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Sample records for stress hormone response

  1. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  2. Regulation of abiotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights...... into the complex hormonal crosstalk of classical growth stimulating plant hormones within the naturally occurring biotic and abiotic multistress environment of higher plants. The MAPK- and phytohormone-cascades which comprise a multitude of single molecules on different signalling levels, as well as interactions...

  3. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Segal, Sabrina K.; Worden, Ian V.; Yim, Ilona S.; Cahill, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women – one naturally cycling (NC women, N = 42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, N = 36) – viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CP...

  5. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  7. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  8. Sex differences in stress responses : Focus on ovarian hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Gerrits, Marjolein; Westenbroek, Christel; Lin, Yanhua

    2009-01-01

    Women in the reproductive age are more vulnerable to develop affective disorders than men. This difference may attribute to anatomical differences, hormonal influences and environmental factors such as stress. However, the higher prevalence in women normalizes once menopause is established,

  9. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O’Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate chang...

  10. The effect of anesthesia type on stress hormone response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of anesthesia on stress hormones. Materials and Methods: The study was included 60 ASAI-II cases scheduled for major lower extremity surgery. The cases were randomized into 2 groups: The EA group was administered epidural anesthesia and the ...

  11. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns : Consequences for depression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, M.R.J.; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone

  12. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O'Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-10-10

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs. This 14-month monitoring study shows a strong correlation between anemone bleaching (zooxanthellae loss), anemonefish stress response, and reproductive hormones that decreased fecundity by 73%. These findings suggest that hormone stress responses play a crucial role in changes to population demography following climate change and plasticity in hormonal responsiveness may be a key mechanism enabling individual acclimation to climate change.Elevated temperatures can cause anemones to bleach, with unknown effects on their associated symbiotic fish. Here, Beldade and colleagues show that climate-induced bleaching alters anemonefish hormonal stress response, resulting in decreased reproductive hormones and severely impacted reproduction.

  13. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  14. Adolescence and the ontogeny of the hormonal stress response in male and female rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns: Consequences for depression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, Matthew; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-05-21

    Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules. Experiment (Exp)-1: Rats (14 males, 14 females) were gonadectomized or sham-operated (intact); Exp-2: gonadectomized and intact rats (28 males, 28 females) were exposed to acute foot shock or no stressor; and Exp-3: gonadectomized and intact rats (32 males, 32 females) were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or no stressor. For all rats, plasma and hypothalamic testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and the expression of stress-related molecules were determined, including corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, aromatase, and the receptors for estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed in terms of plasma sex hormones, brain sex steroids, and hypothalamic stress-related molecule mRNAs (p > 0.113) in intact or gonadectomized, male or female, rats. Male and female rats, either intact or gonadectomized and exposed to acute or chronic stress, showed different patterns of stress-related molecule changes. Diminished peripheral sex hormone levels lead to different peripheral and central patterns of change in the stress response systems in male and female rats. This has implications for the choice of models for the study of the different types of mood disorders which also show sex differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Vamvakopoulos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h CRH gene: (1 a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2 a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system.

  17. Candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to isolation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Armando

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A change from group housing to isolation in unfamiliar metabolic cages represents, for rodents, a significant emotional stress. We studied the effect of candesartan, a peripheral and central angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, on the hormonal and sympathetic response to acute isolation. We pretreated rats with 1 mg/kg/day candesartan for 13 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps, followed by 24-hour isolation in individual metabolic cages. We measured brain, pituitary and adrenal angiotensin II (Ang II receptor binding by quantitative autoradiography and adrenal hormones and catecholamines by RIA and HPLC. Isolation increased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in the zona glomerulosa and AT2-receptor binding in the adrenal medulla. Candesartan pretreatment decreased adrenal catecholamines, aldosterone and corticosterone, AT1-receptor binding in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla, pituitary gland and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and AT2-receptor binding in adrenal medulla, but increased AT2-receptor binding in zona glomerulosa. We conclude that peripheral and central AT1-receptor blockade with candesartan decreases the sympatho-adrenal and hormonal response to acute stress. Our results indicate that Ang II is an important stress hormone and suggest that blockade of the physiologically active AT 1-receptors could influence stress-related disorders.

  18. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

    1995-01-01

    This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic gl...

  19. Behavioural and Hormonal Stress Responses to Social Separation in Ravens, Corvus corax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Alexandru M; Stocker, Martina; Stöwe, Mareike; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Social life is profitable, but it facilitates conflicts over resources and creates interdependence between individuals. Separating highly social animals triggers intense reactions aimed at re-establishing lost connections. Less is known, however, about behavioural and physiological responses to separation in socially facultative species, where individuals temporarily form groups and may subsequently leave them. Non-breeding common ravens ( Corvus corax ) gather in large numbers at feeding and roosting sites, but otherwise spend time seemingly solitary or in small subgroups. We here studied how ravens cope with being socially isolated, and investigated the life characteristics that might explain potential individual differences. For this, we individually separated captive subadult ravens (n = 25) and housed them in physical and visual isolation from their group members across 4 d. During the separation period, we collected behavioural data and measured the amount of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites from bird droppings to assess the ravens' physiological stress response. We found behavioural indicators of stress at the start of the separation, when ravens showed higher levels of tension than of comfort - a pattern that reversed at the end of the separation. Furthermore, we found that the upbringing of ravens affected their behaviour during separation. Hand-raised birds produced more vocalisations in the beginning of the separation, and were less active at the end, while the reverse pattern occurred with parent-raised ravens. Contrary to our predictions, we did not find differences in hormonal responses between the beginning and end of the separation period or any link between hormonal responses and behaviours. Ravens' behavioural responses to social separation stress seem to be dependent on their arousal states, although possible links with hormonal reactions remain unclear. Our results show that behavioural reactions are not always linked with hormonal

  20. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  1. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  3. Chronopharmacological effects of growth hormone on the executive function and oxidative stress response in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K B Ferrari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: to investigate the chronopharmacological effects of growth hormone on executive function and the oxidative stress response in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats (36-40 weeks old had ad libitum access to water and food and were separated into four groups: diurnal control, nocturnal control, diurnal GH-treated, and nocturnal GH-treated animals. Levels of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and superoxide release by spleen macrophages were evaluated. For memory testing, adaptation and walking in an open field platform was used. GH-treated animals demonstrated better performance in exploratory and spatial open-field tests. Results: The latency time in both GH-treated groups was significantly lower compared with the latency time of the control groups. The diurnal GH treatment did not stimulate superoxide release but increased the CuZn-SOD enzyme levels. The nocturnal GH treatment did not influence the superoxide release and CuZn-SOD concentration. GH treatment also resulted in heart atrophy and lung hypertrophy. Conclusion: Growth hormone treatment improved the performance of executive functions at the cost of oxidative stress triggering, and this effect was dependent on the circadian period of hormone administration. However, GH treatment caused damaging effects such as lung hypertrophy and heart atrophy.

  4. Chronopharmacological effects of growth hormone on the executive function and oxidative stress response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos K B; França, Eduardo L; Monteiro, Luciane A; Santos, Bruno L; Pereira-Junior, Alfredo; Honorio-França, Adenilda C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the chronopharmacological effects of growth hormone on executive function and the oxidative stress response in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats (36-40 weeks old) had ad libitum access to water and food and were separated into four groups: diurnal control, nocturnal control, diurnal GH-treated, and nocturnal GH-treated animals. Levels of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), and superoxide release by spleen macrophages were evaluated. For memory testing, adaptation and walking in an open field platform was used. GH-treated animals demonstrated better performance in exploratory and spatial open-field tests. The latency time in both GH-treated groups was significantly lower compared with the latency time of the control groups. The diurnal GH treatment did not stimulate superoxide release but increased the CuZn-SOD enzyme levels. The nocturnal GH treatment did not influence the superoxide release and CuZn-SOD concentration. GH treatment also resulted in heart atrophy and lung hypertrophy. Growth hormone treatment improved the performance of executive functions at the cost of oxidative stress triggering, and this effect was dependent on the circadian period of hormone administration. However, GH treatment caused damaging effects such as lung hypertrophy and heart atrophy.

  5. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive. Conversely, the Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant was more sensitive to PQ toxicity than either of the single mutants. Administration of PQ significantly increased the Drome-AKH level in w(1118) and AdoR(1) larvae; however, this was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in Akh gene expression. In contrast, PQ significantly increased the expression of the glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1) gene. The presence of both a functional adenosine receptor and AKH seem to be important for the proper control of GstD1 gene expression under oxidative stress, however, the latter appears to play more dominant role. On the other hand, differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among the strains, and between untreated and PQ-treated groups were minimal. In addition, the glutathione level was significantly lower in all untreated AKH- or AdoR-deficient mutant flies as compared with the untreated control w(1118) flies and further declined following treatment with PQ. All oxidative stress characteristics modified by mutations in Akh gene were restored or even improved by 'rescue' mutation in flies which ectopically express Akh. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the important roles of AKH and adenosine in the anti-stress response elicited by PQ in a D. melanogaster model, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of adenosine in the anti-oxidative stress response in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  7. [Dynamics of hormone secretion during chronic emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Kovalev, S V; Svirskaia, R I

    1979-05-01

    Study of spontaneous secretion of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones and the direct hormonal response to stress revealed the pathogenic effect of chronic combined emotional stress upon the hormonal function of adrenal glands. The hippocampus takes part in formation of the emotional tension in response to stress stimulus and of the following hormonal secretion.

  8. Does short-term fasting lead to stressed-out parents? A study of incubation commitment and the hormonal stress responses and recoveries in snow petrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Parenteau, Charline; Pellé, Marie; Chastel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The hormonal stress response is flexible and can be modulated by individuals according to its costs and benefits. Therefore, it is predicted that parents in poor body condition should modify their hormonal stress response, and thus, redirect energy allocation processes from parental care to self-maintenance when stressors occur. To test this prediction, most studies on free-living vertebrates have only focused on the stress response while the stress recovery - how quickly hormonal levels return to baseline values - has been neglected. Moreover, most studies have only focused on corticosterone - the primary mediator of allostasis - without paying attention to prolactin despite its major role in mediating parental behaviors. Here, we examined the effect of a short-term fasting event on the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses and recoveries, and we subsequently explored their relationships with parental decision in the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea). By comparing the hormonal profiles of fasting and non-fasting snow petrels, we showed that parents modulate their corticosterone (but not prolactin) stress response according to their energetic status. We also described for the first time the hormonal stress recoveries in wild birds and found that they did not differ between fasting and non-fasting birds. Importantly, egg neglect was negatively correlated with circulating prolactin but not corticosterone levels in this species, demonstrating therefore a complex link between body condition, parental behavior and circulating corticosterone and prolactin levels. We suggest that both corticosterone and prolactin play a major role in the way parents adjust to stressors. This multiple signaling may allow parents to fine-tune their response to stressors, and especially, to activate specific allostasis-related mechanisms in a timely manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Haleem, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  10. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary -thyroid (HPT) axes across multiple matrices. APPROACH Task 1 – Natural...performance. Hair samples will be collected from the anterior back region of seals for determination of cortisol as a measure of chronic stress...and 5 juveniles. Task 3 – TSH challenges Thyroid hormones (thyroxin, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  12. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  13. Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, Jalel; López-Climent, María F; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. "Grand Nain") subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA) concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA) after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA) and cinnamic acids (CA) were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  14. Breeding status affects the hormonal and metabolic response to acute stress in a long-lived seabird, the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2016-09-15

    Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  16. Ozone modifies the metabolic and endocrine response to glucose: Reproduction of effects with the stress hormone corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Pilon, Shinjini; Guénette, Josée; Williams, Andrew; Holloway, Alison C

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased incidence of metabolic disease (e.g. metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Air pollutants increase the release of stress hormones (human cortisol, rodent corticosterone), which could contribute to metabolic dysregulation. We assessed acute effects of ozone, and stress axis involvement, on glucose tolerance and on the metabolic (triglyceride), endocrine/energy regulation (insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, leptin, ghrelin, corticosterone), and inflammatory/endothelial (TNF, IL-6, VEGF, PAI-1) response to exogenous glucose. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to clean air or 0.8 ppm ozone for 4 h in whole body chambers. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis involvement in ozone effects was tested through subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (50 mg/kg body weight), corticosterone (10 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle (40% propylene glycol) prior to exposure. A glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg body weight glucose) was conducted immediately after exposure, with blood samples collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Ozone exposure impaired glucose tolerance, an effect accompanied by increased plasma triglycerides but no impairment of insulin release. Ozone diminished glucagon, GLP-1, and ghrelin responses to glucose, but did not significantly impact inflammatory/endothelial analytes. Metyrapone reduced corticosterone but increased glucose and triglycerides, complicating evaluation of the impact of glucocorticoid inhibition. However, administration of corticosterone reproduced the profile of ozone effects, supporting a role for the HPA axis. The results show that ozone-dependent changes in glucose tolerance are accompanied by altered metabolic and endocrine responses to glucose challenge that are reproduced by exogenous stress hormone. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    regulation in a captive dolphin population PI: Cory Champagne This project examines roles of CBG and rT3 in the sister study on the Navy captive...bottlenose dolphin population. Molecular indicators of chronic stress in a model pinniped - the northern elephant seal. PI: Cory Champagne This...Khudyakov J.I., C.D. Champagne , L. Preeyanon, R.M. Ortiz, D.E. Crocker. 2015. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging

  18. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW 0.75 ) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ ( P  = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked ( P  response than Low RFI from 40 min to 150 min relative to ACTH administration. Cortisol response was positively associated with RFI status ( r  = 0.32; P  responsiveness of the HPA axis is likely to contribute to appreciable variation in the efficiency feed utilisation of cattle.

  19. Hormonal regulation of response to oxidative stress in insects - an update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 10 (2015), s. 25788-25816 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones (AKH) * AKH gene * anti-oxidative mechanisms Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/10/25788

  20. Neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 regulate Caenorhabditis elegans avoidance response to the plant stress hormone methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jintao; Xu, Zhaofa; Tan, Zhiping; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2015-02-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSa) is a stress hormone released by plants under attack by pathogens or herbivores . MeSa has been shown to attract predatory insects of herbivores and repel pests. The molecules and neurons underlying animal response to MeSa are not known. Here we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong avoidance response to MeSa, which requires the activities of two closely related neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2. Molecular analyses suggest that NPR-1 expressed in the RMG inter/motor neurons is required for MeSa avoidance. An NPR-1 ligand FLP-18 is also required. Using a rescuing npr-2 promoter to drive a GFP transgene, we identified that NPR-2 is expressed in multiple sensory and interneurons. Genetic rescue experiments suggest that NPR-2 expressed in the AIZ interneurons is required for MeSa avoidance. We also provide evidence that the AWB sensory neurons might act upstream of RMGs and AIZs to detect MeSa. Our results suggest that NPR-2 has an important role in regulating animal behavior and that NPR-1 and NPR-2 act on distinct interneurons to affect C. elegans avoidance response to MeSa. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of Pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, J.; Krishnan, Natraj; Alquicer, Glenda; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 146, - (2007), s. 336-342 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant activity * oxidative stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.345, year: 2007

  2. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    91-92, AUG 01 (2016), s. 39-47 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : stress * AKH * adenosine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191016301937

  3. Psychological and hormonal stress reactions during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  4. Hematologic, Metabolite and Hormone Responses to Weaning-Induced Stress in Foals of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Fazeela Yaqoob1 and Heinrich Enbergs2

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-four foals of different breeds (Thoroughbred, Standardbred, German Warmblood, aged 5-6 months, were used in a study to evaluate the effects of weaning, sex, breed on haematological, metabolic and hormonal parameters. The values of leukocytes, neutrophils, red blood cells, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelets, activity of -GT and concentrations of cholesterol, cortisol and thyroxin rose on day 1 after weaning, while the percentages of eosinophils, lymphocytes and serum concentration of triglycerides decreased one day following weaning. These parameters returned to pre-weaning values on day 14 post-weaning except serum cholesterol, which fell to a significantly lower level on day 14 post-weaning than pre-weaning value. Serum alkaline phosphatase declined markedly on day 14 post-weaning. The most pronounced rise was observed for cortisol (51% and thyroxin (40% values. Females presented higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cortisol concentration than males (P<0.05. German Warmblood foals presented a less-altered picture following weaning as compared with Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds. It is concluded that foals respond immediately to weaning, which may lead to suppression of the activities of bone cells i.e., osteoblasts. In addition, serum concentrations of cortisol and thyroxin influence one another in weanling foals. The Thoroughbred foals appear to be the most sensitive to weaning.

  5. The impact of heat stress targeting on the hormonal and transcriptomic response in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrá, Jana; Černý, M.; Štorchová, Helena; Dobrev, Petre; Skalák, J.; Jedelský, P.L.; Lukšanová, Hana; Gaudinová, Alena; Pešek, Bedřich; Malbeck, Jiří; Vaněk, Tomáš; Brzobohatý, Břetislav; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 231, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 52-61 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/2062; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11048; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cytokinin * Heat stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2015

  6. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  7. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, and hormonal response following level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, K; Abedelmalek, S; Chtourou, H; Wong, D P; Boussetta, N; Souissi, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage parameters, and hormonal responses following the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). A total of 11 healthy subjects performed an intermittent test (YYIRT) at two times-of-day (i.e., 07:00 h and 17:00 h), with a recovery period of ≥36 h in-between, in a randomized order. Blood samples were taken at the rest (baseline) and immediately (post-YYIRT) after the YYIRT for measuring oxidative stress, biochemical markers, and hormonal response. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way and two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni test at p creatine kinase (p  0.05) were similar for the morning and evening test. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aerobic performance presents diurnal variation with great result observed in the evening accompanied by an improvement of hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative responses. These data may help to guide athletes and coaches and contribute to public health recommendations on exercise and muscle damage particularly in the competitive periods.

  9. Altered circadian rhythms of the stress hormone and melatonin response in lupus-prone MRL/MP-fas(Ipr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, O; Dietrich, H; Oliveira dos Santos, A; Wiegers, G J; Schwarz, S; Harbutz, M; Herold, M; Wick, G

    2000-06-01

    The immune system interacts with the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis via so-called glucocorticoid increasing factors, which are produced by the immune system during immune reactions, causing an elevation of systemic glucocorticoid levels that contribute to preservation of the immune reactions specificities. Previous results from our laboratory had already shown an altered immuno-neuroendocrine dialogue via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in autoimmune disease-prone chicken and mouse strains. In the present study, we further investigated the altered glucocorticoid response via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in murine lupus. We established the circadian rhythms of corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, adrenocorticotropic hormone and melatonin, as well as the time response curves after injection of interleukin-1 of the first three parameters in normal SWISS and lupus-prone MRL/MP-fas(Ipr) mice. The results show that lupus-prone MRL/ MP-fas(Ipr) mice do not react appropriately to changes of the light/dark cycle, circadian melatonin rhythms seem to uncouple from the light/dark cycle, and plasma corticosterone levels are elevated during the resting phase. Diurnal changes of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and adrenocorticotropic hormone were normal compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that MRL/ MP-fas(Ipr) mice not only show an altered glucocorticoid response mediated via the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal axis to IL-1, but are also affected by disturbances of corticosterone and melatonin circadian rhythms. Our findings may have implications for intrathymic T cell development and the emergence of autoimmune disease.

  10. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking, vitamin C status, and the acute phase and stress hormone responses in ... the longest symptom for the groups of non-smokers and smokers were 6.8 and ..... N, Nestorovic V (2013) Changes in vitamin C and oxi- dative stress status ...

  12. Contribution of stress and sex hormones to memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J

    2017-08-01

    Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words. On the next day, delayed free and cued recall was tested. Sex hormone levels verified distinct estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels between groups. Stress increased blood pressure, cortisol concentrations, and ratings of stress appraisal in all four groups as well as cued recall performance of negative words in men. Stress exposure in OC women led to a blunted cortisol response and rather enhanced cued recall of neutral words. Thus, pre-encoding stress facilitated emotional cued recall performance in men only, but not women with different sex hormone statuses pointing to the pivotal role of circulating sex hormones in modulation of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    out-of- water stress protocol. The observed response to the stress protocol was similar to that of ACTH administrations (see Parent Project for...CD, Booth R, Wasser S, Cotte L, Jensen E, Crocker D, Houser D (2013). The progestin megestrol acetate suppresses the HPA axis in bottlenose dolphin...Kellar, N.M., Cockrem, J., Romano, T., Booth, R.K. and Wasser , S.K. (2015) Natural variation in stress hormones, comparisons across matrices, and

  14. Morning and afternoon appetite and gut hormone responses to meal and stress challenges in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Grillot, C; Ungredda, T; Ellis, S; Mehta, N; Holst, J; Geliebter, A

    2017-12-13

    Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast. For each protocol they first received a standardized liquid meal (9:00am/4:00pm), then a stress test (Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 11:10am/6:1pm), then a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal (11:40am/6:40pm), while rating appetite and stress and having blood drawn for hormone measures. Appetite at baseline was greater in the PM than AM condition (higher hunger, lower fullness). Following the liquid meal, AUC values for hunger and ghrelin were greater, and AUC values for PYY lower, in the PM than AM condition. Only those with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition, as well as a pattern of higher initial PM and lower initial AM ghrelin. Following the stress test, cortisol and ghrelin increased in both the AM and PM conditions, but higher ghrelin AUC and lower cortisol AUC were observed in the PM condition. Again, only participants with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition. Buffet meal intake was similar across groups and conditions, but those with BED reported greater loss of control and binge resemblance than those without. Afternoon/evening may be a high-risk period for overeating, particularly when paired with stress exposure, and for those with binge eating.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 13 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.307.

  15. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  16. Stress-related hormonal alterations, growth and pelleted starter intake in pre-weaning Holstein calves in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Mellado, M; Martínez, A M; Véliz, F G; García, J E; de Santiago, A; Carrillo, E

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress and month of birth on growth performance, pelleted starter intake, and stress-related hormones in Holstein calves. Birth weight and growth records, representing 4735 Holstein calves from a large commercial dairy herd in northern Mexico (25° N; 22.3 °C mean annual temperature) from 2013 to 2015, were analyzed. Temperature-humidity index (THI) at calving, season of birth, and month of birth were the independent variables, whereas growth traits were the dependent variables. Increased THI at birth from  85 units was associated with a decrease in birth weight from 39.3 to 38.7 kg. Calves subjected to high THI (> 75 units) at calving showed lesser (P calves born with THI calves born in the fall was about 70 g less (P calves delivered in winter months. Plasma triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine levels were lower (1.02 ± 0.21 and 48 ± 7.9 ng/mL, respectively; P calves born in summer (59 ± 40 ng/mL) than calves born in winter (20 ± 28 ng/mL). Pelleted starter intake 1 week before weaning was lowest (P calves. Thus, environmental management of the newborn calf during hot spring and summer months is warranted to optimize pelleted starter intake and calf growth rates.

  17. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  18. Role of basal stress hormones and amygdala dimensions in stress coping strategies of male rhesus monkeys in response to a hazard-reward conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Tekieh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In the present study the effect of stress on monkeys that had learned to retrieve food from a five-chamber receptacle, as well as the relationship between their behavior and the serum cortisol and epinephrine levels and relative size of the amygdala was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Six male rhesus monkeys were individually given access to the food reward orderly. They could easily retrieve the rewards from all chambers except for the chamber 4, which a brief, mild electric shock (3 V was delivered to them upon touching the chamber’s interior. The coping behaviors were video-recorded and analyzed offline. Baseline serum cortisol and epinephrine levels were measured before the experiments using monkey enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. One week after the behavioral experiment, the monkeys’ brains were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia. The cross-sectional area of the left amygdala in sagittal plane relative to the area of the whole brain in the same slice was evaluated by the planimetric method using ImageJ software. Results: Exposure to the distressing condition caused different behavioral responses. Monkeys with higher baseline levels of serum cortisol and epinephrine and larger amygdala behaved more violently in the face of stress, indicating adopting emotion-focused stress-coping strategies. Conversely, those with low plasma epinephrine, moderate cortisol, and smaller amygdala showed perseverative behavior, indicating a problem-focused coping style. Conclusion: In dealing with the same stress, different responses might be observed from nonhuman primates according to their cortisol and epinephrine levels as well as their amygdala dimensions.

  19. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  20. Effects of preoperative carprofen on cardio-respiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response in calves during umbilical surgery under isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, I; Poos, E M; Meyer, H; List, A K; Kaestner, S B R; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i.e. after 5-8 min), ketamine was administered (2 mg/kg, IV). Anaesthesia was then maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in oxygen to effect and completed by infiltration of the incision line with 20 mL of 2% procaine. Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic parameters were examined before, during and after surgery at short intervals. In both groups, anaesthesia appeared adequate for the surgical intervention. Heart rate, stroke index and arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated after the onset of surgery. Oxygen partial pressure and oxygen delivery increased, while the oxygen extraction ratio decreased intraoperatively, ensuring sufficient oxygen supply. In the control group, the mean surge in serum cortisol concentrations tended to be higher (P = 0.089) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was significantly greater (P carprofen group during surgery. In conclusion, the anaesthetic protocol used in this study induced reliable analgesia in both groups. The lower serum cortisol levels and SVR may indicate a reduced surgical stress response in calves undergoing umbilical surgery under ISO anaesthesia after administering carprofen preoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hormonal dynamics during salt stress responses of salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and salt-tolerant Thellungiella salsuginea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přerostová, Sylva; Dobrev, Petre; Gaudinová, Alena; Hošek, Petr; Soudek, Petr; Knirsch, Vojtěch; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 264, NOV (2017), s. 188-198 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S; GA ČR GA17-04607S; GA MŠk LD15093 Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Auxin * Cytokinin * Halophyte * Phytohormone * Salt stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  2. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    presence of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is a peptide hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland . Thyroid stimulating hormone is 4...releasing hormone (TRH) challenges to characterize the activation of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary - thyroid (HPT...triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are responsible for regulating the metabolism of an animal and affect the activity of other stress

  3. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... but not in HP. LPS increased whole body palmitate fluxes (3-fold) and decreased palmitate specific activity 40-50 % in CTR, but not in HP. G(0)/G(1) Switch Gene 2 (G0S2 - an inhibitor of lipolysis) adipose tissue mRNA was decreased in CTR. LPS increased phenylalanine fluxes significantly more in CTR, whereas...

  4. Post-stress recovery of pituitary-adrenal hormones and glucose, but not the response during exposure to the stressor, is a marker of stress intensity in highly stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio

    2002-02-01

    Acute immobilization in male rats elicited the same ACTH, corticosterone and glucose response as foot shock when measured immediately after stress. However, post-stress recovery of plasma ACTH, corticosterone and glucose levels were delayed in immobilized versus shocked rats. Similarly, stress-induced anorexia was much greater in the former animals. All these data suggest that post-stress speed of recovery of some physiological variables is positively related to stressor intensity and could be used to evaluate it.

