRX-1 is a multifunctional protein that controls the redox status of other proteins. TRX-1 can be found in the extracellular milieu, cytoplasm and nucleus, and it has distinct functions in each environment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of TRX-1 and its relationship with the activation of the p21Ras-ERK1/2 MAP Kinases signaling pathway. In situations where this pathway was activated by stress conditions evoked by a nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, TRX-1 accumulated in the nuclear compartment due to nitrosylation of p21Ras and activation of downstream ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Presently, we demonstrate that ERK1/2 MAP Kinases activation and spatial distribution within cells trigger TRX-1 nuclear translocation through down-regulation of the physiological inhibitor of TRX-1, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP. Once activated by the oxidants, SNAP and H₂O₂, the ERK1/2 MAP kinases migrate to the nucleus. This is correlated with down-regulation of TXNIP. In the presence of the MEK inhibitors (PD98059 or UO126, or in cells transfected with the Protein Enriched in Astrocytes (PEA-15, a cytoplasmic anchor of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, TRX-1 nuclear migration and TXNIP down-regulation are no longer observed in cells exposed to oxidants. On the other hand, over-expression of TXNIP abolishes nuclear migration of TRX-1 under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions, whereas gene silencing of TXNIP facilitates nuclear migration even in the absence of stress conditions. Studies based on the TXNIP promoter support this regulation. In conclusion, changes in TRX-1 compartmentalization under nitrosative/oxidative stress conditions are dependent on the expression levels of TXNIP, which are regulated by cellular compartmentalization and activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases.

  7. Metabolic and functional phenotypic profiling of Drosophila melanogaster reveals reduced sex differentiation under stressful environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, Michael; Malmendal, Anders; Munoz, Joaquin

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and how this impacts the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. Experimental stressors that we exposed flies to during development were heat stress, poor nutrition, high acidity, high levels of ammonia and ethanol. Emerged male and female flies from the different...

  8. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that thermogenesis and BAT function are determinant of the resilience or vulnerability to stress-induced obesity. Our data support a model in which adrenergic and purinergic pathways exert complementary/synergistic functions in BAT, thus suggesting an alternative to βARs agonists for the activation of human BAT.

  9. Permeability changes of coal cores and briquettes under tri-axial stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wierzbicki, M.; Konečný, Pavel; Kožušníková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 1129-1138 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal * gas permeability * tri-axial stress * coal briquettes Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.608, year: 2013 http://mining.archives.pl

  10. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Housing Conditions and Stress in Male Rats - Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Baum, Gatchel, & Krantz, 1997; Park, Cambell , & Diamond, 2001; Bauer, Perks, Lightman, & Shanks, 2001). These categories of findings are consistent...Henriksson, & Mohammad, 1997; Baum, Gatchel, & Krantz, 1997; Park, Cambell , & Diamond, 2001; Bauer, Perks, Lightman, & Shanks, 2001; Bielajew...Biobehavioral Review, 25(3), 219-33. Park, C. R., Cambell , A. M., & Diamond, D. M. (2001). Chronic psychosocial stress impairs learning and memory and

  11. Analytical Solution for Stress Field and Intensity Factor in CSTBD under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Ali Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that rocks fail faster under tensile stress, rock tensile strength is of greatimportance in applications such as blasting, rock fragmentation, slope stability, hydraulic fracturing,caprock integrity, and geothermal energy extraction. There are two direct and indirect methods tomeasure tensile strength. Since direct methods always encompass difficulties in test setup, indirectmethods, specifically the Brazilian test, have often been employed for tensile strength measurement.Tensile failure is technically attributed to crack propagation in rock. Fracture mechanics hassignificant potential for the determination of crack behaviour as well as propagation pattern. To applyBrazilian tests, cracked disc geometry has been suggested by the International Society for RockMechanics ISRM. Accordingly, a comprehensive study is necessary to evaluate stress field and stressintensity factor (SIF around the crack in the centre of the specimen. In this paper, superpositionprinciple is employed to solve the problem of cracked straight-through Brazilian disc (CSTBD, usingtwo methods of dislocation and complex stress function. Stress field and SIF in the vicinity of thecrack tip are then calculated. With the proposed method, the magnitude of critical load for crackinitiation in structures can be predicted. This method is valid for any crack of any arbitrary length andangle. In addition, numerical modelling has been carried out for the Brazilian disc. Finally, theanalytical solution has been compared with numerical modelling results showing the same outcomefor both methods.

  12. Conditioning Factors in the Relationship between Stress and Opioid Self-Administration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-03

    Giralt & Armario , 1989; Harrap et al., 1984) nor food-deprivation (De Boer et al., 1989) affect biological parameters of stress such as plasma...Giralt, M., & Armario , A . (1 989) . Individual housing does not influence the adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis and other physiological variables

  13. Leuconostoc strains isolated from dairy products: Response against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Luisa; Cicotello, Joaquín; Zago, Miriam; Guglielmotti, Daniela; Quiberoni, Andrea; Suárez, Viviana

    2017-09-01

    A systematic study about the intrinsic resistance of 29 strains (26 autochthonous and 3 commercial ones), belonging to Leuconostoc genus, against diverse stress factors (thermal, acidic, alkaline, osmotic and oxidative) commonly present at industrial or conservation processes were evaluated. Exhaustive result processing was made by applying one-way ANOVA, Student's test (t), multivariate analysis by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Matrix Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. In addition, heat adaptation on 4 strains carefully selected based on previous data analysis was assayed. The strains revealed wide diversity of resistance to stress factors and, in general, a clear relationship between resistance and Leuconostoc species was established. In this sense, the highest resistance was shown by Leuconostoc lactis followed by Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, while Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum strains revealed the lowest resistance to the stress factors applied. Heat adaptation improved thermal cell survival and resulted in a cross-resistance against the acidic factor. However, all adapted cells showed diminished their oxidative resistance. According to our knowledge, this is the first study regarding response of Leuconostoc strains against technological stress factors and could establish the basis for the selection of "more robust" strains and propose the possibility of improving their performance during industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of temperature on the permeability of gas adsorbed coal under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangchen; Yan, Xiaopeng; Kang, Yili

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of gas sorption, stress and temperature play a significant role in the changing behavior of gas permeability in coal seams. The effect of temperature on nitrogen and methane permeability of naturally fractured coal is investigated. Coal permeability, P-wave velocity and axial strain were simultaneously measured under two effective stresses and six different temperatures. The results showed that the behavior of nitrogen and methane permeability presented nonmonotonic changes with increasing temperature. The variation in the P-wave velocity and axial strain showed a good correspondence with coal permeability. A higher effective stress limited the bigger deformation and caused the small change in permeability. Methane adsorption and desorption significantly influence the mechanical properties of coal and play an important role in the variations in coal permeability. The result of coal permeability during a complete stress-strain process showed that the variation in permeability is determined by the evolution of the internal structure. The increase in the temperature of the gas saturated coal causes the complex interaction between matrix swelling, matrix shrinkage and micro-fracture generation, which leads to the complex changes in coal structure and permeability. These results are helpful to understand the gas transport mechanism for exploiting coal methane by heat injection.

