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Sample records for stress granule sg

  1. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly.

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    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-07-06

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.

  2. RNA Recognition and Stress Granule Formation by TIA Proteins

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    Waris, Saboora; Wilce, Matthew Charles James; Wilce, Jacqueline Anne

    2014-01-01

    Stress granule (SG) formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cell undergoes cellular stresses (including heat, oxidative, viral infection, starvation). In particular, the sequestration of specifically targeted translationally stalled mRNAs into SGs limits the expression of a subset of genes, but allows the expression of heatshock proteins that have a protective effect in the cell. The importance of SGs is seen in several disease states in which SG function is disrupted. Fundamental to SG formation are the T cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA) proteins (TIA-1 and TIA-1 related protein (TIAR)), that both directly bind to target RNA and self-associate to seed the formation of SGs. Here a summary is provided of the current understanding of the way in which TIA proteins target specific mRNA, and how TIA self-association is triggered under conditions of cellular stress. PMID:25522169

  3. Ebola virus VP35 blocks stress granule assembly.

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    Le Sage, Valerie; Cinti, Alessandro; McCarthy, Stephen; Amorim, Raquel; Rao, Shringar; Daino, Gian Luca; Tramontano, Enzo; Branch, Donald R; Mouland, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic aggregates of translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble in response to environmental stress. SGs appear to play an important role in antiviral innate immunity and many viruses have evolved to block or subvert SGs components for their own benefit. Here, we demonstrate that intracellular Ebola virus (EBOV) replication and transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLP) infection does not lead to SG assembly but leads to a blockade to Arsenite-induced SG assembly. Moreover we show that EBOV VP35 represses the assembly of canonical and non-canonical SGs induced by a variety of pharmacological stresses. This SG blockade requires, at least in part, the C-terminal domain of VP35. Furthermore, results from our co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate that VP35 interacts with multiple SG components, including G3BP1, eIF3 and eEF2 through a stress- and RNA-independent mechanism. These data suggest a novel function for EBOV VP35 in the repression of SG assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Neuregulin-2 as a novel stress granule component.

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    Kim, Jin Ah; Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Kothandan, Vinoth Kumar; Mariappan, Ramesh; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-08-01

    Stress Granules (SGs) are microscopically visible, phase dense aggregates of translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes formed in response to distinct stress conditions. It is generally considered that SG formation is induced to protect cells from conditions of stress. The precise constituents of SGs and the mechanism through which SGs are dynamically regulated in response to stress are not completely understood. Hence, it is important to identify proteins which regulate SG assembly and disassembly. In the present study, we report Neuregulin-2 (NRG2) as a novel component of SGs; furthermore, depletion of NRG2 potently inhibits SG formation. We also demonstrate that NRG2 specifically localizes to SGs under various stress conditions. Knockdown of NRG2 has no effect on stress-induced polysome disassembly, suggesting that the component does not influence early step of SG formation. It was also observed that reduced expression of NRG2 led to marginal increase in cell survival under arsenite-induced stress. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 449-454].

  5. Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly.

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    Daisuke Ohshima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite, and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly.

  6. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

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    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Inhibition of Ribosome Recruitment Induces Stress Granule Formation Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Phosphorylation

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    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J.; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2α phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity...

  8. The Role of Molecular Microtubule Motors and the Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Stress Granule Dynamics

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    Kristen M. Bartoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic foci that appear in cells exposed to stress-induced translational inhibition. SGs function as a triage center, where mRNAs are sorted for storage, degradation, and translation reinitiation. The underlying mechanisms of SGs dynamics are still being characterized, although many key players have been identified. The main components of SGs are stalled 48S preinitiation complexes. To date, many other proteins have also been found to localize in SGs and are hypothesized to function in SG dynamics. Most recently, the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins have been demonstrated to function in SG dynamics. In this paper, we will discuss current literature examining the function of microtubules and the molecular microtubule motors in SG assembly, coalescence, movement, composition, organization, and disassembly.

  9. The herpes simplex virus 2 virion-associated ribonuclease vhs interferes with stress granule formation.

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    Finnen, Renée L; Hay, Thomas J M; Dauber, Bianca; Smiley, James R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2014-11-01

    In a previous study, it was observed that cells infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) failed to accumulate stress granules (SGs) in response to oxidative stress induced by arsenite treatment. As a follow-up to this observation, we demonstrate here that disruption of arsenite-induced SG formation by HSV-2 is mediated by a virion component. Through studies on SG formation in cells infected with HSV-2 strains carrying defective forms of UL41, the gene that encodes vhs, we identify vhs as a virion component required for this disruption. Cells infected with HSV-2 strains producing defective forms of vhs form SGs spontaneously late in infection. In addition to core SG components, these spontaneous SGs contain the viral immediate early protein ICP27 as well as the viral serine/threonine kinase Us3. As part of these studies, we reexamined the frameshift mutation known to reside within the UL41 gene of HSV-2 strain HG52. We demonstrate that this mutation is unstable and can rapidly revert to restore wild-type UL41 following low-multiplicity passaging. Identification of the involvement of virion-associated vhs in the disruption of SG formation will enable mechanistic studies on how HSV-2 is able to counteract antiviral stress responses early in infection. In addition, the ability of Us3 to localize to stress granules may indicate novel roles for this viral kinase in the regulation of translation. Eukaryotic cells respond to stress by rapidly shutting down protein synthesis and storing mRNAs in cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). Stoppages in protein synthesis are problematic for all viruses as they rely on host cell machinery to synthesize viral proteins. Thus, many viruses target SGs for disruption or modification. Infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was previously observed to disrupt SG formation induced by oxidative stress. In this follow-up study, we identify virion host shutoff protein (vhs) as a viral protein involved in this disruption. The

  10. Rabies Virus Infection Induces the Formation of Stress Granules Closely Connected to the Viral Factories.

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    Jovan Nikolic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1 and poly(A-binding protein (PABP in the RNA granules formed during viral infection. As shown by live cell imaging, RABV-induced SGs are highly dynamic structures that increase in number, grow in size by fusion events, and undergo assembly/disassembly cycles. Some SGs localize in close proximity to cytoplasmic viral factories, known as Negri bodies (NBs. Three dimensional reconstructions reveal that both structures remain distinct even when they are in close contact. In addition, viral mRNAs synthesized in NBs accumulate in the SGs during viral infection, revealing material exchange between both compartments. Although RABV-induced SG formation is not affected in MEFs lacking TIA-1, TIA-1 depletion promotes viral translation which results in an increase of viral replication indicating that TIA-1 has an antiviral effect. Inhibition of PKR expression significantly prevents RABV-SG formation and favors viral replication by increasing viral translation. This is correlated with a drastic inhibition of IFN-B gene expression indicating that SGs likely mediate an antiviral response which is however not sufficient to fully counteract RABV infection.

  11. KSHV inhibits stress granule formation by viral ORF57 blocking PKR activation.

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    Nishi R Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TIA-1 positive stress granules (SG represent the storage sites of stalled mRNAs and are often associated with the cellular antiviral response. In this report, we provide evidence that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV overcomes the host antiviral response by inhibition of SG formation via a viral lytic protein ORF57. By immunofluorescence analysis, we found that B lymphocytes with KSHV lytic infection are refractory to SG induction. KSHV ORF57, an essential post-transcriptional regulator of viral gene expression and the production of new viral progeny, inhibits SG formation induced experimentally by arsenite and poly I:C, but not by heat stress. KSHV ORF37 (vSOX bearing intrinsic endoribonuclease activity also inhibits arsenite-induced SG formation, but KSHV RTA, vIRF-2, ORF45, ORF59 and LANA exert no such function. ORF57 binds both PKR-activating protein (PACT and protein kinase R (PKR through their RNA-binding motifs and prevents PACT-PKR interaction in the PKR pathway which inhibits KSHV production. Consistently, knocking down PKR expression significantly promotes KSHV virion production. ORF57 interacts with PKR to inhibit PKR binding dsRNA and its autophosphorylation, leading to inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and SG formation. Homologous protein HSV-1 ICP27, but not EBV EB2, resembles KSHV ORF57 in the ability to block the PKR/eIF2α/SG pathway. In addition, KSHV ORF57 inhibits poly I:C-induced TLR3 phosphorylation. Altogether, our data provide the first evidence that KSHV ORF57 plays a role in modulating PKR/eIF2α/SG axis and enhances virus production during virus lytic infection.

  12. Contrasting Pathology of the Stress Granule Proteins TIA-1 and G3BP in Tauopathies

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    Vanderweyde, Tara; Yu, Haung; Varnum, Megan; Liu-Yesucevitz, Liqun; Citro, Allison; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Duff, Karen; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Stress induces aggregation of RNA-binding proteins to form inclusions, termed stress granules (SGs). Recent evidence suggests that SG proteins also colocalize with neuropathological structures, but whether this occurs in Alzheimer’s disease is unknown. We examined the relationship between SG proteins and neuropathology in brain tissue from P301L Tau transgenic mice, as well as in cases of Alzheimer’s disease and FTDP-17. The pattern of SG pathology differs dramatically based on the RNA-binding protein examined. SGs positive for T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) or tristetraprolin (TTP) initially do not colocalize with tau pathology, but then merge with tau inclusions as disease severity increases. In contrast, G3BP (ras GAP-binding protein) identifies a novel type of molecular pathology that shows increasing accumulation in neurons with increasing disease severity, but often is not associated with classic markers of tau pathology. TIA-1 and TTP both bind phospho-tau, and TIA-1 overexpression induces formation of inclusions containing phospho-tau. These data suggest that SG formation might stimulate tau pathophysiology. Thus, study of RNA-binding proteins and SG biology highlights novel pathways interacting with the pathophysiology of AD, providing potentially new avenues for identifying diseased neurons and potentially novel mechanisms regulating tau biology. PMID:22699908

  13. Inhibition of Ribosome Recruitment Induces Stress Granule Formation Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Phosphorylation

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    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J.; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2α phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity, an RNA helicase required for the ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, induces SG formation and that this event is not dependent on eIF2α phosphorylation. We also show that inhibition of eIF4A activity does not impair the ability of eIF2α to be phosphorylated under stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed SG assembly upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation after poliovirus infection. We propose that SG modeling can occur via both eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways that target translation initiation. PMID:16870703

  14. Inhibition of ribosome recruitment induces stress granule formation independently of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation.

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    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity, an RNA helicase required for the ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, induces SG formation and that this event is not dependent on eIF2alpha phosphorylation. We also show that inhibition of eIF4A activity does not impair the ability of eIF2alpha to be phosphorylated under stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed SG assembly upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation after poliovirus infection. We propose that SG modeling can occur via both eIF2alpha phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways that target translation initiation.