  5. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  6. Genome Wide Identification of LIM Genes in Cicer arietinum and Response of Ca-2LIMs in Development, Hormone and Pathogenic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Srivastava

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic lineage-specific LIM protein (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3 family play pivotal role in modulation of actin dynamics and transcriptional regulation. The systematic investigation of this family has not been carried in detail and rare in legumes. Current study involves the mining of Cicer arietinum genome for the genes coding for LIM domain proteins and displayed significant homology with LIM genes of other species. The analysis led to the identification of 15 members, which were positioned on chickpea chromosomes. The phylogenetic and motif analysis suggested their categorization into two sub-families i.e., Ca-2LIMs and Ca-DA1/DAR, which comprised of nine and six candidates, respectively. Further sub-categories of Ca-2LIMs were recognised as αLIM, βLIM, δLIM and γLIM. The LIM genes within their sub-families displayed conserved genomic and motif organization. The expression pattern of Ca-2LIMs across developmental and reproductive tissues demonstrated strong correlation with established consensus. The Ca-2LIM belongs to PLIM and GLIM (XLIM was found highly expressed in floral tissue. Others showed ubiquitous expression pattern with their dominance in stem. Under hormonal and pathogenic conditions these LIMs were found to up-regulate during salicylic acid, abscisic acid and Ascochyta rabiei treatment or infection; and down-regulated in response to jasmonic acid treatment. The findings of this work, particularly in terms of modulation of LIM genes under biotic stress will open up the way to further explore and establish the role of chickpea LIMs in plant defense response.

  7. Genome Wide Identification of LIM Genes in Cicer arietinum and Response of Ca-2LIMs in Development, Hormone and Pathogenic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vikas; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic lineage-specific LIM protein (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3) family play pivotal role in modulation of actin dynamics and transcriptional regulation. The systematic investigation of this family has not been carried in detail and rare in legumes. Current study involves the mining of Cicer arietinum genome for the genes coding for LIM domain proteins and displayed significant homology with LIM genes of other species. The analysis led to the identification of 15 members, which were positioned on chickpea chromosomes. The phylogenetic and motif analysis suggested their categorization into two sub-families i.e., Ca-2LIMs and Ca-DA1/DAR, which comprised of nine and six candidates, respectively. Further sub-categories of Ca-2LIMs were recognised as αLIM, βLIM, δLIM and γLIM. The LIM genes within their sub-families displayed conserved genomic and motif organization. The expression pattern of Ca-2LIMs across developmental and reproductive tissues demonstrated strong correlation with established consensus. The Ca-2LIM belongs to PLIM and GLIM (XLIM) was found highly expressed in floral tissue. Others showed ubiquitous expression pattern with their dominance in stem. Under hormonal and pathogenic conditions these LIMs were found to up-regulate during salicylic acid, abscisic acid and Ascochyta rabiei treatment or infection; and down-regulated in response to jasmonic acid treatment. The findings of this work, particularly in terms of modulation of LIM genes under biotic stress will open up the way to further explore and establish the role of chickpea LIMs in plant defense response. PMID:26418014

  8. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Duncan; Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine M; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathway which is critical to healthy brain function and has been implicated in psychiatric illness. We review normative developmental changes in dopamine, sex hormone, and stress hormone signaling during adolescence and throughout postnatal life, then highlight the interaction of sex and stress hormones and review their impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. Adolescence is a time of increased responsiveness to sex and stress hormones, during which the maturing dopaminergic neural circuitry is profoundly influenced by these factors. Testosterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoids interact with each other and have distinct, brain region-specific impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain, shaping brain maturation and cognitive function in adolescence and adulthood. Some effects of stress/sex hormones on cortical and subcortical dopamine parameters bear similarities with dopaminergic abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible role for sex/stress hormones at adolescence in influencing risk for psychiatric illness via modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Stress and sex hormones may prove useful targets in future strategies for modifying risk for psychiatric illness.

  9. Natural Variation in Stress Hormones, Comparisons Across Matrices, and Impacts Resulting from Induced Stress in the Bottlenose Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M; Cockrem, John; Romano, Tracy; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge regarding stress hormones and how they vary in response to seasonality, gender, age, and reproductive status for any marine mammal is limited. Furthermore, stress hormones may be measured in more than one matrix (e.g., feces, blood, blubber), but the relationships between levels of a given hormone across these matrices are unknown, further complicating the interpretations of hormones measured in samples collected from wild animals. A study is underway to address these issues in a population of bottlenose dolphins trained for voluntary participation in sample collections from different matrices and across season and time of day.

  10. Regulatory cross-talks and cascades in rice hormone biosynthesis pathways contribute to stress signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each other’s production directly. Thus multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones.

  11. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  12. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmele, U; Spillmann, M; Bärtschi, C; Wolf, O T; Weber, C S; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, P H

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Animal studies suggest that the pineal hormone melatonin influences basal stress hormone levels and dampens hormone reactivity to stress. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether melatonin also has a suppressive effect on stress-induced catecholamine and cortisol release in humans. As stress hormones affect memory processing, we further examined a possible accompanying modulation of memory function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty healthy young men received a single oral dose of either 3...

  13. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  14. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  16. The scissors phenomenon in hormonal response to execise in coronary patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitilev, S.B.; Saprygin, D.B.; Migalina, L.A.; Besshapov, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A difference between baseline and final plasma hormonal (insulin, cortisol, somatotrophic hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyronine (T 4 ) levels, related to the pattern of responce to physical stress, was demonstrated in 67 coronary patients with angio-graphically verified diagnosis. Post-exercise increase in these hormones was associated with their lowered baseline elevated final blood levels, as compared to those patients who showed a decrease in hormonal levels in response to exercise, with the base-lines exceeding final values

  17. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM)prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1 ppm),4 h/day for 1 or 2days. Ozone exposure significantly changed the expression of over 2300 genes in lungs of SHAM rats, and these changes were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats. SHAM surgery but not DEMED or ADREX resulted in activation of multiple ozone-responsive pathways, including glucocorticoid, acute phase response, NRF2, and Pl3K-AKT.Predicted targets from sequencing data showed a similarity between transcriptional changes induced by ozone and adrenergic and steroidal modulation of effects in SHAM but not ADREX rats. Ozone-induced Increases in lung 116 in SHAM rats coincided with neutrophilic Inflammation, but were diminished in DEMED and ADREX rats. Although ozone exposure in SHAM rats did not significantly alter mRNA expression of lfny and 11-4, the IL-4 protein and ratio of IL-4 to IFNy (IL-4/IFNy) proteins increased suggesting a tendency for a Th2 response. This did not occur

  18. Hormonal and haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed hormonal and haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus to ammonia toxicity. Laboratory study of haematological responses of adult C. gariepinus to sub-lethal level of ammonia (2.2 g/l) at different exposure hours (0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 h) were carried out. Blood samples of C. gariepinus were ...

  19. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  20. The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA editing factor SLO2, which affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, participates in multiple stress and hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Zhang, Chunyi; Mühlenbock, Per; Eastmond, Peter J; Valcke, Roland; De Coninck, Barbara; Oden, Sevgi; Karampelias, Michael; Cammue, Bruno P A; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show that mutation in SLO2 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses. Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plants show increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection. An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes of complex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABA treatment. In addition, H2O2 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude that SLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editing factors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link between mitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.

  1. Plant responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  2. Corticotropin releasing hormone and imaging, rethinking the stress axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contoreggi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The stress system provides integration of both neurochemical and somatic physiologic functions within organisms as an adaptive mechanism to changing environmental conditions throughout evolution. In mammals and primates the complexity and sophistication of these systems have surpassed other species in triaging neurochemical and physiologic signaling to maximize chances of survival. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and its related peptides and receptors have been identified over the last three decades and are fundamental molecular initiators of the stress response. They are crucial in the top down regulatory cascade over a myriad of neurochemical, neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous system events. From neuroscience, we've seen that stress activation impacts behavior, endocrine and somatic physiology and influences neurochemical events that one can capture in real time with current imaging technologies. To delineate these effects one can demonstrate how the CRH neuronal networks infiltrate critical cognitive, emotive and autonomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) with somatic effects. Abundant preclinical and clinical studies show inter-regulatory actions of CRH with multiple neurotransmitters/peptides. Stress, both acute and chronic has epigenetic effects which magnify genetic susceptibilities to alter neurochemistry; stress system activation can add critical variables in design and interpretation of basic and clinical neuroscience and related research. This review will attempt to provide an overview of the spectrum of known functions and speculative actions of CRH and stress responses in light of imaging technology and its interpretation. Metabolic and neuroreceptor positron emission/single photon tomography (PET/SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anatomic MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pMRS) are technologies that can delineate basic mechanisms of neurophysiology and

  3. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  4. A ghrelin-growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M; Burgos-Robles, A; Liu, E; Correia, S S; Goosens, K A

    2014-12-01

    Hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediate many of the bodily responses to stressors, yet there is no clear relationship between the levels of these hormones and stress-associated mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, other hormones are likely to be involved in this effect of stress. Here we used a rodent model of PTSD in which rats repeatedly exposed to a stressor display heightened fear learning following auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our results show that stress-related increases in circulating ghrelin, a peptide hormone, are necessary and sufficient for stress-associated vulnerability to exacerbated fear learning and these actions of ghrelin occur in the amygdala. Importantly, these actions are also independent of the classic HPA stress axis. Repeated systemic administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist enhanced fear memory but did not increase either corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticosterone. Repeated intraamygdala infusion of a ghrelin receptor agonist produced a similar enhancement of fear memory. Ghrelin receptor antagonism during repeated stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting stress-induced corticosterone release. We also examined links between ghrelin and growth hormone (GH), a major downstream effector of the ghrelin receptor. GH protein was upregulated in the amygdala following chronic stress, and its release from amygdala neurons was enhanced by ghrelin receptor stimulation. Virus-mediated overexpression of GH in the amygdala was also sufficient to increase fear. Finally, virus-mediated overexpression of a GH receptor antagonist was sufficient to block the fear-enhancing effects of repeated ghrelin receptor stimulation. Thus, ghrelin requires GH in the amygdala to exert fear-enhancing effects. These results suggest that ghrelin mediates a novel branch of the stress response and highlight a previously unrecognized role for ghrelin and

  5. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise...

  6. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  7. Short communication: Pilot study on hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral stress response to treatment of claw horn lesions in acutely lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, S; Wunderlich, C; Heppelmann, M; Palme, R; Starke, A; Kehler, W; Steiner, A; Rizk, A; Meyer, U; Daenicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-09-01

    Short-term effects of therapeutic claw trimming in acutely lame cows (n=21) with nonadvanced claw horn lesions on the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral stress responses were investigated in comparison to regular claw trimming in nonlame control cows (n=21). Controls were matched to lame cows by parity and stage of lactation. Lame cows suffering from typical sole ulcers or white line disease were blinded and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, receiving 15 min before interventions either ketoprofen (n=11; 3mg/kg of BW intramuscularly; Romefen, Merial, Lyon, France) or placebo (n=10; saline in equivalent amount and route of administration). All cows underwent functional claw trimming in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping table, and claw horn lesions in lame cows were conventionally treated (removal of loose horn, block on opposing claw, bandaging of affected claw). Blood samples collected 15 min before, at the end, and 24h after claw trimming were analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, lactate, and glucose, and fecal samples (collected before treatment and after 24 h) for cortisol metabolites. Behavioral stress responses during functional and therapeutic claw trimming were recorded. Concentrations of blood cortisol, fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites were higher in lame than in nonlame cows after treatment. During claw treatment, more leg movements were recorded for lame cows than nonlame cows. Pre-emptive administration of ketoprofen had no obvious effects on stress responses to therapeutic claw trimming. Treatments of claw horn lesions caused a significant stress and pain reaction in acutely lame cows, demonstrating the necessity of adequate pain management protocols for such interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resting hormone level response to a 16-week dynamic and static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of the study was to evaluate hormonal responses of serum cortisol, growth hormone (GH), testesterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels during dynamic and static stress exercises in 20 male volunteer student athletes.

  9. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Paiva, Ana Luiza Sobral; Machado, Ronei Dorneles; Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  10. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Bücker-Neto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  11. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  12. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  13. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... intervention. RESULTS: Resting plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, or prolactin (PRL) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects (all p-values>.12). In response to an incremental bicycle test the GH (p=.02) and cortisol (p=.05) response in depressed was different compared to healthy...

  14. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (Psoccer training process could indicate a stagnation of training process, accordingly with insignificant changes of AnT. The significant correlations of some somatotypes with stress hormonal responses could only suggest that the somatotype characteristics of young soccer players could be of interest in process of selection and planning of soccer training process with an essential need for more studies.

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  16. Inhibition of hormonal and behavioral effects of stress by tryptophan in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sumera; Saleem, Darakhshan; Haleem, Muhammad A; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2017-11-03

    Stress in known to alter hormonal systems. Pharmacological doses of tryptophan, the essential amino acid precursor of serotonin, increase circulating leptin and decrease ghrelin in normal healthy adults. Because systemically injected leptin inhibits stress-induced behavioral deficits and systemically injected serotonin modulates leptin release from the adipocytes, we used tryptophan as a pharmacological tool to modulate hormonal and behavioral responses in unstressed and stressed rats. Leptin, ghrelin, serotonin, tryptophan, and behavior were studied in unstressed and stressed rats following oral administration of 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of tryptophan. Following oral administration of tryptophan at a dose of 300 mg/kg, circulating levels of serotonin and leptin increased and those of ghrelin decreased in unstressed animals. No effect occurred on 24-hours cumulative food intake and elevated plus maze performance. Exposure to 2 hours immobilization stress decreased 24 hours cumulative food intake and impaired performance in elevated plus maze monitored next day. Serum serotonin decreased, leptin increased, and no effect occurred on ghrelin. Stress effects on serotonin, leptin, food intake, and elevated plus maze performance did not occur in tryptophan-pretreated animals. Tryptophan-induced decreases of ghrelin also did not occur in stressed animals. The findings show an important role of serum serotonin, leptin, and ghrelin in responses to stress and suggest that the essential amino acid tryptophan can improve therapeutics in stress-induced hormonal and behavioral disorders.

  17. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  18. Stress Hormones mediated by the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-01-01

    Due to the aging society, dementia is one of the major challenges to the health care systems all over the world. The growing number of patients, the long process and intensive need for care, especially in the later stages of the disease, make the growth in human as well as socioeconomic costs huge....... The development of design strategies for nursing homes and other health care facilities such as day care centers addressing the needs of dementia patients is therefore very important. The vast majority of dementia cases is Alzheimer’s Disease, representing approximately 70% of all cases. Alzheimer’s disease...... of the hippocampus’ function in the stress system, as the lack of control of cortisol levels during stress can lead to further degradation of the hippocampus. We refer to a stress experiment suggesting that is possible through the built environment to influence the release of cortisol during stress. This again...

  19. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro, C.; António, C.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Wilson, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 14 (2011), s. 4965-4974 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Carbon metabolism * hormone balance * LC-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.364, year: 2011

  20. Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels

  1. ADRENAL HORMONES IN RATS BEFORE AND AFTER STRESS-EXPERIENCE - EFFECTS OF IPSAPIRONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTE, SM; BOUWS, GAH; BOHUS, B

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the anxiolytic 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone on the hormonal responses in rats under nonstress and stress conditions by means of repeated blood sampling through an intracardiac catheter. Ipsapirone was given in doses of 2.5, 5, 10.

  2. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  3. Effects of shade and drought stress on soybean hormones and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple frequently interactive stress factors naturally influence plant due to global change. The leaf's hormone concentrations, main-stem and branch yield response to the combination of shade and drought were studied in a greenhouse experiment during 2009 and 2010 seasons. Pot experiments were conducted under ...

  4. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed....

  5. Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address ...

  6. Vulnerability to cocaine : role of stress hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Inge Elisabeth Maria de

    2007-01-01

    Not everyone who experiments with cocaine acquires compulsive drug use. The mechanism underlying this individual difference in susceptibility to addiction is poorly understood. Recent studies have identified genes and adverse life events (stress) as risk factors. The objective of this thesis is to

  7. The Impact of Stress Hormones on Post-traumatic Stress Disorders Symptoms and Memory in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Kolesnikov, Sergei; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship and interactions between stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established from both animal and human research studies. This interaction is especially important in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery where the development of PTSD symptoms will result in increased morbidity and mortality and prolong length of stay for critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass itself will independently result in massive inflammation response and release of stress hormones in the perioperative period. Glucocorticoid may reduce this response and result in reduction of PTSD symptom clusters and therefore improve health outcome. In this review, we plan to conduct a systemic review and analysis of the literatures on this topic.

  8. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M

    1986-08-04

    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  9. Converging, Synergistic Actions of Multiple Stress Hormones Mediate Enduring Memory Impairments after Acute Simultaneous Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Lauterborn, Julie C; Trieu, Brian H; Bolton, Jessica L; Patterson, Katelin P; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-11-02

    Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines. Combined application of the stress hormones corticosterone and CRH recapitulated the physiological and structural defects provoked by acute stresses. Mechanistically, corticosterone and CRH, via their cognate receptors, acted synergistically on the spine-actin regulator RhoA, promoting its deactivation and degradation, respectively, and destabilizing spines. Accordingly, blocking the receptors of both hormones, but not each alone, rescued memory. Therefore, the synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH at hippocampal synapses underlie memory impairments after concurrent and perhaps also single, severe acute stresses, with potential implications to spatial memory dysfunction in, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, adrenal corticosterone and hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) permeate memory-forming hippocampal synapses, yet it is unknown whether (and how) these hormones interact to mediate effects of stress. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spine structure that mediate the memory-disrupting effects of stress. Combined application of both hormones provoked synaptic function collapse and spine disruption

  10. Elevated stress hormone diminishes the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A Gabriell; Leary, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Mate selection can be stressful; time spent searching for mates can increase predation risk and/or decrease food consumption, resulting in elevated stress hormone levels. Both high predation risk and low food availability are often associated with increased variation in mate choice by females, but it is not clear whether stress hormone levels contribute to such variation in female behavior. We examined how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea. Specifically, we assessed whether CORT administration affects female preferences for call rate - an acoustic feature that is typically under directional selection via mate choice by females in most anurans and other species that communicate using acoustic signals. Using a dual speaker playback paradigm, we show that females that were administered higher doses of CORT were less likely to choose male advertisement calls broadcast at high rates. Neither CORT dose nor level was related to the latency of female phonotactic responses, suggesting that elevated CORT does not influence the motivation to mate. Results were also not related to circulating sex steroids (i.e., progesterone, androgens or estradiol) that have traditionally been the focus of studies examining the hormonal basis for variation in female mate choice. Our results thus indicate that elevated CORT levels decrease the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  12. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  13. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  14. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  15. The effect of short-term cortisol changes on growth hormone responses to the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone test in healthy adults and patients with suspected growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Støving, R K; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between cortisol and growth hormone (GH)-levels may significantly influence GH-responses to a stimulation test. In order to systematically analyse the interaction in a paired design, it is necessary to use a test, which has been proven safe and reliable...... such as the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone (PD-GHRH) test. Three groups of subjects with a different GH-secretory capacity were included. STUDY A: Eight healthy adults were tested seven times, once with placebo throughout the examination and six times with the PD-GHRH test following no glucocorticoid......-responses to a PD-GHRH test were reduced in all individuals during acute stress-appropriate cortisol levels and the percentage reduction in GH-levels was independent of the GH-secretory capacity. Clinically, we found that peak GH-responses were not significantly affected by a short break in conventional HC therapy...

  16. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  17. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  18. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Lenis Sanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated which may include endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of the neuroendocrine system affects the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters which act collectively as response mechanisms that allow them to adapt to stress. Mechanisms which have developed through evolution to allow animals to adapt to high environmental temperatures and to achieve thermo tolerance include physiological and physical changes in order to reduce food intake and metabolic heat production, to increase surface area of skin to dissipate heat, to increase blood flow to take heat from the body core to the skin and extremities to dissipate the heat, to increase numbers and activity of sweat glands, panting, water intake and color adaptation of integument system to reflect heat. Chronic exposure to thermal stress can cause disease, reduce growth, decrease productive and reproductive performance and, in extreme cases, lead to death. This paper aims to briefly explain the physical and physiological responses of mammals to thermal stress, like a tool for biological environment adaptation, emphasizing knowledge gaps and offering some recommendations to stress control for the animal production system.

  20. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Michail H; Bulmer, David M; Spencer, Hannah; Rampioni, Giordano; Schmalen, Ira; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek; Gray, Joe; Fookes, Maria; Winzer, Klaus; Ivens, Alasdair; Dougan, Gordon; Williams, Paul; Khan, C M Anjam

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) causes typhoid fever. We show that exposure of S. typhi to neuroendocrine stress hormones results in haemolysis, which is associated with the release of haemolysin E in membrane vesicles. This effect is attributed to increased expression of the small RNA micA and RNA chaperone Hfq, with concomitant downregulation of outer membrane protein A. Deletion of micA or the two-component signal-transduction system, CpxAR, abolishes the phenotype. The hormone response is inhibited by the β-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling. PMID:21331094

  2. Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Nindl, Bradley C

    2017-03-01

    The complexity and redundancy of the endocrine pathways during recovery related to anabolic function in the body belie an oversimplistic approach to its study. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance exercise (RE) on the recovery responses of three major anabolic hormones, testosterone, growth hormone(s), and insulin-like growth factor 1. Each hormone has a complexity related to differential pathways of action as well as interactions with binding proteins and receptor interactions. Testosterone is the primary anabolic hormone, and its concentration changes during the recovery period depending on the upregulation or downregulation of the androgen receptor. Multiple tissues beyond skeletal muscle are targeted under hormonal control and play critical roles in metabolism and physiological function. Growth hormone (GH) demonstrates differential increases in recovery with RE based on the type of GH being assayed and workout being used. IGF-1 shows variable increases in recovery with RE and is intimately linked to a host of binding proteins that are essential to its integrative actions and mediating targeting effects. The RE stress is related to recruitment of muscle tissue with the glandular release of hormones as signals to target tissues to support homeostatic mechanisms for metabolism and tissue repair during the recovery process. Anabolic hormones play a crucial role in the body's response to metabolism, repair, and adaptive capabilities especially in response to anabolic-type RE. Changes of these hormones following RE during recovery in the circulatory biocompartment of blood are reflective of the many mechanisms of action that are in play in the repair and recovery process. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. The role of stress hormones in the relationship between resting blood pressure and coagulation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Rüdisüli, Katharina; Groessbauer, Sara; Mausbach, Brent T; von Känel, Roland

    2006-12-01

    Systemic hypertension confers a hypercoagulable state. We hypothesized that resting mean blood pressure (MBP) interacts with stress hormones in predicting coagulation activity at rest and with acute mental stress. We measured plasma clotting factor VII activity (FVII:C), FVIII:C, fibrinogen, D-dimer, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and saliva cortisol in 42 otherwise healthy normotensive and hypertensive medication-free men (mean age 43 +/- 14 years) at rest, immediately after stress, and twice during 60 min of recovery from stress. At rest, the MBP-by-epinephrine interaction predicted FVII:C (beta = -0.33, P AUC) predicted D-dimer AUC (beta = 0.34, P = 0.04) independent of MBP. The MBP-by-epinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVII:C AUC (beta = 0.28) and fibrinogen AUC (beta = -0.30), and the MBP-by-norepinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVIII:C AUC (beta = -0.28), all with borderline significance (Ps < 0.09) and independent of age and BMI. MBP significantly altered the association between stress hormones and coagulation activity at rest and, with borderline significance, across the entire stress and recovery interval. Independent of MBP, catecholamines were associated with procoagulant effects and cortisol reactivity dampened the acute procoagulant stress response.

  4. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stress responses allowing it to sense and adapt to its very different niches. The stress responses often involve dramatic cellular reprogramming, and the technological advances provided by the access to whole genome sequences have let to an unprecedented insight into the global reorganization of gene...... and protein expression following stress-exposure. Characterization of global gene responses has been very helpful both in identifying regulators sensing specific environmental stress signals and overlaps between different stress responses. In this chapter we review the recent progress in our understanding...... of the specific and general S. aureusstress responses, with a special emphasis on how stress responses contribute to virulence and antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen....

  5. Transcript and hormone analyses reveal the involvement of ABA-signalling, hormone crosstalk and genotype-specific biological processes in cold-shock response in wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalapos, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Nagy, T.; Vítámvás, P.; Gyorgyey, J.; Kocsy, G.; Marincs, F.; Galiba, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, DEC (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : complex phytohormone responses * abscisic-acid biosynthesis * frost-resistance * stress responses * gene-expression * chromosome 5a * triticum-monococcum * regulatory network * basal resistance * abiotic stresses * ABA-Signalling * Carbon metabolism * Freezing-tolerance * Gene ontology * Plant hormones * Short-term cold-shock * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  6. A common polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor is associated with increased responsiveness to growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Christine; Essioux, Laurent; Teinturier, Cécile; Tauber, Maïté; Goffin, Vincent; Bougnères, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Growth hormone is used to increase height in short children who are not deficient in growth hormone, but its efficacy varies largely across individuals. The genetic factors responsible for this variation are entirely unknown. In two cohorts of short children treated with growth hormone, we found that an isoform of the growth hormone receptor gene that lacks exon 3 (d3-GHR) was associated with 1.7 to 2 times more growth acceleration induced by growth hormone than the full-length isoform (P < 0.0001). In transfection experiments, the transduction of growth hormone signaling through d3-GHR homo- or heterodimers was approximately 30% higher than through full-length GHR homodimers (P < 0.0001). One-half of Europeans are hetero- or homozygous with respect to the allele encoding the d3-GHR isoform, which is dominant over the full-length isoform. These observations suggest that the polymorphism in exon 3 of GHR is important in growth hormone pharmacogenetics.

  7. Fading memories : the impact of stress hormones on the retrieval of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, Marieke Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the present thesis was to study the effects of stress and stress hormones on the retrieval of emotional memories in healthy humans. In addition, we were interested in the effects of stress hormones on post-retrieval processes like reconsolidation. That is, are there only acute and

  8. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  11. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  12. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Cizauskas

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP, Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  13. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schächinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions with and without stress. First, female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone affect emotions and cognition, contributing to sex differences in behavior. Second, females respond differently to stress than males which might be related to the phase of the estrous cycle. For example, female rats and mice express less anxiety than males in a novel environment. Proestrus females are less anxious than females in the other estrous phases. Third, males perform in spatial tasks superior to females. However, while stress impairs spatial memory in males, females improve their spatial abilities, depending on the task and kind of stressor. We conclude that the differences in emotion, cognition and responses to stress between males and females over the different phases of the estrous cycle should be used in animal models for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  14. Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrat......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH...