  15. The role of glycerol transporters in yeast cells in various physiological and stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Michala; Borovikova, D.; Herynková, Pavla; Rapoport, A.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * glycerol transport * desiccation * osmotic stress Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.858, year: 2015

  16. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; García de Cortázar Atauri, Iñaki; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Santos, João A

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture is a key socio-economic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. This study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980-2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5). The STICS crop model is coupled with climate, soil and terrain databases, also taking into account CO 2 physiological effects, and simulations are validated against observational data sets. A clear agreement between simulated and observed phenology, leaf area index, yield and water and nitrogen stress indices, including the spatial differences throughout Europe, is shown. The projected changes highlight an extension of the climatic suitability for grapevines up to 55°N, which may represent the emergence of new winemaking regions. Despite strong regional heterogeneity, mean phenological timings (budburst, flowering, veraison and harvest) are projected to undergo significant advancements (e.g. budburst/harvest can be >1 month earlier), with implications also in the corresponding phenophase intervals. Enhanced dryness throughout Europe is also projected, with severe water stress over several regions in southern regions (e.g. southern Iberia and Italy), locally reducing yield and leaf area. Increased atmospheric CO 2 partially offsets dryness effects, promoting yield and leaf area index increases in central/northern Europe. Future biomass changes may lead to modifications in nitrogen demands, with higher stress in northern/central Europe and weaker stress in southern Europe. These findings are critical decision support systems for stakeholders from the European winemaking sector. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Stanisław; Chrzanowski, Sebastian; Karamać, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Badowiec, Anna; Mostek, Agnieszka; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The material for this study consisted of stratified seeds of Vitis californica submitted to germination under optimum conditions (+25 °C) or under chill stress (+10 °C), also followed by recovery. It has been determined that the germinating seeds contain considerable amounts of tannins, catechins as well as phenolic acids such as gallic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. Gallic acid appeared in the highest amount in the germinating seeds (from 42.40–204.00 µg/g of fresh weight (FW)), followed by caffeic acid (from 6.62–20.13 µg/g FW), p-coumaric acid (from 2.59–5.41 µg/g FW), and ferulic acid (from 0.56–0.92 µg/g FW). The phenolic acids occurred mostly in the ester form. Under chill stress, the germinating seeds were determined to contain an elevated total amount of phenolics, as well as raised levels of condensed tannins, catechins, gallic acid, and gafeic acid. The levels of p-coumoric and ferulic acids were found to have decreased. In extracts isolated from a sample exposed to low temperature, increased antioxidant activity and reduction potential were also demonstrated. Tissue of the germinating seeds which underwent post-stress recovery was found to have less total phenolics. PMID:25222557

  18. Practical stress evaluation method of RC slab for bending moment in consideration of additional in-plane stress caused by boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Adachi, Naohito; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    In a design of a thick RC slab such as a basemat of a nuclear reactor building, the design method as same as for RC column is usually used. In this method, bending moment and axial force which are obtained by linear Finite Element Method (FEM) for external force are considered. But the assumption for linear FEM in which concrete participates for tensile stress is different from that for reinforcement design in which concrete does not participate for tensile stress. This difference of the assumption results that in-plane tensile strain at the center of the slab depth in the reinforcement design is larger than that in linear FEM. Some effects will appear in stress distribution if this tensile strain is constrained by boundary condition. In this paper, a practical method to evaluate the boundary constrain effects for this in-plane tensile strain is proposed and a simulation analysis of a thick reinforced concrete slab with a large opening for out-of-plane force is also reported. (author)

  19. Chronic psychosocial stress causes delayed extinction and exacerbates reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    We have shown previously, using an animal model of voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP), that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress induces increased ethanol intake and EtOH-CPP acquisition in mice. Here, we examined the impact of chronic subordinate colony (CSC) exposure on EtOH-CPP extinction, as well as ethanol-induced reinstatement of CPP. Mice were conditioned with saline or 1.5 g/kg ethanol and were tested in the EtOH-CPP model. In the first experiment, the mice were subjected to 19 days of chronic stress, and EtOH-CPP extinction was assessed during seven daily trials without ethanol injection. In the second experiment and after the EtOH-CPP test, the mice were subjected to 7 days of extinction trials before the 19 days of chronic stress. Drug-induced EtOH-CPP reinstatement was induced by a priming injection of 0.5 g/kg ethanol. Compared to the single-housed colony mice, CSC mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field tests. Interestingly, the CSC mice showed delayed EtOH-CPP extinction. More importantly, CSC mice showed increased alcohol-induced reinstatement of the EtOH-CPP behavior. Taken together, this study indicates that chronic psychosocial stress can have long-term effects on EtOH-CPP extinction as well as drug-induced reinstatement behavior and may provide a suitable model to study the latent effects of chronic psychosocial stress on extinction and relapse to drug abuse.

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  2. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  3. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  4. Metabolic regulation of hematopoietic and leukemic stem/progenitor cells under homeostatic and stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karigane, Daiki; Takubo, Keiyo

    2017-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit multilineage differentiation and self-renewal activities that maintain the entire hematopoietic system during an organism's lifetime. These abilities are sustained by intrinsic transcriptional programs and extrinsic cues from the microenvironment or niche. Recent studies using metabolomics technologies reveal that metabolic regulation plays an essential role in HSC maintenance. Metabolic pathways provide energy and building blocks for other factors functioning at steady state and in stress. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of metabolic regulation in HSCs relevant to cell cycle quiescence, symmetric/asymmetric division, and proliferation following stress and lineage commitment, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic factors or pathways to treat hematological malignancies.

  5. A Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy Investigation of Fungal Hyphae Grown under Optimal and Stressed Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeghalmi, A.; Kaminskyj, S.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR can provide high spatial resolution ( o C but have growth defects at 42 o C. We have also investigated Neurospora and Rhizopus cultures grown in media with optimal or elevated pH. Significant differences between the spectra of the three fungi are likely related to differences in composition and structure. In addition, high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy provides an outstanding method for monitoring subtle subcellular changes that accompany environmental stress

  6. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ? A Model Systems Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schreurs, Bernard G.; Burhans, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to trauma suffers flashbacks, bad dreams, numbing, fear, anxiety, sleeplessness, hyper-vigilance, hyperarousal, or an inability to cope, but those who do may suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a major physical and mental health problem for military personnel and civilians exposed to trauma. There is still debate about the incidence and prevalence of PTSD especially among the military, but for those who are diagnosed, behavioral therapy and drug tre...