  15. Stress granules at the intersection of autophagy and ALS.

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    Monahan, Zachary; Shewmaker, Frank; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2016-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal disease caused by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of ALS cases are classified as sporadic (80-90%), with the remaining considered familial based on patient history. The last decade has seen a surge in the identification of ALS-causing genes - including TARDBP (TDP-43), FUS, MATR3 (Matrin-3), C9ORF72 and several others - providing important insights into the molecular pathways involved in pathogenesis. Most of the protein products of ALS-linked genes fall into two functional categories: RNA-binding/homeostasis and protein-quality control (i.e. autophagy and proteasome). The RNA-binding proteins tend to be aggregation-prone with low-complexity domains similar to the prion-forming domains of yeast. Many also incorporate into stress granules (SGs), which are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes that form in response to cellular stress. Mutant forms of TDP-43 and FUS perturb SG dynamics, lengthening their cytoplasmic persistence. Recent evidence suggests that SGs are regulated by the autophagy pathway, suggesting a unifying connection between many of the ALS-linked genes. Persistent SGs may give rise to intractable aggregates that disrupt neuronal homeostasis, thus failure to clear SGs by autophagic processes may promote ALS pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. FMDV-induced stress granules are disrupted by the viral L-protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham; McInerney, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to environmental stress by entering a state of reduced protein synthesis, redirecting resources to damage control and defense. This reduced translation is closely linked to the formation of cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). SGs are multicomponent foci, which contain...... stalled translation preinitiation complexes, including polyadenylated mRNAs, and several aggregation-prone RNA binding factors, such as the Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP) that enable their formation. Once the stress is lifted, the stalled complexes from the SGs are believed to re......-engage in translation, facilitating cellular recovery. A growing body of evidence shows that various viruses can trigger SG formation. However, the presence of SGs may not be beneficial to the virus and many viruses have found ways to circumvent, disrupt or even utilize these granules, suggesting a role for SGs...

  17. Nucleoli and stress granules: connecting distant relatives.

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    Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula

    2014-10-01

    Nucleoli and cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are subcellular compartments that modulate the response to endogenous and environmental signals to control cell survival. In our opinion, nucleoli and SGs are functionally linked; they are distant relatives that combine forces when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Several lines of evidence support this idea; nucleoli and SGs share molecular building blocks, are regulated by common signaling pathways and communicate when vital cellular functions become compromised. Together, nucleoli and SGs orchestrate physiological responses that are directly relevant to stress and human health. As both compartments have established roles in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and virus infections, we propose that these conditions will benefit from therapeutic interventions that target simultaneously nucleoli and SGs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Autophagy meets fused in sarcoma-positive stress granules.

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    Matus, Soledad; Bosco, Daryl A; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma and/or translocated in liposarcoma (FUS, TLS or FUS) are linked to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant FUS selectively accumulates into discrete cytosolic structures known as stress granules under various stress conditions. In addition, mutant FUS expression can alter the dynamics and morphology of stress granules. Although the link between mutant FUS and stress granules is well established, the mechanisms modulating stress granule formation and disassembly in the context of ALS are poorly understood. In this issue of Neurobiology of Aging, Ryu et al. uncover the impact of autophagy on the potential toxicity of mutant FUS-positive stress granules. The authors provide evidence indicating that enhanced autophagy activity reduces the number of stress granules, which in the case of cells containing mutant FUS-positive stress granules, is neuroprotective. Overall, this study identifies an intersection between the proteostasis network and alterations in RNA metabolism in ALS through the dynamic assembly and disassembly of stress granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization of SERBP1 in stress granules and nucleoli.

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    Lee, Yu-Jen; Wei, Hung-Ming; Chen, Ling-Yun; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    SERPINE1 mRNA-binding protein 1 (SERBP1) is an arginine-methylated RNA-binding protein whose modification affects protein interaction and intracellular localization. In the present study, we show that, under normal growth conditions without stress, SERBP1 interacts with arginine-methylated and stress granule-associated proteins such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, fragile X mental retardation protein and fragile X mental retardation syndrome-related protein 1 in an RNA-dependent manner. We also show that, after arsenite treatment, a proportion of full-length SERBP1 protein co-localizes with the typical stress granule marker T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in the cytoplasmic stress granules. Truncated SERBP1 with an N-terminal, central RG or C-terminal deletion, or single-domain segments comprising the N-terminal, central or C-terminal region, were recruited to stress granules upon arsenite treatment but with reduced efficiency. In addition, upon arsenite treatment, the localization of SERBP1 changed from a diffuse cytoplasmic localization to nuclear-dominant (concentrated in the nucleolus) A similar distribution was observed when cells were treated with the methylation inhibitor adenosine periodate, and was also detected for N- or C-terminal domain deletions and all three single-domain fragments even without stress induction. We further demonstrate that adenosine periodate treatment delays the association/dissociation of SERBP1 with stress granules. Hypomethylation retains SERBP1 in the nucleus/nucleolus regardless of arsenite treatment. Our study indicates that arginine methylation is correlated with recruitment of SERBP to stress granules and nucleoli and its retention therein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an RNA-binding protein that is shifted simultaneously to cytoplasmic stress granules and nucleoli, two ribonucleoprotein-enriched subcellular compartments, upon stress. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Tar DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43 associates with stress granules: analysis of cultured cells and pathological brain tissue.

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    Liqun Liu-Yesucevitz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tar DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43 is a principle component of inclusions in many cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. TDP-43 resides predominantly in the nucleus, but in affected areas of ALS and FTLD-U central nervous system, TDP-43 is aberrantly processed and forms cytoplasmic inclusions. The mechanisms governing TDP-43 inclusion formation are poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that TDP-43 regulates mRNA metabolism by interacting with mRNA binding proteins that are known to associate with RNA granules. Here we show that TDP-43 can be induced to form inclusions in cell culture and that most TDP-43 inclusions co-localize with SGs. SGs are cytoplasmic RNA granules that consist of mixed protein-RNA complexes. Under stressful conditions SGs are generated by the reversible aggregation of prion-like proteins, such as TIA-1, to regulate mRNA metabolism and protein translation. We also show that disease-linked mutations in TDP-43 increased TDP-43 inclusion formation in response to stressful stimuli. Biochemical studies demonstrated that the increased TDP-43 inclusion formation is associated with accumulation of TDP-43 detergent insoluble complexes. TDP-43 associates with SG by interacting with SG proteins, such as TIA-1, via direct protein-protein interactions, as well as RNA-dependent interactions. The signaling pathway that regulates SGs formation also modulates TDP-43 inclusion formation. We observed that inclusion formation mediated by WT or mutant TDP-43 can be suppressed by treatment with translational inhibitors that suppress or reverse SG formation. Finally, using Sudan black to quench endogenous autofluorescence, we also demonstrate that TDP-43 positive-inclusions in pathological CNS tissue co-localize with multiple protein markers of stress granules, including TIA-1 and eIF3. These data provide support for accumulating evidence that TDP-43 participates in the SG pathway.

  1. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses.

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    Lloyd, Richard E

    2016-03-30

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.

  2. UVC-induced stress granules in mammalian cells.

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    Mohamed Taha Moutaoufik

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are well characterized cytoplasmic RNA bodies that form under various stress conditions. We have observed that exposure of mammalian cells in culture to low doses of UVC induces the formation of discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules that were detected by immunofluorescence staining using antibodies to RNA-binding proteins. UVC-induced cytoplasmic granules are not Processing Bodies (P-bodies and are bone fide SGs as they contain TIA-1, TIA-1/R, Caprin1, FMRP, G3BP1, PABP1, well known markers, and mRNA. Concomitant with the accumulation of the granules in the cytoplasm, cells enter a quiescent state, as they are arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle in order to repair DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation. This blockage persists as long as the granules are present. A tight correlation between their decay and re-entry into S-phase was observed. However the kinetics of their formation, their low number per cell, their absence of fusion into larger granules, their persistence over 48 hours and their slow decay, all differ from classical SGs induced by arsenite or heat treatment. The induction of these SGs does not correlate with major translation inhibition nor with phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α. We propose that a restricted subset of mRNAs coding for proteins implicated in cell cycling are removed from the translational apparatus and are sequestered in a repressed form in SGs.

  3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and egress.

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    Garaigorta, Urtzi; Heim, Markus H; Boyd, Bryan; Wieland, Stefan; Chisari, Francis V

    2012-10-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic structures that are induced in response to environmental stress, including viral infections. Here we report that hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers the appearance of SGs in a PKR- and interferon (IFN)-dependent manner. Moreover, we show an inverse correlation between the presence of stress granules and the induction of IFN-stimulated proteins, i.e., MxA and USP18, in HCV-infected cells despite high-level expression of the corresponding MxA and USP18 mRNAs, suggesting that interferon-stimulated gene translation is inhibited in stress granule-containing HCV-infected cells. Finally, in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown experiments, we found that the stress granule proteins T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA1-related protein (TIAR), and RasGAP-SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1) are required for efficient HCV RNA and protein accumulation at early time points in the infection and that G3BP1 and TIA-1 are required for intracellular and extracellular infectious virus production late in the infection, suggesting that they are required for virus assembly. In contrast, TIAR downregulation decreases extracellular infectious virus titers with little effect on intracellular RNA content or infectivity late in the infection, suggesting that it is required for infectious particle release. Collectively, these results illustrate that HCV exploits the stress granule machinery at least two ways: by inducing the formation of SGs by triggering PKR phosphorylation, thereby downregulating the translation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes, and by co-opting SG proteins for its replication, assembly, and egress.

  4. Isogenic FUS-eGFP iPSC Reporter Lines Enable Quantification of FUS Stress Granule Pathology that Is Rescued by Drugs Inducing Autophagy

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    Lara Marrone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Perturbations in stress granule (SG dynamics may be at the core of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Since SGs are membraneless compartments, modeling their dynamics in human motor neurons has been challenging, thus hindering the identification of effective therapeutics. Here, we report the generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cells carrying wild-type and P525L FUS-eGFP. We demonstrate that FUS-eGFP is recruited into SGs and that P525L profoundly alters their dynamics. With a screening campaign, we demonstrate that PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition increases autophagy and ameliorates SG phenotypes linked to P525L FUS by reducing FUS-eGFP recruitment into SGs. Using a Drosophila model of FUS-ALS, we corroborate that induction of autophagy significantly increases survival. Finally, by screening clinically approved drugs for their ability to ameliorate FUS SG phenotypes, we identify a number of brain-penetrant anti-depressants and anti-psychotics that also induce autophagy. These drugs could be repurposed as potential ALS treatments. : Sterneckert and colleagues generate isogenic FUS-eGFP reporter iPSCs that enable the identification of stress granule (SG phenotypes specifically induced by the ALS mutation FUS P525L. Compound screening shows that modulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway regulating autophagy ameliorates SG phenotypes. A second screen identifies similarly acting brain-penetrant US FDA-approved drugs that could be repurposed to treat ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, induced pluripotent stem cells, FUS, stress granules, autophagy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9n

  5. The stress granule protein Vgl1 and poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takahiro [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Satoh, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Umeda, Nanae; Kita, Ayako [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sugiura, Reiko, E-mail: sugiurar@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress granules (SGs) as a mechanism of doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize the role of stress granules in doxorubicin tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deletion of components of SGs enhances doxorubicin sensitivity in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin promotes SG formation when combined with heat shock. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin regulates stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used for chemotherapy. Although doxorubicin is effective in the treatment of several cancers, including solid tumors and leukemias, the basis of its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we describe the effects of doxorubicin and its relationship with stress granules formation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that disruption of genes encoding the components of stress granules, including vgl1{sup +}, which encodes a multi-KH type RNA-binding protein, and pab1{sup +}, which encodes a poly(A)-binding protein, resulted in greater sensitivity to doxorubicin than seen in wild-type cells. Disruption of the vgl1{sup +} and pab1{sup +} genes did not confer sensitivity to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. We also showed that doxorubicin treatment promoted stress granule formation when combined with heat shock. Notably, doxorubicin treatment did not induce hyperphosphorylation of eIF2{alpha}, suggesting that doxorubicin is involved in stress granule assembly independent of eIF2{alpha} phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of fission yeast for elucidating the molecular targets of doxorubicin toxicity and suggest a novel drug-resistance mechanism involving stress granule assembly.