  15. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced drought stress on physio-hormonal attributes of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamayun, M.; Khan, A.L.; Ahmad, N.; Lee, In-Jung; Khan, S.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is a major abiotic constraint limiting crop production world wide. In current study, we investigated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth, yield and endogenous phytohormones of soybean. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of elevated strength (8% and 16%) were used for drought stress induction. Drought stress period span for two weeks each at pre and post flowering growth stage. It was observed that soybean growth and yield attributes significantly reduced under drought stress at both pre and post flowering period, while maximum reduction was caused by PEG (16%) applied at pre flowering time. The endogenous bioactive GA/sub 1/ and GA/sub 4/ content decreased under elevated drought stress. On the other hand, jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content increased under drought stress. On the basis of current study, we concluded that application of earlier drought stress severely reduced growth and yield attributes of soybean when compared to its later application. Furthermore, increases in the endogenous contents of JA, SA and ABA in response to drought stress demonstrate the involvement of these hormones in drought stress resistance. (author)

  16. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does learning performance in horses relate to fearfulness, baseline stress hormone, and social rank?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Lintrup, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The ability of horses to learn and remember new tasks is fundamentally important for their use by humans. Fearfulness may, however, interfere with learning, because stimuli in the environment can overshadow signals from the rider or handler. In addition, prolonged high levels of stress hormones c...... to behavioural responses in a standardised fear test. Learning performance in the home environment, however, appears unrelated to fearfulness, social rank and baseline FCM levels.......The ability of horses to learn and remember new tasks is fundamentally important for their use by humans. Fearfulness may, however, interfere with learning, because stimuli in the environment can overshadow signals from the rider or handler. In addition, prolonged high levels of stress hormones can...... affect neurons within the hippocampus; a brain region central to learning and memory. In a series of experiments, we aimed to investigate the link between performance in two learning tests, the baseline level of stress hormones, measured as faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), fearfulness, and social rank...

  18. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  19. Cytokinin Cross-talking During Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio O'Brien

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed.

  20. Callous-unemotional traits and early life stress predict treatment effects on stress and sex hormone functioning in incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Vitacco, Michael J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    The stress response system is highly plastic, and hormone rhythms may "adaptively calibrate" in response to treatment. This investigation assessed whether stress and sex hormone diurnal rhythms changed over the course of behavioral treatment, and whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits and history of early adversity affected treatment results on diurnal hormone functioning in a sample of 28 incarcerated adolescent males. It was hypothesized that the treatment would have beneficial effects, such that healthier diurnal rhythms would emerge post-treatment. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were sampled two weeks after admission to the correctional/treatment facility, and again approximately four months later. Positive treatment effects were detected for the whole sample, such that testosterone dampened across treatment. CU traits predicted a non-optimal hormone response to treatment, potentially indicating biological preparedness to respond to acts of social dominance and aggression. The interaction between CU traits and adversity predicted a promising and sensitized response to treatment including increased cortisol and a steeper testosterone drop across treatment. Results suggest that stress and sex hormones are highly receptive to treatment during this window of development.

  1. CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE MICROINFUSION IN THE CENTRAL AMYGDALA DIMINISHES A CARDIAC PARASYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW UNDER STRESS-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, A; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is known to be involved in the regulation of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses in stress situations. The CeA contains large numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) cell bodies. Neuroanatomical studies revealed that the majority of

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  3. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  4. Response of Indian growth hormone deficient children to growth hormone therapy: association with pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Vaman V; Prasad, Hemchand Krishna; Ekbote, Veena H; Rustagi, Vaishakhi T; Singh, Joshita; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain the impact of pituitary size as judged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), on response to Growth Hormone (GH) therapy in GH deficient children. Thirty nine children (9.1 ± 2.7 y, 22 boys) with non-acquired GH deficiency (21 Isolated GH deficiency and 18 Combined pituitary hormone deficiency) were consecutively recruited and followed up for one year. Clinical, radiological (bone age and MRI) and biochemical parameters were studied. Children with hypoplastic pituitary (pituitary height deficit (height for age Z-score -6.0 vs. -5.0) and retardation of skeletal maturation (bone age chronological age ratio of 0.59 vs. 0.48) at baseline as compared to children with normal pituitary heights (p growth hormone deficient children with hypoplastic pituitary respond better to therapy with GH in short term.

  5. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle.

  6. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  7. The neuroenergetics of stress hormones in the hippocampus and implications for memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danielle M.; Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress causes rapid release of norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids (GCs), both of which bind to hippocampal receptors. This release continues, at varying concentrations, for several hours following the stressful event, and has powerful effects on hippocampally-dependent memory that generally promote acquisition and consolidation while impairing retrieval. Several studies have characterized the brain's energy usage both at baseline and during memory processing, but there are few data on energy requirements of memory processes under stressful conditions. Because memory is enhanced by emotional arousal such as during stress, it is likely that molecular memory processes under these conditions differ from those under non-stressful conditions that do not activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Mobilization of peripheral and central energy stores during stress may increase hippocampal glucose metabolism that enhances salience and detail to facilitate memory enhancement. Several pathways activated by the HPA axis affect neural energy supply and metabolism, and may also prevent detrimental damage associated with chronic stress. We hypothesize that alterations in hippocampal metabolism during stress are key to understanding the effects of stress hormones on hippocampally-dependent memory formation. Second, we suggest that the effects of stress on hippocampal metabolism are bi-directional: within minutes, NE promotes glucose metabolism, while hours into the stress response GCs act to suppress metabolism. These bi-directional effects of NE and GCs on glucose metabolism may occur at least in part through direct modulation of glucose transporter-4. In contrast, chronic stress and prolonged elevation of hippocampal GCs cause chronically suppressed glucose metabolism, excitotoxicity and subsequent memory deficits. PMID:25999811

  8. The Neuroenergetics of Stress Hormones in the Hippocampus and Implications for Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eOsborne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress causes rapid release of norepinephrine (NE and glucocorticoids (GCs, both of which bind to hippocampal receptors. This release continues, at varying concentrations, for several hours following the stressful event, and has powerful effects on hippocampally-dependent memory that generally promote acquisition and consolidation while impairing retrieval. Several studies have characterized the brain's energy usage both at baseline and during memory processing, but there are few data on energy requirements of memory processes under stressful conditions. Because memory is enhanced by emotional arousal such as during stress, it is likely that molecular memory processes under these conditions differ from those under non-stressful conditions that do not activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Mobilization of peripheral and central energy stores during stress may increase hippocampal glucose metabolism that enhances salience and detail to facilitate memory enhancement. Several pathways activated by the HPA axis affect neural energy supply and metabolism, and may also prevent detrimental damage associated with chronic stress. We hypothesize that alterations in hippocampal metabolism during stress are key to understanding the effects of stress hormones on hippocampally-dependent memory formation. Second, we suggest that the effects of stress on hippocampal metabolism are bi-directional: within minutes, NE promotes glucose metabolism, while hours into the stress response GCs act to suppress metabolism. These bi-directional effects of NE and GCs on glucose metabolism may occur at least in part through direct modulation of glucose transporter-4. In contrast, chronic stress and prolonged elevation of hippocampal GCs cause chronically suppressed glucose metabolism, excitotoxicity and subsequent memory deficits.

  9. The changes of β-endorphin, thyroid hormone and cortisol in military stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cuihua; Liu Qing; Qi Bing; Zhang Jing; Zhao Junwu

    2002-01-01

    The change of irritable hormones was studied when new soldiers were in military stress. The stressor was the test of real shooting. Forty and two new soldiers were selected, and their vein blood were extracted when they were in stress and in rest. The content of blood β-endorphin (β-EP), thyroid hormone and cortisol was analysed by RIA. Results showed that the content of β-EP and cortisol was greater in stress than in rest (P 3 was significantly lesser in stress than in rest (P 4 was raised in stress, but it was not significant (P>0.05). Military stress led to the changes of the soldiers stress. Detection of stress hormone will be very worthy in the matter of raising military stress's ability and insuring fighter's health of body and mind

  10. Stress hormones in health and illness: the roles of work and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-11-01

    Two neuroendocrine systems are of specific interest in the study of stress and health; the sympathetic adrenomedullary system with the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system with the secretion of cortisol. These hormones have often been used as objective indicators of stress in the individual. However, through their bodily effects, they are also a link between the psychosocial environment and various health outcomes. From a series of studies of women and men, it was concluded that gender roles and psychological factors are more important than biological factors for the sex differences in stress responses. The stress responses have been important for human and animal survival and for protection of the body. However, in modern society, some of these bodily responses may cause harm rather than protection. The catecholamines have been linked to cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke, cortisol to cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, reduced immune function and cognitive impairment. An adequate balance between catabolic (mobilization of energy) and anabolic processes (growth, healing) is considered necessary for long term health and survival. In modern society, which is characterized by a rapid pace of life, high demands, efficiency and competitiveness in a global economy, it is likely that lack of rest, recovery and restitution is a greater health problem than the absolute level of stress.

  11. Hyper-G stress-induced hyperglycemia in rats mediated by glucoregulatory hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with possible relations of the hyperglycemic response of rats exposed to hyper-G stress to (1) alterations in blood levels of the glucoregulatory hormones and gluconeogenic substrates, and (2) changes in insulin response on muscle glucose uptake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used in the study. The results of the experiments indicate that the initial rapid rise in blood glucose of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is mediated by increases in circulating catecholamines and glucagon, both potent stimulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Lactate, derived from epinephrine stimulation of muscle glycogenolysis, appears to be a major precursor for the initial rise in blood glucose. The inhibition of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle tissues may be a factor in the observed sustained hyperglycemia.

  12. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity.

  13. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  14. Adipokinetic hormone-induced antioxidant response in Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Josef; Krishnan, N.; Mithöfer, A.; Vogel, H.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 2 (2012), s. 389-395 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant response * antioxidant enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2012

  15. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  16. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise during different menstrual cycle states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Aizawa, Katsuji; Imai, Tomoko; Kono, Ichiro; Mesaki, Noboru

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effect of menstrual cycle states on ovarian and anabolic hormonal responses to acute resistance exercise in young women. Eight healthy women (eumenorrhea; EM) and eight women with menstrual disorders including oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea (OAM) participated in this study. The EM group performed acute resistance exercises during the early follicular (EF) and midluteal (ML) phases, and the OAM group performed the same exercises. All subjects performed three sets each of lat pull-downs, leg curls, bench presses, leg extensions, and squats at 75%-80% of one-repetition maximum with a 1-min rest between sets. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after the exercise. In the EM group, resting serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase were higher than those in the EF phase and higher than those in the OAM group. Serum estradiol and progesterone in the ML phase increased after the exercise but did not change in the EF phase or in the OAM group. In contrast, resting levels of testosterone in the OAM group were higher than those in both the ML and EF phases of the EM group. After the exercise, serum growth hormone increased in both the ML and EF phases but did not change in the OAM group. The responses of anabolic hormones to acute resistance exercise are different among the menstrual cycle states in young women. Women with menstrual disturbances with low estradiol and progesterone serum levels have an attenuated anabolic hormone response to acute resistance exercise, suggesting that menstrual disorders accompanying low ovarian hormone levels may affect exercise-induced change in anabolic hormones in women.

  17. Expression of stress hormones AVP and CRH in the hypothalamus of Mus musculus following water and food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadawa, Arun Kumar; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-12-01

    Neurohypophyseal hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP), in addition to acting as antidiuretic hormone is also considered to be stress hormone like hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Present study was designed to investigate the relative response of these stress hormones during water and food deprivation. In this study, male laboratory mice of Swiss strain were divided in 5 groups, control - provided water and food ad libitum, two experimental groups water deprived for 2 and 4days respectively (WD2 and WD4) and another two groups food deprived for 2 and 4days respectively (FD2 and FD4). Results indicate an increased expression of AVP mRNA as well as peptide in the hypothalamus of WD2 mice and the expression was further upregulated after 4days of water deprivation but the expression of CRH remained unchanged compare to their respective controls. On the other hand no change was observed in the expression of hypothalamic AVP mRNA while AVP peptide increased significantly in FD2 and FD4 mice compare to control. Further, the expression of CRH mRNA although increased in hypothalamus of both FD2 and FD4 mice, the immunofluorescent staining shows decreased expression of CRH in PVN of food deprived mice. Based on these findings it is concluded that since during osmotic stress only AVP expression is upregulated but during metabolic stress i.e. food deprivation transcription and translation of both the stress hormones are differentially regulated. Further, it is suggested that role of AVP and CRH may be stress specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  19. Seasonal variation in hormonal responses of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to reproductive and environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, William I; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T; Reinert, Howard K

    2009-08-01

    Data addressing adrenocortical modulation across taxonomic groups are limited, especially with regard to how female reproductive condition influences the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated seasonal and reproductive variation in basal and stress-induced hormone profiles in a population of free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in north-central Pennsylvania during spring (i.e., May), summer (i.e., July), and early fall (i.e., September). Baseline corticosterone concentrations varied seasonally and were significantly lower during the summer sampling period in July. We observed a significant negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and testosterone in male snakes, while baseline corticosterone and estradiol tended to be positively correlated in females. Treatment of snakes with 1 h of capture stress significantly increased corticosterone across all seasons. However, there was a significant interaction between corticosterone responses to capture stress and season, suggesting that adrenocortical function is modulated seasonally. Because elevated corticosterone may be associated with reproduction, we asked whether hormonal stress responses vary with female reproductive condition. Although sample sizes are low, reproductive snakes had significantly higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations than non-reproductive or post-parturient females. Further, despite similar baseline corticosterone concentrations between non-reproductive and post-parturient rattlesnakes, post-parturient females responded to capture stress with a significantly higher increase in corticosterone. Collectively, these data suggest that the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis varies both seasonally and with changing reproductive states.

  20. Stress hormones predict hyperbolic time-discount rates six months later in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Shinada, Mizuho; Inukai, Keigo; Tanida, Shigehito; Takahashi, Chisato; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Takagishi, Haruto; Horita, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yokota, Kunihiro; Kameda, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Stress hormones have been associated with temporal discounting. Although time-discount rate is shown to be stable over a long term, no study to date examines whether individual differences in stress hormones could predict individuals' time-discount rates in the relatively distant future (e.g., six month later), which is of interest in neuroeconomics of stress-addiction association. We assessed 87 participants' salivary stress hormone (cortisol, cortisone, and alpha-amylase) levels and hyperbolic discounting of delayed rewards consisting of three magnitudes, at the time-interval of six months. For salivary steroid assays, we employed a liquid chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) method. The correlations between the stress hormone levels and time-discount rates were examined. We observed that salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were negatively associated with time-discount rates in never-smokers. Notably, salivary levels of stress steroids (i.e., cortisol and cortisone) negatively and positively related to time-discount rates in men and women, respectively, in never-smokers. Ever-smokers' discount rates were not predicted from these stress hormone levels. Individual differences in stress hormone levels predict impulsivity in temporal discounting in the future. There are sex differences in the effect of stress steroids on temporal discounting; while there was no sex defference in the relationship between sAA and temporal discounting.

  1. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  2. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prolactin, thyrotropin, and growth hormone release during stress associated with parachute jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, G L; Dimond, R C; Earll, J M; Frantz, A G

    1976-05-01

    Prolactin, growth hormone, and thyrotropin (TSH) release during the stress of parachute jumping has been evaluated in 14 male subjects. Subjects were studied at several times before and immediately after their first military parachute jump. All three hormones had risen significantly 1 to 14 min after the jump, compared to mean levels measured immediately beforehand. Earlier studies of physical exercise by ourselves and others would suggest that emotional stress played a role in producing changes of this magnitude. We conclude that prolactin, TSH, and growth hormone are released in physiologically significant amounts in association with the stress of parachute jumping.

  5. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent work demonstrated that circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects through the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats diminished circu...

  6. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  7. Dual-hormone stress reactivity predicts downstream war-zone stress-evoked PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Robert A; Cobb, Adam R; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Lee, Han-Joo; Telch, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The crucial role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in stress-related homeostasis suggests dysregulated HPA involvement in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet most studies examining linkages between HPA axis measures and PTSD have yielded null findings. One untested explanation for this inconsistency is a failure to account for simultaneous adrenal and gonadal influence. Here we tested the singular and interactive effects of cortisol (C R ) and testosterone (T R ) reactivity as moderators of war-zone stress evoked PTSD emergence in the war-zone. U.S. soldiers (N=120) scheduled for deployment to Iraq completed pre-deployment measures of C R and T R stress reactivity to a CO 2 inhalation challenge. Once deployed, monthly assessments of exposure to traumatic war-zone stressors and PTSD symptoms were collected via a web-based assessment system. Cortisol hypo-reactivity potentiated the pathogenic impact of war-zone stressors only in soldiers for whom the CO 2 challenge did not elevate testosterone, suggesting that the dual hormone stress reactivity profile of blunted cortisol and testosterone may confer increased risk for PTSD emergence by potentiating the pathogenic effects of war-zone stressors. Findings underscore the utility of assessing both HPA and HPG stress reactivity when assessing PTSD vulnerability and may help inform efforts for enhanced soldier screening and inoculation to war-zone stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adrenal hormones in rats before and after stress-experience: effects of ipsapirone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S M; Bouws, G A; Bohus, B

    1992-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the anxiolytic 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone on the hormonal responses in rats under nonstress and stress conditions by means of repeated blood sampling through an intracardiac catheter. Ipsapirone was given in doses of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg (IP) under nonstress conditions in the home cages of the rats. Plasma corticosterone levels increased in a dose-dependent way in the dose range of 5 to 20 mg/kg, whereas the plasma catecholamines were only significantly increased with the highest dose of the drug. The effect of ipsapirone in control and in stressed rats was studied with the selected dose of 5 mg/kg. Conditioned fear of inescapable electric footshock (0.6 mA, AC for 3 s) given one day earlier was used as stressor. Surprisingly, ipsapirone potentiated the magnitude of the neuroendocrine responses. Rats receiving an inescapable footshock 1 day earlier showed a further elevated corticosterone response to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone even before exposing them to the conditioned stress situation. The present findings suggest that if an animal has no possibilities to escape or avoid a noxious event, functional hypersensitivity will develop in the serotonergic neuronal system, which is reflected in the increased responsiveness of the HPA axis to a 5-HT1A agonist challenge.

  9. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression

  10. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-02-17

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression.

  11. Evaluation of Relationship Between Auxin and Cytokinine Hormones on Yield and Yield Components of Maize under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahrokh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the major environmental conditions that adversely affects plant growth and crop yield. In the face of a global scarcity of water resources, water stress has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide. Drought is the major restriction in maize production. The plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions could be an outcome of altered hormonal balance and hence the exogenous application of growth regulators under stress conditions could be the possible means for reversing the effects of abiotic stress. Phytohormones such as auxine and cytokinine are known to be involved in the regulation of plant response to the adverse effects of stress conditions. Previous studies have shown that endogenous hormones are essential regulators for translocation and partitioning of photoassimilates for grain filling in cereal crops, and therefore could be involved in the regulation of grain weight and yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in three separately environments included non-drought stress environment (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity, drought stress in vegetative stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage, but irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage and drought stress in reproductive stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage and irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage. Cytokinin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in V5 –V6 and V8-V10 stages and auxin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in silk emergence stage and 15 days after that were laid out as a factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications in each environment at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII

  12. Wild jackdaws' reproductive success and their offspring's stress hormones are connected to provisioning rate and brood size, not to parental neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; Spencer, Karen A; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Many species show individual variation in neophobia and stress hormones, but the causes and consequences of this variation in the wild are unclear. Variation in neophobia levels could affect the number of offspring animals produce, and more subtly influence the rearing environment and offspring development. Nutritional deficits during development can elevate levels of stress hormones that trigger long-term effects on learning, memory, and survival. Therefore measuring offspring stress hormone levels, such as corticosterone (CORT), helps determine if parental neophobia influences the condition and developmental trajectory of young. As a highly neophobic species, jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are excellent for exploring the potential effects of parental neophobia on developing offspring. We investigated if neophobic responses, alongside known drivers of fitness, influence nest success and offspring hormone responses in wild breeding jackdaws. Despite its consistency across the breeding season, and suggestions in the literature that it should have importance for reproductive fitness, parental neophobia did not predict nest success, provisioning rates or offspring hormone levels. Instead, sibling competition and poor parental care contributed to natural variation in stress responses. Parents with lower provisioning rates fledged fewer chicks, chicks from larger broods had elevated baseline CORT levels, and chicks with later hatching dates showed higher stress-induced CORT levels. Since CORT levels may influence the expression of adult neophobia, variation in juvenile stress responses could explain the development and maintenance of neophobic variation within the adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  14. REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IN MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever Ozen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training activities are commonly used by a wide range of athletes to increase jump performance and improve explosive power and muscular activation patterns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on male reproductive hormones. Nineteen recreationally active males volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to plyometrically trained (n=10, 21.2 ±2.3 years and control groups (n=9, 21.4± 2.1. The plyometric training group performed in a six-week plyometric training programme and the control group did not perform any plyometric training techniques. Resting serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinising hormone (LH, and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the training, t1 (end of third week and t2 (end of training. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05 interaction effects for testosterone, prolactin, FSH and cortisol. Six-week plyometric training decreased serum levels of testosterone, cortisol and FSH and increased serum levels of prolactin. These results suggest the presence of alterations in anabolic and catabolic hormonal responses to resistance exercise in men.

  15. Exercise-induced changes in stress hormones and cell adhesion molecules in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinkyung Park,1 Darryn S Willoughby,2 Joon Jin Song,3 Brian C Leutholtz,2 Yunsuk Koh2 1Department of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA; 2Department of Health, Human Performance, Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA; 3Department of Statistical Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA Purpose: The current study examined the relationship between exercise-induced changes in stress hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol and vascular inflammatory markers (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble endothelial selectin [sE-selectin], and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] in obese men over a 24-hour period following exercise at lower and higher intensity.Patients and methods: Fifteen physically inactive, obese, college-aged men performed a single bout of cycling exercise at lower and higher intensities (lower intensity: 50% of maximal heart rate, and higher intensity: 80% of maximal heart rate in random order. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately postexercise (IPE, 1-hour PE (1-h PE, and 24-hour PE. Changes in stress hormones and inflammatory markers were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni multiple comparisons and a linear regression analysis (p<0.05.Results: sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, epinephrine, and norepinephrine did not change over time, while sE-selectin was significantly lower at 1-h PE (10.25±1.07 ng/mL, p=0.04 than at baseline (12.22±1.39 ng/mL. Cortisol and sICAM-1 were negatively related at 1-h PE following lower-intensity exercise (r2=0.34, p=0.02, whereas cortisol and sVCAM-1 were positively related at IPE following higher-intensity exercise (r2=0.36, p=0.02.Conclusion: Regardless of intensity, an acute bout of aerobic exercise may lower sE-selectin in sedentary obese men. Responses of cortisol are dependent on exercise intensity, and cortisol may be a key stress hormone playing a major role in

  16. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  17. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  18. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  19. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F T; Rafeliarisoa, Tsilavo H; Louis, Edward E; Stanford, Craig B; Randrianjafizanaka, Soary T; Chinn, Sarah M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises. We sampled and measured stress and reproductive parameters (corticosterone [CORT], testosterone [T], estradiol-17β [E2], and progesterone [P]) in 311 plasma samples from 203 wild A. radiata, capturing their active period. Generally, hormone concentrations were associated with body condition, temperature, and humidity. There was wide variation in CORT that varied monthly and by group. Juvenile tortoises maintained more than twice the mean basal CORT concentrations than either adult sex, with the most dramatic distinctions in the middle of the wet season. For adult sex hormones, the last months of the dry season and into the wet season when ground humidities are low and just begin to rise prior to temperature declines, male T concentrations gradually increased to a peak before returning to near undetectable values into the dry season. We had limited data for T concentrations in females, but found average T concentrations were much lower than in males and positively correlated with larger female home range sizes. For female hormone cycles, E2 also peaked in the early 1/3 of the wet season along with male T, and was followed by an uptick in P which correlates to the putative ovulatory cycle. Females tracked over four years showed variation in patterns of P, indicating that number and frequency of clutches vary. Our results suggest that 1) there is high species plasticity in response to stress; 2) A. radiata reproductive cycling is somewhat

  20. Hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to a thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Lack of hormonal response to bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H E; Linfoot, J A; Braunstein, G D; Kovacs, K; Young, R T

    1983-05-01

    A 47-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism was found to have an inappropriately normal serum thyrotropin level (1.5 to 2.5 microU/ml) that responded poorly to thyrotropin-releasing hormone but showed partial responsiveness to changes in circulating thyroid hormones. Serum alpha-subunit levels were high-normal and showed a normal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Growth hormone and thyrotropin hypersecretion persisted despite radiotherapy and bromocriptine treatment. Selective trans-sphenoidal removal of a pituitary adenoma led to normalization of both growth hormone and thyrotropin levels. Both thyrotropes and somatotropes were demonstrated in the adenoma by the immunoperoxidase technique and electron microscopy.

  1. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipolysis Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Xu, Chong; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2012-01-01

    In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which triggers a series of responses. This study aimed to investigate the lipolysis response to ER stress in rat adipocytes. Thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, which induce ER stress through different pathways, efficiently activated a time-dependent lipolytic reaction. The lipolytic effect of ER stress occurred with elevated cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA reduced PKA phosphosubstrates and attenuated the lipolysis. Although both ERK1/2 and JNK are activated during ER stress, lipolysis is partially suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 but not JNK and p38 MAPK and PKC. Thus, ER stress induces lipolysis by activating cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2. In the downstream lipolytic cascade, phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin was significantly promoted during ER stress but attenuated on PKA inhibition. Furthermore, ER stress stimuli did not alter the levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase but caused Ser-563 and Ser-660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and moderately elevated its translocation from the cytosol to lipid droplets. Accompanying these changes, total activity of cellular lipases was promoted to confer the lipolysis. These findings suggest a novel pathway of the lipolysis response to ER stress in adipocytes. This lipolytic activation may be an adaptive response that regulates energy homeostasis but with sustained ER stress challenge could contribute to lipotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance because of persistently accelerated free fatty acid efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream and other tissues. PMID:22223650

  3. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Ravaja, N; Räikkönen, K; Hautanen, A; Adlercreutz, H

    1998-12-01

    We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH) and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the cortisol response to dexamethasone (DXM) suppression and intravenous ACTH stimulation was also measured. We found that the basal ACTH level during the OGTT was positively associated with the cortisol response to ACTH at 60 minutes, the fasting insulin level, and the insulin to glucose ratio among exhausted and high DB men, while the reverse was true for nonexhausted and low DB men. Also, a high cortisol response to ACTH, a low cortisol level during the OGTT, and a high ratio of these cortisol determinations (cortisol ratio) were associated with high fasting insulin and glucose levels, the summed insulin values, and the insulin to glucose ratio only among nonexhausted and low DB men; among exhausted and high DB men, these associations were less pronounced, absent, or in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that VE and DB have a moderating influence on the relationships among the hormonal and metabolic parameters studied. Psychosocial stress may affect the pituitary-adrenocortical system in complex ways, contributing thereby to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

  4. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-08-15

    While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  5. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  6. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  7. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  8. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  9. Hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin modulates neurohormonal responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi-Seon; Chang, Hyukki; Namkoong, Churl; Kang, Gil Myoung; Kim, Hyun-Kyong; Gil, So Young; Yu, Ji Hee; Park, Kyeong Han; Kim, Min-Seon

    2013-01-01

    Clusterin is a sulfated glycoprotein abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus of mammals. However, its physiological role in neuroendocrine function is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of clusterin on plasma pituitary hormone levels in normal rats. Single ICV injection of clusterin provoked neurohormonal changes seen under acute stress condition: increased plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, GH and prolactin levels and decreased LH and FSH levels. Consistently, hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin expression levels were upregulated following a restraint stress, suggesting an involvement of endogenous clusterin in stress-induced neurohormonal changes. In the pituitary intermediate lobe, clusterin was coexpressed with proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a precursor of ACTH. Treatment of clusterin in POMC expressing AtT-20 pituitary cells increased basal and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated POMC promoter activities and intracellular cAMP levels. Furthermore, clusterin treatment triggered ACTH secretion from AtT-20 cells in a CRH-dependent manner, indicating that increased clusterin under stressful conditions may augment CRH-stimulated ACTH production and release. In summary, hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin may function as a modulator of neurohormonal responses under stressful conditions. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Cibele T; de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  11. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  12. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  13. Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    cis-Acting regulatory elements are important molecular switches involved in the transcriptional regulation of a dynamic network of gene activities controlling various biological processes, including abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and developmental processes. In particular, understanding regulatory gene networks in stress response cascades depends on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. The ever-improving accuracy of transcriptome expression profiling has led to the identification of various combinations of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes involved in stress and hormone responses. Here we discuss major cis-acting elements, such as the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and the dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat (DRE/CRT), that are a vital part of ABA-dependent and ABA-independent gene expression in osmotic and cold stress responses.