  7. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  8. Ideal techniques condition for the realization of an appropriate stress echocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad colombiana de cardiologia

    2002-01-01

    A stress echocardiogram with exercise is a non-invasive exam, which uses the ultrasound to evaluate the function and the sanguine flow toward the heart, as answer to the exercise. This study provides images of the heart in movement so much in rest as later to the exercise. This stress can be produced by means of the use of a band numberless or a stationary bicycle or by means of the use of a pharmacological agent as the Dobutamine. The stress echocardiogram has been used clinically in the last 12 to 15 years; its accuracy diagnostic is very similar to the techniques of nuclear medicine as for the sensibility, specificity and predictive value positive and negative. It has become the best test of the echocardiography due to their easy use in-patient of external consultation as having hospitalized, to their versatility and the fact that it provides the information that requires the clinical in an immediate way helping to the handling of the patients

  9. Study of stress-strain state of pipeline under permafrost conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. A.; Redutinskiy, M. N.; Chepur, P. V.; Gruchenkova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the dependences of the stress-strain state and subsidence of pipelines on the dimensions of the subsidence zone are obtained for the sizes of pipes that have become most widespread during the construction of main oil pipelines (530x10, 820x12, 1020x12, 1020x14, 1020x16, 1220x14, 1220x16, 1220x18 mm). True values of stresses in the pipeline wall, as well as the exact location of maximum stresses for the interval of subsidence zones from 5 to 60 meters, are determined. For this purpose, the authors developed a finite element model of the pipeline that takes into account the actual interaction of the pipeline with the subgrade and allows calculating the SSS of the structure for a variable subsidence zone. Based on the obtained dependences for the underground laying of oil pipelines in permafrost areas, it is proposed to artificially limit the zone of possible subsidence by separation supports from the soil with higher building properties and physical-mechanical parameters. This technical solution would significantly reduce costs when constructing new oil pipelines in permafrost areas.

  10. Physical Health Conditions Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in U.S. Older Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase risk for medical conditions in older adults. We present findings on past-year medical conditions associated with lifetime trauma exposure, and full and partial PTSD, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements Face-to-face diagnostic interviews were conducted with 9,463 adults aged 60 and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographics and psychiatric comorbidity evaluated associations between PTSD status and past-year medical disorders; linear regression models evaluated associations with past-month physical functioning. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and personality disorders, respondents with lifetime PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to report being diagnosed by a healthcare professional with hypertension, angina pectoris, tachycardia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.3–1.8); they also scored lower on a measure of physical functioning than controls and respondents with partial PTSD. Respondents with lifetime partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report past-year diagnoses of gastritis (OR=1.7), angina pectoris (OR=1.5), and arthritis (OR=1.4), and reported worse physical functioning. Number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with most of the medical conditions assessed; adjustment for these events reduced the magnitudes of and rendered non-significant most associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusion Older adults with lifetime PTSD have elevated rates of several physical health conditions, many of which are chronic disorders of aging, and poorer physical functioning. Older adults with lifetime

  11. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on extinction of conditioned fear and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, L J; Gonzalez, I J; Meruva, V B; Callahan, K A; Belfort, B D; Ramanathan, K R; Meyers, E; Kilgard, M P; Rennaker, R L; McIntyre, C K

    2017-08-22

    Exposure-based therapies help patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to extinguish conditioned fear of trauma reminders. However, controlled laboratory studies indicate that PTSD patients do not extinguish conditioned fear as well as healthy controls, and exposure therapy has high failure and dropout rates. The present study examined whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) augments extinction of conditioned fear and attenuates PTSD-like symptoms in an animal model of PTSD. To model PTSD, rats were subjected to a single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol, which consisted of restraint, forced swim, loss of consciousness, and 1 week of social isolation. Like PTSD patients, rats subjected to SPS show impaired extinction of conditioned fear. The SPS procedure was followed, 1 week later, by auditory fear conditioning (AFC) and extinction. VNS or sham stimulation was administered during half of the extinction days, and was paired with presentations of the conditioned stimulus. One week after completion of extinction training, rats were given a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety, arousal and avoidance. Results indicated that rats given SPS 1 week prior to AFC (PTSD model) failed to extinguish the freezing response after eleven consecutive days of extinction. Administration of VNS reversed the extinction impairment and attenuated reinstatement of the conditioned fear response. Delivery of VNS during extinction also eliminated the PTSD-like symptoms, such as anxiety, hyperarousal and social avoidance for more than 1 week after VNS treatment. These results provide evidence that extinction paired with VNS treatment can lead to remission of fear and improvements in PTSD-like symptoms. Taken together, these findings suggest that VNS may be an effective adjunct to exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD.

  12. Cultured cells from a severe combined immunodeficient mouse have a slower than normal rate of repair of potentially lethal damage sensitive to hypertonic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Terado, T.; Ikebuchi, M.; Aoyama, T.; Komatsu, K.; Nozawa, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic 0.5 M NaCl treatment after irradiation on the repair of DNA damage were examined in fibroblasts of the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. These cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation because of a deficiency in the repair of double-strand breaks. Hypertonic treatment caused radiosensitization due to a fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) in scid cells, demonstrating that scid cells normally repair PLD. To assess the kinetics of the repair of PLD, hypertonic treatment was delayed for various times after irradiation. Potentially lethal damage was repaired during these times in isotonic medium at 37 degrees C. It was found that the rate of repair of PLD was much slower in scid cells than in BALB/c 3T3 cells, which have a open-quotes wild-typeclose quotes level of radiosensitivity. This fact indicates that the scid mutation affects the type of repair of PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl treatment. In scid hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8, which complements the radiosensitivity of the scid cells, the rate of repair was restored to a normal level. An enzyme encoded by a gene on chromosome 8 may also be connected with PLD which is sensitive to hypertonic treatment. 29 refs., 3 figs

  13. The Impact of Cranios acral Therapy on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Dipelgia Spastic Cerebral Palsy of 3-8 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitating impact of craniosacral therapy on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with spastic dipelgic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 100 children with cerebral palsy were studied and 36 children selected, aged 3 to 8 years, were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive range of motion by goniometer, neurodevelopment level by Bobath scale. All children were Pre-Post-tested with in an interval of three months. Results: A further finding of the analyses revealed that significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of the hip adductors and the ankle plantar flexors. Significant increase was observed in passive range of motion of the hip abduction and the ankle dorsiflexion. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of the knee flexors, of increase in passive range of motion of the knee extensor, of improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip adductors and improvement of the neurodevelopmental level. Conclusion: It should be mentioned that in all above cases the was set at 5%. Implications for clinical O.T. are mentioned.

  14. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  15. Bioimpedance-Based Wearable Measurement Instrumentation for Studying the Autonomic Nerve System Response to Stressful Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Álvarez, L.; Buendía, R.; Ayllón, D.; Llerena, C.; Gil-Pita, R.; Seoane, F.

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of mental stress on workers under hard and stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are not ready to undertake a mission that might put in risk their own life and the life of others. The ATREC project aims to enable Real Time Assessment of Mental Stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities. Integrating sensors with garments and using wearable measurement devices, the following physiological measurements were recorded: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response as well as peripheral temperature. The measuring garments are the following: a sensorized glove, an upper-arm strap and a repositionable textrode chest strap system with 6 textrodes. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains: one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors, for skin and environmental, and an Impedance Cardiographer/Pneumographer containing a 1 channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. The implemented wearable systems operated accordingly to the specifications and are ready to be used for the mental stress experiments that will be executed in the coming phases of the project in healthy volunteers.