  6. The stress granule protein Vgl1 and poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 are required for doxorubicin resistance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takahiro; Satoh, Ryosuke; Umeda, Nanae; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stress granules (SGs) as a mechanism of doxorubicin tolerance. ► We characterize the role of stress granules in doxorubicin tolerance. ► Deletion of components of SGs enhances doxorubicin sensitivity in fission yeast. ► Doxorubicin promotes SG formation when combined with heat shock. ► Doxorubicin regulates stress granule assembly independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used for chemotherapy. Although doxorubicin is effective in the treatment of several cancers, including solid tumors and leukemias, the basis of its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we describe the effects of doxorubicin and its relationship with stress granules formation in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that disruption of genes encoding the components of stress granules, including vgl1 + , which encodes a multi-KH type RNA-binding protein, and pab1 + , which encodes a poly(A)-binding protein, resulted in greater sensitivity to doxorubicin than seen in wild-type cells. Disruption of the vgl1 + and pab1 + genes did not confer sensitivity to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. We also showed that doxorubicin treatment promoted stress granule formation when combined with heat shock. Notably, doxorubicin treatment did not induce hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α, suggesting that doxorubicin is involved in stress granule assembly independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of fission yeast for elucidating the molecular targets of doxorubicin toxicity and suggest a novel drug-resistance mechanism involving stress granule assembly.

  7. Aspergillus oryzae AoSO is a novel component of stress granules upon heat stress in filamentous fungi.

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    Hsiang-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available Stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. Stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. For this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in A. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an EGFP fusion protein of AoPab1, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p, as a stress granule marker. Localization analysis showed that AoPab1 was evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions, and accumulated as cytoplasmic foci mainly at the hyphal tip in response to stress. AoSO, a homolog of Neurospora crassa SO, which is necessary for hyphal fusion, colocalized with stress granules in cells exposed to heat stress. The formation of cytoplasmic foci of AoSO was blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a known inhibitor of stress granule formation. Deletion of the Aoso gene had effects on the formation and localization of stress granules in response to heat stress. Our results suggest that AoSO is a novel component of stress granules specific to filamentous fungi. The authors would specially like to thank Hiroyuki Nakano and Kei Saeki for generously providing experimental and insightful opinions.

  8. Sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules enhances cell viability.

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    Anna Lavut

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses indicate that a core 10%-15% of the yeast genome is modulated by a variety of different stresses. However, not all the induced genes undergo translation, and null mutants of many induced genes do not show elevated sensitivity to the particular stress. Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules for future regulation. P-bodies contain enzymes for mRNA degradation; under stress conditions mRNAs may be transferred to stress granules for storage and return to translation. Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is elevated by stress; and here we analyzed the steady state levels, decay, and subcellular localization of the mRNA of the gene encoding the F-box protein, UFO1, that is induced by stress. Using the MS2L mRNA reporter system UFO1 mRNA was observed in granules that colocalized with P-bodies and stress granules. These P-bodies stored diverse mRNAs. Granules of two mRNAs transported prior to translation, ASH1-MS2L and OXA1-MS2L, docked with P-bodies. HSP12 mRNA that gave rise to highly elevated protein levels was not observed in granules under these stress conditions. ecd3, pat1 double mutants that are defective in P-body formation were sensitive to mRNAs expressed ectopically from strong promoters. These highly expressed mRNAs showed elevated translation compared with wild-type cells, and the viability of the mutants was strongly reduced. ecd3, pat1 mutants also exhibited increased sensitivity to different stresses. Our interpretation is that sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in P-bodies is essential for viability. Storage of mRNAs for future regulation may contribute to the discrepancy between the steady state levels of many stress-induced mRNAs and their proteins. Sorting of mRNAs for future translation or decay by individual cells could generate potentially different phenotypes in a genetically identical

  9. ANGUSTIFOLIA, a Plant Homolog of CtBP/BARS Localizes to Stress Granules and Regulates Their Formation

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    Hemal Bhasin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN gene in Arabidopsis is important for a plethora of morphological phenotypes. Recently, AN was also reported to be involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. It encodes a homolog of the animal C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs. In contrast to animal CtBPs, AN does not appear to function as a transcriptional co-repressor and instead functions outside nucleus where it might be involved in Golgi-associated membrane trafficking. In this study, we report a novel and unexplored role of AN as a component of stress granules (SGs. Interaction studies identified several RNA binding proteins that are associated with AN. AN co-localizes with several messenger ribonucleoprotein granule markers to SGs in a stress dependent manner. an mutants exhibit an altered SG formation. We provide evidence that the NAD(H binding domain of AN is relevant in this context as proteins carrying mutations in this domain localize to a much higher degree to SGs and strongly reduce AN dimerization and its interaction with one interactor but not the others. Finally, we show that AN is a negative regulator of salt and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis suggesting a functional relevance in SGs.

  10. Microtubule-dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobova, Elena; Efimov, Andrey; Kaverina, Irina; Rishi, Arun K.; Schrader, John W.; Ham, Amy-Joan; Larocca, M. Cecilia; Goldenring, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of subcellular localization of mRNAs to cell function. While AKAP350A, a multifunctional scaffolding protein, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and centrosomes, we have now identified a cytosolic pool of AKAP350A. Analysis of AKAP350A scaffolded complexes revealed two novel interacting proteins, CCAR1 and caprin-1. CCAR1, caprin-1 and AKAP350A along with G3BP, a stress granule marker, relocate to RNA stress granules after arsenite treatment. Stress also caused loss of AKAP350 from the Golgi and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole altered stress granule formation and changed their morphology by preventing fusion of stress granules. In the presence of nocodazole, arsenite induced smaller granules with the vast majority of AKAP350A and CCAR1 separated from G3BP-containing granules. Similar to nocodazole treatment, reduction of AKAP350A or CCAR1 expression also altered the size and number of G3BP-containing stress granules induced by arsenite treatment. A limited set of 69 mRNA transcripts was immunoisolated with AKAP350A even in the absence of stress, suggesting the association of AKAP350A with mRNA transcripts. These results provide the first evidence for the microtubule dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

  11. Mutant human FUS Is ubiquitously mislocalized and generates persistent stress granules in primary cultured transgenic zebrafish cells.

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    Jamie Rae Acosta

    Full Text Available FUS mutations can occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS, a neurodegenerative disease with cytoplasmic FUS inclusion bodies in motor neurons. To investigate FUS pathology, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP-tagged wild-type or fALS (R521C human FUS. Cell cultures were made from these zebrafish and the subcellular localization of human FUS and the generation of stress granule (SG inclusions examined in different cell types, including differentiated motor neurons. We demonstrate that mutant FUS is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytosol to a similar extent in motor neurons and all other cell types. Both wild-type and R521C FUS localized to SGs in zebrafish cells, demonstrating an intrinsic ability of human FUS to accumulate in SGs irrespective of the presence of disease-associated mutations or specific cell type. However, elevation in relative cytosolic to nuclear FUS by the R521C mutation led to a significant increase in SG assembly and persistence within a sub population of vulnerable cells, although these cells were not selectively motor neurons.

  12. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

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    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  13. Dynamic Interaction of Stress Granules, DDX3X, and IKK-α Mediates Multiple Functions in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Véronique; Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Liang, T Jake

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X is involved in many cellular functions, including innate immunity, and is a pivotal host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X specifically recognizes the HCV 3' untranslated region (UTR), leading to the activation of IKK-α and a cascade of lipogenic signaling to facilitate lipid droplet biogenesis and viral assembly (Q. Li, V. Pene, S. Krishnamurthy, H. Cha, and T. J. Liang, Nat Med 19:722-729, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3190). The interaction of DDX3X with HCV core protein seems to be dispensable for its proviral role. In this study, through systematic imaging and biochemical and virologic approaches, we identified a dynamic association between DDX3X and various cellular compartments and viral elements mediating multiple functions of DDX3X in productive HCV infection. Upon HCV infection, the HCV 3'UTR interacts with DDX3X and IKK-α, which redistribute to speckle-like cytoplasmic structures shown to be stress granules (SGs). As viral proteins accumulate in infected cells, DDX3X granules together with SG-associated proteins redistribute and colocalize with HCV core protein around lipid droplets (LDs). IKK-α, however, does not relocate to the LD but translocates to the nucleus. In HCV-infected cells, various HCV nonstructural proteins also interact or colocalize with DDX3X in close proximity to SGs and LDs, consistent with the tight juxtaposition of the replication complex and the assembly site at the surface of LDs. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of DDX3X and multiple SG components markedly inhibits HCV infection. Our data suggest that DDX3X initiates a multifaceted cellular program involving dynamic associations with HCV RNA and proteins, IKK-α, SG, and LD surfaces for its crucial role in the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE DDX3X is a proviral host factor for HCV infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X binds to the HCV 3'UTR, activating IKK-α and

  14. The stress granule component TIA-1 binds tick-borne encephalitis virus RNA and is recruited to perinuclear sites of viral replication to inhibit viral translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Amelina; Carletti, Tea; Corazza, Gianmarco; Marcello, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Flaviviruses are a major cause of disease in humans and animals worldwide. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arthropod-borne flavivirus endemic in Europe and is the etiological agent of tick-borne encephalitis, a potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system. However, the contributions of host proteins during TBEV infection are poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the cellular protein TIA-1 and its cognate factor TIAR, which are stress-induced RNA-binding proteins involved in the repression of initiation of translation of cellular mRNAs and in the formation of stress granules. We show that TIA-1 and TIAR interact with viral RNA in TBEV-infected cells. During TBEV infection, cytoplasmic TIA-1 and TIAR are recruited at sites of viral replication with concomitant depletion from stress granules. This effect is specific, since G3BP1, another component of these cytoplasmic structures, remains localized to stress granules. Moreover, heat shock induction of stress granules containing TIA-1, but not G3BP1, is inhibited in TBEV-infected cells. Infection of cells depleted of TIA-1 or TIAR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts, leads to a significant increase in TBEV extracellular infectivity. Interestingly, TIAR(-/-) fibroblasts show the opposite effect on TBEV infection, and this phenotype appears to be related to an excess of TIA-1 in these cells. Taking advantage of a TBE-luciferase replicon system, we also observed increased luciferase activity in TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts at early time points, consistent with TIA-1-mediated inhibition at the level of the first round of viral translation. These results indicate that, in response to TBEV infection, TIA-1 is recruited to sites of virus replication to bind TBEV RNA and modulate viral translation independently of stress granule (SG) formation. This study (i) extends previous work that showed TIA-1/TIAR recruitment at sites of flavivirus replication

  15. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Banfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field.