  14. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of 3 H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the 3 H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress

  15. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  16. WHEN STRESS AND DEVELOPMENT GO HAND IN HAND: MAIN HORMONAL CONTROLS OF ADVENTITIOUS ROOTING IN CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Tesser Da Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious rooting (AR is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: a induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; b formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced cytokinin concentration in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 and ABP1. A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins needed for root tissue differentiation.

  17. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  19. A L-type lectin gene is involved in the response to hormonal treatment and water deficit in Volkamer lemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Dayse Drielly Sousa Santana; Emiliani, Giovanni; Bartolini, Paola; Podda, Alessandra; Centritto, Mauro; Luro, François; Carratore, Renata Del; Morillon, Raphaël; Gesteira, Abelmon; Maserti, Biancaelena

    2017-11-01

    Combination of biotic and abiotic stress is a major challenge for crop and fruit production. Thus, identification of genes involved in cross-response to abiotic and biotic stress is of great importance for breeding superior genotypes. Lectins are glycan-binding proteins with a functions in the developmental processes as well as in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this work, a lectin like gene, namely ClLectin1, was characterized in Volkamer lemon and its expression was studied in plants exposed to either water stress, hormonal elicitors (JA, SA, ABA) or wounding to understand whether this gene may have a function in the response to multiple stress combination. Results showed that ClLectin1 has 100% homology with a L-type lectin gene from C. sinensis and the in silico study of the 5'UTR region showed the presence of cis-responsive elements to SA, DRE2 and ABA. ClLectin1 was rapidly induced by hormonal treatments and wounding, at local and systemic levels, suggesting an involvement in defence signalling pathways and a possible role as fast detection biomarker of biotic stress. On the other hand, the induction of ClLectin1 by water stress pointed out a role of the gene in the response to drought. The simultaneous response of ClLectin1 expression to water stress and SA treatment could be further investigated to assess whether a moderate drought stress may be useful to improve citrus performance by stimulating the SA-dependent response to biotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P < 0.001) and did not differ between sexes. Cold stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P < 0.05). Cold stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P < 0.05). The present study indicated that similar moderate cold stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  1. EFFECTS OF DIAZEPAM ON THE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO STRESS IN NULLIPAROUS AND PRIMIPAROUS RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. R. Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive experience (RE, i.e. the conjunct of gestation, parturition and lactation, is associated with alterations in secretions of hormones, reducing, for example, steroids and prolactin, possibly for the rest of a female’s life. Responses to stress are related to a behavioral expression of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, once stress has an anxiogenic effect in this experimental model; both responses, to stress and anxiety, can be permanently modified in function of the ER. Besides, reduction in seprimiparous females’ sensibility to stress has been demonstrated. In this way, the results obtained until the present moment suggests that stress models the behavioral responses to stress and consequently to reproductive experience and that the hormonal scenery related to the estral cycle phase participates in this modulation. In this way too, the reproductive experience is able to reduce the sensibility to stress; however this fact is also influenced by the estral cycle phase.

  2. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  3. Adrenal stress hormones, amygdala activation, and memory for emotionally arousing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; Barsegyan, Areg; Lee, Sangkwan

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that stress hormones released from the adrenal glands are critically involved in memory consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences. Epinephrine or glucocorticoids administered after exposure to emotionally arousing experiences enhance the consolidation of long-term memories of these experiences. Our findings indicate that adrenal stress hormones influence memory consolidation via interactions with arousal-induced activation of noradrenergic mechanisms within the amygdala. In turn, the amygdala regulates memory consolidation via its efferent projections to many other brain regions. In contrast to the enhancing effects on consolidation, high circulating levels of stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects also require noradrenergic activation of the amygdala and interactions with other brain regions.

  4. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sarika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a constant factor in today′s fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  5. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the same behavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  7. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  8. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of shade and drought stress on soybean hormones and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... hormone concentrations, main-stem and branch yield response to the combination of shade and drought were studied ... yield primarily by reducing branch growth and branch seed yield per ..... deficit soybean. Yield decrease ...

  10. Modulation of the Chlamydia trachomatis In vitro transcriptome response by the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonds Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease in humans. Previous studies in both humans and animal models of chlamydial genital tract infection have suggested that the hormonal status of the genital tract epithelium at the time of exposure can influence the outcome of the chlamydial infection. We performed a whole genome transcriptional profiling study of C. trachomatis infection in ECC-1 cells under progesterone or estradiol treatment. Results Both hormone treatments caused a significant shift in the sub-set of genes expressed (25% of the transcriptome altered by more than 2-fold. Overall, estradiol treatment resulted in the down-regulation of 151 genes, including those associated with lipid and nucleotide metabolism. Of particular interest was the up-regulation in estradiol-supplemented cultures of six genes (omcB, trpB, cydA, cydB, pyk and yggV, which suggest a stress response similar to that reported previously in other models of chlamydial persistence. We also observed morphological changes consistent with a persistence response. By comparison, progesterone supplementation resulted in a general up-regulation of an energy utilising response. Conclusion Our data shows for the first time, that the treatment of chlamydial host cells with key reproductive hormones such as progesterone and estradiol, results in significantly altered chlamydial gene expression profiles. It is likely that these chlamydial expression patterns are survival responses, evolved by the pathogen to enable it to overcome the host's innate immune response. The induction of chlamydial persistence is probably a key component of this survival response.

  11. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q

    2013-03-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A temporal perspective on stress hormones and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Life is seldom devoid of stress. Stress is caused by external or internal environmental stimuli that challenge the homeostasis of the organism. In coping with these challenges, the body is mobilised to restate the inner balance. Among others, the central nervous system (CNS) is a key effector in

  13. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  14. Social evaluative threat with verbal performance feedback alters neuroendocrine response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Association of HPA axis hormones with copeptin after psychological stress differs by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Elias K; Wand, Gary S; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2016-01-01

    Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18-30 years; mean 24.6 ± 3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signaling modulates intermittent hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Deepti; Ramesh, Vijay; Li, Richard C; Schally, Andrew V; Gozal, David

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), leads to degenerative changes in the hippocampus, and is associated with spatial learning deficits in adult mice. In both patients and murine models of OSA, the disease is associated with suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion, which is actively involved in the growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work showed that exogenous GH therapy attenuated neurocognitive deficits elicited by IH during sleep in rats. Here, we show that administration of the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 attenuates IH-induced neurocognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression in mice along with reduction in oxidative stress markers such as MDA and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and increases in hypoxia inducible factor-1α DNA binding and up-regulation of insulin growth factor-1 and erythropoietin expression. In contrast, treatment with a GHRH antagonist (MIA-602) during intermittent hypoxia did not affect any of the IH-induced deleterious effects in mice. Thus, exogenous GHRH administered as the formulation of a GHRH agonist may provide a viable therapeutic intervention to protect IH-vulnerable brain regions from OSA-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Sleep apnea, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits. Here, we show that administration of a GHRH agonist (JI-34) reduces oxidative stress, increases both HIF-1α nuclear binding and downstream expression of IGF1 and erythropoietin (EPO) in hippocampus and cortex, and markedly attenuates water maze performance deficits in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia during sleep. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taisuke

    2010-11-01

    Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu. In addition, the HF immune and hormonal systems may greatly affect skin immunobiology. Therefore, knowledge of HF immunobiology and hormonal aspects will lead to a better understanding of skin biology. The HF has a unique hair cycle (anagen, catagen and telogen) and contains stem cells in the bulge area. The HF is closely related to sebaceous glands and the nervous system. This article reviews the interaction between the endocrine/immune system and HFs, including the pathogenesis of alopecia areata associated with stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of stress hormones on the production of volatile sulfur compounds by periodontopathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Morini Calil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of stress hormones on the etiologic agents of halitosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of adrenaline (ADR, noradrenaline (NA and cortisol (CORT on bacteria that produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC, the major gases responsible for bad breath. Cultures of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn, Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe, Prevotella intermedia (Pi and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg were exposed to 50 µM ADR, NA and CORT or equivalent volumes of sterile water as controls for 12 and 24 h. Growth was evaluated based on absorbance at 660 nm. Portable gas chromatography was used to measure VSC concentrations. Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-hoc test were used to compare the groups. For Fn, ADR, NA and CORT significantly reduced bacterial growth after 12 h and 24 h (p 0.05. In the Pi cultures, ADR, NA and CORT increased H2S (p < 0.05. Catecholamines and cortisol can interfere with growth and H2S production of sub-gingival species in vitro. This process appears to be complex and supports the association between stress and the production of VSC.

  20. Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Interactions between Fear, Stress, and Gonadal Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  1. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Akinola, Modupe; Martin, Ashley; Fath, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Prior research suggests that altering situation-specific evaluations of stress as challenging versus threatening can improve responses to stress. The aim of the current study was to explore whether cognitive, physiological and affective stress responses can be altered independent of situation-specific evaluations by changing individuals' mindsets about the nature of stress in general. Using a 2 × 2 design, we experimentally manipulated stress mindset using multi-media film clips orienting participants (N = 113) to either the enhancing or debilitating nature of stress. We also manipulated challenge and threat evaluations by providing positive or negative feedback to participants during a social stress test. Results revealed that under both threat and challenge stress evaluations, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in anabolic ("growth") hormones relative to a stress-is-debilitating mindset. Furthermore, when the stress was evaluated as a challenge, a stress-is-enhancing mindset produced sharper increases in positive affect, heightened attentional bias towards positive stimuli, and greater cognitive flexibility, whereas a stress-is-debilitating mindset produced worse cognitive and affective outcomes. These findings advance stress management theory and practice by demonstrating that a short manipulation designed to generate a stress-is-enhancing mindset can improve responses to both challenging and threatening stress.

  2. Exogenous stress hormones alter energetic and nutrient costs of development and metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; McCue, Marshall D; Boyles, Justin G; Warne, Robin W

    2017-09-15

    Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life-stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis. We used an experimental approach to manipulate physiological stress in larval amphibians, along with respirometry and 13 C-breath testing to quantify the energetic and nutritional costs of development and metamorphosis. Central to larval developmental responses to environmental conditions is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis, which regulates development, as well as energy homeostasis and stress responses across many taxa. Given these pleiotropic effects of HPA/I activity, manipulation of the HPA/I axis may provide insight into costs of metamorphosis. We measured the energetic and nutritional costs across the entire larval period and metamorphosis in a larval amphibian exposed to exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) hormones - the primary hormone secreted by the HPA/I axis. We measured metabolic rates and dry mass across larval ontogeny, and quantified lipid stores and nutrient oxidation via 13 C-breath testing during metamorphosis, under control and GC-exposed conditions. Changes in dry mass match metamorphic states previously reported in the literature, but dynamics of metabolism were influenced by the transition from aquatic to terrestrial respiration. GC-treated larvae had lower dry mass, decreased fat stores and higher oxygen consumption during stages where controls were conserving energy. GC-treated larvae also oxidized greater amounts of 13 C-labelled protein stores. These results

  3. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  4. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsak, P.; Hauer, D.; Campolongo, P.; Schelling, G.; Fornari, R.V.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory

  5. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  6. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  7. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  8. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  9. Response to growth hormone therapy in adolescents with familial panhypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, B; Eunice, M; Ammini, A C

    2010-04-01

    Familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a rare endocrine disorder. We describe growth patterns of four children (3 females and 1 male) from two families with combined pituitary hormone deficiency. These children received growth hormone at ages ranging from 14.5 years to 19 years. While all the female siblings reached their target height, the male sibling was much shorter than mid parental height. The reasons for sexual dimorphism in growth patterns in these children are unclear.

  10. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  11. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Jastreboff, Ania M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic longitudinal 6-month follow-up study. Methods A prospective community cohort of three hundred and thirty-nine adults (age=29.1± 9.0 years; BMI=26.7±5.4 kg/m2; 56.9% female; 70.2% White) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormones levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (psfood cravings at 6 months (p=0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (psfood cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. PMID:28349668

  12. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  13. Influence of chemical peeling on the skin stress response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Li, Hong-Jin; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-07-01

    Skin stress response system (SSRS) involves corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and b-endorphin that are locally generated in response to locally provided stressors or proinflammatory cytokines. This system would restrict tissue damage and restore local homoeostasis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents and applied for cosmetic treatment of photodamaged skin. However, the biological mechanism responsible for TCA peeling has yet to be fully determined. While our investigation focused on the inflammation and wound healing pathways, in the recent study, we have examined involvement of the SSRS as the third pathway. Mostly depending on our findings that TCA peeling activates the SSRS by inducing the POMC expression of keratinocytes in the CRH-independent manner, together with the results reported by other researchers, we can say that the biological effect of POMC seems to be responsible for the TCA-induced epidermal SSRS activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells: implications to mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal neural progenitor cells by focusing on the actions of glucocorticoids. Also addressed is a further discussion on the implications of such interactions to the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

  15. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA),

  16. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  17. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  18. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  19. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  20. Vinclozolin alters the expression of hormonal and stress genes in the midge Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-05-01

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems and affect the organisms living there. Its effects have been intensively studied in vertebrates, where it acts as an antiandrogen, but there is a lack of information about its mechanistic effects on invertebrates. In this work, we analyzed the response of genes related to the endocrine system, the stress response, and the detoxification mechanisms of Chironomus riparius fourth instar larvae after 24h and 48h exposures to 20 (69.9nM), 200 (699nM), and 2000μg/L (6.99μM) of Vinclozolin. Survival analysis showed that this compound has low toxicity, as it was not lethal for this organism at the concentrations used. However, this fungicide was shown to modify the transcriptional activity of the ecdysone response pathway genes EcR, E74, and Kr-h1 by increasing their mRNA levels. While no changes were observed in disembodied, a gene related with the ecdysone synthesis metabolic pathway, Cyp18A1, which is involved in the inactivation of the active form of ecdysone, was upregulated. Additionally, the expression of two genes related to other hormones, FOXO and MAPR, did not show any changes when Vinclozolin was present. The analysis of stress response genes showed significant changes in the mRNA levels of Hsp70, Hsp24, and Gp93, indicating that Vinclozolin activates the cellular stress mechanisms. Finally, the expressions of the genes Cyp4G and GstD3, which encode enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification, respectively, were analyzed. It was found that their mRNA levels were altered by Vinclozolin, suggesting their involvement in the degradation of this compound. For the first time, these results show evidence that Vinclozolin can modulate gene expression, leading to possible significant endocrine alterations of the insect endocrine system. These results also offer new clues about the mode of action of this compound in invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Lifetime Dependent Variation of Stress Hormone Metabolites in Feces of Two Laboratory Mouse Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kolbe

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measurement of stress hormone metabolites in feces has become routine practice for the evaluation of distress and pain in animal experiments. Since metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids may be variable, awareness and adequate consideration of influencing factors are essential for accurate monitoring of adrenocortical activity. Reference values are usually provided by baselines compiled prior to the experiment and by age matched controls. The comparison of stress hormone levels between animals of different ages or between studies looking at hormone levels at the beginning and at the end of a long term study might be biased by age-related effects. In this study we analyzed fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM during the lifetime of untreated female mice of the strains C57BL/6NCrl and Crl:CD1. For this purpose feces for each individual mouse were collected every two months over a period of 24 hours, at intervals of four hours, until the age of 26 months. Results of the study revealed that age of the animals had a significant impact on the level and circadian rhythm of stress hormone metabolites. Furthermore, long-term observation of mice revealed a strain specific excretion profile of FCM influenced by strong seasonal variability.

  2. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, I; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.; Jongedijk, R.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  3. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men: Robust associations with age, stress, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Padilla, Genieleah A; Hernández, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    We recently established stable daily profiles of the anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in 57 elite military men. In this follow-on study, we explored associations of salivary anabolic hormone profiles with demographic (i.e., age, body mass index [BMI]) and biobehavioral health indices (i.e., blood pressure, sleep, perceived stress, fatigue) via correlational models. Next, nuanced patterns were constructed using quartile splits followed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc subgroup comparisons. Both DHEA (r range: -0.33 to -0.49) and testosterone (r range: -0.19 to -0.41) were inversely associated with age. Quartile comparisons revealed that age-related declines in DHEA were linear, curvilinear, or sigmoidal, depending on the summary parameter of interest. Anabolic hormone profiles did not associate with BMI, blood pressure, or sleep efficiency. Robust linear associations were observed between testosterone and perceived stress (r range: -0.29 to -0.36); concentration-dependent patterns were less discernible. Lower DHEA (r range: -0.22 to -0.30) and testosterone (r range: -0.22 to -0.36) concentrations associated with higher fatigue. Subsequent quartile comparisons suggested a concentration-dependent threshold with respect to evening testosterone. Specifically, those individuals within the lowest quartile (≤68.4pg/mL) endorsed the highest fatigue of the four groups (p=0.01), while the remaining three groups did not differ from each other. This study not only showed that anabolic hormone profiles have distinctive age trajectories, but are also valuable predictors of stress and fatigue in elite military men. This highlights the importance of routine monitoring of anabolic hormone profiles to sustain and optimize health and readiness in chronically stressed populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Exercise-induced stress responses of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, A B; Horvath, S M

    1984-12-01

    The role of stress in exercise-associated amenorrhea was investigated. Sex hormones [FSH, LH, androstenedione (A), testosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)], stress hormones [dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol (F), PRL, norepinephrine, and epinephrine] and psychological status (Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) were measured at rest and in response to a 40-min 80% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) run in highly trained eumenorrheic (n = 8) and amenorrheic (n = 7) women runners matched for fatness [eumenorrheic, 16.5 +/- 2.3% (+/- SD); amenorrheic, 14.9 +/- 4.8] and maximal aerobic power (eumenorrheic, 58.9 +/- 5.7 ml/kg X min; amenorrheic, 59.8 +/- 4.6). Eumenorrheic runners were tested between days 3 and 8 of the follicular phase. At rest, decreased plasma FSH, LH, and E2 concentrations were found in amenorrheic women [eumenorrheic FSH, 10.5 +/- 4.1 mIU/ml; amenorrheic FSH, 4.9 +/- 1.6 (P less than 0.01); eumenorrheic LH, 14.1 +/- 6.1 mIU/ml; amenorrheic LH, 5.1 +/- 1.7 (P less than 0.01); eumenorrheic E2, 20 +/- 9 pg/ml; amenorrheic E2, 7 +/- 6 (P less than 0.05)]. Other sex and stress hormones and psychological measurements were similar in the two groups and were within the normal range. Ventilatory, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and psychological responses to the submaximal run were identical. Among eumenorrheic women, all stress hormones and A increased after exercise, but PRL, F, and A were unchanged among amenorrheic women. Estrone, E2, and testosterone did not change in either group. These observations are inconsistent with a general stress hypothesis of exercise-associated amenorrhea as well as with more specific hyperprolactinemic and hyperandrogenic hypotheses. In amenorrheic women, failure of PRL to increase in response to exercise may be due to their lack of E2, while failure of F and A to increase may indicate reduced adrenal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase activity.

  5. Perceived stress, reproductive hormones, and ovulatory function: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Kissell, Kerri A.; Prasad, Ankita; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress has been shown to suppress ovulation in experimental models, but its effect on human reproduction at the population level is unclear. Methods Healthy women (n=259), aged 18–44 years from Western New York, were followed for two menstrual cycles (2005–2007). Women completed daily perceived stress assessments, a 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) up to four times each cycle, and a 14-item PSS at baseline. Mixed model analyses were used to assess effects of stress on log reproductive hormone concentrations and sporadic anovulation. Results High versus low daily stress was associated with lower estradiol (-9.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI)= -15.6% to -3.0%), free estradiol (-10.4% [-16.5% to -3.9%]), and LH (-14.8% = [-21.3% to -7.7%]), and higher FSH (6.2% [2.0% to 10.5%]) after adjusting for age, race, percent body fat, depression score, and time-varying hormones and vigorous exercise. High versus low daily stress was also associated with lower luteal progesterone (-10.4% [-19.7% to -0.10%]) and higher odds of anovulation (adjusted OR = 2.2 [95% CI=1.0 to 4.7]). For each unit increase in daily stress level, women had a 70% higher odds of an anovulatory episode (OR=1.7 [1.1 to 2.4]). Similar but attenuated results were found for the association between the PSS-4 and reproductive hormones, while null findings were found for the baseline PSS. Conclusion Daily perceived stress does appear to interfere with menstrual cycle function among women with no known reproductive disorders, warranting further research to explore potential population-level impacts and causal biologic mechanisms. PMID:25643098

  6. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular...... conclude that the prevalence of gastric ulcers was high, and our results suggest different factors affecting ulceration in the glandular versus the nonglandular region of the horse stomach. Obvious external signs (e.g. poor body condition) identifying ulcer horses were absent. Horses with severe glandular...

  7. Durable remission of leptomeningeal metastases from hormone-responsive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Akar, Serra; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer is rarely associated with leptomeningeal metastasis. An 87-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer presented with leptomeningeal metastasis. He received hormonal therapy with leuprolide. Subsequently, he achieved an impressive response, indicated by a constant fall in his PSA levels and by the stabilization of leptomeningeal disease and clinical improvement. Hormonal therapy may be effective in inducing remission in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer with leptomeningeal metastasis.

  8. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. Objectives: The current study ...

  9. A Bacterial Receptor PcrK Senses the Plant Hormone Cytokinin to Promote Adaptation to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recognition of the host plant is a prerequisite for infection by pathogenic bacteria. However, how bacterial cells sense plant-derived stimuli, especially chemicals that function in regulating plant development, remains completely unknown. Here, we have identified a membrane-bound histidine kinase of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, PcrK, as a bacterial receptor that specifically detects the plant cytokinin 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP. 2iP binds to the extracytoplasmic region of PcrK to decrease its autokinase activity. Through a four-step phosphorelay, 2iP stimulation decreased the phosphorylation level of PcrR, the cognate response regulator of PcrK, to activate the phosphodiesterase activity of PcrR in degrading the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid. 2iP perception by the PcrK-PcrR remarkably improves bacterial tolerance to oxidative stress by regulating the transcription of 56 genes, including the virulence-associated TonB-dependent receptor gene ctrA. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved, inter-kingdom signaling by which phytopathogenic bacteria intercept a plant hormone signal to promote adaptation to oxidative stress. : How pathogenic bacteria use receptors to recognize the signals of the host plant is unknown. Wang et al. have identified a bacterial receptor histidine kinase that specifically senses the plant hormone cytokinin. Through a four-step phosphorelay, cytokinin perception triggers degradation of a second messenger, c-di-GMP, to activate the bacterial response to oxidative stress. Keywords: histidine kinase, ligand, cytokinin, autokinase activity, phosphorelay, response regulator, two-component signal transduction system, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, virulence, oxidative stress

  10. Effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery in our hospital between May 2015 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, intervention group received flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment combined with routine intravenous anesthesia, and the control group only accepted conventional intravenous anesthesia. The levels of pain neurotransmitters and cytokines, stress hormones and mediators in serum were detected before operation as well as 12 h and 24 h after operation. Results: 12 h and 24 h after operation, serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL- 10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of both groups of patients were significantly higher than those before operation while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly lower than those before operation, and serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of intervention group 12 h and 24 h after operation were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment can reduce the pain degree and stress response after abdominal surgery.

  11. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.

  12. Effects of methimazole treatment on growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, A; Ferrari, C; Bodini, C; Buffoli, M G; Legati, F; Schettino, M; Zuccato, F; Wehrenberg, W B

    1990-12-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that thyroid hormones can enhance basal and stimulated growth hormone secretion by cultured pituitary cells. However, both in man and in the rat the effects of high thyroid hormone levels on GH secretion are unclear. The aim of our study was to test the GH response to human GHRH in hyperthyroid patients and to evaluate the effects on GH secretion of short- and long-term pharmacological decrease of circulating thyroid hormones. We examined 10 hyperthyroid patients with recent diagnosis of Graves' disease. Twelve healthy volunteers served as controls. All subjects received a bolus iv injection of GHRH(1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms. Hyperthyroid patients underwent a GHRH test one and three months after starting antithyroid therapy with methimazole, 10 mg/day po. GH levels at 15, 30, 45, 60 min and GH peak after stimulus were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients than in normal subjects. The GH peak was also delayed in hyperthyroid patients. After one month of methimazole therapy, most of the hyperthyroid patients had thyroid hormone levels in the normal range, but they did not show significant changes in GH levels after GHRH, and the GH peak was again delayed. After three months of therapy with methimazole, the hyperthyroid patients did not show a further significant decrease in serum thyroid hormone levels. However, mean GH levels from 15 to 60 min were significantly increased compared with the control study. The GH peak after GHRH was also earlier than in the pre-treatment study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The effects of genetic polymorphism on treatment response of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; You, Hanxiao; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Linjie; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Chengsheng

    2017-12-06

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been widely used in clinical treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or non GHD since 1985 and technology have achieved a great development in different long-acting formulations. Although the mathematical models for predicting the growth hormone response could help clinicians get to an individual personalized growth dose, many patients just can't reach the target height and the growth hormone responses differed.Genetic polymorphisms may play a role in the varies of individual responses in this treatment process.This article gives an overview of the genetic polymorphisms research of growth hormone in recent years, in order to give some potential suggestion and guide for the dose titration during treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Alternative Splicing Control of Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloum, Tom; Martín, Guiomar; Duque, Paula

    2018-02-01

    Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, is an important modulator of gene expression that can increase proteome diversity and regulate mRNA levels. In plants, this post-transcriptional mechanism is markedly induced in response to environmental stress, and recent studies have identified alternative splicing events that allow rapid adjustment of the abundance and function of key stress-response components. In agreement, plant mutants defective in splicing factors are severely impaired in their response to abiotic stress. Notably, mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing regulates stress responses largely by targeting the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. We review here current understanding of post-transcriptional control of plant stress tolerance via alternative splicing and discuss research challenges for the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of longevity by FGF21: Interaction between energy metabolism and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses. Recent studies have revealed that FGF21 treatment can alleviate many age-related metabolic disorders, e.g. atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some cardiovascular diseases. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 have an extended lifespan. However, chronic metabolic and stress-related disorders involving inflammatory responses can provoke FGF21 resistance and thus disturb healthy aging process. First, we will describe the role of FGF21 in interorgan energy metabolism and explain how its functions as a stress hormone can improve healthspan. Next, we will examine both the induction of FGF21 expression via the integrated stress response and the molecular mechanism through which FGF21 enhances healthy aging. Finally, we postulate that FGF21 resistance, similarly to insulin resistance, jeopardizes human healthspan and accelerates the aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perturbation of Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by PINOID Overexpression Induces Stress Responses in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Saini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Under normal and stress conditions plant growth require a complex interplay between phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, details of the nature of this crosstalk remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that PINOID (PID, a serine threonine kinase of the AGC kinase family, perturbs auxin homeostasis, which in turn modulates rosette growth and induces stress responses in Arabidopsis plants. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression were used to study the effect on auxin levels and stress-related responses. In the leaves of plants with ectopic PID expression an accumulation of auxin, oxidative burst and disruption of hormonal balance was apparent. Furthermore, PID overexpression led to the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites, while pid knockout mutants showed only moderate changes in stress-related metabolites. These physiological changes in the plants overexpressing PID modulated their response toward external drought and osmotic stress treatments when compared to the wild type. Based on the morphological, transcriptome, and metabolite results, we propose that perturbations in the auxin hormone levels caused by PID overexpression, along with other hormones and ROS downstream, cause antioxidant accumulation and modify growth and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Our data provide further proof for a strong correlation between auxin and stress biology.