  16. Complex-Spectrum Magnetic Environment enhances and/or modifies Bioeffects of Hypokinetic Stress Condition: an Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuriantz, N. A.; Martinyuk, V. S.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Tyasto, M. I.; Dorman, L. I.

    During last decades it was shown by many authors that ultra-low and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields ULF 0-10 Hz ELF 10-1000 Hz may produce biological effects and consequently may be a possible source for health problems Spaceflight electric and magnetic environments are characterized by complex combination of static and time-varying components in ULF-ELF range and by high variability The objective of this study was to investigate the possible influence of such magnetic fields on rats to understand the pathway regarding functional state of cardiovascular system Magnetic field MF pattern with variable complex spectra in 0-150 Hz frequency range was simulated using 3-axial Helmholtz coils and special computer-based equipment The effect of the real world MF exposure on rats was also tested in combination with hypokinetic stress condition which is typical for spaceflights It was revealed that variable complex-spectrum MF acts as a weak or moderate stress-like factor which amplifies and or modifies the functional shifts caused by other stress-factors The value and direction of the functional shifts caused by MF exposure significantly depend on gender individual-typological constitutional features and also on the physiological state norm stress of organism Our results support the idea that variable complex-spectrum MF action involves sympathetic activation overload in cholesterol transport in blood and also secretor activation of tissue basophyls mast cells that can influence the regional haemodynamics These

  17. Bioimpedance-Based Wearable Measurement Instrumentation for Studying the Autonomic Nerve System Response to Stressful Working Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J; Buendía, R; Seoane, F; Álvarez, L; Ayllón, D; Llerena, C; Gil-Pita, R

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of mental stress on workers under hard and stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are not ready to undertake a mission that might put in risk their own life and the life of others. The ATREC project aims to enable Real Time Assessment of Mental Stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities. Integrating sensors with garments and using wearable measurement devices, the following physiological measurements were recorded: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response as well as peripheral temperature. The measuring garments are the following: a sensorized glove, an upper-arm strap and a repositionable textrode chest strap system with 6 textrodes. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains: one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors, for skin and environmental, and an Impedance Cardiographer/Pneumographer containing a 1 channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. The implemented wearable systems operated accordingly to the specifications and are ready to be used for the mental stress experiments that will be executed in the coming phases of the project in healthy volunteers.

  18. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Heo, Yong-Seok; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-03-24

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism.

  19. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. Methods We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Results Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose–response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. Conclusions The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism. PMID:24661575

  20. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obruča, S.; Sedláček, P.; Mravec, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Nebesářová, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kučera, D.; Benešová, P.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Milerová, M.; Márová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 39, OCT (2017), s. 68-80 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) * PHB * cupriavidus necator * hyperosmotic conditions * plasmolysis * stress conditions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; CE - Biochemistry (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering; Electrical and electronic engineering (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  2. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  3. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings......Prior research has established an association between loneliness and a variety of negative health conditions among older people. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association. The Loneliness Model seeks to explain the mechanisms through which chronic loneliness might...... affect the development of adverse health conditions. The present study was designed to test the explanation proposed by the Loneliness Model. The sample consisted of 8.593 elderly ranging from 65 to 103 years participating in the 2013 Public Health Survey; “How are you?”. Results showed that loneliness...

  4. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  5. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD COUNT OF TENCH Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONDITIONS OF THERMAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhem Hasković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining the physiological feature provides an understanding of functional adaptation of species to its ecological niche as well as the various forms of stress factors. This paper gives an overview of changes in certain forms of leukocytes (WBC differential under the influence of thermal stress (increased temperature. In our experiment, we used 46 specimens of tench (Tinca tinca fished in the Jablanica Lake reservoir. Specimens had previously been adapted in specially prepared tanks for 20 days.  The control group of animals (16 was exposed to constant water temperature of 10 0C, while in the treated groups (30, the water temperature was gradually risen to 28 0C and, as such, held for 30 minutes. All specimens were aged 2+ and 3+.It was found that the thermal regime change causes adaptive response of tench specimens by increasing the number of neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils but reduction in the number of lymphocytes. Observed were statistically significant differences in the number of segmented granulocytes, pseudoeosinophils and lymphocytes between the control and the experimental group. However, a significantly higher number of segmented granulocytes and pseudoeosinophils was at the experimental group, while in the control group a number of lymphocytes was significantly higher compared with the experimental group. Neither form of leukocytes showed any significant difference between males and females of the experimental group. It is interesting to note that among individuals from both the control and experimental group, eosinophils and monocytes were rarely noticed, while basophils were not found at all. Key words: thermal stress, tench, Tinca tinca, pseudoeosinophils

  6. Modeling of the cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes mechanical behavior under PWR operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.; Delobelle, P.; Leclercq, S.; Bouffioux, P.; Rousselier, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a damaged viscoplastic model to simulate, for different isotherms (320, 350, 380, 400 and 420 degC), the out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes over the fluence range 0-85.1024 nm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The model, identified from uni and biaxial tests conducted at 350 and 400 degC, is validated from tests performed at 320, 380 and 420 degC. This model is able to simulate strain hardening under internal pressure followed by a stress relaxation period (thermal creep), which is representative of a pellet cladding mechanical interaction occurring during a power transient (class 2 incidental condition). Both the integration of a scalar state variable, characterizing the damage caused by a bombardment with neutrons, and the modification of the static recovery law allowed us to simulate the fast neutron flux effect (irradiation creep). (author)

  7. Some tools to combat dry season nutritional stress in ruminants under African conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2002-01-01

    Dry season nutritional stress is a major constraint to ruminant livestock production in semi-arid areas. After the rains finish, quantity and quality of grazing fall rapidly, leaving cereal crop residues as the major feed resource. These residues are low in N and high in crude fibre, characteristics which restrict intake and digestibility, so that underfeeding results. Improved handling and storage procedures as well as chemical and physical treatments can all improve their quality. Other strategies include: rate of offer of stover; compensatory growth; conservation of fodder. Farmer-selection should also consider multiple use of the options available. (author)

  8. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p animals.

  9. Regulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by salicylic acid in rice plants under salinity stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Bong-Gyu; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Shahzad, Raheem; Imran, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the regulatory role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in rice and its effects on toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during short-term salinity stress. SA application (0.5 and 1.0 mM) during salinity-induced stress (100 mM NaCl) resulted in significantly longer shoot length and higher chlorophyll and biomass accumulation than with salinity stress alone. NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species production led to increased levels of lipid peroxidation in rice plants, which were significantly reduced following SA application. A similar finding was observed for superoxide dismutase; however, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly reduced in rice plants treated with SA and NaCl alone and in combination. The relative mRNA expression of OsCATA and OsAPX1 was lower in rice plants during SA stress. Regarding nitrogenous species, S-nitrosothiol (SNO) was significantly reduced initially (one day after treatment [DAT]) but then increased in plants subjected to single or combined stress conditions. Genes related to SNO biosynthesis, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1), NO synthase-like activity (NOA), and nitrite reductase (NIR) were also assessed. The mRNA expression of GSNOR1 was increased relative to that of the control, whereas OsNOA was expressed at higher levels in plants treated with SA and NaCl alone relative to the control. The mRNA expression of OsNR was decreased in plants subjected to single or combination treatment, except at 2 DAT, compared to the control. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that SA can regulate the generation of NaCl-induced oxygen and nitrogen reactive species in rice plants. PMID:29558477