  16. Phospho-Rasputin Stabilization by Sec16 Is Required for Stress Granule Formation upon Amino Acid Starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; Zacharogianni, Margarita; van Oorschot, Marinke M.; Genau, Heide; Grond, Rianne; Veenendaal, Tineke; Sinsimer, Kristina S.; Gavis, Elisabeth A.; Behrends, Christian; Rabouille, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Most cellular stresses induce protein translation inhibition and stress granule formation. Here, using Drosophila S2 cells, we investigate the role of G3BP/Rasputin in this process. In contrast to arsenite treatment, where dephosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin is recruited to stress granules, we find

  17. TIA-1 Self-Multimerization, Phase Separation, and Recruitment into Stress Granules Are Dynamically Regulated by Zn2+

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    Joseph B. Rayman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Stress granules are non-membranous structures that transiently form in the cytoplasm during cellular stress, where they promote translational repression of non-essential RNAs and modulate cell signaling by sequestering key signal transduction proteins. These and other functions of stress granules facilitate an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity. A key component of stress granules is the prion-related RNA-binding protein, T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1. Here, we report that recombinant TIA-1 undergoes rapid multimerization and phase separation in the presence of divalent zinc, which can be reversed by the zinc chelator, TPEN. Similarly, the formation and maintenance of TIA-1-positive stress granules in arsenite-treated cells are inhibited by TPEN. In addition, Zn2+ is released in cells treated with arsenite, before stress granule formation. These findings suggest that Zn2+ is a physiological ligand of TIA-1, acting as a stress-inducible second messenger to promote multimerization of TIA-1 and subsequent localization into stress granules. : Rayman et al. show that Zn2+ is a stress-inducible second messenger that triggers self-multimerization and phase separation of TIA-1 and regulates dynamic recruitment of TIA-1 into stress granules. This mechanism is part of an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity. Keywords: TIA-1, TIA1, stress granules, cellular stress, functional prion, phase separation, zinc regulation

  18. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  19. Granule cell potentials in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus: coping behavior and stress ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, P G

    1990-01-01

    Evoked population potentials of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were increased in stress-resistant rats and decreased in stress-susceptible rats, as indexed by restraint-induced gastric ulcers. Inescapable, uncontrollable shock stimulation also suppressed granule cell population spikes and interfered with subsequent coping responses when escape was possible, i.e. the so-called helplessness effect. The data were interpreted to indicate that the hippocampus is part of a coping system in stressful situations.

  20. Phospho-Rasputin Stabilization by Sec16 Is Required for Stress Granule Formation upon Amino Acid Starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; Zacharogianni, Margarita; van Oorschot, Marinke M; Genau, Heide; Grond, Rianne; Veenendaal, Tineke; Sinsimer, Kristina S; Gavis, Elizabeth R; Behrends, Christian; Rabouille, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Most cellular stresses induce protein translation inhibition and stress granule formation. Here, using Drosophila S2 cells, we investigate the role of G3BP/Rasputin in this process. In contrast to arsenite treatment, where dephosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin is recruited to stress granules, we find that, upon amino acid starvation, only the phosphorylated Ser142 form is recruited. Furthermore, we identify Sec16, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum exit site, as a Rasputin interactor and sta...

  1. Phospho-Rasputin Stabilization by Sec16 Is Required for Stress Granule Formation upon Amino Acid Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Aguilera-Gomez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most cellular stresses induce protein translation inhibition and stress granule formation. Here, using Drosophila S2 cells, we investigate the role of G3BP/Rasputin in this process. In contrast to arsenite treatment, where dephosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin is recruited to stress granules, we find that, upon amino acid starvation, only the phosphorylated Ser142 form is recruited. Furthermore, we identify Sec16, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum exit site, as a Rasputin interactor and stabilizer. Sec16 depletion results in Rasputin degradation and inhibition of stress granule formation. However, in the absence of Sec16, pharmacological stabilization of Rasputin is not enough to rescue the assembly of stress granules. This is because Sec16 specifically interacts with phosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin, the form required for stress granule formation upon amino acid starvation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stress granule formation is fine-tuned by specific signaling cues that are unique to each stress. These results also expand the role of Sec16 as a stress response protein.

  2. Phospho-Rasputin Stabilization by Sec16 Is Required for Stress Granule Formation upon Amino Acid Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; Zacharogianni, Margarita; van Oorschot, Marinke M; Genau, Heide; Grond, Rianne; Veenendaal, Tineke; Sinsimer, Kristina S; Gavis, Elizabeth R; Behrends, Christian; Rabouille, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Most cellular stresses induce protein translation inhibition and stress granule formation. Here, using Drosophila S2 cells, we investigate the role of G3BP/Rasputin in this process. In contrast to arsenite treatment, where dephosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin is recruited to stress granules, we find that, upon amino acid starvation, only the phosphorylated Ser142 form is recruited. Furthermore, we identify Sec16, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum exit site, as a Rasputin interactor and stabilizer. Sec16 depletion results in Rasputin degradation and inhibition of stress granule formation. However, in the absence of Sec16, pharmacological stabilization of Rasputin is not enough to rescue the assembly of stress granules. This is because Sec16 specifically interacts with phosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin, the form required for stress granule formation upon amino acid starvation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stress granule formation is fine-tuned by specific signaling cues that are unique to each stress. These results also expand the role of Sec16 as a stress response protein. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TIA-1 Self-Multimerization, Phase Separation, and Recruitment into Stress Granules Are Dynamically Regulated by Zn2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Joseph B; Karl, Kevin A; Kandel, Eric R

    2018-01-02

    Stress granules are non-membranous structures that transiently form in the cytoplasm during cellular stress, where they promote translational repression of non-essential RNAs and modulate cell signaling by sequestering key signal transduction proteins. These and other functions of stress granules facilitate an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity. A key component of stress granules is the prion-related RNA-binding protein, T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). Here, we report that recombinant TIA-1 undergoes rapid multimerization and phase separation in the presence of divalent zinc, which can be reversed by the zinc chelator, TPEN. Similarly, the formation and maintenance of TIA-1-positive stress granules in arsenite-treated cells are inhibited by TPEN. In addition, Zn 2+ is released in cells treated with arsenite, before stress granule formation. These findings suggest that Zn 2+ is a physiological ligand of TIA-1, acting as a stress-inducible second messenger to promote multimerization of TIA-1 and subsequent localization into stress granules. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling Restores the Dynamic Properties of Key Stress Granule Proteins during Aging

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    Marie C. Lechler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Low-complexity “prion-like” domains in key RNA-binding proteins (RBPs mediate the reversible assembly of RNA granules. Individual RBPs harboring these domains have been linked to specific neurodegenerative diseases. Although their aggregation in neurodegeneration has been extensively characterized, it remains unknown how the process of aging disturbs RBP dynamics. We show that a wide variety of RNA granule components, including stress granule proteins, become highly insoluble with age in C. elegans and that reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 daf-2 receptor signaling efficiently prevents their aggregation. Importantly, stress-granule-related RBP aggregates are associated with reduced fitness. We show that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1 is a main regulator of stress-granule-related RBP aggregation in both young and aged animals. During aging, increasing DAF-16 activity restores dynamic stress-granule-related RBPs, partly by decreasing the buildup of other misfolded proteins that seed RBP aggregation. Longevity-associated mechanisms found to maintain dynamic RBPs during aging could be relevant for neurodegenerative diseases. : Lechler et al. show that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs including stress granule proteins are prone to aggregate with age in C. elegans. Aggregation of stress granule RBPs with “prion-like” domains is associated with reduced fitness. Their aggregation is prevented by longevity pathways and promoted by the aggregation of other misfolded proteins. Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases, Caenorhabditis elegans, protein aggregation, aging, RNA-binding proteins, stress granules, HSF-1, DAF-2, longevity

  5. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Gabriela Huelgas-Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline—the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction—protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures.

  6. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E

    2016-04-07

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline-the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction-protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. Copyright © 2016 Huelgas-Morales et al.

  7. [Protective effect and mechanism of compound Ginkgo biloba granules on oxidative stress injury of HUVEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xi; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Li, Yu-Jie; Yang, Qing; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Wei-Yan; Huang, He-Fei; Zhu, Xiao-Xin

    2016-02-01

    To reveal the protective and anti-apoptosis effect of compound Ginkgo biloba granules on oxidative stress injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Negative control group, H2O2 model group and 4 drug pretreatment groups (80, 160, 320, 640 mg• L⁻¹) were established. The cell proliferation, morphological changes in each group after oxidative stress injury was detected by MTT assay and through microscope observation respectively. The content of LDH, MDA, SOD and NO and SOD activity in supernatant were detected to judge the protection effect of the drugs on endothelial cells. The protective effect on HUVEC apoptosis was analyzed by Caspase-3 activity test and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blot was used to observe the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. Results showed that 1 200 μmol• L⁻¹ H2O2 can induce oxidative stress injury in endothelial cells and reduce the cell survival rate; cell proliferation inhibition degree is positively correlated with the effect time of H2O2. Besides, 80, 160, 320 640 mg•L⁻¹ compound Ginkgo biloba granules can protect HUVEC from oxidative stress injury, recover the normal proliferation level of cells, improve their state, prohibit cell apoptosis, and can up-regulate and down-regulate the expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax respectively. In conclusion, compound G. biloba granules can protect HUVEC from the oxidative stress injury induced by H2O2, its mechanism may be correlated with inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HUVEC. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Feline Calicivirus infection disrupts the assembly of cytoplasmic stress granules and induces G3BP1 cleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humoud, Majid N; Doyle, Nicole; Royall, Elizabeth; Willcocks, Margaret M; Sorgeloos, Frederic; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Roberts, Lisa O; Goodfellow, Ian G; Langereis, Martijn A; Locker, Nicolas

    In response to stress such as virus infection, cells can stall translation by storing mRNAs away in cellular compartments called stress granules (SGs). This defence mechanism favours cell survival by limiting the use of energy and nutrients until the stress is resolved. In some cases it may also

  9. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth; Tanapat, Patima; McEwen, Bruce S.; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience. PMID:9501234

  10. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D; Semler, Bert L

    2013-09-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. PMID:23830997

  12. Aggregation of SND1 in Stress Granules is Associated with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton During Heat Shock Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhao, Meng; Zhou, Yunli; He, Jinyan; Ren, Li; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Jie; Su, Chao; Gao, Xingjie

    2017-12-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic dense structures in the cytoplasm that form in response to a variety of environmental stress stimuli. Staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is a type of RNA-binding protein and has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator. Our previous studies have shown that SND1 is a component of the stress granule, which forms under stress conditions. Here, we observed that SND1 granules were often surrounded by ɑ-tubulin-microtubules in 45°C-treated HeLa cells at 15 min or colocalized with microtubules at 30 or 45 min. Furthermore, Nocodazole-mediated microtubule depolymerization could significantly affect the efficient recruitment of SND1 proteins to the SGs during heat shock stress. In addition, the 45°C heat shock mediated the enhancement of eIF2α phosphorylation, which was not affected by treatment with Nocodazole, an agent that disrupts the cytoskeleton. The intact microtubule cytoskeletal tracks are important for the efficient assembly of SND1 granules under heat shock stress and may facilitate SND1 shuttling between cytoplasmic RNA foci. Anat Rec, 300:2192-2199, 2017. © 2017 The Authors The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists.