  17. Comparison of stress-induced changes in adults and pups: is aldosterone the main adrenocortical stress hormone during the perinatal period in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    Full Text Available Positive developmental impact of low stress-induced glucocorticoid levels in early development has been recognized for a long time, while possible involvement of mineralocorticoids in the stress response during the perinatal period has been neglected. The present study aimed at verifying the hypothesis that balance between stress-induced glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels is changing during postnatal development. Hormone responses to two different stressors (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and immune challenge induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharid measured in 10-day-old rats were compared to those in adults. In pups corticosterone responses to both stressors were significantly lower than in adults, which corresponded well with the stress hyporesponsive period. Importantly, stress-induced elevations in aldosterone concentration were significantly higher in pups compared both to corticosterone elevations and to those in adulthood with comparable adrenocorticotropin concentrations in the two age groups. Greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in postnatal period is further supported by changes in gene expression and protein levels of gluco- (GR and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and selected enzymes measured by quantitative PCR and immunohystochemistry in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, liver and kidney. Gene expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, an enzyme enabling preferential effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors, was higher in 10-day-old pups compared to adult animals. On the contrary, the expression and protein levels of GR, MR and 11β-HSD1 were decreased. Presented results clearly show higher stress-induced release of aldosterone in pups compared to adults and strongly suggest greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in stress during the postnatal period.

  18. Effect of prolonged stress on the adrenal hormones of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Izawa, Shuhei; Saito, Keisuke; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nomura, Shinobu; Shimada, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged stress on the salivary adrenal hormones (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], DHEA-sulfate [DHEA-S]) of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The participants were female college students, including 10 with IBS and 16 without IBS (control group), who were scheduled for a 2-week teaching practice at a kindergarten. Participants were asked to collect saliva for determining adrenal hormones immediately and 30 min after awakening and before sleep, 2 weeks before the practice, the first week of the practice, the second week of the practice, and a few days after the practice. Regarding cortisol/DHEA ratio, significantly increased levels were found during the first week of the practice, and a significant interaction between group and time was found; the ratio at 30 min after awakening in the IBS group was higher than that in the control group. For the other adrenal hormone indexes, no significant differences due to the presence of IBS were found. Individuals with IBS showed an elevated cortisol/DHEA ratio after awakening compared with individuals without IBS, and the elevated ratio peaked under the prolonged stress. The present study suggests that the cortisol effect is dominant in individuals with IBS under prolonged stress.

  19. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  20. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rafael Vincent M. Manalo

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... Review. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease pathogenesis and pathophysiology .... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ... chain binding protein (BIP); however, ER stress permits the release, .... drugs designed to alleviate it often cause more harm long-term.

  2. Potentiation of Hormonal Responses to Hemorrhage and Fasting, but not Hypoglycemia in Conscious Adrenalectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy (ADRX) in rats removes the source of two major stress-responsive hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine. To test how ADRX rats with-stand stress, we performed the following experiments in adult male rats provided with indwelling femoral arterial and venous cannulae and either ADRX or sham-adrenalectomized (Sham) 3 days later and given 0.5% NaCl to drink. Five to 6 days after adrenal surgery the rats were studied after either a 15 ml/kg.5 min hemorrhage or after an overnight fast followed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In fed unstressed ADRX rats, basal mean arterial blood pressure was slightly decreased; heart rate was increased; blood volume, vasopressin, and oxytocin concentrations were not different from sham values; and renin and norepinephrine were significantly elevated. The recovery of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in the ADRX rats was similar to that in the sham group over a 5-h period; however, the responses of vasopressin and oxytocin were significantly greater, and those of renin and norepinephrine were markedly potentiated in the ADRX group. Heart rate recovered faster in the ADRX group and was elevated, compared to the sham value, for most of the 5-h period. Restitution of blood volume was attenuated in the ADRX group, although the restitution of plasma protein was not different between the groups. A significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between groups after hemorrhage may account for the attenuated restitution of blood volume. After an overnight fast, which reduced blood volume in both groups of rats, the plasma renin concentration rose still further in ADRX rats; the differences in other measured variables observed between fed ADRX and sham groups remained the same. The insulin-induced 50% decrease in glucose caused minor effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate and occasioned responses in renin and norepinephrine of similar magnitudes in the two groups. We conclude that in the absence of

  3. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo-response

  4. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... gasoline, batteries, and paint. Environmental pollutants such as metals pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms by changing genetic, .... ties of cortisol and its role in maintaining ion homeostasis. (Sheridan, 1994). Secretion of the steroid hormone cortisol by the interrenal tissue is a characteristic ...

  6. Sex differences in stress effects on response and spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to affect learning and memory processes. However, although effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent declarative learning and memory are well-documented, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of stress on striatum-dependent stimulus-response (S-R) learning and memory. Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoid stress hormones shortly after learning enhance S-R memory consolidation, whereas stress prior to retention testing impairs S-R memory retrieval. Whether stress affects also the acquisition of S-R memories in humans remains unclear. For this reason, we examined here the effects of acute stress on S-R memory formation and contrasted these stress effects with those on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Healthy men and women underwent a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test, SECPT) or a control manipulation before they completed an S-R task and two spatial learning tasks. Memory was assessed one week later. Our data showed that stress impaired S-R memory performance in men but not in women. Conversely, spatial memory was impaired by stress in women but not in men. These findings provide further evidence that stress may alter learning and memory processes beyond the hippocampus. Moreover, our data underline that participants' sex may play a critical role in the impact of stress on multiple memory systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Toyota, Kenji; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miura, Toru; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone is an essential regulator of major developmental and life history events in arthropods. Most of the insects use juvenile hormone III as the innate juvenile hormone ligand. By contrast, crustaceans use methyl farnesoate. Despite this difference that is tied to their deep evolutionary divergence, the process of this ligand transition is unknown. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant has an important role during evolution of the arthropod juvenile hormone pathway. Microcrustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna share a juvenile hormone signal transduction pathway with insects, involving Methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor coactivator proteins that form a heterodimer in response to various juvenoids. Juvenile hormone-binding pockets of the orthologous genes differ by only two amino acids, yet a single substitution within Daphnia Met enhances the receptor's responsiveness to juvenile hormone III. These results indicate that this mutation within an ancestral insect lineage contributed to the evolution of a juvenile hormone III receptor system.

  8. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  9. On the role of salicylic acid in plant responses to environmental stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, José A.; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    (NPR1), which is one of the few known redox-regulated proteins in plants. Different synthetic chemicals are able to mimic the ability of SA to activate resistance to various stresses, both biotic and abiotic, in plants with agronomic interest. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA......Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone more commonly known by its role in human medicine than in the field of plant physiology. However, in the last two decades, SA has been described as an important signalling molecule in plants regulating growth, development and response to a wide number...... of biotic and abiotic stresses. Indeed, actually, it is well known that SA is a key signalling molecule involved in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and recent works reported a role for SA in the response to salt or drought stresses. The precise mode of the stress hormone SA action is unclear, although...

  10. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Jastreboff, Ania M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic, longitudinal, 6-month follow-up study. A prospective community cohort of 339 adults (age 29.1 ± 9.0 years; BMI = 26.7 ± 5.4 kg/m 2 ; 56.9% female; 70.2% white) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormone levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured, and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (Ps < 0.05). However, after adjusting for covariates, individuals with higher baseline total ghrelin had significantly higher food cravings at 6 months (P = 0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (Ps < 0.05). These results suggest that ghrelin plays a role in increased food cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Stress hormones at rest and following exercise testing predict coronary artery disease severity and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Djordjevic, Tea; Martic, Dejana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Milinkovic, Neda; Banovic, Marko; Lasica, Ratko; Petrovic, Milan; Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross

    2017-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge regarding the importance of stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis, its underestimation persists in routine clinical practice, in part attributable to lack of a standardized, objective assessment. The current study examined the ability of stress hormones to predict CAD severity and prognosis at basal conditions as well as during and following an exertional stimulus. Forty Caucasian subjects with significant coronary artery lesions (≥50%) were included. Within 2 months of coronary angiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a recumbent ergometer was performed in conjunction with stress echocardiography (SE). At rest, peak and after 3 min of recovery following CPET, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were measured by immunoassay sandwich technique, radioimmunoassay, and radioimmunometric technique, respectively. Subjects were subsequently followed a mean of 32 ± 10 months. Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Subjects with 1-2 stenotic coronary arteries (SCA) demonstrated a significantly lower plasma cortisol levels during CPET compared to those with 3-SCA (p  .05). Among CPET, SE, and hormonal parameters, cortisol at rest and during CPET recovery demonstrated the best predictive value in distinguishing between 1-, 2-, and 3-SCA [area under ROC curve 0.75 and 0.77 (SE = 0.11, 0.10; p = .043, .04) for rest and recovery, respectively]. ΔCortisol peak/rest predicted cumulative cardiac events (area under ROC curve 0.75, SE = 0.10, p = .049). Cortisol at rest and following an exercise test holds predictive value for CAD severity and prognosis, further demonstrating a link between stress and unwanted cardiac events.

  12. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  13. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Stengel; Yvette F. Taché; Yvette F. Taché

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a br...

  14. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  15. The stress response and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: from molecule to melancholia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Organisms survive by maintaining equilibrium with their environment. The stress system is critical to this homeostasis. Glucocorticoids modulate the stress response at a molecular level by altering gene expression, transcription, and translation, among other pathways. The effect is the inhibition of the functions of inflammatory cells, predominantly mediated through inhibition of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The central effectors of the stress response are the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE)\\/sympathetic systems. The CRH system activates the stress response and is subject to modulation by cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Glucocorticoids also modulate the growth, reproductive and thyroid axes. Abnormalities of stress system activation have been shown in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, as well as behavioural syndromes such as melancholic depression. These disorders are comparable to those seen in rats whose CRH system is genetically abnormal. Thus, the stress response is central to resistance to inflammatory and behavioural syndromes. In this review, we describe the response to stress at molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and behavioural levels, and discuss the disease processes that result from a dysregulation of this response, as well as recent developments in their treatment.

  16. ACTION OF CHEMICALLY DIFFERENT PROSTAGLANDIN BLOCKERS ON THE ADRENAL HORMONES IN PIGEONS DURING STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Sengupta, S; Dasadhikari, S; Ghosh, A

    1999-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandin (PG) inhibitors differing in their chemical nature, viz. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), Mefenamic acid (fenamates), Diclofenac (phenylacetic acid derivative) and Piroxicam (oxicam derivative) on the adrenal hormones was studied in acutely stressed pigeons. None of these PG blockers exerted any significant effect on the catecholamine and corticosterone content of the control, i.e. unstressed pigeon adrenal gland excepting mefenamic acid which caused a release of epinephrine. Aspirin, diclofenac and piroxicam did not modulate the catecholamine or corticosterone secretion whereas mefenamic acid caused a released of both epinephrine and norepinephrine and increased the adrenal corticosterone content in the acutely stressed pigeons. These results were compared with those obtained from studies on the effects of other chemically different PG blockers, indomethacin (a methylated indole derivative) and ibuprofen (a propionic acid derivative). It is suggested that chemically and structurally different PG inhibitors show diverse action in the same species under similar stress conditions.

  17. Stress hormones promote growth of B16-F10 melanoma metastases: an interleukin 6- and glutathione-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Soraya L; Benlloch, María; Rodriguez, María L; Mena, Salvador; Pellicer, José A; Asensi, Miguel; Obrador, Elena; Estrela, José M

    2013-03-22

    Interleukin (IL)-6 (mainly of tumor origin) activates glutathione (GSH) release from hepatocytes and its interorgan transport to B16-F10 melanoma metastatic foci. We studied if this capacity to overproduce IL-6 is regulated by cancer cell-independent mechanisms. Murine B16-F10 melanoma cells were cultured, transfected with red fluorescent protein, injected i.v. into syngenic C57BL/6J mice to generate lung and liver metastases, and isolated from metastatic foci using high-performance cell sorting. Stress hormones and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA, and CRH expression in the brain by in situ hybridization. DNA binding activity of NF-κB, CREB, AP-1, and NF-IL-6 was measured using specific transcription factor assay kits. IL-6 expression was measured by RT-PCR, and silencing was achieved by transfection of anti-IL-6 small interfering RNA. GSH was determined by HPLC. Cell death analysis was distinguished using fluorescence microscopy, TUNEL labeling, and flow cytometry techniques. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test. Plasma levels of stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropin hormone, corticosterone, and noradrenaline) increased, following a circadian pattern and as compared to non-tumor controls, in mice bearing B16-F10 lung or liver metastases. Corticosterone and noradrenaline, at pathophysiological levels, increased expression and secretion of IL-6 in B16-F10 cells in vitro. Corticosterone- and noradrenaline-induced transcriptional up-regulation of IL-6 gene involves changes in the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB, cAMP response element-binding protein, activator protein-1, and nuclear factor for IL-6. In vivo inoculation of B16-F10 cells transfected with anti-IL-6-siRNA, treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor blocker (RU-486) or with a β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol), increased hepatic GSH whereas decreased plasma IL-6 levels and metastatic growth. Corticosterone, but not NORA, also induced apoptotic cell death in

  18. Hypertrophic response of the Association of Thyroid Hormone and Exercise in the Heart of Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Rodrigues de, E-mail: nandaeduca@yahoo.com.br; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Lopes, Leandro; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Chagas, Rafaella; Fidale, Thiago; Rodrigues, Poliana [UFU - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  20. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum......Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat...

  1. Leptin regulates dopamine responses to sustained stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Paul R; Love, Tiffany M; Stohler, Christian S; Hodgkinson, Colin; Shen, Pei-Hong; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-10-31

    Neural systems that identify and respond to salient stimuli are critical for survival in a complex and changing environment. In addition, interindividual differences, including genetic variation and hormonal and metabolic status likely influence the behavioral strategies and neuronal responses to environmental challenges. Here, we examined the relationship between leptin allelic variation and plasma leptin levels with DAD2/3R availability in vivo as measured with [(11)C]raclopride PET at baseline and during a standardized pain stress challenge. Allelic variation in the leptin gene was associated with varying levels of dopamine release in response to the pain stressor, but not with baseline D2/3 receptor availability. Circulating leptin was also positively associated with stress-induced dopamine release. These results show that leptin serves as a regulator of neuronal function in humans and provides an etiological mechanism for differences in dopamine neurotransmission in response to salient stimuli as related to metabolic function. The capacity for leptin to influence stress-induced dopaminergic function is of importance for pathological states where dopamine is thought to play an integral role, such as mood, substance-use disorders, eating disorders, and obesity.

  2. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  4. AtRAV and AtbZIP transcription factors positively regulate ABA responses: Overexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency, and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Ar...

  5. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  6. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are potential mediators of auxin action in tomato response to biotic and abiotic stress (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bouzroud

    Full Text Available Survival biomass production and crop yield are heavily constrained by a wide range of environmental stresses. Several phytohormones among which abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA are known to mediate plant responses to these stresses. By contrast, the role of the plant hormone auxin in stress responses remains so far poorly studied. Auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, and Auxin Response Factors play a key role in the transcriptional activation or repression of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. As a mean to gain more insight on auxin involvement in a set of biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato, the present study uncovers the expression pattern of SlARF genes in tomato plants subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses. In silico mining of the RNAseq data available through the public TomExpress web platform, identified several SlARFs as responsive to various pathogen infections induced by bacteria and viruses. Accordingly, sequence analysis revealed that 5' regulatory regions of these SlARFs are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Moreover, quantitative qPCR expression analysis revealed that many SlARFs were differentially expressed in tomato leaves and roots under salt, drought and flooding stress conditions. Further pointing to the putative role of SlARFs in stress responses, quantitative qPCR expression studies identified some miRNA precursors as potentially involved in the regulation of their SlARF target genes in roots exposed to salt and drought stresses. These data suggest an active regulation of SlARFs at the post-transcriptional level under stress conditions. Based on the substantial change in the transcript accumulation of several SlARF genes, the data presented in this work strongly support the involvement of auxin in stress responses thus enabling to identify a set of candidate SlARFs as potential mediators of biotic and abiotic

  7. Incretin hormone and insulin responses to oral versus intravenous lipid administration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Carr, Richard D; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2011-01-01

    Context: The incretin effect is responsible for the higher insulin response to oral glucose than to iv glucose at matching glucose levels. It is notknownwhetherthis effect is restricted to glucose only. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether insulin and incretin hormone responses ...

  8. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stengel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  9. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette F

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  10. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Hauer, Daniela; Campolongo, Patrizia; Schelling, Gustav; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-05-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences. However, as the onset of these glucocorticoid actions appear often too rapid to be explained by genomic regulation, the neurobiological mechanism of how glucocorticoids could modify the memory-enhancing properties of norepinephrine and CRF remained elusive. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly activated retrograde messenger system, is a primary route mediating the actions of glucocorticoids, via a glucocorticoid receptor on the cell surface, on BLA neural plasticity and memory consolidation. Furthermore, glucocorticoids recruit downstream endocannabinoid activity within the BLA to interact with both the norepinephrine and CRF systems in enhancing memory consolidation. These findings have important implications for understanding the fine-tuned crosstalk between multiple stress hormone systems in the coordination of (mal)adaptive stress and emotional arousal effects on neural plasticity and memory consolidation.

  11. Influence of adrenal hormones in the occurrence and prevention of stress ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Murat; Albayrak, Yavuz; Polat, Beyzagul; Suleyman, Bahadır; Salman, Ahmet Bedii; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether endogenous cortisol and adrenalin have a role in the formation of stress ulcers in intact and adrenalectomized rats. The study was composed of 4 experiments: ulcerated areas in stomachs of adrenalectomized and intact rats were measured, adrenaline (100 μg/kg) and prednisolone (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally in adrenalectomized rats, metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered to intact rats, and metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered orally with yohimbine (10 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg) alone were administered to intact rats. After 24-hour restraint stress, ulcerated areas were measured. In the stomach of intact rats, the degree of stress ulcer was 7.25 times more severe than that noted in adrenalectomized rats. Furthermore, stress ulcers in adrenalectomized rats that received adrenaline or prednisolone only were fewer and less severe than rats receiving both adrenaline and prednisolone. Simultaneous administration of adrenaline and prednisolone did not prevent the formation of stress ulcers. However, either of these hormones alone (adrenaline or prednisolone), in the absence of the other, repressed the formation of stress ulcers. This antiulcer activity may be related to α2-adrenergic receptor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C; Carter, Matthew E; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-02-19

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses.

  13. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  14. Molecular genetics of growth hormone deficient children: correlation with auxology and response to first year of growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Vaman; Phadke, Nikhil; Khatod, Kavita; Ekbote, Veena; Gupte, Supriya Phanse; Nadar, Ruchi; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-05-24

    With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year. Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score imaging (MRI) brain scan was done in all. Genetic mutations were tested for in GH1, GHRH, LHX3, LHX4 and PROP1, POU1F1 and HESX1 genes. Mean age at presentation was 9.7±5.1 years. Thirty-seven children (Group A) had no genetic mutation detected. Six children (Group B) had mutations in the GH releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene, while eight children (Group C) had mutation in the GH1 gene. In two children, one each had a mutation in PROP1 and LHX3. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline height, weight and BMI for age z-score and height velocity for age z-score (HVZ). HVZ was significantly lower, post 1 year GH treatment in the group with homozygous GH1 deletion than in children with no genetic defect. Response to GH at the end of 1 year was poor in children with the homozygous GH1 deletion as compared to those with GHRHR mutation or without a known mutation.

  15. REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IN MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Serife Vatansever Ozen

    2012-01-01

    Plyometric training activities are commonly used by a wide range of athletes to increase jump performance and improve explosive power and muscular activation patterns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on male reproductive hormones. Nineteen recreationally active males volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to plyometrically trained (n=10, 21.2 ±2.3 years) and control groups (n=9, 21.4± 2.1). The plyometric training group ...

  16. Hormonal response during a fenfluramine-associated panic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.G. Vieira

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Secretion curves for prolactin, cortisol, TSH, and GH from a 37-year old woman with dysthymia and panic disorder with agoraphobia were determined one day prior to (day I, and during a panic attack (day II associated with an oral dose of 60 mg dl-fenfluramine, a drug known to increase anticipatory anxiety. The increased cortisol secretion observed is discussed in relation to the hormonal correlates of anxiety and the possible role of depression, dl-fenfluramine, and serotonergic receptor sensitivity

  17. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  18. Studies on Several Hormone Responses Following Intravenous Alimentation: Insulin and growth hormone responses following oral or intravenous alimentation in patient with far advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H K; Koh, J H; Ryu, Y W; Lee, J O; Lee, C W; Kim, J Y; Lee, J K [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    Glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone responses following glucose for amino acids administration by means of parenteral or oral load were studied in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. Hormone responses following nutrients load showed in patients with gastric cancer were compared to those of healthy subjects. Results were as follows:1) Blood sugar appearance following oral glucose administration was diminished in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. 2) The insulin responses of gastric cancer following oral glucose were also diminished as compared to that of normal subjects and were identical with parenteral route. 3) Parenteral administration of glucose or amino acids to patients with gastric cancer resulted in a increase of plasma growth hormone level. 4) Lower insulin response to amino acids was observed on parenteral administration in patient with gastric cancer as in healthy subjects. 5) Author discussed that the low insulin response after oral glucose administration showed in gastric cancer, and any additional insulin requirement arise when longer periods of parenteral amino acid administration are necessary, as in the patient with malnutrition.

  19. Studies on Several Hormone Responses Following Intravenous Alimentation: Insulin and growth hormone responses following oral or intravenous alimentation in patient with far advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Koh, J. H.; Ryu, Y. W.; Lee, J. O.; Lee, C. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    Glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone responses following glucose for amino acids administration by means of parenteral or oral load were studied in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. Hormone responses following nutrients load showed in patients with gastric cancer were compared to those of healthy subjects. Results were as follows:1) Blood sugar appearance following oral glucose administration was diminished in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. 2) The insulin responses of gastric cancer following oral glucose were also diminished as compared to that of normal subjects and were identical with parenteral route. 3) Parenteral administration of glucose or amino acids to patients with gastric cancer resulted in a increase of plasma growth hormone level. 4) Lower insulin response to amino acids was observed on parenteral administration in patient with gastric cancer as in healthy subjects. 5) Author discussed that the low insulin response after oral glucose administration showed in gastric cancer, and any additional insulin requirement arise when longer periods of parenteral amino acid administration are necessary, as in the patient with malnutrition.

  20. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    ... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...

  1. Environmental stress, TRH and lactation effects on plasma growth hormone of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; DeDios, O.; Lippincott, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels of cattle are influenced by numerous environmental and metabolic factors. Acute heat stress increases GH threefold with maximum value at 30 minutes post-exposure. TRH infusion also shows a threefold increase as early as 2 minutes post-infusion but with a continual elevation for approximately 20 minutes. Longer-term environmental heat stress exposure, as occurs in tropics and the summer season, lowers plasma GH of cattle. GH levels in high-producing, lactating cows are greater than in low producers. In summary, plasma increases in levels of GH immediately reflect the stressor effects on cattle, presumably through involvement of TRH release. Long-term heat stressors, such as seasonal or tropic acclimatization, lowers GH of lactating cattle. (author)

  2. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test ≥7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  3. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  4. Thyroid hormones effects on oxidative stress and cardiac remodeling in the right ventricle of infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corssac, Giana B; de Castro, Alexandre L; Tavares, Angela V; Campos, Cristina; Fernandes, Rafael O; Ortiz, Vanessa D; Siqueira, Rafaela; Fernandes, Tânia Regina G; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Araujo, Alex Sander R

    2016-02-01

    Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction post-myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with a worsened prognosis. In this scenario, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are related with the progression from MI to heart failure. Previous work showed that thyroid hormones (TH) are cardioprotective after MI. This study aims to investigate the effect of T3 and T4 administration on oxidative stress and angiogenesis parameters in the RV after MI. Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), infarcted (AMI), sham-operated + TH (SHAMT), and infarcted+TH (AMIT). The treated groups received T3 (2 μg/100g/day) and T4 (8 μg/100g/day) by gavage for 26 days. After this, echocardiographic analysis was performed and the RV was collected to western blot and biochemical analysis. Infarcted treated rats showed RV hypertrophy compared with AMI and SHAMT. Hydrogen peroxide levels were decrease and SOD activity and expression were increased in the infarcted treated rats. Besides that, the hormonal administration increased eNOS expression and prevented the reduction of VEGF levels in AMIT rats. In conclusion, TH seems to improve oxidative stress parameters, to promote physiological hypertrophy and to increase the expression of proteins involved with angiogenesis in the right heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) effects on the anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila

    2017-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone on functional innate immune responses to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Sean P; Larson, Emilee E; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2017-12-01

    The androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) responds to stress activation, exhibits anti-glucocorticoid properties, and modulates immunity in diverse ways, yet little is known of its role in acute stress responses. In this study, the effects of DHEA and its sulfate ester DHEA-S on human male immune function during exposure to an acute stressor is explored. Variation in DHEA, DHEA-S, testosterone, and cortisol, along with bacterial killing assays, was measured in response to a modified Trier Social Stress test in 27 young adult males. Cortisol was positively related to salivary innate immunity but only for participants who also exhibited high DHEA responses. Additionally, DHEA positively and DHEA-S negatively predicted salivary immunity, but the opposite was observed for serum-based innate immunity. The DHEA response to acute stress appears to be an important factor in stress-mediated immunological responses, with differential effects on immunity dependent upon the presence of other hormones, primarily cortisol and DHEA-S. These results suggest that DHEA plays an important role, alongside other hormones, in modulating immunological shifts during acute stress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Behavioral phenotype relates to physiological differences in immunological and stress responsiveness in reactive and proactive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, Elizabeth A; Navara, Kristen J

    2018-05-15

    It has now been demonstrated in many species that individuals display substantial variation in coping styles, generally separating into two major behavioral phenotypes that appear to be linked to the degree of physiological stress responsiveness. Laying hens are perfect examples of these dichotomous phenotypes; white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to both acute and chronic stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Given the linkages between stress physiology and many other body systems, we hypothesized that behavioral phenotype would correspond to additional physiological responses beyond the stress response, in this case, immunological responses. Because corticosterone is widely known to be immunosuppressive, we predicted that the reactive white hens would show more dampened immune responses than the proactive brown hens due to their exposure to higher levels of corticosterone throughout life. To assess immune function in white and brown hens, we compared febrile responses, corticosterone elevations, feed consumption, and egg production that occurred in response an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, inflammatory responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in the toe web, innate phagocytic activity in whole blood, and antibody responses to an injection of Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBCs). Contrary to our predictions, white hens had significantly greater swelling of the toe web in response to PHA and showed a greater inhibition of feeding and reproductive output in response to LPS. These results indicated that reactive individuals are more reactive in both stress and immunological responsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  11. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266

  12. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  13. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Iwai; Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  14. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  15. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  16. Growth hormone response to guanfacine in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; McKay, Kathleen E; Siever, Larry J; Sharma, Vanshdeep

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary study evaluated a method for assessing central noradrenergic function in children via the growth hormone response to a single dose of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine and examined whether this measure distinguishes between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys with and without reading disabilities (RD). Plasma growth hormone was assessed before and after the oral administration of guanfacine and placebo in boys with ADHD who were divided into subgroups based on the presence (n = 3) or absence (n = 5) of RD. Guanfacine and placebo conditions did not differ at baseline, but peak growth hormone was significantly higher following guanfacine. The increase in growth hormone following guanfacine was significantly greater in boys without RD as compared to those with RD, with no overlap between the groups. Consistent with findings using peripheral measures of noradrenergic function, these preliminary data suggest that ADHD boys with and without RD may differ in central noradrenergic function.