  10. 3D characterization of coal strains induced by compression, carbon dioxide sorption, and desorption at in-situ stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pone, J. Denis N.; Halleck, Phillip M.; Mathews, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is an option to combat climate change and an opportunity to enhance coalbed methane production. Prediction of sequestration potential in coal requires characterization of porosity, permeability, sorption capacity and the magnitude of swelling due to carbon dioxide uptake or shrinkage due to methane and water loss. Unfortunately, the majority of data characterizing coal-gas systems have been obtained from powdered, unconfined coal samples. Little is known about confined coal behavior during carbon dioxide uptake and methane desorption. The present work focuses on the characterization of lithotype specific deformation, and strain behavior during CO 2 uptake at simulated in-situ stress conditions. It includes the evaluation of three-dimensional strain induced by the confining stress, the sorption, and the desorption of carbon dioxide. X-ray computed tomography allowed three-dimensional characterization of the bituminous coal deformation samples under hydrostatic stress. The application of 6.9 MPa of confining stress contributes an average of - 0.34% volumetric strain. Normal strains due to confining stress were - 0.08%, - 0.15% and - 0.11% along the x, y and z axes respectively. Gas injection pressure was 3.1 MPa and the excess sorption was 0.85 mmol/g. Confined coal exposed to CO 2 for 26 days displays an average volumetric expansion of 0.4%. Normal strains due to CO 2 sorption were 0.11%, 0.22% and 0.11% along x, y and z axes. Drainage of the CO 2 induced an average of - 0.33% volumetric shrinkage. Normal strains due to CO 2 desorption were - 0.23%, - 0.08% and - 0.02% along x, y and z axes. Alternating positive and negative strain values observed along the sample length during compression, sorption and desorption respectively emphasized that both localized compression/compaction and expansion of coal will occur during CO 2 sequestration. (author)

  11. Maprotiline treatment differentially influences cardiac β-adrenoreceptors expression under normal and stress conditions

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    Natasa Spasojevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac function were observed in antidepressants treated patients and published in several clinical reports. These detected changes could be either a consequence of the treatment or of depression itself, which has already been proved to be a risk factor in heart diseases. In order to determine a possible influence of chronic treatment with norepinephrinergic reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, on the heart, we investigated gene expression of cardiac β-adrenoceptors both in controls and in animals with signs of depression. The rats were divided into two groups, unstressed controls and those exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. The groups were further divided into two subgroups, one receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (sterile water and another one maprotiline (10 mg/kg for four weeks. Tissue samples were collected after the last application. Gene expression of cardiac β1- and β2-adrenoceptor was determined using Real-time RT-PCR analysis. Our results show that in control animals expression of both adrenoreceptors was decreased in the right atria after 4 weeks of maprotiline application. Contrary, the same treatment led to a significant increase in expression of cardiac β1-adrenoceptor in the stressed rats, with no change in the characteristics of β2-adrenoceptor. Our findings might reflect the that molecular mechanisms are underlying factors involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases linked with antidepressant treatment.

  12. Survival of the insulator under the electrical stress condition at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Myeong [Dept. of Fire Protection Engineering, Changwon Moonsung University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We have clearly investigated with respect to the survival of the insulator at cryogenic temperature under the electrical stress. The breakdown and voltage-time characteristics of turn-to-turn models for point contact geometry and surface contact geometry using copper multi wrapped with polyimide film for an HTS transformer were investigated under AC and impulse voltage at 77 K. Polyimide film (Kapton) 0.025 mm thick is used for multi wrapping of the electrode. As expected, the breakdown voltages for the surface contact geometry are lower than that of the point contact geometry, because the contact area of the surface contact geometry is lager than that of the point contact geometry. The time to breakdown t50 decreases as the applied voltage is increased, and the lifetime indices increase slightly as the number of layers is increased. The electric field amplitude at the position where breakdown occurs is about 80% of the maximum electric field value. The relationship between survival probability and the electrical stress at cryogenic temperature was evident.

  13. Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions

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    Ningjian Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acids (CGAs are esters formed between caffeic and quinic acids, and represent an abundant group of plant polyphenols present in the human diet. CGAs have different subgroups that include caffeoylquinic, p-coumaroylquinic, and feruloyquinic acids. Results of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of beverages such as coffee, tea, wine, different herbal infusions, and also some fruit juices is linked to reduced risks of developing different chronic diseases. These beverages contain CGAs present in different concentrations and isomeric mixtures. The underlying mechanism(s for specific health benefits attributed to CGAs involves mitigating oxidative stress, and hence the related adverse effects associated with an unbalanced intracellular redox state. There is also evidence to show that CGAs exhibit anti-inflammatory activities by modulating a number of important metabolic pathways. This review will focus on three specific aspects of the relevance of CGAs in coffee beverages; namely: (1 the relative composition of different CGA isomers present in coffee beverages; (2 analysis of in vitro and in vivo evidence that CGAs and individual isomers can mitigate oxidative and inflammatory stresses; and (3 description of the molecular mechanisms that have a key role in the cell signaling activity that underlines important functions.

  14. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

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    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  15. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  16. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

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    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  18. sigE facilitates the adaptation of Bordetella bronchiseptica to stress conditions and lethal infection in immunocompromised mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barchinger Sarah E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell envelope of a bacterial pathogen can be damaged by harsh conditions in the environment outside a host and by immune factors during infection. Cell envelope stress responses preserve the integrity of this essential compartment and are often required for virulence. Bordetella species are important respiratory pathogens that possess a large number of putative transcription factors. However, no cell envelope stress responses have been described in these species. Among the putative Bordetella transcription factors are a number of genes belonging to the extracytoplasmic function (ECF group of alternative sigma factors, some of which are known to mediate cell envelope stress responses in other bacteria. Here we investigate the role of one such gene, sigE, in stress survival and pathogenesis of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Results We demonstrate that sigE encodes a functional sigma factor that mediates a cell envelope stress response. Mutants of B. bronchiseptica strain RB50 lacking sigE are more sensitive to high temperature, ethanol, and perturbation of the envelope by SDS-EDTA and certain β-lactam antibiotics. Using a series of immunocompromised mice deficient in different components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, we show that SigE plays an important role in evading the innate immune response during lethal infections of mice lacking B cells and T cells. SigE is not required, however, for colonization of the respiratory tract of immunocompetent mice. The sigE mutant is more efficiently phagocytosed and killed by peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs than RB50, and exhibits decreased cytotoxicity toward macrophages. These altered interactions with phagocytes could contribute to the defects observed during lethal infection. Conclusions Much of the work on transcriptional regulation during infection in B. bronchiseptica has focused on the BvgAS two-component system. This study reveals that the Sig

  19. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Early Life: Associations with Sex, Rearing Conditions, and Parental Physiological Traits in Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.