  13. The stress granule component G3BP is a novel interaction partner for the nuclear shuttle proteins of the nanovirus pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus and geminivirus abutilon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Susanna; Greiner, Eva; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Krenz, Björn

    2017-01-02

    Stress granules (SGs) are structures within cells that regulate gene expression during stress response, e.g. viral infection. In mammalian cells assembly of SGs is dependent on the Ras-GAP SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP). The C-terminal domain of the viral nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) forms a complex with mammalian G3BP and sequesters it into viral RNA replication complexes in a manner that inhibits the formation of SGs. The binding domain of nsP3 to HsG3BP was mapped to two tandem 'FGDF' repeat motifs close to the C-terminus of the viral proteins. It was speculated that plant viruses employ a similar strategy to inhibit SG function. This study identifies an Arabidopsis thaliana NTF2-RRM domain-containing protein as a G3BP-like protein (AtG3BP), which localizes to plant SGs. Moreover, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of the begomovirus abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV), which harbors a 'FVSF'-motif at its C-terminal end, interacts with the AtG3BP-like protein, as does the 'FNGSF'-motif containing NSP of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV), a member of the Nanoviridae family. We therefore propose that SG formation upon stress is conserved between mammalian and plant cells and that plant viruses may follow a similar strategy to inhibit plant SG function as it has been shown for their mammalian counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Granules Harboring Translationally Active mRNAs Provide a Platform for P-Body Formation following Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The localization of mRNA to defined cytoplasmic sites in eukaryotic cells not only allows localized protein production but also determines the fate of mRNAs. For instance, translationally repressed mRNAs localize to P-bodies and stress granules where their decay and storage, respectively, are directed. Here, we find that several mRNAs are localized to granules in unstressed, actively growing cells. These granules play a key role in the stress-dependent formation of P-bodies. Specific glycolytic mRNAs are colocalized in multiple granules per cell, which aggregate during P-body formation. Such aggregation is still observed under conditions or in mutants where P-bodies do not form. In unstressed cells, the mRNA granules appear associated with active translation; this might enable a coregulation of protein expression from the same pathways or complexes. Parallels can be drawn between this coregulation and the advantage of operons in prokaryotic systems.

  15. Comprehensive Protein Interactome Analysis of a Key RNA Helicase: Detection of Novel Stress Granule Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bish

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DDX6 (p54/RCK is a human RNA helicase with central roles in mRNA decay and translation repression. To help our understanding of how DDX6 performs these multiple functions, we conducted the first unbiased, large-scale study to map the DDX6-centric protein-protein interactome using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Using DDX6 as bait, we identify a high-confidence and high-quality set of protein interaction partners which are enriched for functions in RNA metabolism and ribosomal proteins. The screen is highly specific, maximizing the number of true positives, as demonstrated by the validation of 81% (47/58 of the RNA-independent interactors through known functions and interactions. Importantly, we minimize the number of indirect interaction partners through use of a nuclease-based digestion to eliminate RNA. We describe eleven new interactors, including proteins involved in splicing which is an as-yet unknown role for DDX6. We validated and characterized in more detail the interaction of DDX6 with Nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 2 (NUFIP2 and with two previously uncharacterized proteins, FAM195A and FAM195B (here referred to as granulin-1 and granulin-2, or GRAN1 and GRAN2. We show that NUFIP2, GRAN1, and GRAN2 are not P-body components, but re-localize to stress granules upon exposure to stress, suggesting a function in translation repression in the cellular stress response. Using a complementary analysis that resolved DDX6’s multiple complex memberships, we further validated these interaction partners and the presence of splicing factors. As DDX6 also interacts with the E3 SUMO ligase TIF1β, we tested for and observed a significant enrichment of sumoylation amongst DDX6’s interaction partners. Our results represent the most comprehensive screen for direct interaction partners of a key regulator of RNA life cycle and localization, highlighting new stress granule components and possible DDX6 functions

  16. Gene Expression Responses to FUS, EWS, and TAF15 Reduction and Stress Granule Sequestration Analyses Identifies FET-Protein Non-Redundant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Luo, Yonglun; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The FET family of proteins is composed of FUS/TLS, EWS/EWSR1, and TAF15 and possesses RNA- and DNA-binding capacities. The FET-proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing, and FET-gene deregulation is associated with development of cancer and protein granule formations...... in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. We here describe a comparative characterization of FET-protein localization and gene regulatory functions. We show that FUS and TAF15 locate to cellular stress granules to a larger extend than EWS....... FET-proteins have no major importance for stress granule formation and cellular stress responses, indicating that FET-protein stress granule association most likely is a downstream response to cellular stress. Gene expression analyses showed that the cellular response towards FUS and TAF15 reduction...

  17. The number of granule cells in rat hippocampus is reduced after chronic mild stress and re-established after chronic escitalopram treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Bisgaard, Christina; West, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    mild stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Furthermore, we investigated which classes of immature granule cells are affected by stress and targeted by escitalopram. Rats were initially exposed to 2weeks of CMS and 4weeks of escitalopram treatment with concurrent exposure to stress. The behavioral...... changes, indicating a decrease in sensitivity to a reward, were assessed in terms of sucrose consumption. We found a significant 22.4% decrease in the total number of granule cells in the stressed rats. This decrease was reversed in the stressed escitalopram treated rats that responded to the treatment......, but not in the rats that did not respond to escitalopram treatment. These changes were not followed by alterations in the volume of the granule cell layer. We also showed a differential regulation of dentate neurons, in different stages of development, by chronic stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Our study...

  18. Effects of Qingshen Granules on the Oxidative Stress-NF/kB Signal Pathway in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Background . The activation of NF-kappa B (NF/kB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in renal tubules. The process of oxidative stress reaction in kidney is via excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to activate NF/kB signaling pathway. Qingshen Granule (QSG) is an effective Chinese formula utilized to treat chronic renal failure. Previous studies confirmed that QSG could inhibit RIF in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. In this study, we used UUO rats to investigate the effects of QSG on oxidative stress and the activation of NF/kB signaling. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group, UUO model group, Qingshen Granules (QSG) high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose groups, PDTC group, and candesartan group (10 rats in each group). Our study demonstrated that oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway contributed to the formation of UUO renal interstitial fibrosis. QSG may protect against RIF by inhibiting the oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway, reducing inflammation, and improving renal tubular EMT.

  19. Physical exercise prevents stress-induced activation of granule neurons and enhances local inhibitory mechanisms in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Rada, Pedro; Pieruzzini, Pedro R; Hsueh, Brian; Gould, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Physical exercise is known to reduce anxiety. The ventral hippocampus has been linked to anxiety regulation but the effects of running on this subregion of the hippocampus have been incompletely explored. Here, we investigated the effects of cold water stress on the hippocampus of sedentary and runner mice and found that while stress increases expression of the protein products of the immediate early genes c-fos and arc in new and mature granule neurons in sedentary mice, it has no such effect in runners. We further showed that running enhances local inhibitory mechanisms in the hippocampus, including increases in stress-induced activation of hippocampal interneurons, expression of vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT), and extracellular GABA release during cold water swim stress. Finally, blocking GABAA receptors in the ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus, with the antagonist bicuculline, reverses the anxiolytic effect of running. Together, these results suggest that running improves anxiety regulation by engaging local inhibitory mechanisms in the ventral hippocampus.

  20. Heat shock-induced accumulation of translation elongation and termination factors precedes assembly of stress granules in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grousl

    Full Text Available In response to severe environmental stresses eukaryotic cells shut down translation and accumulate components of the translational machinery in stress granules (SGs. Since they contain mainly mRNA, translation initiation factors and 40S ribosomal subunits, they have been referred to as dominant accumulations of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Here we present evidence that the robust heat shock-induced SGs of S. cerevisiae also contain translation elongation factors eEF3 (Yef3p and eEF1Bγ2 (Tef4p as well as translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45p and eRF3 (Sup35p. Despite the presence of the yeast prion protein Sup35 in heat shock-induced SGs, we found out that its prion-like domain is not involved in the SGs assembly. Factors eEF3, eEF1Bγ2 and eRF1 were accumulated and co-localized with Dcp2 foci even upon a milder heat shock at 42°C independently of P-bodies scaffolding proteins. We also show that eEF3 accumulations at 42°C determine sites of the genuine SGs assembly at 46°C. We suggest that identification of translation elongation and termination factors in SGs might help to understand the mechanism of the eIF2α factor phosphorylation-independent repression of translation and SGs assembly.

  1. Biomass conversion inhibitors furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural induce formation of messenger RNP granules and attenuate translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Kawai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Izawa, Shingo

    2013-03-01

    Various forms of stress can cause an attenuation of bulk translation activity and the accumulation of nontranslating mRNAs into cytoplasmic messenger RNP (mRNP) granules termed processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules (SGs) in eukaryotic cells. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), derived from lignocellulosic biomass, inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as stressors. Since there is no report regarding their effects on the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules, here we investigated whether furfural and HMF cause the assembly of yeast P-bodies and SGs accompanied by translational repression. We found that furfural and HMF cause the attenuation of bulk translation activity and the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, a combination of furfural and HMF induced the remarkable repression of translation initiation and SG formation. These findings provide new information about the physiological effects of furfural and HMF on yeast cells, and also suggest the potential usefulness of cytoplasmic mRNP granules as a warning sign or index of the deterioration of cellular physiological status in the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  2. Learning from EDF investigations on SG divider plates and vessel head nozzles. Evidence of prior deformation effect on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforge, D.; Duisabeau, L.; Miloudi, S.; Thebault, Y.; Couvant, T.; Vaillant, F.; Lemaire, E.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel Based alloys Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for all the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) utilities since the beginning of the seventies. At EDF, the nineties were marked by the occurrence of cracks on vessel head nozzles. These cracks were responsible for a leak at Bugey 3 vessel head, which was the precursor leading to the replacement of all vessel heads. From 2002, new cases of Stress Corrosion Cracking were reported on Steam Generator (SG) Divider Plates (SGDP) welded junctions. These cracks are periodically inspected inservice and reparations could be performed in case of a significant evolution of the phenomenon even if the safety issue is less relevant than for the vessel head nozzles. Both issues have led to an important non-destructive testing (NDT) program and to destructive investigations campaigns. NDT were performed on an exhaustive basis for all vessel head nozzles and for all the divider plates of 900 MWe plants. Destructive investigations were performed on more than 30 vessel head nozzles and on 6 divider plates. The last investigations were performed on samples from two decommissioned Steam Generators of Chinon B1 which present SCC cracks. In this paper, the main conclusions driven from the analysis of both NDT and destructive investigation results are reported and a comparison of the behaviours of divider plates and vessel head nozzles is given. Results give evidence that prior plastic deformation of the components before operation is fundamental for the further environmental behaviour of the material. Analysis of field experience based on parameters characteristics of prior deformation and parameters characteristics of material microstructure can be used to account for the components which are the most sensitive to SCC cracking. Some perspectives on SCC predictive models are also presented. (authors)

  3. Inactivation by oxidation and recruitment into stress granules of hOGG1 but not APE1 in human cells exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravard, Anne; Campalans, Anna; Vacher, Monique; Gouget, Barbara; Levalois, Celine; Chevillard, Sylvie; Radicella, J. Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The induction of mutations in mammalian cells exposed to cadmium has been associated with the oxidative stress triggered by the metal. There is increasing evidence that the mutagenic potential of Cd is not restricted to the induction of DNA lesions. Cd has been shown to inactivate several DNA repair enzymes. Here we show that exposure of human cells to sub-lethal concentrations of Cd leads to a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in hOGG1 activity, the major DNA glycosylase activity responsible for the initiation of the base excision repair (BER) of 8-oxoguanine, an abundant and mutagenic form of oxidized guanine. Although there is a slight effect on the level of hOGG1 transcripts, we show that the inhibition of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase activity is mainly associated with an oxidation of the hOGG1 protein and its disappearance from the soluble fraction of total cell extracts. Confocal microscopy analyses show that in cells exposed to Cd hOGG1-GFP is recruited to discrete structures in the cytoplasm. These structures were identified as stress granules. Removal of Cd from the medium allows the recovery of the DNA glycosylase activity and the presence of hOGG1 in a soluble form. In contrast to hOGG1, we show here that exposure to Cd does not affect the activity of the second enzyme of the pathway, the major AP endonuclease APE1.