  17. Investigation of Responsiveness to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how the paradoxical response of GH secretion to TRH changes according to tumor volumes. Methods. Patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly were classified as either TRH responders or nonresponders according to the results of a TRH stimulation test (TST, and their clinical characteristics were compared according to responsiveness to TRH and tumor volumes. Results. A total of 41 acromegalic patients who underwent the TST were included in this study. Between TRH responders and nonresponders, basal GH, IGF-I levels, peak GH levels, and tumor volume were not significantly different, but the between-group difference of GH levels remained near significant over the entire TST time. during the TST were significantly different according to the responsiveness to TRH. Peak GH levels and during the TST showed significantly positive correlations with tumor volume with higher levels in macroadenomas than in microadenomas. GH levels over the entire TST time also remained significantly higher in macroadenomas than in microadenomas. Conclusion. Our data demonstrated that the paradoxical response of GH secretion to TRH in GH-producing pituitary adenomas was not inversely correlated with tumor volumes.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These proteins are essential for cell survival, and intuitively the ER must activate stress responses to evade immediate cell dysfunction as the cell processes lag behind. This review will discuss mainly the ER and its role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of epidemiologically-relevant diseases, as well as updates on ...

  19. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  20. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  1. Adolescents' cortisol responses to awakening and social stress; Effects of gender, menstrual phase and oral contraceptives. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Esther M. C.; Riese, Harriette; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Studies on the influence of sex hormones on cortisol responses to awakening and stress have mainly been conducted in adults, while reports on adolescents are scarce. We studied the effects of gender, menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive (OC) use on cortisol responses in a large sample of

  2. Work stress and innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Reale, M; Muraro, R; Di Giampaolo, L

    2011-01-01

    Several reports highlight the relationship between blood NK cytotoxic activity and life style. Easy life style, including physical activity, healthy dietary habits as well as good mental health are characterized by an efficient immune response. Life style is related to the type of occupational activity since work has a central part in life either as source of income or contributing to represent the social identity. Not only occupational stress, but also job loss or insecurity are thus considered serious stressful situations, inducing emotional disorders which may affect both neuroendocrine and immune systems; reduced reactivity to mitogens and/or decreased blood NK cytotoxic activity was reported in unemployed workers or in those with a high perception of job insecurity and/or job stress. Although genetic factors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, occupational stress (as in night shifts) was reported associated to an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders. Monitoring blood NK response may thus be included in the health programs as an indirect index of stressful job and/or poor lifestyle.

  3. Hormonal receptors and response to treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loven, D.; Rakowsky, E.; Stein, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Response to several types of endocrine therapy or chemotherapy was evaluated in 60 patients with breast cancer. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were determined by radioimmunoassay. Response to endocrine therapy was significantly higher (P<0.01) among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases than among ER-negative cases. The response to chemotherapy did not differ significantly between the two groups. The results of this small series support the conclusion that determination of ER is valuable in planning endocrine treatment of the breast cancer patient, whereas response to chemotherapy does not correlate with ER levels. (author)

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  5. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  6. Response to three years of growth hormone therapy in girls with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kyu Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeShort stature is the most common finding in patients with Turner syndrome. Improving the final adult height in these patients is a challenge both for the patients and physicians. We investigated the clinical response of patients to growth hormone treatment for height improvement over the period of three years.MethodsReview of medical records from 27 patients with Turner syndrome treated with recombinant human growth hormone for more than 3 years was done. Differences in the changes of height standard deviation scores according to karyotype were measured and factors influencing the height changes were analyzed.ResultsThe response to recombinant human growth hormone was an increase in the height of the subjects to a mean value of 1.1 standard deviation for subjects with Turner syndrome at the end of the 3-year treatment. The height increment in the first year was highest. The height standard deviation score in the third year was negatively correlated with the age at the beginning of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment. Different karyotypes in subjects did not seem to affect the height changes.ConclusionEarly growth hormone administration in subjects with Turner syndrome is helpful to improve height response to the treatment.

  7. Linking physiological and cellular responses to thermal stress: β-adrenergic blockade reduces the heat shock response in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Nicole M; LeBlanc, Sacha; Perry, Steve F; Currie, Suzanne

    2014-08-01

    When faced with stress, animals use physiological and cellular strategies to preserve homeostasis. We were interested in how these high-level stress responses are integrated at the level of the whole animal. Here, we investigated the capacity of the physiological stress response, and specifically the β-adrenergic response, to affect the induction of the cellular heat shock proteins, HSPs, following a thermal stress in vivo. We predicted that blocking β-adrenergic stimulation during an acute heat stress in the whole animal would result in reduced levels of HSPs in red blood cells (RBCs) of rainbow trout compared to animals where adrenergic signaling remained intact. We first determined that a 1 h heat shock at 25 °C in trout acclimated to 13 °C resulted in RBC adrenergic stimulation as determined by a significant increase in cell swelling, a hallmark of the β-adrenergic response. A whole animal injection with the β2-adrenergic antagonist, ICI-118,551, successfully reduced this heat-induced RBC swelling. The acute heat shock caused a significant induction of HSP70 in RBCs of 13 °C-acclimated trout as well as a significant increase in plasma catecholamines. When heat-shocked fish were treated with ICI-118,551, we observed a significant attenuation of the HSP70 response. We conclude that circulating catecholamines influence the cellular heat shock response in rainbow trout RBCs, demonstrating physiological/hormonal control of the cellular stress response.

  8. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Role of the Periaqueductal Gray Matter of the Midbrain in Regulation of Somatic Pain Sensitivity During Stress: Participation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Glucocorticoid Hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushkina, N I; Filaretova, L P

    2015-01-01

    Periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain (PAGM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of pain sensitivity under stress, involving in the stress-induced analgesia. A key hormonal system of adaptation under stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis's hormones, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucocorticoids, are involved in stress-induced analgesia. Exogenous hormones of the HPA axis, similarly to the hormones produced under stress, may cause an analgesic effect. CRF-induced analgesia may be provided by glucocorticoid hormones. CRF and glucocorticoids-induced effects on somatic pain sensitivity may be mediated by PAGM. The aim of the review was to analyze the data of literature on the role of PAGM in the regulation of somatic pain sensitivity under stress and in providing of CRF and glucocorticoid-induced analgesia.

  10. Changes in stress hormones and metabolism during a 105-day simulated Mars mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Felice; Vassilieva, Galina; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Masini, Mariangela; Santucci, Daniela; Borgia, Luisa; Magni, Paolo; Celotti, Fabio; Nikiporuc, Igor

    2014-08-01

    The Mars-105 project was aimed at simulating crew's activities, workload, and communication during a mission to Mars, evaluating the homeostatic adaptations to prolonged confinement and cohabitation. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin, C-peptide, leptin, cortisol, and NGF and BDNF plasma levels were monitored in six healthy nonsmoking male subjects taking part in a 105-d Mars mission simulation. Samples were collected from each subject before (0 wk), during (2.5 wk; 5 wk; 10 wk; 15 wk), and after confinement (+1 wk). Confinement resulted in impaired glucometabolic parameters, since FPG increased during the first 5 wk (baseline: 85.2 ± 10.8 mg · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 98.4 ± 4.7 mg · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 92.5 ± 6.0 mg · dl⁻¹) and insulin dropped at 2.5 wk (baseline: 14.4 ± 4.8 mU · L⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 7.7 ± 2.1 mU · L⁻¹), subsequently returning to baseline values. HOMA-IR paralleled plasma insulin, dropping to 1.8 ± 0.5 at 2.5 wk (baseline: 3.0 ± 1.2). At all time-points tested, plasma leptin levels were decreased (baseline: 4.4 ± 3.3 ng · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 1.6 ± 1.2 ng · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 1.3 ± 0.8 ng · dl⁻¹; 10 wk: 1.5 ± 1.1 ng · dl⁻¹; 15 wk:1.7 ± 0.8 ng · dl⁻¹), whereas cortisol levels were increased (baseline: 10.8 ± 4.9 ng · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 16.8 ± 3.5 ng · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 18.1 ± 7.6 ng · dl⁻¹; 10 wk: 18.1 ± 8.3 ng · dl⁻¹; 15 wk:14.2 ± 4.4 ng · dl⁻¹), resulting in a negative correlation between these hormones. BDNF levels increased only at 5 and 10 wk (baseline: 67.1 ± 36.0 pg · ml⁻¹; 5 wk: 164 ± 54 pg · ml⁻¹; and 10 wk: 110.2 ± 28.9 pg · ml⁻¹). The data obtained with the Mars-105 experiment suggest that environmental stress has a strong impact upon metabolic and stress response, indicating the need for further studies and the implementation of specific countermeasures.

  11. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment

  12. Seasonal heat stress: Clinical implications and hormone treatments for the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2015-09-15

    Heat stress has consequences on both the physiology and reproductive performance of cows, but the most dramatic effect for dairy producers is the decrease produced in fertility. The effects of heat stress on fertility include an increased number of days open, reduced conception rate, and larger number of cows suffering different types of anestrus. Once becomes pregnant, heat stress affects also the reproductive success of the cow through its direct effects on the ovary, uterus, gametes, embryo, and early fetus. This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of heat stress on fertility in dairy cows and the hormonal strategies used to mitigate these effects at the farm level. Administration of GnRH at the moment of artificial insemination can improve the conception rate. Breeding synchronization protocols for fixed-time insemination may reduce the calving conception interval and the number of services per conception. Progesterone-based protocols seem resolve better the reproductive disorders related to a hot environment (anestrus) than GnRH-based protocols. The use of combinations of GnRH, eCG, and hCG in progesterone-based protocols can improve results. Progesterone supplementation during the late embryonic and/or early fetal period would be useful in curtailing pregnancy losses, mainly in single pregnancies, whereas a more positive effect of treatment with GnRH than progesterone has been found in twin pregnancies. Melatonin therapy is emerging as a promising strategy to improve the natural reproductive performance of cows suffering conditions of heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Response of Plants Grown under Uranium Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doustaly, Fany; Berthet, Serge; Bourguignon, Jacques [CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, UMR 5168 CEA-CNRS-INRA-Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Combes, Florence; Vandenbrouck, Yves [CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire de Biologie a Grande Echelle, EDyP, CEA-Grenoble (France); Carriere, Marie [CEA, INAC, LAN, UMR E3 CEA-Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vavasseur, Alain [CEA, IBEB, LBDP, Saint Paul lez Durance, CEA Cadarache (France)

    2014-07-01

    Uranium is a natural element which is mainly redistributed in the environment due to human activity, including accidents and spillages. Plants may be useful in cleaning up after incidents, although little is yet known about the relationship between uranium speciation and plant response. We analyzed the impact of different uranium (U) treatments on three plant species namely sunflower, oilseed rape and wheat. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry elemental analysis, together with a panel of imaging techniques including scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, we have recently shown how chemical speciation greatly influences the accumulation and distribution of U in plants. Uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} free ion) is the predominant mobile form in soil surface at low pH in absence of ligands. With the aim to characterize the early plant response to U exposure, complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarray experiments were conducted on plants exposed to 50 μM uranyl nitrate for 2, 6 and 30 h and highlighted a set of 111 genes with modified expression at these three time points. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR experiments confirmed and completed CATMA micro-arrays results allowing the characterization of biological processes perturbed by U. Functional categorization of deregulated genes emphasizes oxidative stress, cell wall biosynthesis and hormone biosynthesis and signaling. We showed that U stress is perceived by plant cells like a phosphate starvation stress since several phosphate deprivation marker genes were deregulated by U and also highlighted perturbation of iron homeostasis by U. Hypotheses are presented to explain how U perturbs the iron uptake and signaling response. These results give preliminary insights into the pathways affected by uranyl uptake, which will be of interest for engineering plants to help clean areas contaminated with

  14. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  15. Central mechanisms underlying variability in the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria Møller

    of the stress response. In mammals, the hippocampus and amygdala in the telencephalon play central roles in the process of discriminating sensory inputs that, potentially, will threaten the homeostasis of an individual. These regions are part of the limbic system, which interacts with the hypothalamic......-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). This neuroendocrine stress axis includes corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which regulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. A peptide is released to the circulation, inducing release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex....... The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) also plays an important role in the neuroendocrine stress response by controlling CRF release in hypothalamus. The transmission of 5-HT and CRF are under feedback control of glucocorticoids and interact with the stress response by affecting processes...

  16. Hormone response element binding proteins: novel regulators of vitamin D and estrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S

    2011-03-01

    Insights from vitamin D-resistant New World primates and their human homologues as models of natural and pathological insensitivity to sterol/steroid action have uncovered a family of novel intracellular vitamin D and estrogen regulatory proteins involved in hormone action. The proteins, known as "vitamin D or estrogen response element-binding proteins", behave as potent cis-acting, transdominant regulators to inhibit steroid receptor binding to DNA response elements and is responsible for vitamin D and estrogen resistances. This set of interactors belongs to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of previously known pre-mRNA-interacting proteins. This review provides new insights into the mechanism by which these novel regulators of signaling and metabolism can act to regulate responses to vitamin D and estrogen. In addition the review also describes other molecules that are known to influence nuclear receptor signaling through interaction with hormone response elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  18. Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Normalization Analysis in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., an environmental friendly and economic fiber crop, has a certain tolerance to abiotic stresses. Identification of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization of stress responsive genes expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is important for exploring the molecular mechanisms of plants response to abiotic stresses. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were cloned, and their expression stabilities were assessed in 132 abiotic stress and hormonal stimuli samples of kenaf using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms. Results revealed that HcPP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A and HcACT7 (Actin 7 were the optimum reference genes across all samples; HcUBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme like protein was the worst reference gene for transcript normalization. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profile of HcWRKY28 gene at different stress durations. This work will benefit future studies on discovery of stress-tolerance genes and stress-signaling pathways in this important fiber crop.

  19. Post-inflammatory fatigue in sarcoidosis: personality profiles, psychological symptoms and stress hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Ingrid H E; Grutters, Jan C; van den Bosch, Jules M M; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2012-02-01

    Chronic fatigue following inflammatory diseases has been well documented. However, little is known about possible risk factors of chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of the disease sarcoidosis is associated with specific dimensions of personality, psychological symptoms and baseline levels of stress hormones. Thirty-seven non-fatigued and 33 fatigued patients in clinical remission of sarcoidosis were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-short form (TCI); the Symptom CheckList-90 (SCL), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Baseline levels of ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma. Principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was conducted on all personality, psychological and stress hormone data in order to obtain a smaller set of components. Logistic regression was performed to associate these components with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. Principal component analyses identified 5 components, of which two components were significantly associated with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The first component comprised the personality trait Harm Avoidance and all SCL-subscales except Sleep. The second component consisted of baseline levels ACTH and cortisol, and showed an inverse association with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The 3 other components, consisting of respectively SCL-Sleep, TCI-Novelty Seeking-Reward Dependence-Self Transcendence, and TCI-Persistence, were not significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of sarcoidosis is associated with a triad of risk factors: a specific personality profile with profound neurotic characteristics in combination with high levels of psychological distress, and decreased baseline ACTH/cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pivagabine decreases stress-related hormone secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Stomati, M; Bersi, C; Luisi, S; Fedalti, M; Santuz, M; Esposito, G; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-09-01

    Stress-induced neuroendocrine activities influence the regulation of endocrine glands and axes. Weight loss-related hypothalamic amenorrhea is a typical stress-induced physiopathological condition. It is characterized by increased adrenal cortex activation and by reduced GH, LH, FSH and gonadal steroid hormone levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pivagabine, a neurotropic drug (1800 mg/day for 7 days) or placebo administration on ACTH, cortisol, GH, LH, FSH and PRL plasma levels in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss. Hormonal parameters and the pulsatile release of cortisol (6-hour pulsatility, sampling every 10 minutes) were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment. Pivagabine administration significantly reduced mean plasma ACTH (from 21.7+/-1.7 to 15.4+/-1.2 pg/ml, p<0.05) and cortisol levels (from 12.2+/-0.7 to 9.7+/-0.7 ng/ml, p<0.05) and increased GH levels (from 1.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.9 ng/ml, p<0.05). A significant reduction of cortisol pulse amplitude was observed (p<0.01) while no change in pulse frequency occurred. No changes were observed in placebo-treated subjects. LH, FSH and PRL levels were not modified by placebo or pivagabine administration. In conclusion, in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss pivagabine induced a significant decrease of cortisol secretion and an increase of GH release by pivagabine administration, suggesting that this drug exerts a specific neuroendocrine modulatory role.

  1. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Propofol Effect on Stress Response and Free Radicals in Patient during Surgery and Sedation Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Monica Rahardjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic used worldwide as an anesthesia induction and maintenance agent. Propofol also used as sedation agent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Despite it’s usual anesthesia properties, propofol has an unique pharmacologic characteristic, especially as antioxidant and stress response reduction. These advantages suggested propofol has positive effects when used as an anesthesia agent in surgery or sedation in ICU in conditions when high stress and free radical level are released. CONTENT: Stress response and free radical can be elevated in various conditions including surgery or during care in ICU, especially critical ill patient. Cortisol is a major stress hormone that influences metabolism, cardiovascular and central nervous system, either in acute or chronic phase. Oxidative stress was marked by free radical elevation called Radical Oxygen Species (ROS. Combination of both elements (cortisol and ROS can worsen patient condition. Propofol with anti-stress and antioxidant properties could be used to reduce stress response and attenuate free radical level in order to improve patient condition. SUMMARY: The anti-stress and antioxidant properties of Propofol are interesting, because these benefits can be added as adjunctive therapy when propofol was used as an anesthetic agent in surgery and a sedation in ICU. KEYWORDS: propofol, stress response, antioxidant.

  3. Divergent hormonal responses to social competition in closely related species of haplochromine cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Verzijden, Machteld N.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    The diverse cichlid species flocks of the East African lakes provide a classical example of adaptive radiation. Territorial aggression is thought to influence the evolution of phenotypic diversity in this system. Most vertebrates mount hormonal (androgen, glucocorticoid) responses to a territorial

  4. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [ 125 I]hGH or [ 125 I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[ 125 I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F. (and others) (Inst. de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-07-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [[sup 125]I]hGH or [[sup 125]I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[[sup 125]I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.

  7. Impact of alcohol on male reproductive hormones, oxidative stress and semen parameters in Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Oremosu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Acute and chronic administration of alcohol depletes testosterone levels, increases oxidative stress and decreases semen parameters. This impact of alcohol on testosterone levels is mediated by direct testicular toxicity and by altering the hormone feedback system in the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

  8. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  9. Blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis response to predator odor predicts high stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Annie M; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with trauma- and stress-related disorders exhibit increases in avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, heightened anxiety and altered neuroendocrine stress responses. Our laboratory uses a rodent model of stress that mimics the avoidance symptom cluster associated with stress-related disorders. Animals are classified as 'Avoiders' or 'Non-Avoiders' post-stress based on avoidance of predator-odor paired context. Utilizing this model, we are able to examine subpopulation differences in stress reactivity. Here, we used this predator odor model of stress to examine differences in anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function in animals that avoid a predator-paired context relative to those that do not. Rats were exposed to predator odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance (24h and 11days), anxiety-like behavior (48h and 5days) and HPA activation following stress. Control animals were exposed to room air. Predator odor stress produced avoidance in approximately 65% of the animals at 24h that persisted 11days post-stress. Both Avoiders and Non-Avoiders exhibited a heightened anxiety-like behavior at 48h and 5days post-stress when compared to unstressed Controls. Non-Avoiders exhibited significant increases in circulating adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations immediately following predator odor stress compared to Controls and this response was significantly attenuated in Avoiders. There was an inverse correlation between circulating ACTH/CORT concentrations and avoidance, indicating that lower levels of ACTH/CORT predicted higher levels of avoidance. These results suggest that stress effects on HPA stress axis activation predict long-term avoidance of stress-paired stimuli, and build on previous data showing the utility of this model for exploring the neurobiological mechanisms of trauma- and stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  11. Noradrenergic and hormonal responses to physical exercise in adolescents. Relationship to anxiety and tolerance to frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Caccavari, R; Reali, N; Bonvicini, P; Marcato, A; Fertonani, G; Delsignore, R; Passeri, M; Brambilla, F

    1993-01-01

    Seventy physically healthy 14-year-old adolescents, 40 boys and 30 girls, were evaluated psychologically and endocrinologically. After the psychological tests (Anxiety Score Test for Adolescents, Rosenzweig, Pictures Frustration Test for Children), subjects were divided into group A, with low anxiety/sense of guilt and high self-esteem/tolerance to frustration and group B with the opposite. In both groups, we measured basal plasma levels of noradrenaline (NE), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), melatonin (MT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and their response to physical exercise (the Harvard step test). Basal levels of the hormones and of NE were not different in the two groups. After the physical stimulus, NE levels rose significantly more in B girls than in A and significantly less in B than in A boys. GH and PRL levels increased only in A girls and MT in B boys, while LH levels decreased in A boys and girls but not in B subjects.

  12. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dziurka, M.; Janeczko, A.; Juhasz, C.; Gullner, G.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Saja, D.; Skoczowski, A.; Tobias, I.; Barna, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, DEC (2016), s. 355-364 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tobacco-mosaic-virus * pathogenesis-related proteins * salicylic-acid * abscisic-acid * acquired- resistance * disease resistance * nicotiana-benthamiana * arabidopsis-thaliana * defense response * immune-responses * Brassinosteroids * Ethylene * Hormone * Pepper * Phenylalanine ammonia lyase * Progesterone * Salicylic acid * Tobamovirus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  13. Second messenger production in avian medullary nephron segments in response to peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D L; Reddy, V; Plaga, K

    1999-03-01

    We examined the sites of peptide hormone activation within medullary nephron segments of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) kidney by measuring rates of hormone-induced generation of cyclic nucleotide second messenger. Thin descending limbs, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts had baseline activity of adenylyl cyclase that resulted in cAMP accumulation of 207 +/- 56, 147 +/- 31, and 151 +/- 41 fmol. mm-1. 30 min-1, respectively. In all segments, this activity increased 10- to 20-fold in response to forskolin. Activity of adenylyl cyclase in the thin descending limb was stimulated approximately twofold by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by any of the other hormones tested [arginine vasotocin (AVT), glucagon, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or isoproterenol, each at 10(-6) M]. Thick ascending limb was stimulated two- to threefold by both AVT and PTH; however, glucagon and isoproterenol had no effect, and ANP stimulated neither cAMP nor cGMP accumulation. Adenylyl cyclase activity in the collecting duct was stimulated fourfold by AVT but not by the other hormones; likewise, ANP did not stimulate cGMP accumulation in this segment. These data support a tubular action of AVT and PTH in the avian renal medulla.

  14. Lignin biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): its response to waterlogging and association with hormonal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran-Nguyen; Son, SeungHyun; Jordan, Mark C; Levin, David B; Ayele, Belay T

    2016-01-25

    Lignin is an important structural component of plant cell wall that confers mechanical strength and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors; however it affects the use of biomass such as wheat straw for some industrial applications such as biofuel production. Genetic alteration of lignin quantity and quality has been considered as a viable option to overcome this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat biomass has not been studied. Combining molecular and biochemical approaches, the present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis in two wheat cultivars with varying lodging characteristics and also in response to waterlogging. It also examined the association of lignin level in tissues with that of plant hormones implicated in the control of lignin biosynthesis. Analysis of lignin biosynthesis in the two wheat cultivars revealed a close association of lodging resistance with internode lignin content and expression of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase1 (4CL1), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase1 (C3H1), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase2 (CCR2), ferulate 5-hydroxylase2 (F5H2) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase2 (COMT2), which are among the genes highly expressed in wheat tissues, implying the importance of these genes in mediating lignin deposition in wheat stem. Waterlogging of wheat plants reduced internode lignin content, and this effect is accompanied by transcriptional repression of three of the genes characterized as highly expressed in wheat internode including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase6 (PAL6), CCR2 and F5H2, and decreased activity of PAL. Expression of the other genes was, however, induced by waterlogging, suggesting their role in the synthesis of other phenylpropanoid-derived molecules with roles in stress responses. Moreover, difference in internode lignin content between cultivars or change in its level due to waterlogging is associated with the level of cytokinin. Lodging resistance, tolerance against

  15. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  16. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT on oxidative stress (OS in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW and MetS women (MSW were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%, their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05 and OS was also reduced (44%, this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%. In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women.

  17. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  18. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and ... from 32 Countries:.

  19. Different growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide and GH-releasing hormone in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Dias, J C; Pimentel-Filho, F; Reis, A F; Lengyel, A M

    1996-04-01

    Altered GH responses to several pharmacological stimuli, including GHRH, have been found in hyperthyroidism. The mechanisms underlying these disturbances have not been fully elucidated. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide that specifically stimulates GH release both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of action of GHRP-6 is unknown, but it probably acts by inhibiting the effects of somatostatin on GH release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GHRP-6 on GH secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 9) and in control subjects (n = 9). Each subject received GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg, iv), GHRH (100 microg, iv), and GHRP-6 plus GHRH on 3 separate days. GH peak values (mean +/- SE; micrograms per L) were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared to those in control subjects after GHRH alone (9.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 27.0 +/- 5.2) and GHRP-6 plus GHRH (22.5 +/- 3.5 vs. 83.7 +/- 15.2); a lack of the normal synergistic effect of the association of both peptides was observed in thyrotoxicosis. However, a similar GH response was seen in both groups after isolated GHRP-6 injection (31.9 +/- 5.7 vs. 23.2 +/- 3.9). In summary, we have shown that hyperthyroid patients have a normal GH response to GHRP-6 together with a blunted GH responsiveness to GHRH. Our data suggest that thyroid hormones modulate GH release induced by these two peptides in a differential way.