  1. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF NONAXISYMMETRIC STRESS STATE FOR QUASI-STATIC THERMAL POWER LOADING UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGHEST-ENERGY PARTICLE IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chigarev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a virtual modeling 2D(r, θ for deformation of singly-connected cylindrical solid under conditions of thermo-irradiation impact. Influence of a circumferential distortion on nonaxisymmetric strain-stress state for various values of temperature amplitudes has been investigated in the paper. A solid cylinder  with internal heat sources has been considered as a model body. Properties of the model body correspond to cermet fuel (40 % UO2 + 60 % Cr. 

  3. Functional loss of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) expressed early leaf senescence under various stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil, Syed Uzma; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ansari, Mohammad Israil

    2017-01-01

    GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism during the plant development process via GABA shunt and GABA-T mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism, is ideal model to examine the role of GABA-T in plant development and leaf senescence of plant. We have characterized GABA transaminase knock out mutant pop2-1 that is transition and pop2-3 which is T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.The GABA-T knockout mutant plants disp...

  4. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

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    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  5. Functional State of Rat’s Erythrocytes Under Different Stress Conditions

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    A.A. Martusevich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our early publications was shown that electrophorhetic motility of erythrocytes (EPME is a high effective criteria of adaptation response. This correlation is based on parallel development of adaptation syndrome and activation of the main organism regulatory systems, such as sympatoadrenalic and hypotalamo-hypophosial-adrenal ones. Objective: study of the influence of physical exercises and adrenaline injections on electrophorhetic motility, membrahes phospholipids spectrum and oxidative metabolism of the rats’ erythrocytes. Methods: Rats were divided into three equal groups. First group of animals was control (n=10; without any manipulations. Rats of second group were subjected to physical load in the form of a sailing duration of 15 minutes with a cargo amounting to 10% of animal body weight (water temperature – 26-280C. Rats of third group were intraperitoneally injected with adrenaline hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg. Blood sampling was made from the sublingual vein in 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes and 24 hours after exposure. We estimated the dynamics of the electrophorhetic motility of erythrocytes (EPME, the phospholipid spectrum of erythrocytes membranes, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA and the state of the glutathione system. Results and conclusions: The study suggests that red blood cell as a biological system is capable for realization of stress response may develop a special “alarm reaction” after action of the stress agent. This response initiates activation of free radical processes and phospholipids profile in erythrocyte membranes with reducing of its electronegativity. This stage enhances the activity of the antioxidant system, is limiting the development of lipid peroxidation processes, and leads to the development of "adaptation stage" of the cellular system, coupled with the restoration of the electronegativity of the membrane and the mobilization of reserves of low molecular antioxidants, particularly

  6. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shuhua; Wu, Gangwei; Jiang, Zhixian

    2018-01-01

    Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor) or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist) can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1 is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Methods: Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. Results: We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli.

  8. Germination and vigor of linseed seeds under different conditions of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., cultivated from seeds, is one of the oldest plants domesticated by humans and is popularly used as a medicine. It can be used as the raw material to produce oil and bran because it has high lipids content, fiber and proteins. Based on the economic potential of this species and the need for more information about its physiology, the goal of this study was to analyze the effects of light, temperature and water stress on the germination and vigor of linseed seeds. In experiment I the seeds were sown on paper at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC in the presence and absence of light. In experiment II, the seeds were placed on paper germitest soaked in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 at osmotic potentials corresponding to zero, -0.10, -0.20, -0.30, -0.40, -0.50 and -0.60 MPa. To evaluate the physiological potential, the following tests were made: germination, first germination count, length and dry mass of seedlings, and water stress. It was found that the highest percentages of germination and vigor occurred at a constant temperature of 20 °C, both in the presence and absence of light. The reduction of the osmotic potential of the substrate promoted a significant decrease in the germination and vigor of the linseed seeds. Osmotic potentials equal or less than -0.30 MPa were harmful to germination and there was no normal seedling development starting at -0.50 MPa.

  9. Growth, phenology and chlorophyll fluorescence of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. under water stress conditions

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    Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation methods offer a good alternative for increasing water use efficiency. The main purpose of this study was to identify the best irrigation level for Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. plants based on available water capacity (AWC of substrate. An experiment carried out with three irrigation levels (20, 40 and 60% of AWC and five genotypes (H225, H241, H244, H226 and Jaguar. The irrigation level of 20% decreased the soil water potential to cause water stress in plants. At an irrigation level of 40%, average jaguar plant height (92 cm and H241 (79 cm, genotypes were greater than under the other treatments. Average leaf area of H225, H241 and H244 plants was at least 48% greater than Jaguar plants. Average total dry matter of H241 and Jaguar plants, were 30 and 28% greater than H226 plants; and values of maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm, relative electron transport rate and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II were higher in H241, H244 and H226 plants; i.e. they are less probably due to photo inhibition damage. However, flowering time was earlier in plants with an irrigation level (IL of 20% than plants with an IL of 40%, this was a consequence of stress due to water deficit. The 60% irrigation treatment caused flooding and all genotypes died before the inflorescence stage. These results suggest the enforcement of a suitable irrigation level based in available water capacity of substrate coupled with a vigorous genotype can encourage healthy plants and high water use efficiency.

  10. estimating water consumptive use for some crops under stress conditions using neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.A.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different levels of irrigation water salinity on actual evapotranspiration, water stress coefficient, yield and water use efficiency of both groundnut and wheat crops growing on sandy soil under trickle irrigation system located at 30 o 24 ' N latitude, 31 o 35 ' E longitude while the altitude is 20 m above the sea level.Four irrigation water salinity levels were used for both crops, they are; 2.4 (S 1 ), 2.7 (S 2 ), 3.3 (S 3 ) and 4.4 (S 4 ) dS m -1 , for groundnut and 4.9 (S 1 ), 6.3 (S 2 ), 8.7 (S 3 ) and 13 (S 4 ) dS m -1 , for wheat respectively besides a fresh water (FW) as a control treatment (0.5 dS m -1 ). Cattle manure was added as a soil amendment at a rate of 48 m 3 ha -1 . Neutron moisture meter was used to determine soil moisture content and depletion through the soil depths of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90cm. Soil moisture content at 15 cm soil depth was determined gravimetrically. The applied irrigation water was 700 mm/season for groundnut and 550 mm/season for wheat based on 100 % of the recommended crop water requirements according to FAO No.33. (1979). The obtained results showed that the actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) and water stress coefficient (K s ) were slightly deceased by increasing the salinity of irrigation water especially under (S 4 ) irrigation salinity treatment for both crops.