  4. Study on the Leak Rate Estimation of SG Tubes and Residual Stress Estimation based on Plastic Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Lee, Dock Jin; Lee, Tae Rin; Choi, Shin Beom; Jeong, Jae Uk; Yeum, Seung Won [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    In this research project, a leak rate estimation model was developed for steam generator tubes with through wall cracks. The modelling was based on the leak data from 23 tube specimens. Also, the procedure of finite element analysis was developed for residual stress calculation of dissimilar metal weld in a bottom mounted instrumentation. The effect of geometric variables related with the residual stress in penetration weld part was investigated by using the developed analysis procedure. The key subjects dealt in this research are: 1. Development of leak rate estimation model for steam generator tubes with through wall cracks 2. Development of the program which can perform the structure and leakage integrity evaluation for steam generator tubes 3. Development of analysis procedure for bottom mounted instrumentation weld residual stress 4. Analysis on the effects of geometric variables on weld residual stress It is anticipated that the technologies developed in this study are applicable for integrity estimation of steam generator tubes and weld part in NPP.

  5. Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, A; Peltre, G; Dormans, J A M A; Withagen, C E T; Lacroix, G; Bois, F; Steerenberg, P A

    2004-02-01

    Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens are an important cause of allergic symptoms. However, pollen grains are too large to penetrate the deeper airways. Grass pollen is known to release allergen-bearing starch granules (SG) upon contact with water. These granules can create an inhalable allergenic aerosol capable of triggering an early asthmatic response and are implicated in thunderstorm-associated asthma. We studied the humoral (IgE) and bronchial lymph node cells reactivities to SG from timothy grass pollen in pollen-sensitized rats. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) intratracheally with intact pollen and kept immunized by pollen intranasal instillation by 4 weeks intervals during 3 months. Blood and bronchial lymph nodes were collected 7 days after the last intranasal challenge. SG were purified from fresh timothy grass pollen using 5 microm mesh filters. To determine the humoral response (IgE) to SG, we developed an original ELISA inhibition test, based on competition between pollen allergens and purified SG. The cell-mediated response to SG in the bronchial lymph node cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine in a proliferation assay. An antibody response to SG was induced, and purified SG were able to inhibit the IgE ELISA absorbance by 45%. Pollen extract and intact pollen gave inhibitions of 55% and 52%, respectively. A cell-mediated response was also found, as pollen extract, intact pollen and SG triggered proliferation of bronchial lymph node cells. It was confirmed that timothy grass pollen contains allergen-loaded SG, which are released upon contact with water. These granules were shown to be recognized by pollen-sensitized rats sera and to trigger lymph node cell proliferation in these rats. These data provide new arguments supporting the implication of grass pollen SG in allergic asthma.

  6. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  7. Lamellar granule secretion starts before the establishment of tight junction barrier for paracellular tracers in mammalian epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Defects in epidermal barrier function and/or vesicular transport underlie severe skin diseases including ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis. Tight junctions (TJs form a single layered network in simple epithelia. TJs are important for both barrier functions and vesicular transport. Epidermis is stratified epithelia and lamellar granules (LGs are secreted from the stratum granulosum (SG in a sequential manner. Previously, continuous TJs and paracellular permeability barriers were found in the second layer (SG2 of SG in mice, but their fate and correlation with LG secretion have been poorly understood. We studied epidermal TJ-related structures in humans and in mice and found occludin/ZO-1 immunoreactive multilayered networks spanning the first layer of SG (SG1 and SG2. Paracellular penetration tracer passed through some TJs in SG2, but not in SG1. LG secretion into the paracellular tracer positive spaces started below the level of TJs of SG1. Our study suggests that LG-secretion starts before the establishment of TJ barrier in the mammalian epidermis.

  8. Mathematical model of melt flow channel granulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulation of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral supplements based on molasses is performed at a high humidity (26 %, so for a stable operation of granulator it is necessary to reveal its melt flow pattern. To describe melt non-isothermal flow in the granulator a mathematical model with following initial equations: continuity equation, motion equation and rheological equation – was developed. The following assumptions were adopted: the melt flow in the granulator is a steady laminar flow; inertial and gravity forces can be ignored; melt is an incompressible fluid; velocity gradient in the flow direction is much smaller than in the transverse direction; the pressure gradient over the cross section of the channel is constant; the flow is hydrodynamically fully developed; effects impact on the channel inlet and outlet may be neglected. Due to the assumptions adopted, it can be considered that in this granulator only velocity components in the x-direction are significant and all the members of the equation with the components and their derivatives with respect to the coordinates y and z can be neglected. The resulting solutions were obtained: the equation for the mean velocity, the equation for determining the volume flow, the formula for calculating of mean time of the melt being in the granulator, the equation for determining the shear stress, the equation for determining the shear rate and the equation for determining the pressure loss. The results of calculations of the equations obtained are in complete agreement with the experimental data; deviation range is 16–19 %. The findings about the melt movement pattern in granulator allowed developing a methodology for calculating a rational design of the granulator molding unit.

  9. Mining the granule proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Goetze, Jens P; Johnsen, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of secretory granules is an emerging strategy for identifying secreted proteins, including potentially novel candidate biomarkers and peptide hormones. In addition, proteomics can provide information about the abundance, localization and structure (post-translational modification) of g...

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine ShenZhuGuanXin Granules Mitigate Cardiac Dysfunction and Promote Myocardium Angiogenesis in Myocardial Infarction Rats by Upregulating PECAM-1/CD31 and VEGF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Ping Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial infarction (MI is the main cause of global mortality and morbidity despite the development of therapeutic approaches. ShenZhuGuanXin granules (SG have been shown to possess cardioprotective effects against coronary heart disease (CHD. However, little is known about its specific mechanism. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of SG in cardiac dysfunction and to demonstrate whether SG can promote myocardium angiogenesis by establishing a rat model of myocardial infarction with left anterior descending ligating. Methods and Results. Three days after MI, rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group (sham, MI group (MI, MI + low dose SG (SG-L group, MI + middle dose SG (SG-M group, MI + high dose SG (SG-H group, and MI + compound Danshen dropping pills (CDDP group as a positive control. Four weeks after administration, rats underwent hemodynamics and echocardiography study. Ventricle tissues were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry studies. Compared with MI group, SG treatment dose-dependently improved cardiac hemodynamic function, attenuated infarct size, increased microvessel density, and increased the expression of PECAM-1/CD31 and VEGF. Conclusions. SG dose-dependently improved cardiac hemodynamic function and attenuated infarct size by promoting angiogenesis through upregulating PECAM-1/CD31 and VEGF expression.

  11. Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of RNA Granules and Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poblete-Durán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After viral infection, host cells respond by mounting an anti-viral stress response in order to create a hostile atmosphere for viral replication, leading to the shut-off of mRNA translation (protein synthesis and the assembly of RNA granules. Two of these RNA granules have been well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells, stress granules (SGs, which are translationally silent sites of RNA triage and processing bodies (PBs, which are involved in mRNA degradation. This review discusses the role of these RNA granules in the evasion of anti-viral stress responses through virus-induced remodeling of cellular ribonucleoproteins (RNPs.

  12. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  13. A review of monitoring methods for pharmaceutical wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansuld, E M; Briens, L

    2014-09-10

    High-shear wet granulation is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve powder properties for downstream processes such as tabletting. Granule growth, however, is difficult to predict because the process is sensitive to raw material properties and operating conditions. Development of process analytical technologies is encouraged by regulatory bodies to improve process understanding and monitor quality online. The primary technologies investigated for high-shear wet granulation monitoring include power consumption, near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, capacitance measurements, microwave measurements, imaging, focused beam reflectance measurements, spatial filter velocimetry, stress and vibration measurements, as well as acoustic emissions. This review summarizes relevant research related to each of these technologies and discusses the challenges associated with each approach as a possible process analytical technology tool for high-shear wet granulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. WPEC Subgroup Meetings. Joint SG38/SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, 20 May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Dave; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Chadwick, M.; Mattoon, Caleb; Yokoyama, K.; Leal, L.; Diez, C.J.; Hill, I.; Ignatyuk, A.

    2015-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This

  15. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  16. The life cycle of platelet granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans -Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.

  17. Cascade reactor: granule fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below

  18. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Mäkinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and

  19. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kristiina; Lõhmus, Andres; Pollari, Maija

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and their individual

  20. Collages of granulation pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R. B.; November, L. J.

    Two small-area selection schemes are applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. One procedure, referred to as mosaic, divides a 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays of 16 x 16 pixels; the rms contrast of the fine structure is measured and compared in order to develop a mosaic of the subarrays. The second technique, collage, involves calculating rms values within a sliding Gaussian window and gating the pixel into the final image. Methods for assessing seeing quality, which involve the calculation of rms after high-pass filtering, are examined; a simple high-pass filter or an edge-locating function can be utilized for filtering. The rms map is then formed from the convolution of a Gaussian with either the high-pass or the Laplacian filters. The usefulness of the two procedures is demonstrated by applying the mosaic and collage processes to data recorded on July 17, 1983 with a CCD device on the NSO/Sac Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope.

  1. Platelet granule exocytosis: A comparison with chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eFitch-Tewfik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli.

  2. Comparison of some characteristics of aerobic granules and sludge flocs from sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Garny, K; Neu, T; He, M; Lindenblatt, C; Horn, H

    2007-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics were investigated for aerobic granules and sludge flocs from three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). One reactor was operated as normal SBR (N-SBR) and two reactors were operated as granular SBRs (G-SBR1 and G-SBR2). G-SBR1 was inoculated with activated sludge and G-SBR2 with granules from the municipal wastewater plant in Garching (Germany). The following major parameters and functions were measured and compared between the three reactors: morphology, settling velocity, specific gravity (SG), sludge volume index (SVI), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), distribution of the volume fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bacteria, organic carbon and nitrogen removal. Compared with sludge flocs, granular sludge had excellent settling properties, good solid-liquid separation, high biomass concentration, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Aerobic granular sludge does not have a higher microbial activity and there are some problems including higher effluent suspended solids, lower ratio of VSS/SS and no nitrification at the beginning of cultivation. Measurement with CLSM and additional image analysis showed that EPS glycoconjugates build one main fraction inside the granules. The aerobic granules from G-SBR1 prove to be heavier, smaller and have a higher microbial activity compared with G-SBR2. Furthermore, the granules were more compact, with lower SVI and less filamentous bacteria.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of the QT on the SG tubes affected by chemical cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok Shin; Cheon, Keun Young; Kim, Wang Bae [Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [UMI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The major mechanisms of flaws detected on the currently operating steam generator(SG) tubes are wear and stress corrosion cracking(SCC) defects. Wear defect has continuously occurred in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration at the interaction between tube and its support structure. Meanwhile, SCC has been formed by a variety of mixed mode, such as the corrosion susceptible material, residual stress and secondary side chemical environment of the SG tubes. Recently, corrosion related defects were detected in the domestic OPR 1000 model SG tubes especially in the egg crate tube support plate(TSP), as a form of axially oriented outer diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC). Therefore, the need to take corrective measures against the corrosion defects is required and various studies have been conducted to clarify the main causes of the defects. In general, as a representing SG tube materials, Ni based alloy 600 tubes have been widely applied and also adversely shown weak properties on the corrosion cracking resistivity. According to the studies on the factors developing corrosion cracking, densely accumulated sludge pile on the secondary side of the SG tubes have been mainly attributed to the formation of the corrosion defects. Therefore, it is imperative to secure applicable and efficient sludge removal process. In this paper, the chemical cleaning processes to dissolve and remove the sludge, thus promote the integrity of the SG tubes were introduced and eddy current testing(ECT) results on the pre cracked SG tubes to determine the effectiveness of those processes were represented as well.