  20. AtPep3 is a hormone-like peptide that plays a role in the salinity stress tolerance of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaminami, Kentaro; Okamoto, Masanori; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yube; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shimizu, Minami; Ohashi, Chihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Matsui, Minami; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Seki, Motoaki; Hanada, Kousuke

    2018-05-29

    Peptides encoded by small coding genes play an important role in plant development, acting in a similar manner as phytohormones. Few hormone-like peptides, however, have been shown to play a role in abiotic stress tolerance. In the current study, 17 Arabidopsis genes coding for small peptides were found to be up-regulated in response to salinity stress. To identify peptides leading salinity stress tolerance, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing these small coding genes and assessed survivability and root growth under salinity stress conditions. Results indicated that 4 of the 17 overexpressed genes increased salinity stress tolerance. Further studies focused on AtPROPEP3 , which was the most highly up-regulated gene under salinity stress. Treatment of plants with synthetic peptides encoded by AtPROPEP3 revealed that a C-terminal peptide fragment (AtPep3) inhibited the salt-induced bleaching of chlorophyll in seedlings. Conversely, knockdown AtPROPEP3 transgenic plants exhibited a hypersensitive phenotype under salinity stress, which was complemented by the AtPep3 peptide. This functional AtPep3 peptide region overlaps with an AtPep3 elicitor peptide that is related to the immune response of plants. Functional analyses with a receptor mutant of AtPep3 revealed that AtPep3 was recognized by the PEPR1 receptor and that it functions to increase salinity stress tolerance in plants. Collectively, these data indicate that AtPep3 plays a significant role in both salinity stress tolerance and immune response in Arabidopsis .

  1. Roles of oxidative stress, adiponectin, and nuclear hormone receptors in obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Morihiro; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-08-01

    Obesity leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular basis of obesity will lead to the establishment of effective prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases. Adipocytes have been shown to generate a variety of endocrine factors termed adipokines/adipocytokines. Obesity-associated changes to these adipocytokines contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin, which is one of the most well-characterized adipocytokines, is produced exclusively by adipocytes and exerts insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic effects. Obese subjects have lower levels of circulating adiponectin, and this is recognized as one of the factors involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Another pathophysiological feature of obesity may involve the low-grade chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. This inflammatory process increases oxidative stress in adipose tissue, which may affect remote organs, leading to the development of diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) regulate the transcription of the target genes in response to binding with their ligands, which include metabolic and nutritional substrates. Among the various NRs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ promotes the transcription of adiponectin and antioxidative enzymes, whereas mineralocorticoid receptor mediates the effects of aldosterone and glucocorticoid to induce oxidative stress in adipocytes. It is hypothesized that both play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, reduced adiponectin and increased oxidative stress play pathological roles in obesity-associated insulin resistance to increase the cardiovascular disease risk, and various NRs may be involved in this pathogenesis.

  2. A simple melatonin treatment protocol attenuates the response to acute stress in the sole Solea senegalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Conde-Sieira, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds have been tested in fish in order to attenuate the effects of different stressors, most often following previous observations in mammals. The hormone melatonin (MEL) and the amino acid L-tryptophan have been tested for this purpose with different degree of success. In Senegalese...... sole (Solea senegalensis) we have previously observed that during prolonged exposure to relatively mild stressors, the presence of MEL in the water helped to reduce the stress response. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-stress effects of a short melatonin exposure that could be easily...... performed in fish farms before an intended manipulative event with the animals. Our results demonstrate that adding MEL to the tanks 30. min before an acute chasing stress is effective in reducing the intensity of the stress response in fish from its beginning, as evidenced by the attenuated and delayed...

  3. Hormonal, metabolic, and cardiorespiratory responses of young and adult athletes to a single session of high-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Florian; Härtel, Sascha; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Strahler, Jana; Bös, Klaus; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.

  4. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  5. Treatment responses in adult depressive patients treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Lina Zhang1*, Yanbo Chen2, ... Keywords: stress, depressive patients, hormonal response, hormonal dysregulation, sertraline, ..... interactions in depression: will cause inform cure. Mol.

  6. Hypothalamic amenorrhea with normal body weight: ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B; Tonetti, A; Monteleone, P; Bernardi, F; Luisi, S; Stomati, M; Luisi, M; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-03-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is a functional disorder caused by disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. The mechanism by which stress alters GnRH release is not well known. Recently, the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurosteroids in the pathophysiology of HA has been considered. The aim of the present study was to explore further the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in HA. We included 8 patients (aged 23.16+/-1.72 years) suffering from hypothalamic stress-related amenorrhea with normal body weight and 8 age-matched healthy controls in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We measured basal serum levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol and evaluated ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH test in both HA patients and healthy women. Serum basal levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol as well as basal levels of allopregnanolone were significantly lower in HA patients than in controls (P<0.001) while basal ACTH and cortisol levels were significantly higher in amenorrheic patients with respect to controls (P<0.001). The response (area under the curve) of ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol to CRH was significantly lower in amenorrheic women compared with controls (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively). In conclusion, women with HA, despite the high ACTH and cortisol levels and, therefore, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, are characterized by low allopregnanolone basal levels, deriving from an impairment of both adrenal and ovarian synthesis. The blunted ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH indicate that, in hypothalamic amenorrhea, there is a reduced sensitivity and expression of CRH receptor. These results open new perspectives on the role of neurosteroids in the pathogenesis of hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  7. Reciprocal Regulation of the TOR Kinase and ABA Receptor Balances Plant Growth and Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Li, Zhongpeng; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Liu, Xue; Fu, Liwen; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Du, Yanyan; Xie, Shaojun; Zhang, Chunguang; Gao, Jinghui; Cao, Minjie; Huang, Xiaosan; Zhu, Yingfang; Tang, Kai; Wang, Xingang; Tao, W Andy; Xiong, Yan; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2018-01-04

    As sessile organisms, plants must adapt to variations in the environment. Environmental stress triggers various responses, including growth inhibition, mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms that integrate stress responses with growth are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase phosphorylates PYL ABA receptors at a conserved serine residue to prevent activation of the stress response in unstressed plants. This phosphorylation disrupts PYL association with ABA and with PP2C phosphatase effectors, leading to inactivation of SnRK2 kinases. Under stress, ABA-activated SnRK2s phosphorylate Raptor, a component of the TOR complex, triggering TOR complex dissociation and inhibition. Thus, TOR signaling represses ABA signaling and stress responses in unstressed conditions, whereas ABA signaling represses TOR signaling and growth during times of stress. Plants utilize this conserved phospho-regulatory feedback mechanism to optimize the balance of growth and stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  9. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  10. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai Ohbayashi; Munetaka Sugiyama

    2018-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized p...

  11. Unequally redundant RCD1 and SRO1 mediate stress and developmental responses and interact with transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, P.; Blomster, T.; Brosché, M.; Salojärvi, J.; Ahlfors, R.; Vainonen, J.P.; Reddy, R.A.; Immink, G.H.; Angenent, G.C.; Turck, F.; Overmyer, K.; Kangasjärvi, J.

    2009-01-01

    RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) is an important regulator of stress and hormonal and developmental responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Together with its closest homolog, SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE1 (SRO1), it is the only Arabidopsis protein containing the WWE domain, which is known to mediate

  12. The role of the HvNAC6 transcription factor in response to biotic and abiotic stress in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun

    -mediated transformation methods could be used to study stress responses at the whole-plant level. The abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were measured during Bgh infection to investigate the involvement of these hormones and TF in the basal resistance. HvNAC6 RNAi plants were also subjected to dehydration...

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  14. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G.; Handa, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism’s response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life. PMID:28859530

  15. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  16. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage.

  17. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shengrong; Yang Chunhe; Zhang Yuequn

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide strategies for development of rare earth and control of environmental pollution. [Method] Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth were studied through hydroponics in laboratory. [Result] The results showed that under irradiation of UV-B(T1-0.15 W/m2 and T2-0.45 W/m2), chlorophyll and indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) contents firstly decreased during the stress phase (1-5d) and then increased during the restoration phase (6-9d) while contents of malonadialdehyde(MDA) and abscisic acid(ABA) gradually increased during the imposition of UV-B radiation (1-5d) and subsequently decreased during recovery from UV-B stress (6-9d) . With adding of La (Ⅲ) with the concentration of 20mg•L-1, the decline/rise trend of chlorophyll, IAA, MDA and ABA contents was slowed down during the stress period while the rise/decline speed was accelerated during the recovery period. [Conclusion] It suggests that the regulation of La (Ⅲ) on membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones could increase chlorophyll and IAA contents, improve the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation, decrease the accumulation amount of ABA and alleviate injury of UV-B radiation to soybean seedlings. Further, the protective potential of La (Ⅲ) was better under low UV-B radiation than under high one

  19. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  1. The effect of eating speed at breakfast on appetite hormone responses and daily food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Crisp, Kelli; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Dart, Lyn; Bouza, Brooke; Franklin, Brian; Phillips, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The effect of eating speed at a meal on appetite gut hormone responses and future food consumption is not clear. This study examined the effect of eating speed at breakfast on postprandial gut hormone responses, subjective appetite, and daily food consumption. Twenty-five participants [68% men; age, 25.9 (8.1) years; body mass index, 25.0 (3.2) kg/m] were recruited. Each participant consumed the same breakfast at a slow (30 minutes) and fast (10 minutes) speed, on 2 separate days, in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and 3 hours postprandially during each eating condition. Appetite was assessed over the same period using visual analog scales. Blood concentrations of orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), were determined. Daily food intake was measured, by food recall, after the slow and fast breakfast. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis showed no eating condition or eating condition by time interaction effect on ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, or fullness. Significant eating speed by time interaction effect on desire to eat was found (P=0.007). Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes (P=0.007) after breakfast began during the slow versus fast eating condition. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect daily energy and macronutrient intake. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, and fullness values or daily energy and macronutrient intake. Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes in the slow versus fast eating condition, but this result could not be explained by the changes in meal-related hormones measured in the study.

  2. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  3. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  4. Comprehensive endocrine response to acute stress in the bottlenose dolphin from serum, blubber, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cory D; Kellar, Nicholas M; Trego, Marisa L; Delehanty, Brendan; Boonstra, Rudy; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca K; Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S

    2018-05-29

    Several hormones are potential indicators of stress in free-ranging animals and provide information on animal health in managed-care settings. In response to stress, glucocorticoids (GC, e.g. cortisol) first appear in circulation but are later incorporated into other tissues (e.g. adipose) or excreted in feces or urine. These alternative matrices can be sampled remotely, or by less invasive means, than required for blood collection and are especially valuable in highly mobile species, like marine mammals. We characterized the timing and magnitude of several hormones in response to a stressor in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the subsequent incorporation of cortisol into blubber, and its metabolites excreted in feces. We evaluated the endocrine response to an acute stressor in bottlenose dolphins under managed care. We used a standardized stress protocol where dolphins voluntarily beached onto a padded platform and remained out of water for two hours; during the stress test blood samples were collected every 15 min and blubber biopsies were collected every hour (0, 60, and 120 min). Each subject was studied over five days: voluntary blood samples were collected on each of two days prior to the stress test; 1 and 2 h after the conclusion of the out-of-water stress test; and on the following two days after the stress test. Fecal samples were collected daily, each afternoon. The acute stressor resulted in increases in circulating ACTH, cortisol, and aldosterone during the stress test, and each returned to baseline levels within 2 h of the dolphin's return to water. Both cortisol and aldosterone concentrations were correlated with ACTH, suggesting both corticosteroids are at least partly regulated by ACTH. Thyroid hormone concentrations were generally unaffected by the acute stressor. Blubber cortisol increased during the stress test, and fecal GC excretion was elevated on the day of the stress test. We found that GCs in bottlenose dolphins can

  5. Phytohormone signaling pathway analysis method for comparing hormone responses in plant-pest interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studham Matthew E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones mediate plant defense responses to pests and pathogens. In particular, the hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid have been shown to dictate and fine-tune defense responses, and identification of the phytohormone components of a particular defense response is commonly used to characterize it. Identification of phytohormone regulation is particularly important in transcriptome analyses. Currently there is no computational tool to determine the relative activity of these hormones that can be applied to transcriptome analyses in soybean. Findings We developed a pathway analysis method that provides a broad measure of the activation or suppression of individual phytohormone pathways based on changes in transcript expression of pathway-related genes. The magnitude and significance of these changes are used to determine a pathway score for a phytohormone for a given comparison in a microarray experiment. Scores for individual hormones can then be compared to determine the dominant phytohormone in a given defense response. To validate this method, it was applied to publicly available data from previous microarray experiments that studied the response of soybean plants to Asian soybean rust and soybean cyst nematode. The results of the analyses for these experiments agreed with our current understanding of the role of phytohormones in these defense responses. Conclusions This method is useful in providing a broad measure of the relative induction and suppression of soybean phytohormones during a defense response. This method could be used as part of microarray studies that include individual transcript analysis, gene set analysis, and other methods for a comprehensive defense response characterization.

  6. Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by “Silencing” Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maniscalco, James W.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Gordon, Patrick J.; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that caloric restriction attenuates anxiety and other behavioral responses to acute stress, and blunts the ability of stress to increase anterior pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Since hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons and noradrenergic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) neurons participate in behavioral and endocrine stress responses, and are sensitive to the metabolic state, we examined whether overnight food deprivation blunts stre...

  7. Changes in the transcriptomic profiles of maize roots in response to iron-deficiency stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Nian; Zhao, Fengtao; Song, Xuejiao; Yin, Zhaohua; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2014-07-01

    Plants are often subjected to iron (Fe)-deficiency stress because of its low solubility. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies to solubilize and transport Fe to acclimate to this abiotic stress condition. Transcriptomic profiling analysis was performed using Illumina digital gene expression to understand the mechanism underlying resistance responses of roots to Fe starvation in maize, an important Strategy II plant. A total of 3,427, 4,069, 4,881, and 2,610 genes had significantly changed expression levels after Fe-deficiency treatments of 1, 2, 4 or 7 days, respectively. Genes involved in 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) synthesis, secretion, and Fe(III)-DMA uptake were significantly induced. Many genes related to plant hormones, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases responded to Fe-deficiency stress, suggesting their regulatory roles in response to the Fe-deficiency stress. Functional annotation clustering analysis, using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, revealed maize root responses to Fe starvation. This resulted in 38 functional annotation clusters: 25 for up-regulated genes, and 13 for down-regulated ones. These included genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of carboxylic acids, isoprenoids and aromatic compounds, transporters, and stress response proteins. Our work provides integrated information for understanding maize response to Fe-deficiency stress.

  8. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and sex hormones in chronic stress and obesity: pathophysiological and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, particularly the abdominal phenotype, has been ascribed to an individual maladaptation to chronic environmental stress exposure mediated by a dysregulation of related neuroendocrine axes. Alterations in the control and action of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis play a major role in this context, with the participation of the sympathetic nervous system. The ability to adapt to chronic stress may differ according to sex, with specific pathophysiological events leading to the development of stress-related chronic diseases. This seems to be influenced by the regulatory effects of sex hormones, particularly androgens. Stress may also disrupt the control of feeding, with some differences according to sex. Finally, the amount of experimental data in both animals and humans may help to shed more light on specific phenotypes of obesity, strictly related to the chronic exposure to stress. This challenge may potentially imply a different pathophysiological perspective and, possibly, a specific treatment. PMID:22612409

  9. The interaction of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and early life stress on emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Wirth, Katharina; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Gärtner, Matti; Feeser, Melanie; Dziobek, Isabel; Bajbouj, Malek; Aust, Sabine

    2017-06-30

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for depression, changes to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system and structural and functional changes in hippocampus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene interact with ELS to predict depression, cognitive functions and hippocampal activity. Social cognition has been related to hippocampal function and might be crucial for maintaining mental health. However, the interaction of CRHR1 gene variation and ELS on social cognition has not been investigated yet. We assessed social cognition in 502 healthy subjects to test effects of ELS and the CRHR1 gene. Participants were genotyped for rs110402 and rs242924. ELS was assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, social cognition was measured via Multifaceted Empathy Test and Empathy Quotient. Severity of ELS was associated with decreased emotional, but not cognitive empathy. Subjects with the common homozygous GG GG genotype showed decreased implicit emotional empathy after ELS exposure regardless of its severity. The results reveal that specific CRHR1 polymorphisms moderate the effect of ELS on emotional empathy. Exposure to ELS in combination with a vulnerable genotype results in impaired emotional empathy in adulthood, which might represent an early marker of increased vulnerability after ELS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of stress hormones and aggression on cooperative behaviour in subordinate meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Spence-Jones, Helen C; Bennett, Nigel C; Heistermann, Michael; Ganswindt, Andre; Dubuc, Constance; Gaynor, David; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2017-09-27

    In cooperative breeders, aggression from dominant breeders directed at subordinates may raise subordinate stress hormone (glucocorticoid) concentrations. This may benefit dominants by suppressing subordinate reproduction but it is uncertain whether aggression from dominants can elevate subordinate cooperative behaviour, or how resulting changes in subordinate glucocorticoid concentrations affect their cooperative behaviour. We show here that the effects of manipulating glucocorticoid concentrations in wild meerkats ( Suricata suricatta ) on cooperative behaviour varied between cooperative activities as well as between the sexes. Subordinates of both sexes treated with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone) exhibited significantly more pup protection behaviour (babysitting) compared to those treated with glucocorticoids (cortisol) or controls. Females treated with mifepristone had a higher probability of exhibiting pup food provisioning (pup-feeding) compared to those treated with cortisol. In males, there were no treatment effects on the probability of pup-feeding, but those treated with cortisol gave a higher proportion of the food they found to pups than those treated with mifepristone. Using 19 years of behavioural data, we also show that dominant females did not increase the frequency with which they directed aggression at subordinates at times when the need for assistance was highest. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that dominant females manipulate the cooperative behaviour of subordinates through the effects of aggression on their glucocorticoid levels and that the function of aggression directed at subordinates is probably to reduce the probability they will breed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  12. Paired hormone response elements predict caveolin-1 as a glucocorticoid target gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus F van Batenburg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids act in part via glucocorticoid receptor binding to hormone response elements (HREs, but their direct target genes in vivo are still largely unknown. We developed the criterion that genomic occurrence of paired HREs at an inter-HRE distance less than 200 bp predicts hormone responsiveness, based on synergy of multiple HREs, and HRE information from known target genes. This criterion predicts a substantial number of novel responsive genes, when applied to genomic regions 10 kb upstream of genes. Multiple-tissue in situ hybridization showed that mRNA expression of 6 out of 10 selected genes was induced in a tissue-specific manner in mice treated with a single dose of corticosterone, with the spleen being the most responsive organ. Caveolin-1 was strongly responsive in several organs, and the HRE pair in its upstream region showed increased occupancy by glucocorticoid receptor in response to corticosterone. Our approach allowed for discovery of novel tissue specific glucocorticoid target genes, which may exemplify responses underlying the permissive actions of glucocorticoids.

  13. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  14. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  15. Drug-induced and genetic alterations in stress-responsive systems: Implications for specific addictive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-02-16

    From the earliest work in our laboratory, we hypothesized, and with studies conducted in both clinical research and animal models, we have shown that drugs of abuse, administered or self-administered, on a chronic basis, profoundly alter stress-responsive systems. Alterations of expression of specific genes involved in stress responsivity, with increases or decreases in mRNA levels, receptor, and neuropeptide levels, and resultant changes in hormone levels, have been documented to occur after chronic intermittent exposure to heroin, morphine, other opiates, cocaine, other stimulants, and alcohol in animal models and in human molecular genetics. The best studied of the stress-responsive systems in humans and mammalian species in general is undoubtedly the HPA axis. In addition, there are stress-responsive systems in other parts in the brain itself, and some of these include components of the HPA axis, such as CRF and CRF receptors, along with POMC gene and gene products. Several other stress-responsive systems are known to influence the HPA axis, such as the vasopressin-vasopressin receptor system. Orexin-hypocretin, acting at its receptors, may effect changes which suggest that it should be properly categorized as a stress-responsive system. However, less is known about the interactions and connectivity of some of these different neuropeptide and receptor systems, and in particular, about the possible connectivity of fast-acting (e.g., glutamate and GABA) and slow-acting (including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) neurotransmitters with each of these stress-responsive components and the resultant impact, especially in the setting of chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Several of these stress-responsive systems and components, primarily based on our laboratory-based and human molecular genetics research of addictive diseases, will be briefly discussed in this review. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomics Analysis of Hormone-Responsive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Responses to Paclitaxel Identify Key Metabolic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Delisha A; Winnike, Jason H; McRitchie, Susan L; Clark, Robert F; Pathmasiri, Wimal W; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-09-02

    To date, no targeted therapies are available to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), while other breast cancer subtypes are responsive to current therapeutic treatment. Metabolomics was conducted to reveal differences in two hormone receptor-negative TNBC cell lines and two hormone receptor-positive Luminal A cell lines. Studies were conducted in the presence and absence of paclitaxel (Taxol). TNBC cell lines had higher levels of amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars and lower levels of proliferation-related metabolites like choline compared with Luminal A cell lines. In the presence of paclitaxel, each cell line showed unique metabolic responses, with some similarities by type. For example, in the Luminal A cell lines, levels of lactate and creatine decreased while certain choline metabolites and myo-inositol increased with paclitaxel. In the TNBC cell lines levels of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione increased, whereas lysine, proline, and valine decreased in the presence of drug. Profiling secreted inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media demonstrated a greater response to paclitaxel in the hormone-positive Luminal cells compared with a secretion profile that suggested greater drug resistance in the TNBC cells. The most significant differences distinguishing the cell types based on pathway enrichment analyses were related to amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, whereas several biological pathways were differentiated between the cell lines following treatment.

  17. Oxytocin and prolactin suppress cortisol responses to acute stress in both lactating and non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J

    1997-08-01

    Cortisol response to stress appears to differ between lactating and non-lactating animals. Lactating (14 d post partum) and non-lactating sheep were fitted with probes so that drugs and hormones could be infused directly into the posterior pituitary and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animals were also fitted with instruments to allow monitoring of heart rate, body temperature and blood cortisol levels. Their reactions to a source of acute stress (a barking dog) were then followed, with or without drug and hormone manipulation. Results in both lactating and non-lactating animals indicated shortcomings in the use of cortisol as a stress indicator. Infusing prolactin and oxytocin into either the posterior pituitary or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus suppressed cortisol responsiveness to stress in both lactating and non-lactating animals (the latter to a greater extent). In the absence of drugs, lactating animals had a slightly higher basal level of cortisol and a lower cortisol response to stress than their non-lactating counterparts. Despite suppression of cortisol responses, with or without drugs, other indicators of stress still changed with the presence of a barking dog, suggesting the complexity of control involved in stress responses.

  18. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Dues, Dylan J.; Andrews, Emily K.; Schaar, Claire E.; Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxi...

  19. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  20. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, I C; Joosten, M M; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W A A; Witkamp, R F; Hendriks, H F J

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a placebo-controlled trial. They randomly consumed 2 cans (660 mL, ∼26 g alcohol) of beer or alcohol-free beer immediately after a mental stressor (Stroop task and Trier Social Stress Test). Physiological and immunological stress response was measured by monitoring heart rate and repeated measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), white blood cells and a set of cytokines. After a mental stressor, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were 100% and 176% more reduced at 60 min (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively) and 92% and 60% more reduced at 90 min (P stress recovery period after beer consumption than after alcohol-free beer consumption (P stress response as reflected by decreasing plasma ACTH and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute and chronic stress and the inflammatory response in hyperprolactinemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Amaya, J E; Malucelli, B E; Cruz-Casallas, P E; Nasello, A G; Felicio, L F; Carvalho-Freitas, M I R

    2010-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL), a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, has multiple physiological functions, including immunoregulation. PRL can also be secreted in response to stressful stimuli. During stress, PRL has been suggested to oppose the immunosuppressive effects of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of short- and long-term hyperprolactinemia on the inflammatory response in rats subjected to acute or chronic cold stress. Inflammatory edema was induced by carrageenan in male rats, and hyperprolactinemia was induced by injections of the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone. The volume of inflammatory edema was measured by plethysmography after carrageenan injection. Additionally, the effects of hyperprolactinemia on body weight and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated. Five days of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia increased the volume of inflammatory edema. No differences in serum corticosterone levels were observed between groups. No significant differences were found among 30 days domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemic animals subjected to acute stress and the inflammatory response observed in chronic hyperprolactinemic animals subjected to chronic stress. The results suggest that short-term hyperprolactinemia has pro-inflammatory effects. Because such an effect was not observed in long-term hyperprolactinemic animals, PRL-induced tolerance seems likely. We suggest that short-term hyperprolactinemia may act as a protective factor in rats subjected to acute stress. These data suggest that hyperprolactinemia and stress interact differentially according to the time period. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  4. Emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Loes; Szabó, Balázs M; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S; Bosch, Jos A; Kop, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study examined whether patients with TTC show exaggerated emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress. Patients with TTC (n = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7, 78% women) and 2 comparison groups (healthy controls, n = 19; mean age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68% women; chronic heart failure, n = 19; mean age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68% women) performed a structured mental stress task (anger recall and mental arithmetic) and low-grade exercise with repeated assessments of negative emotions, neurohormones (catecholamines: norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol), echocardiography, blood pressure, and heart rate. TTC was associated with higher norepinephrine (520.7 ± 125.5 vs 407.9 ± 155.3 pg/ml, p = 0.021) and dopamine (16.2 ± 10.3 vs 10.3 ± 3.9 pg/ml, p = 0.027) levels during mental stress and relatively low emotional arousal (p stress and exercise were elevated in TTC compared with healthy controls. No evidence was found for a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or hemodynamic responses. Patients with TTC showed blunted emotional arousal to mental stress. This study suggests that catecholamine hyper-reactivity and not emotional hyper-reactivity to stress is likely to play a role in myocardial vulnerability in TTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  6. Differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, J; Kitaysky, A S; Gabrielsen, G W; Hatch, S A; Bech, C

    2013-11-22

    Life-history strategies describe that 'slow'- in contrast to 'fast'-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events.

  7. Effect of ovarian hormones on the phagocytic response of ovariectomized mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, V K; McLeod, C; Klesius, P H; Washburn, S M; Kwapien, R; Brown, B; Fazeli, M H

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between ovarian hormones and experimental uterine infection (Streptococcus zooepidemicus) was investigated in 3 groups, each containing 6 ovariectomized mares. Group 1 served as controls ('anoestrus'), Group 2 mares were injected with oestrogen ('oestrus') and Group 3 with progesterone ('dioestrus') over a period of 5 weeks. All mares received an intrauterine inoculation of the bacteria 1 week after the start of hormonal treatment, and the results of the challenge were examined by endometrial biopsy and swabs once weekly. At the end of Week 1 no bacteria were recovered from the mares in Group 2. Group 1 mares were free of bacteria at the end of Week 2 but all Group 3 mares remained infected at least for the total period examined. Streptococcal phagocytosis was quantitated by chemiluminescence. Before the challenge-inoculation, phagocytosis was not significantly different in the 3 groups of mares. Bacterial cultures were negative for all three groups. However, within 48 h after infection, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in phagocytosis in Group 2 and a significant suppression (P less than 0.05) in Group 3 mares. Patterns of streptococcal clearance from the uterus closely paralleled the changes in the magnitude of chemiluminescence response. The results suggest that ovarian hormonal status can modulate the phagocytic response in episodes of streptococcal-induced endometritus in mares.