  11. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Selection of tomato mutants (lycopersicon esculentum mill) under conditions of drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria Caridad; Mansoor, Ali; Suarez, Lorenzo; Mukandama, Jean P.; Rodriguez, Yanet

    2001-01-01

    At the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences were evaluated under conditions of drought estres an M5 population obtained starting from the irradiation of seeds of the Amalia and INCA 9-1varieties with dose of 300 and 500 Gy of rays gamma of 60 Co. The number of clusters for plant, mass average of the fruits, number of fruits for plant and yield for plant, the content of total soluble solids and the acidity of the fruits was evaluated observing differ highly significant among the different ones lines and the respective donating studied. Promissory genotipos of high productive potential was selected under this condition

  13. Verification of an optimized condition for low residual stress employed water-shower cooling during welding in austenitic stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, N.; Enomoto, K.; Anzai, H.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce tensile residual stress in a welded region, we have developed a new cooling method that uses a water-shower behind the welding torch. When this method is applied to the welding of austenitic stainless steel, the welding and cooling conditions mainly determine how much the residual stress can be reduced. To optimize these conditions, we first used a robust design method to determine the effects of the preheating temperature, the heat input quantity, and the water-shower area on the residual stress, and found that, to decrease the tensile residual stress, the preheating temperature should be high, the heat input low, and the water-shower area large. To confirm the effectiveness of these optimized conditions, the residual stresses under optimized or non-optimized conditions were measured experimentally. It was found that the residual stresses were tensile under the non-optimized conditions, but compressive under the optimized ones. These measurements agree well with the 3D-FEM analyses. It can therefore be concluded that the optimized conditions are valid and appropriate for reducing residual stress in an austenitic stainless-steel weld. (orig.)

  14. Effects of drought stress condition on the yield of spring wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... spikelets to booting stage affected the yield and yield components. Water deficit at this stage considerably decreased the number of spikelets per spike. The spike length reportedly showed stability under different conditions. However, the findings of Iqbal et al. (1999) on durum wheat indicated that the ...

  15. Mismatch or cumulative stress : the pathway to depression is conditional on attention style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    In the study reported here, the main question we investigated was whether attention style could be a conditional adaptation. We organized participants of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2,230) into shifters, sustainers, and two comparison groups, depending on their

  16. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  17. A methodology for on-line calculation of temperature and thermal stress under non-linear boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.; Zucca, S.; Gola, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the literature many works have been written dealing with the task of on-line calculation of temperature and thermal stress for machine components and structures, in order to evaluate fatigue damage accumulation and estimate residual life. One of the most widespread methodologies is the Green's function technique (GFT), by which machine parameters such as fluid temperatures, pressures and flow rates are converted into metal temperature transients and thermal stresses. However, since the GFT is based upon the linear superposition principle, it cannot be directly used in the case of varying heat transfer coefficients. In the present work, a different methodology is proposed, based upon CMS for temperature transient calculation and upon the GFT for the related thermal stress evaluation. This new approach allows variable heat transfer coefficients to be accounted for. The methodology is applied for two different case studies, taken from the literature: a thick pipe and a nozzle connected to a spherical head, both subjected to multiple convective boundary conditions

  18. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Available water is an important factor for plant growth in arid environments. Results indicated that foliar application of methanol is believed to be more important than the drought tolerance in C3 plant. Since bean is a C3 plant, it performs light respiration under intense heat, light and water stress due to internal leaf CO2 concentration reduction and oxygen concentration increase. Light respiration can cause up to 20% loss of carbon in plants and decrease the yield. Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide can neutralize the effect caused by drought stress. Thus, the use of substances that can cause an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the plant, leads to improving the yield under the drought conditions. One of the ways of increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in plants is by using compounds such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol as well as use of the amino acids of glycine, glutamate and aspartate. Plants can easily absorb methanol sprayed on leaves and use it as a carbon source added to atmospheric carbon. Methanol is relatively smaller compared to the CO2 molecules, so it can be easily absorbed and utilized by plants. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of methanol on some morphological characteristics of bean under drought stress, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications in 2014 at the Khatam Alanbia University of Behbahan. The treatment of spraying methanol was at 4 levels include control (without spraying, 10, 20 and 30% v/v methanol which added 2 g l-1 glycine to each of solutions. Adding glycine to aqueous solution of methanol leads to prevention of damages caused by the toxicity of methanol. The drought factors including control (100% field of capacity, moderate drought stress (50% field of capacity and severe drought stress (25% field of capacity were considered. In this experiment

  19. Modelling of Ethanol Production from Red Beet Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Thermal and Acid Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaji Jiménez-Islas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of pH and temperature on ethanol production from red beet juice by the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITD00196 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763 are studied. Logistic, Pirt, and Luedeking-Piret equations were used to describe quantitatively the microbial growth, substrate consumption, and ethanol production, respectively. The two S. cerevisiae strains used in this study were able to produce ethanol with high yield and volumetric productivity under acid and thermal stress conditions. The equations used to model the fermentation kinetics fit very well with the experimental data, thus establishing that ethanol production was growth associated under the evaluated conditions. The yeast S. cerevisiae ITD00196 had the best fermentative capacity and could be considered as an interesting option to develop bioprocesses for ethanol production.

  20. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  1. Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 to control CLB2 transcription under normal and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLinke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging. In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.g. the nuclear localisation of Hcm1 depends on Sir2 activity, whereas Sin3/Rpd3 silence cell cycle specific gene transcription in G2/M phase. However, a direct involvement of Sir2 in Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent regulation of target genes is at present unknown. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 in G1 and M phase, and that Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated activation of reporter genes is antagonized by Sir2. We further report that Sir2 overexpression strongly affects cell growth in an Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent manner. In addition, Sir2 regulates the expression of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 through Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated binding to the CLB2 promoter in G1 and M phase. We finally demonstrate that Sir2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2. Taken together, our results show a functional interplay between Fkh1/Fkh2 and Sir2 suggesting a novel mechanism of cell cycle repression. Thus, in budding yeast, not only the regulation of G2/M gene expression but also the protective response against stress could be directly coordinated by Fkh1 and Fkh2.

  2. Time-dependent deformation of concrete under multiaxial stress conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1975-10-01

    An investigation was made on the time-dependent deformation behavior of concrete in the presence of temperature, moisture, and loading conditions similar to those encountered in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). This investigation encompassed one concrete strength (6000 psi at 28 days), three aggregate types (chert, limestone, and graywacke), one cement (Type II), two types of specimens (as-cast and air-dried), two levels of temperature during test (73 and 150 0 F), and four types of loading (uniaxial, hydrostatic, biaxial, and triaxial). This effort was intended primarily as a data report; the experimental procedures and results are presented in detail. A comprehensive evaluation of the effects of various parameters and their interactions on the behavior of concrete is not included. However, a number of general comparisons were made concerning the effect of the various test conditions on concrete behavior. Based on this limited evaluation of the data, general conclusions and recommendations for additional work were formulated

  3. Propagation of cracks by stress corrosion in conditions of BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino C, F.J.; Fuentes C, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the obtained results when applying the Hydrogen Chemistry to a test tube type Compact Tension (CT), built in austenitic stainless steel 304l, simulating the conditions to those that it operates a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), temperature 288 C and pressure of 8 MPa are presented. With the application of this water chemistry, seeks to be proven the diminution of the crack propagation speed. (Author)

  4. Co-overexpression of OsSIZ1 and AVP1 in cotton substantially improves cotton growth and development under multiple-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat cause significant losses in crop production. Our laboratories employ genetic engineering to modify gene expression of selected genes to improve plant performance under environmental stress conditions. Previous studies by our group have shown tha...