  4. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading...

  5. Polymorphic Transformation of Indomethacin during Hot Melt Extrusion Granulation: Process and Dissolution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Nahar, Kajalajit; Dave, Rutesh; Bates, Simon; Morris, Kenneth

    2018-05-10

    To study and elucidate the effect of the intensity and duration of processing stresses on the possible solid-state changes during a hot melt extrusion granulation process. Blends of α-indomethacin and PEG 3350 (w/w 4:1) were granulated using various screw sizes/designs on the melt extruder under different temperature regimes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray Powder Diffraction were employed for characterization. The dissolution behavior of the pure polymorphs and the resulting granules was determined using in-situ fiber optic UV testing system. An XRPD quantitation method using Excel full pattern fitting was developed to determine the concentration of each constituent (amorphous, α and γ indomethacin and PEG) in samples collected from each functioning zone and in granules. Analysis of in-process samples and granules revealed that higher temperature (≥130°C) and shear stress accelerated the process induced phase transitions from amorphous and/or the α form to γ indomethacin during heating stage. However, rapid cooling resulted in an increased percentage of the α form allowing isolation of the meta-stable form. By determining the conditions that either prevent or facilitate process induced transformations of IMC polymorphs during melt granulation, a design space was developed to control the polymorph present in the resulting granules. This represents the conditions necessary to balance the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorphs of the IMC system and the kinetics of the possible transformations as a function of the processing stresses.

  6. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  7. Multidimensional modelling of anaerobic granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picioreanu, C.; Batstone, Damien J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A multispecies, two- and three-dimensional model was developed, based on a previously published planar biofilm model, and the biochemical structure of the ADM1. Several soluble substrates diffuse and react in the granule. Local pH is calculated from acid-base equilibria and charge balance. The mo...

  8. Learnings from investigations on SG divider plates: Coupling field characterizations with numerical mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossillon, F.; Depradeux, L.; Miloudi, S.; Deforge, D.; Lemaire, E.; Massoud, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel based alloys stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for the nuclear power plant utilities since the 1970s. Since 2002, SCC indications have been found on steam generator (SG) divider plates made of alloy 600 on French PWRs (pressurized water reactors) 900 MWe units. Although integrity is not questioned, many studies have been conducted to deepen understanding of the phenomenon. Among numerous studies to investigate the SCC damage phenomena, advanced mechanical analysis has been performed to improve the knowledge of the in-service loadings of the SG 900 MWe partition stub and divider plate. Manufacturing steps are taken into account, such as welding and the first hydro-test, to have a more precise description of the mechanical states in the vicinity of the welds where SCC is likely to occur. Recently, EDF hot laboratories made destructive examinations of a decommissioned SG. To fulfil the analyses computations have been carried out on the dedicated configuration. A 3D FE model, including the simulation of the welding and hydro-test, has been set up. Comparisons with experimental investigations on the divider plate of decommissioned SG have shown a good agreement between experimental and numerical results. These results emphasize the redistribution of weld residual stresses after the first hydro-test, and the effect of hydro-testing on the plastic deformation of the stub only in some specific cases of 900 MWe SG

  9. Learnings from investigations on SG divider plates: Coupling field characterizations with numerical mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F., E-mail: frederique.rossillon@edf.fr [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, Villeurbanne (France); Depradeux, L. [EC2-MS, 66 Bd Niels Bohr, Villeurbanne (France); Miloudi, S. [EDF CEIDRE, CNPE de Chinon, Avoine (France); Deforge, D. [EDF CEIDRE, 2 Rue Ampère, Saint Denis (France); Lemaire, E. [EDF UNIE, Cap Ampère, Saint Denis (France); Massoud, J.P. [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-04-01

    Nickel based alloys stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for the nuclear power plant utilities since the 1970s. Since 2002, SCC indications have been found on steam generator (SG) divider plates made of alloy 600 on French PWRs (pressurized water reactors) 900 MWe units. Although integrity is not questioned, many studies have been conducted to deepen understanding of the phenomenon. Among numerous studies to investigate the SCC damage phenomena, advanced mechanical analysis has been performed to improve the knowledge of the in-service loadings of the SG 900 MWe partition stub and divider plate. Manufacturing steps are taken into account, such as welding and the first hydro-test, to have a more precise description of the mechanical states in the vicinity of the welds where SCC is likely to occur. Recently, EDF hot laboratories made destructive examinations of a decommissioned SG. To fulfil the analyses computations have been carried out on the dedicated configuration. A 3D FE model, including the simulation of the welding and hydro-test, has been set up. Comparisons with experimental investigations on the divider plate of decommissioned SG have shown a good agreement between experimental and numerical results. These results emphasize the redistribution of weld residual stresses after the first hydro-test, and the effect of hydro-testing on the plastic deformation of the stub only in some specific cases of 900 MWe SG.

  10. Dispersant Application during SG Wet Layup at SK Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyukchul; Lee, Dooho; Sung, Kibang [KHNP Central Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The corrosion products in the feedwater are deposited onto the steam generators (SGs) despite the effort to control them within limit of impurity. This deposit is one of causes for occurrence of SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking), water level fluctuation and further corrosion of SGs. To minimize corrosion and remove deposit, the nuclear power plants apply high pH to the secondary system and SG chemical cleaning, respectively. But these methods can be costly and carry risks of extended outages or incomplete cleaning. Another method is an on-line dispersant application. The role of dispersant is to make deposit suspended in the SGs. Then, the suspended deposit is discharged to the blowdown system. The iron removal is increased in the blowdown system during the dispersant application. Additional significant benefit in the form of reduced corrosion product transport may be obtained through applying dispersant in the SGs wet lay operational mode. This method helps to reduce the total SGs loading without affecting critical outage activities and with minimal additional effort on the part of the utilities. This study provides the results of the dispersant application trial during the SG wet layup at SK Unit 1. As the PAA concentrations were increased, the corrosion rates of Alloy 690 and SA 106 Gr.B were increased. The corrosion rate of Alloy 690 was 2 times less than that of SA 106 Gr.B at 100 ppm of PAA based on the electrochemical experimental. There were no significant feasibility problems with application of PAA during the SG wet layup. The reasonable estimation of the additional mass removed by the presence of PAA during SGs wet layup is 460 g. The iron removal depended on PAA concentration injected based on the comparative results of the SK Unit 1 and TMI-1. It is expected that injection of PAA into the SG result in a significant decrease in the amount of iron transported to the SGs during the startup.

  11. Life management of SG for WWER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Dragunov, Yu. G.; Banyuk, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, 252 steam generators (SG) of horizontal type are in operation at WWER plants constructed by the Russian designs. In connection with end of the specified service life of the reactor plant equal to 30 years the activities are performed on service life extension of the main equipment including the SG. At some Units, throughout the design service life of SG there were problems resulting in necessity of SG replacement. At the same time the SGs at some Units are in successful operation above the design service life. This report deals with the peculiarities of operation of the horizontal SGs and the problems to be highlighted as the most important for service life extension. The main component to determine possibility for SG service life extension is the SG tubing. As the operating experience shows it is water chemistry of the secondary circuit that is the main factor influencing operability of the SG tubing. Therefore, differences in water chemistry organization leads to significant differences in operability of the SG tubing at various Units and in some cases within one Unit. Owing to the fact that the cases of water chemistry disturbance and the process of tubes fouling with the corrosion products of the main condensate system are not excluded, the damages continue to occur. Tube integrity shall be inspected by eddy current method using the various instrument complexes. This method has certain disadvantages but allows to estimate the degree and direction of degradation processes. The results of eddy current test (ECT) can be used to determine the plugging criterion for defective tubes. The significant number of defective tubes at some Units makes a choice of the plugging criterion to be an important problem, on which solution the SG safety, reliability and service life depends. The report deals with directions of activities in service life management for the SG at WWER plants. Main activities are improvement of water chemistry and non-destructive tests.(author)

  12. Translational control of aberrant stress responses as a hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Amal M; Sorensen, Poul H

    2018-04-01

    Altered mRNA translational control is emerging as a critical factor in cancer development and progression. Targeting specific elements of the translational machinery, such as mTORC1 or eIF4E, is emerging as a new strategy for innovative cancer therapy. While translation of most mRNAs takes place through cap-dependent mechanisms, a sub-population of cellular mRNA species, particularly stress-inducible mRNAs with highly structured 5'-UTR regions, are primarily translated through cap-independent mechanisms. Intriguingly, many of these mRNAs encode proteins that are involved in tumour cell adaptation to microenvironmental stress, and thus linked to aggressive behaviour including tumour invasion and metastasis. This necessitates a rigorous search for links between microenvironmental stress and aggressive tumour phenotypes. Under stress, cells block global protein synthesis to preserve energy while maintaining selective synthesis of proteins that support cell survival. One highly conserved mechanism to regulate protein synthesis under cell stress is to sequester mRNAs into cytosolic aggregates called stress granules (SGs), where their translation is silenced. SGs confer survival advantages and chemotherapeutic resistance to tumour cells under stress. Recently, it has been shown that genetically blocking SG formation dramatically reduces tumour invasive and metastatic capacity in vivo. Therefore, targeting SG formation might represent a potential treatment strategy to block cancer metastasis. Here, we present the critical link between selective mRNA translation, stress adaptation, SGs, and tumour progression. Further, we also explain how deciphering mechanisms of selective mRNA translation occurs under cell stress holds great promise for the identification of new targets in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

  13. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar, E-mail: goutamjnu@hotmail.com; Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-08-07

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy.