  8. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  9. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  10. Indication of attenuated DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone. We have previously reported that DHEA-s production capacity is attenuated in stressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout. Seventeen patients with clinical burnout were compared to 13 non-chronically stressed healthy controls, aged 31-50 years (mean age 41 years, SD 6 years), as they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for stress-related exhaustion disorder, which is a criteria-based diagnosis that has been used in Sweden since 2005 to define patients seeking health-care for clinical burnout. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. DHEA-s levels were measured and delta values (peak levels minus baseline levels) plus area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI) were calculated. The patients had 43% smaller AUCI DHEA-s (p=0.041) during the stress test. The delta DHEA-s was 34% lower in the patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054). The study indicates that DHEA-s production capacity during acute stress may be attenuated in patients with clinical burnout. Reduced DHEA-s production may constitute one of the links between stress, burnout and the associated adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  12. Genetic architecture of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Kate E; Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. © The American Genetic Association. 2015.

  13. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Keller, John G.; Klaunig, James E.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Kozumbo, Walter J.; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I.; Masoro, Edward J.; McClellan, Roger O.; Mehendale, Harihara M.; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B.; Nigg, Herbert N.; Oehme, Frederick W.; Phalen, Robert F.; Philbert, Martin A.; Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Riviere, Jim E.; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Scott, Bobby R.; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A.; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T.; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E.; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  14. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  15. The neuroendocrine response to stress under the effect of drugs: Negative synergy between amphetamine and stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Román, Almudena; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Rotllant, David; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous studies into the interaction between stress and addictive drugs, yet few have specifically addressed how the organism responds to stress when under the influence of psychostimulants. Thus, we studied the effects of different acute stressors (immobilization, interleukin-1β and forced swimming) in young adult male rats simultaneously exposed to amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg SC), evaluating classic biological markers. AMPH administration itself augmented the plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone, without affecting plasma glucose levels. By contrast, this drug dampened the peripheral HPA axis, as well as the response of glucose to the three stressors. We also found that AMPH administration completely blocked the forced swim-induced expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (hnCRH) and it partially reduced c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Indeed, this negative synergy in the forced swim test could even be observed with a lower dose of AMPH (1mg/kg, SC), a dose that is usually received in self-administration experiments. In conclusion, when rats that receive AMPH are subjected to stress, a negative synergy occurs that dampens the prototypic peripheral physiological response to stress and activation of the PVN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Unique "Angiotensin-Sensitive" Neuronal Population Coordinates Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular, and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Pitra, Soledad; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Tan, Yalun; Nguyen, Dani; Cahill, Karlena M; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2017-03-29

    Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival. However, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments. In recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses. Initial studies use neuroanatomical techniques to reveal that angiotensin type-1a receptors are localized predominantly to the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons are almost exclusively glutamatergic and send dense projections to the exterior portion of the median eminence. Furthermore, these neurons largely express corticotrophin-releasing hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone and do not express arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. Functionally, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons promotes the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as well as a rise in systolic blood pressure. When these neurons are optogenetically inhibited, the activity of these neuroendocrine axes are suppressed and anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze is dampened. Collectively, these studies implicate this neuronal population in the integration and coordination of the physiological responses to stress and may therefore serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for stress-related pathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic stress leads to an array of physiological responses that ultimately

  17. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Sweep, F.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.; Koulil, S. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four

  18. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  19. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos F. Brosschot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always “on” but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  1. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-07

    Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  2. Stress-related hormonal and psychological changes to official youth Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, S; Tessitore, A; Cortis, C; Cibelli, G; Lupo, C; Ammendolia, A; De Rosas, M; Capranica, L

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official Taekwondo competition on the heart rate (HR), salivary α-amylase (sA-A), salivary free cortisol (sC), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) in 10 young male (14±0 years) and six female (13±1 years) athletes. POMS and hormones were measured 15 min before and directly after the competition. During the recovery phase (30 and 90 min), sA-A and sC were also measured. HR measured during the competition was expressed as a percentage of individual's maximal heart rate (%HR(max) ) to evaluate the intensity of exercise. During the competition, athletes spent 65% of the time working at HR>90% of individuals HR(max). A significant increase (Ppre-competition level. The peak sC values were observed at 30 min of recovery (Ppre-competition level at 90 min of recovery. A gender difference (P=0.01) emerged only for sC, although a similar trend was observed for female and male athletes. Significantly higher post-match scores emerged for Anger-hostility (pre: 6.1±1.1, post: 11.2±1.9; P=0.03) and Depression-dejection (pre: 4.5±0.5, post: 10.2±1.9; P=0.006), whereas the reverse picture was observed for Vigour-activity (pre: 23.2±1.2, post: 16.3±1.7; P=0.0006). Taekwondo competition results in temporary changes in the stress-related parameters measured in this study. The present findings suggest that this experimental paradigm can represent a useful model for further research on the effects of various stressors (i.e., training and competition) in Taekwondo athletes of different levels (i.e., novice, international). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Post-menopausal Women Exhibit Greater Interleukin-6 Responses to Mental Stress Than Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Acute stress triggers innate immune responses and elevation in circulating cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effect of sex on IL-6 responses remains unclear due to important limitations of previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in IL-6 responses to mental stress in a healthy, older (post-menopausal) sample accounting for several moderating factors. Five hundred six participants (62.9 ± 5.60 years, 55 % male) underwent 10 min of mental stress consisting of mirror tracing and Stroop task. Blood was sampled at baseline, after stress, and 45 and 75 min post-stress, and assayed using a high sensitivity kit. IL-6 reactivity was computed as the mean difference between baseline and 45 min and between baseline and 75 min post-stress. Main effects and interactions were examined using ANCOVA models. There was a main effect of time for the IL-6 response (F 3,1512 = 201.57, p = stress compared to males. Results were independent of age, adiposity, socioeconomic position, depression, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, statin use, testing time, task appraisals, hormone replacement, and baseline IL-6. Other significant predictors of IL-6 reactivity were lower household wealth, afternoon testing, and baseline IL-6. Healthy, post-menopausal females exhibit substantially greater IL-6 responses to acute stress. Inflammatory responses if sustained over time may have clinical implications for the development and maintenance of inflammatory-related conditions prevalent in older women.

  4. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Ziko, Ilvana; Spencer, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness. Unlike in males where hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is compromised by neonatal overfeeding, there was no effect of early life diet on circulating ghrelin or hypothalamic ghrelin signalling in females, indicating hypothalamic feeding and metabolic ghrelin circuitry remains intact. However, neonatal overfeeding did lead to long-term alterations in the pituitary ghrelin system. The neonatally overfed females had increased neonatal and reduced adult expression of GHSR and ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) in the pituitary as well as reduced pituitary responsiveness to exogenous acyl ghrelin-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal overfeeding dysregulates pituitary ghrelin signalling long-term in females, potentially accounting for the hyper-responsive HPA axis in these animals. These findings have implications for how females may respond to stress throughout life, suggesting the way ghrelin modifies the stress response at the level of the pituitary may be less efficient in the neonatally overfed.

  5. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  6. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected ...

  7. Prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in early and advanced human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barni, S.; Lissoni, P.; Tancini, G.

    1986-01-01

    While prolactin (PRL) has been shown to stimulate the development of mammary carcinoma in several animal species, its role in human breast cancer remains to be established. To further investigate PRL secretion in human breast cancer, its basal levels and response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were evaluated in 16 patients (6 with no metastases and 10 with metastatic locations). The control group consisted of 19 healthy women. High PRL basal concentrations were seen in 2 patients only; no significant differences were found between the other patients and the normal subjects. The PRL increase induced by TRH administration was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Finally a change in the hormonal secretion was found after chemotherapy in 3 of the 5 patients in whom PRL response to TRH was evaluated either before or 10-12 days after a cycle of intravenous CMF adjuvant chemotherapy. These results demostrate the existence of an exaggerated response of PRL to TRH in patients with breast cancer, even in the presence of normal basal levels. Moreover, they would seem to suggest a possible influence of CMF on PRL response to TRH stimulation

  8. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.

  9. The relationship between beginning teachers' stress causes, stress responses, teaching behaviour and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Ruth; Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan; van Veen, Klaas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between beginning teachers’ perceived stress causes, stress responses, observed teaching behaviour and attrition is investigated employing structural equation modelling (SEM). A total of 143 BTs were surveyed using the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation

  10. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  11. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  12. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  13. Chasing as a model of psychogenic stress: characterization of physiological and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kimm, Sunwhi; Han, Jung-Soo; Choi, June-Seek

    2018-03-25

    Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not. Plasma corticosterone levels significantly increased following the chasing and were comparable to those of the restraint-stress group (n = 6). In Experiment 2, the long-lasting memory of the chasing event was tested after three weeks. The chasing-stress group (n = 15) showed higher levels of freezing and USV than the no-chasing group (n = 14) when they were presented with the tone associated with the object's chasing action. Subsequently, the rats were subjected to Pavlovian threat conditioning with a tone as a conditioned stimulus and footshock as an unconditioned stimulus. The chasing-stress group showed higher levels of freezing and USV during the conditioning session than the no-chasing group, indicating sensitized defensive reactions in a different threat situation. Taken together, the current results suggest that chasing stress can induce long-lasting memory and sensitization of defensive responses to a new aversive event as well as immediate, significant stress responses.

  14. Effects of laparotomy vs pneumoperitoneum on the hepatic catabolic stress response in ambulatory and stationary settings in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten, S B; Grøfte, T; Andreasen, F; Vilstrup, H; Jensen, S L

    1999-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is followed by a much smaller hepatic catabolic stress response than conventional cholecystectomy. It is not known what is responsible for this difference. Thirty pigs were randomly allocated to the following five treatment groups: (1) laparotomy, (2) pneumoperitoneum, (3) pneumoperitoneum with insertion of four trocars, (4) laparotomy, (5) pneumoperitoneum. Groups 1-3 were operated on in an ambulatory setting, whereas groups 4 and 5 were operated on in a stationary setting. Urea synthesis, as quantified by functional hepatic nitrogen clearance, and the response of stress hormones and cytokines were assessed. Laparotomy increased the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance by 195% (p hepatic nitrogen clearance was reduced to 87% (p hepatic stress response after laparotomy compared to pneumoperitoneum with and without insertion of trocars seems to be caused by the greater trauma to the abdominal wall. Furthermore, an ambulatory setting seems to be an important postoperative stress factor in itself.

  15. Paroxetine blunts the corticosterone response to swim-induced stress and increases depressive-like behavior in a rat model of postpartum depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Richardson, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal depression (PND) affects 15% of women. During the perinatal period both stress- and gonadal hormones fluctuate widely. Putatively, these fluctuations are involved in PND disease mechanisms. The serotonin system is sensitive to such hormone fluctuations, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors...... depression. In the rat model corticosterone (CORT; 40mg/kgs.c.) was administered in Sprague Dawley rats across postpartum day (PD)2 to PD14. Stress response was measured during the first exposure to the forced swim test (FST1), and depressive-like behavior was measured in both FST1 and FST2. We found...... that paroxetine completely blunted the swim stress-induced CORT response and increased depressive-like behavior in both FST1 and FST2. Our findings suggest that in the postpartum context, SSRIs compromise stress axis dynamics, which are needed for a healthy stress response. This is likely unfavorable...

  16. Hormones, stress, and cognition: The effects of glucocorticoids and oxytocin on memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Hormones have nuanced effects on learning and memory processes. The degree and direction of the effect (e.g., is memory impaired or enhanced?) depends on the dose, type and stage of memory, and type of material being learned, among other factors. This review will focus on two specific topics within the realm of effects of hormones on memory: (1) How glucocorticoids (the output hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) affect long-term memory consolidation, retrieval, and working memory, with a focus on neural mechanisms and effects of emotion; and (2) How oxytocin affects memory, with emphasis on a speculative hypothesis that oxytocin might exert its myriad effects on human social cognition and behavior via impacts on more general cognitive processes. Oxytocin-glucocorticoid interactions will be briefly addressed. These effects of hormones on memory will also be considered from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25893159

  17. Proteome and radioimmunoassay analyses of pituitary hormones and proteins in response to feed restriction of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Albrecht, Dirk; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Viergutz, Torsten; Nürnberg, Gerd; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system controls homeostasis during feed energy reduction. In order to examine which pituitary proteins and hormone variants are potentially associated with metabolic adaptation, pituitary glands from ad libitum and energy restrictively fed dairy cows were characterized using RIA and 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS. We found 64 different spots of regulatory hormones: growth hormone (44), preprolactin (16), luteinizing hormone (LH) (1), thyrotropin (1), proopiomelanocortin (1) and its cleavage product lipotropin (1), but none of these did significantly differ between feeding groups. Quantification of total pituitary LH and prolactin concentrations by RIA confirmed the results obtained by proteome analysis. Also, feed energy restriction provoked increasing non-esterified fatty acid, decreasing prolactin, but unaltered glucose, LH and growth hormone plasma concentrations. Energy restriction decreased the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, triosephosphate isomerase, purine-rich element-binding protein A and elongation factor Tu, whereas it increased expression of proline synthetase co-transcribed homolog, peroxiredoxin III, β-tubulin and annexin A5 which is involved in the hormone secretion process. Our results indicate that in response to feed energy restriction the pituitary reservoir of all posttranslationally modified hormone forms remains constant. Changing plasma hormone concentrations are likely attributed to a regulated releasing process from the gland into the blood. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Proteomic analysis of cold stress responses in tobacco seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...

  19. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  20. [Hormonal homeostasis and intraocular pressure in chronic emotional stress caused by influences acting on the amygdala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, L S; Danilov, G E; Egorkina, S B; Butolin, E G

    1989-01-01

    Changes in intraocular pressure, eye hydrodynamics and the amount of hypophyseal, thyroid, adrenal and pancreatic hormones were studied during continuous stimulation of amygdaloid complex or after administration of angiotensin II into the structure in rabbits. The effects involved changes in hormonal homeostasis and elevation of intraocular pressure due to a hypersecretion of intraocular fluid. The administration of angiotensin II during the amygdala stimulation enhanced the changes.

  1. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  2. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy

    1995-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...... exhibited lower viscosities than oxygenated samples at low shear rates, whereas the opposite was true at high shear rates. However, blood from cannulated trout had similar viscosities in its deoxygenated and oxygenated states. In the deoxygenated state, addition of adrenaline lowered viscosity at low shear...... rates and increased it at high shear rates, resembling the effects of deoxygenation observed in blood taken by venepuncture. In oxygenated blood on the contrary, no marked adrenaline effects were observed. In deoxygenated blood, addition of cortisol lowered viscosity at all measured shear rates compared...

  3. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-11-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the results

  5. Severe short stature and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: response to growth hormone in two cases without growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Devon E; Gunn, Alistair J; Jefferies, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare congenital disorder occurring in approximately 1/50 000 births, with marked pre- and postnatal growth failure. WHS results from the hemizygous deletion encompassing the 4p16.3 region. This report of two children with WHS shows that growth hormone treatment in selected children with WHS and severe short stature may have a substantial effect on long-term growth.

  6. Stress reactivity in war-exposed young children with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: relations to maternal stress hormones, parenting, and child emotionality and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva; Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2013-11-01

    The current study examined biomarkers of stress in war-exposed young children and addressed maternal and child factors that may correlate with children's stress response. Participants were 232 Israeli children aged 1.5-5 years, including 148 children exposed to continuous war. Similarly, 56 were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 92 were defined as exposed-no-PTSD. Child cortisol (CT) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary arms of the stress response, were measured at baseline, following challenge, and at recovery. Maternal CT and sAA, PTSD symptoms, and reciprocal parenting, and child negative emotionality and regulatory strategies were assessed. Differences between war-exposed children and controls emerged, but these were related to child PTSD status. Children with PTSD exhibited consistently low CT and sAA, exposed-no-PTSD displayed consistently high CT and sAA, and controls showed increase in CT following challenge and decrease at recovery and low sAA. Exposed children showed higher negative emotionality; however, whereas exposed-no-PTSD children employed comfort-seeking strategies, children with PTSD used withdrawal. Predictors of child CT included maternal CT, PTSD symptoms, low reciprocity, and negative emotionality. Findings suggest that high physiological arousal combined with approach strategies may be associated with greater resilience in the context of early trauma.

  7. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  8. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Lenis Sanin; Angélica María Zuluaga Cabrera; Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales

    2015-01-01

    The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated...

  9. Transcriptomic analysis reveals importance of ROS and phytohormones in response to short-term salinity stress in Populus tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu eZheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar is well adapted to various extreme environments, and is considered an important species to study the effects of salinity stress on poplar trees. To decipher the mechanism of poplar’s rapid response to short-term salinity stress, we firstly detected the changes in H2O2 and hormone, and then profiled the gene expression pattern of ten-week-old seedling roots treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours (h by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform. Physiological determination showed that the significant increase in H2O2 began at 6 h, while that in hormone ABA was at 24 h, under salt stress. Compared with controls (0 h, 3991, 4603 and 4903 genes were up regulated, and 1408, 2206 and 3461 genes were down regulated (adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05 and |log2Ratio|≥1 at 6, 12, and 24 h time points, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway annotation revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs were highly enriched in hormone- and reactive oxygen species-related biological processes, including ‘response to oxidative stress or abiotic stimulus’, ‘peroxidase activity’, ‘regulation of transcription’, ‘hormone synthetic and metabolic process’, ‘hormone signal transduction’, ‘antioxidant activity’ and ‘transcription factor activity’. Moreover, K-means clustering demonstrated that DEGs (total RPKM value>12 from four time points could be categorized into four kinds of expression trends: quick up/down over 6 h or 12 h, and slow up/down over 24 h. Of these, DEGs involved in H2O2- and hormone- producing and signal-related genes were further enriched in this analysis, which indicated that the two kinds of small molecules, hormones and H2O2, play pivotal roles in the short-term salt stress response in poplar. This study provides a basis for future studies of the molecular adaptation of poplar and other tree species to salinity

  10. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  11. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  12. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs

  13. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R. (Hospital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France). Pediatric Endocrinology Unit and INSERM U30)

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs.

  14. Penile growth in response to hormone treatment in children with micropenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B Nerli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean for age without the presence of any other penile anomalies, such as hypospadias. The term refers to a specific disorder that has a known set of causative factors and defined treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hormonal therapy on the gonadal response and penile growth in children who presented with micropenis. Materials and Methods: Children (<18 years who met the criteria for micropenis were included in this study. Children more than 11 years old were treated using a standard protocol of 1,500 to 2,000 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin administrated intramuscularly, once per week, for 6 weeks. Children less than 11 years old were treated with parenteral testosterone enanthate 25 mg once a month for 3 months. Response was evaluated in terms of change in testosterone levels and size of penis. Results: Serum testosterone levels at baseline and after 8 weeks of hormonal treatment were <20 and 449.4 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001 in all children more than 11 years old. Stretched penile length after hormonal treatment increased from 15.54 to 37.18 mm in children less than 11 years old and from 26.42 to 64.28 mm in children more than 11 years old (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Management of isolated micropenis revolves around testosterone (direct administration or encouraging the patient′s body to make its own, and results with respect to increase in penile length are promising.

  15. AP2/EREBP transcription factors are part of gene regulatory networks and integrate metabolic, hormonal and environmental signals in stress acclimation and retrograde signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Vogel, Marc Oliver; Viehhauser, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To optimize acclimation responses to environmental growth conditions, plants integrate and weigh a diversity of input signals. Signal integration within the signalling networks occurs at different sites including the level of transcription factor activation. Accumulating evidence assigns a major and diversified role in environmental signal integration to the family of APETALA 2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors. Presently, the Plant Transcription Factor Database 3.0 assigns 147 gene loci to this family in Arabidopsis thaliana, 200 in Populus trichocarpa and 163 in Oryza sativa subsp. japonica as compared to 13 to 14 in unicellular algae ( http://plntfdb.bio.uni-potsdam.de/v3.0/ ). AP2/EREBP transcription factors have been implicated in hormone, sugar and redox signalling in context of abiotic stresses such as cold and drought. This review exemplarily addresses present-day knowledge of selected AP2/EREBP with focus on a function in stress signal integration and retrograde signalling and defines AP2/EREBP-linked gene networks from transcriptional profiling-based graphical Gaussian models. The latter approach suggests highly interlinked functions of AP2/EREBPs in retrograde and stress signalling.

  16. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine J M de Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase or endocrine (cortisol responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. CONCLUSION: A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1193.

  17. Comparison of Proteome Response to Saline and Zinc Stress in Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLucini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc salts occurring in soils can exert an osmotic stress toward plants. However, being zinc a heavy metal, some more specific effects on plant metabolisms can be forecast. In this work, lettuce has been used as a model to investigate salt and zinc stresses at proteome level through a shotgun tandem MS proteomic approach. The effect of zinc stress in lettuce, in comparison with NaCl stress, was evaluated to dissect between osmotic/oxidative stress-related effects, from those changes specifically related to zinc.The analysis of proteins exhibiting a fold change of 3 as minimum (on log 2 normalized abundances, revealed the involvement of photosynthesis (via stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis and enhanced role of photosystem I as well as stimulation of photophosphorylation. Increased glycolytic supply of energy substrates and ammonium assimilation (through formation of glutamine synthetase were also induced by zinc in soil. Similarly, protein metabolism (at both transcriptional and ribosomal level, heat shock proteins and proteolysis were affected. According to their biosynthetic enzymes, hormones appear to be altered by both the treatment and the time point considered: ethylene biosynthesis was enhanced, while production of abscisic acid was up-regulated at the earlier time point to decrease markedly and gibberellins were decreased at the later one.Besides aquaporin PIP2 synthesis, other osmotic/oxidative stress related compounds were enhanced under zinc stress, i.e. proline, hydroxycinnamic acids, ascorbate, sesquiterpene lactones and terpenoids biosynthesis.Although the proteins involved in the response to zinc stress and to salinity were substantially the same, their abundance changed between the two treatments. Lettuce response to zinc was more prominent at the first sampling point, yet showing a faster adaptation than under NaCl stress. Indeed, lettuce plants showed an adaptation after 30 days of stress, in a more pronounced way in the case

  18. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the response of the majority of the genes cannot be predicted from single stress experiments and only a small fraction of the genes have potential antagonistic responses, indicating that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and therefore may be bred to endure...

  19. The Effects of General and Epidural Anaesthesia in Maternal’s Stress Hormones and Blood Gases in Elective Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral EZBERCI

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of general and epidural anaesthesia in maternal’s stress hormones and blood gases in elective cesarean section.\tMATERIALS-METHODS: 50 patients in ASA II (American Society of Anesthesiology class who would undergo elective cesarean section in University of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam, Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation included in the study and randomized into two equal groups (General anaesthesia: Group G and Epidural anaesthesia: Group E. In both groups, maternal stress hormones (TSH, cortisol, and insulin and blood gases were studied. All patients received famotidine and granisetron iv 30 min before operations in premedication room. In the general anaesthesia group; aritmal, propofol, and succinylcholine was used for induction and muscle relaxation. Following the induction, positive pressure ventilation of the lungs was started immediately using a 50% N2O + O2 mixture. After delivery of the baby, anaesthesia and muscle relaxation was maintained by 50% N2O +O2, 0,5-1% MAC isoflurane, and cisatracurium. In the epidural anaesthesia group; epidural anaesthesia was performed with 0,375 % bupivacaine. The epidural needle inserted through L2-3 or L3-4 interspace. After achieving T4-5 neural blockade, the operation was started. In general anaesthesia group; blood samples for maternal stres hormones were taken before induction and after delivery of the baby. In epidural anaesthesia group; blood samples for maternal stres hormones were taken catheter placement and after delivery of the baby. Blood samples for maternal blood gases were taken after the delivery of the baby.\tRESULTS: In both groups; there were statistically significant decrease in maternal TSH and insulin and there were no statistically significant changes in maternal cortisol. In maternal blood gases analyses, only PO2 and SO2 changes were statistically significant between two groups.\tCONCLUSION: With these results

  20. The temporal dynamics of the stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Meerlo, P; de Boer, S.F.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bohus, B.G J

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarises the available evidence that failure of defense mechanisms in (semi)-natural social groups of animals may lead to serious forms of stress pathology. Hence the study of social stress may provide animal models with a high face validity. However, most of the animal models of human

  1. The role of adrenal hormones in the response of glutamine synthetase to fasting in adult and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzarobba, V; Torrent, A; Leydier, I; Alles, S; Brajon, B; Mignon, M; Attaix, D; Meynial-Denis, D

    2003-12-01

    During fasting, skeletal muscle exports increased amounts of glutamine (Gln) while increasing the production of this amino acid by glutamine synthetase (GS) in order to maintain the intramuscular Gln pool. Glucocorticoid hormones are believed to be the principal mediators of GS induction during stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the effect of fasting on GS activity and expression in skeletal muscle during aging and consequently, (2) the role of glucocorticoids in fasting-induced GS activity. Male Wistar rats (6-, 22-month old) were fasted for 5 days and both the activity and expression of GS were measured in tibialis anterior muscle. To better demonstrate the role of glucocorticoids in the response of GS to fasting, we suppressed their action by RU38486 administration (a potent glucocorticoid antagonist) and their production by adrenalectomy in fed and fasted rats. An increase in fasting-induced GS activity was observed in skeletal muscles from both adult and aged rats. Adrenalectomy, but surprisingly not RU38486, suppressed the fasting-induced increase in GS activity and expression. The data clearly show that the GS responsiveness to fasting was not modified by aging in skeletal muscle.

  2. Cortisol responsiveness to stress in channel catfish influences susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress is unavoidable in aquaculture and hence strains of fish that are resilient and adaptable to stress need to be developed. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had reduced ability to resist pathogens. Cortisol is the primary stress hormone...

  3. Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Bcl2 Like-12 Expression to Inhibit p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weizhong; Liu, Sanguang; Liang, Yunfei; Zhou, Zegao; Bian, Wei; Liu, Xueqing

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) is unclear. It is suggested that psychological stress associates with the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Bcl2-like protein 12 (Bcl2L12) suppresses p53 protein. This study tests a hypothesis that the major stress hormone, cortisol, inhibits the expression of p53 in HC cells (HCC) via up regulating the expression of Bcl2L12. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with HC to be analyzed for the levels of cortisol. HCC were cultured to assess the role of cortisol in the regulation of the expression of Bcl2L12 and p53 in HCC. We observed that the serum cortisol levels were higher in HC patients. Expression of Bcl2L12 in HCC was correlated with serum cortisol. Cortisol enhanced the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. Bcl2L12 binding to the TP53 promoter was correlated with p53 expression in HCC. Cortisol increased the Bcl2L12 expression in HCC to inhibit p53 expression. Stress hormone cortisol suppresses p53 in HCC via enhancing Bcl2L12 expression in HCC. The results suggest that cortisol may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of HC.

  4. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straet