  5. Stressful working conditions and poor self-rated health among financial services employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.

  6. Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, P; Karač, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivanković, A

    2014-09-01

    Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The succinate receptor as a novel therapeutic target for oxidative and metabolic stress-related conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina eAriza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The succinate receptor (also known as GPR91 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the family of P2Y purinoreceptors. It is expressed in a variety of tissues, including blood cells, adipose tissue, the liver, retina and kidney. In these tissues, this receptor and its ligand succinate have recently emerged as novel mediators in local stress situations, including ischemia, hypoxia, toxicity and hyperglycemia. Amongst others, the succinate receptor is involved in recruitment of immune cells to transplanted tissues. Moreover, it was shown to play a key role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. However, most prominently, the role of locally increased succinate levels and succinate receptor activation in the kidney, stimulating the systemic and local renin-angiotensin system, starts to unfold: The succinate receptor is a key mediator in the development of hypertension and possibly fibrosis in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This makes the succinate receptor a promising drug target to counteract or prevent cardiovascular and fibrotic defects in these expanding disorders. Recent development of SUCNR1-specific antagonists opens novel possibilities for research in models for these disorders and may eventually provide novel opportunities for the treatment of patients.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels in supercritical water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.; Haehner, P.; Ripplinger, S.; Siegl, J.; Penttilae, Sami; Toivonen, Aki

    2009-01-01

    Within the 6th Framework Program HPLWR-2 project (High Performance Light Water Reactor - Phase 2), stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities of selected austenitic stainless steels, 316L and 316NG, were studied in supercritical water (SCW) with the aim to identify and describe the specific failure mechanisms prevailing during slow strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests in ultra-pure demineralised SCW water solution. The SSRT tests were performed using a step-motor controlled loading device in an autoclave at 350 deg. C, 500 deg. C and 550 deg. C. Besides water temperature, the pressure, the oxygen content and the strain rate (resp. crosshead speed) were varied in the series of tests. The specimens SSRT tested to failure were subjected to fractographic analysis, in order to characterise the failure mechanisms. The fractography confirmed that failure was due to a combination of transgranular SCC and transgranular ductile fracture. The share of SCC and ductile fracture in the failure process of individual specimens was affected by the parameters of the SSRT tests, so that the environmental influence on SCC susceptibility could be assessed, in particular, the SCC sensitising effects of increasing oxygen content, decreasing strain rate and increasing test temperature. (author)

  9. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of “language” to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance. PMID:27610089

  10. Biofilm generation by Piscirickettsia salmonis under growth stress conditions: a putative in vivo survival/persistence strategy in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sergio H; Gómez, Fernando A; Ramírez, Ramón; Nilo, Luis; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2012-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a bacterial fish pathogen seriously threatening the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. The biology and life cycle of this bacterium is not completely understood and there are no reports explaining how it survives or persists in marine environments. This work provides descriptive data of P. salmonis behavior when it is exposed to stress conditions, producing large cell aggregates closely resembling typical biofilm structures. In order to track this putative biofilm, we used indirect fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Complex masses were observed over time; the bacteria appear to be embedded within a matrix which disappears when it is exposed to cellulase, suggesting a polysaccharide nature typical of biofilm formation. Two lectins (ConA and WGA) were used to characterize the matrix. Both lectins showed a strong reaction with the structure, validating the exopolysaccharide nature of the matrix. Recently, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between toxin/anti-toxin system expression at initial stages of biofilm formation. In this report, QRT-PCR analysis was used with the P. salmonis toxin/anti-toxin mazEF operon, showing induction of these genes at early stages of biofilm formation, suggesting that said formation may be an adaptive strategy for survival and persistence under stress conditions in marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Attenuation of Microbial Stress Due to Nano-Ag and Nano-TiO2 Interactions under Dark Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carolyn M; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A

    2016-10-04

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into thousands of commercial products, and their release into environmental systems creates complex mixtures with unknown toxicological outcomes. To explore this scenario, we probe the chemical and toxicological interactions of nanosilver (n-Ag) and nanotitania (n-TiO 2 ) in Lake Michigan water, a natural aqueous medium, under dark conditions. We find that the presence of n-Ag induces a stress response in Escherichia coli, as indicated by a decrease in ATP production observed at low concentrations (in the μg L -1 range), with levels that are environmentally relevant. However, when n-Ag and n-TiO 2 are present together in a mixture, n-TiO 2 attenuates the toxicity of n-Ag at and below 20 μg L -1 by adsorbing Ag + (aq) . We observe, however, that toxic stress cannot be explained by dissolved silver concentrations alone and, therefore, must also depend on silver associated with the nanoscale fraction. Although the attenuating effect of n-TiO 2 on n-Ag's toxicity is limited, this study emphasizes the importance of probing the toxicity of ENM mixtures under environmental conditions to assess how chemical interactions between nanoparticles change the toxicological effects of single ENMs in unexpected ways.

  12. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  13. Music regulators in two string quartet ensembles: a comparison of communicative behaviours between low- and high-stress performance conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviours as a sort of language to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This research study focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance and eye contacts. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in nonverbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how these regulators are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of members of two string quartet ensemble performances (Quartet Ensemble A performing Bartók and Quartet Ensemble B performing Haydn were analysed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP, undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP during a live concert. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e. the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gestures during HSP than LSP. . Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contacts during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviours are less standardised and may change according to idiosyncratic performing conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance.

  14. Perceived Stress and Its Relationship With Chronic Medical Conditions and Multimorbidity Among 229,293 Community-Dwelling Adults in 44 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Koyanagi, A; Ward, Philip B; Veronese, Nicola; Carvalho, André F; Solmi, Marco; Mugisha, James; Rosenbaum, Simon; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we assessed the association of chronic medical conditions and multimorbidity with perceived stress among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries. Data from the World Health Survey (2002-2004), including 229,293 adults, were analyzed. A perceived stress score (range, 0 (lowest stress)-100 (highest stress)) was computed on the basis of 2 questions from the Perceived Stress Scale. Eleven chronic conditions were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations. All chronic conditions were associated with significantly higher mean perceived stress scores, with the exception of edentulism. The associations were particularly strong for depression (β = 14.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.68, 15.74), visual impairment (β = 10.66, 95% CI: 8.09, 13.23), and schizophrenia (β = 9.98, 95% CI: 7.71, 12.24). Compared with no chronic conditions, the β coefficients for perceived stress with the presence of 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 chronic conditions were 5.58 (95% CI: 4.94, 6.23), 9.58 (95% CI: 8.67, 10.49), 14.15 (95% CI: 12.63, 15.67), and 20.17 (95% CI: 18.29, 22.05), respectively. The associations with perceived stress were significantly stronger among the poorest individuals for arthritis, asthma, diabetes, edentulism, and ≥4 chronic conditions. Our data suggest that a range of chronic conditions and multimorbidity are associated with greatly increased perceived stress among people in low- and middle-income countries, and that the poorest persons may be a particularly vulnerable group. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.