  14. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar; Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-01-01

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy

  15. Experimental and numerical study of deposit formation in secondary side SG TSP by electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillodo, Michael; Foucault, Marc; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Chahma, Farah; Guingo, Mathieu; Mansour, Carine; Alos-Ramos, Olga; Corredera, Geraldine

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion products deposit formation observed in PWR steam generators (SGs) - related to SG free span fouling and SG clogging - is now reported since several years. SG clogging is a localized phenomenon observed between the leading edge of the Tube Support Plate (TSP) and SG tubing materials. Based on visual inspections, it was found that the gaps between SG tubing material and TSP at the lower part of the broached holes were getting progressively blocked. Therefore, for safe operation, most affected PWRs had to be operated at reduced power. TSP blockage was mainly observed for low-pH water chemistry conditioning, which directly depends on the operating water chemistry. The TSP blockage mechanism is complex due to the localized conditions in which flow pattern change, chemistry and electrochemical conditions are not well understood. Electrokinetic considerations could be pointed out to explain the coupling of chemistry, materials and thermohydraulic (T/H) conditions. In this frame AREVA and EDF have launched a long-term R and D program in order to understand the mechanisms driving the formation of SG clogging. This study based on parametric laboratory tests aims to assess the role of secondary water chemistry, material and T/H conditions on deposit formation. The experimental approach focused on electrokinetic measurements of metallic substrates and on the assessment of oxidation properties of materials in secondary side chemistry. An overall analysis of recent results is presented to address SG deposit formation in secondary water chemistry for various conditioning amines - morpholine, ethanolamine and dimethylamine. To complete the study, the experimental results have been correlated to CFD simulations of particle deposition, by means of stochastic Lagrangian models. These calculations have in particular reproduced correctly the location of the most important particle deposit (the leading edge of the test tube), and have stressed the influence of the

  16. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  17. Mechanism of the formation of hollow spherical granules using a high shear granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takumi; Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Ochiai, Yasushi; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-05-30

    Recently, we have developed a novel granulation technology to manufacture hollow spherical granules (HSGs) for controlled-release formulations; however, the mechanism of the granulation is still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of the formation of the HSGs using a high shear granulator. Samples of granulated material were collected at various times during granulation and were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray computed tomography. It was observed that the granulation proceeded by drug layering to the polymer, followed by formation of a hollow in the granule. In addition, it was also found that generation of a crack in the adhered drug layer and air flow into the granules might be involved in forming the hollow in the structure. Observation of the granulation of formulations with different types of drugs and polymers indicated that negative pressure in the granules occurred and the granules caved in when the hollow was formed. The hollow-forming speed and the shell density of the hollow granules depended on the particular drug and polymer. Taken together, the granulation mechanism of HSGs was determined and this information will be valuable for HSGs technology development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F.; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R.; Cullis, Brian R.; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Background The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority...

  19. Designing sgRNAs with CRISPy web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blin, Kai; Lee, Sang Yup; Weber, Tilmann

    2017-01-01

    Tilmann Weber’s group at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability developed a user-friendly, web server implementation of the sgRNA prediction software, CRISPy, for non-computer scientists.......Tilmann Weber’s group at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability developed a user-friendly, web server implementation of the sgRNA prediction software, CRISPy, for non-computer scientists....

  20. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  1. Distribution of binder in granules produced by means of twin screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Fussell, Andrew Luke; Vercruysse, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    According to the quality by design principle processes may not remain black-boxes and full process understanding is required. The granule size distribution of granules produced via twin screw granulation is often found to be bimodal. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding...

  2. The paradox of high shear granulation : the formation of non-homogeneous granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, Kaspar van den

    2004-01-01

    Wet granulation is a process used for the particle size enlargement of primary powders. The mixing of a liquid with the powder glues the primary particles together, which results in the formation of the granules. The mixing action can be performed in many ways, like tumbling (drum granulation),

  3. Structural integrity evaluation of SG tube with surface wear-type defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Nam Su; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Joung Soo

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades, several guidelines have been developed and used for assessing the integrity of a defective Steam Generator (SG) tube that is generally caused by stress corrosion cracking or wall-thinning phenomenon. However, as some of SG tubes are also failed due to fretting and so on, alternative failure estimation schemes are required for relevant defects. In this paper, parametric three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) analyses are carried out under internal pressure condition to simulate the failure behavior of SG tubes with different defect configurations; elliptical wear, tapered and flat wear type defects. Maximum pressures based on material strengths are obtained from more than a hundred FE results to predict the failure of SG tube. After investigating the effect of key parameters such as defect depth, defect length and wrap angle, simplified failure estimation equations are proposed in relation to the equivalent stress at the deepest point in wear region. Comparison of failure pressures predicted by the proposed estimation scheme with corresponding burst test data showed a good agreement

  4. APPLICATION OF GRANULATION TECHNOLOGY IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. YEGOROV

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Science and practice proved the high efficiency of granulated mixed fodders. This article presents an overview of granulation technologies for various industries. This article discusses the application of granulation technologies in various industries. The processes of granulation are mass technological processes currently used in a wide range of industries: feed industry, food industry, pharmaceutical industry, fertilizer production, polyethylene, metal production, mining, etc. A wide range of different materials are granulated, including chemicals, iron ore, mixed fodder, and much more. Granulation is a process of pressing or shaping a material in the form of granulesGranulation is widely used in the production of pigments, dyes, synthetic detergents, catalysts, plastics, soot, chemical reagents, etc. The use of granular raw materials in the metallurgical industry helps not only to mechanize processes, but also to increase their intensity by increasing the contact surface of interacting media. Granular fertilizers retain their properties for a long time. In the mining industry, granulation processes are used at the stage of preparation and enrichment of raw materials and release of the finished product.  Particular attention is paid to the feed industry. Granulation allows to ensure stable homogeneity, to improve sanitary and hygienic parameters, to increase nutritional value, to increase the storage period, improve the physical properties. However, despite all the advantages, the existing granulation production lines have a relatively high productivity and, at the same time, a high energy intensity. In this regard, this article proposes a technology for improving the granulation of mixed fodders. According to a preliminary literary review, It should be concluded that improving the technology of the granulation process for feed production is a topical issue in the feed industry today. The development of technology for improving the

  5. Coating of waste containing ceramic granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage

  6. Multiphase flow in spout fluidized bed granulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenen, van M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Spout fluidized beds are frequently used for the production of granules or particles through granulation, which are widely applied, for example, in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, food and fertilizers (M¨orl et al. 2007). Spout fluidized beds have a number of advantageous properties,

  7. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Organization of spinocerebellar projection map in three types of agranular cerebellum: Purkinje cells vs. granule cells as organizer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenio Nunes, M.L.; Sotelo, C.; Wehrle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The organization of the spinocerebellar projection was analysed by the anterograde axonal WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase-wheat germ agglutinin conjugate) tracing method in three different types of agranular cerebellar cortex either induced experimentally by X-irradiation or occurring spontaneously in weaver (wv/wv) and staggerer (sg/sg) mutant mice. The results of this study show that in the X-irradiated rat and weaver mouse, in both of which the granule cells are directly affected and die early in development, the spinal axons reproduce, with few differences, the normal spinocerebellar pattern. Conversely, in staggerer mouse, in which the Purkinje cells are intrinsically affected and granule neurons do not seem to be primarily perturbed by the staggerer gene action, the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified. These findings appear somewhat paradoxical because if granule cells, the synaptic targets of mossy spinocerebellar fibers, were necessary for the organization of spinocerebellar projection, the staggerer cerebellum would exhibit a much more normal projectional map than the weaver and the X-irradiated cerebella. It is, therefore, obvious that granule cells, and even specific synaptogenesis, are not essential for the establishment of the normal spinocerebellar topography. On the other hand, the fact that the Purkinje cells are primarily affected in the unique agranular cortex in which the spinocerebellar organization is severely modified suggests that these neurons could be the main element in the organization of the spinocerebellar projection map. This hypothesis is discussed in correlation with already-reported findings on the zonation of the cerebellar cortex by biochemically different clusters of Purkinje cells

  9. THE STUDY OF THE KINETIC OF NATURAL ZEOLITE GRANULES GROWTH AT DIFFERENT WAYS OF GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybachuk VD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Active substances and excipients used in the manufacture of medicines in tablet form, in most cases, have poor technological properties. This fact determines the need for prior granulation of mass before compression. Granulators of various sizes and designs, running on different modes, made the formation, growth and consolidation of the powder particles that lead to obtain pellets of different shapes and sizes. From the literature it is known that granulation leads to two forms of granules: isodiametric and nonisodiametric. The first group of particles forms has globular shape with a smooth surface and the proportion in which the length, thickness and height are about the same. They are usually made by fluidized bed granulation, spray drying, pelletizing and granulation in dragee pan. Granules of nonisodiametric form in which length is several times the width and height are made mostly by extrusion and compacting. The geometrical parameters of obtained granules are affected by the properties of raw materials, the granulation modes, type and amount of added humidifier and so on. The shape and size of granules, from a technological point of view, are the key factors that contribute, except organoleptic characteristics of the product, its technological properties such as particle size distribution, bulk volume, the ability of the material to shrinkage, porosity, fluidity, mechanical strength and so on. Properly selected for specific conditions granulation method is able to provide the finished product with the specified technological parameters depending on the needs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of granulation method and its conditions on the kinetics of growth of the natural zeolite granules and some quality characteristics of obtained granules. Material & methods. As objects of study served the natural zeolite pellets produced using 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% potato starch paste and solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP

  10. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  11. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  13. Regularities of formation of granules at granulation of powdered materials in drum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbaliyev, G.I; Samedli, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text:Granulation of powdered materials in the presence of binding agent is widely used in the most multi-tankage productions of chemical, food, pharmaceutical, metallurgical and agrarian technology. Granulation of powdered materials with participation of liquid phase is carried out in screw, disk, plase-shaped and drum devices and also in devices with mixers. In all cases a formation and growth of granules takes place owing to wetting of separate particles of powder leading to agglomeration and coagulation of particles in their contact with each other. It is apparent that in early stage of granule formation a growth and formation of granules takes place owing to adherence of small particles and agglomerates to larger granules. The content of liquid phase owing to which are appeared adhesive, capillary and surface forces, keeping particles on surface of granule exerts an essential influence on process of granule formation. Besides composition of mixture, its moisture and physical-chemical properties of initial components a mixing frequency degree of filling and angle of inclination of the device, ratio of liquid and hard phases which defines finally qualitative characteristics of the process exert an essential influence on formation of granules as a result of agglomeration of particles of powder. Powder lamination on granule surface is as consequence of its consolidation whereas as a result of consolidation and compression, a binding agent containing in pores squeezed out to a surface, which increases a possibility and probability of further sticking of dry particles of powder. In all cases the further growth and completeness of form of granule is determined by distribution of concentration of binding agent in volume of granule, i.e. moisture content or moisture of granule surface

  14. STAC -- a new Swedish code for statistical analysis of cracks in SG-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.

    1997-01-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubes in pressurized water reactor plants are exposed to various types of degradation processes, among which stress corrosion cracking in particular has been observed. To be able to evaluate the safety importance of such cracking of SG-tubes one has to have a good and empirically founded knowledge about the scope and the size of the cracks as well as the rate of their continuous growth. The basis of experience is to a large extent constituted of the annually performed SG-inspections and crack sizing procedures. On the basis of this experience one can estimate the distribution of existing crack lengths, and modify this distribution with regard to maintenance (plugging) and the predicted rate of crack propagation. Finally, one can calculate the rupture probability of SG-tubes as a function of a given critical crack length. On account of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate an introductory study has been performed in order to get a survey of what has been done elsewhere in this field. The study resulted in a proposal of a computerizable model to be able to estimate the distribution of true cracks, to modify this distribution due to the crack growth and to compute the probability of tube rupture. The model has now been implemented in a compute code, called STAC (STatistical Analysis of Cracks). This paper is aimed to give a brief outline of the model to facilitate the understanding of the possibilities and limitations associated with the model

  15. Inclusive search for b → sg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe an inclusive search for flavor changing neutral current decays of the type b → s gluon in the SLD experiment. Models of b → sg indicate that the production of high momentum kaons is enhanced over background from standard B decays. If the branching ratio for b → sg is ∼ 10%, then such an enhancement should have a good signal to background ratio. The analysis makes use of the particle identification and high precision vertexing capabilities of SLD to search for such an enhancement. The data sample consists of 300K hadronic Z 0 decays collected between 1993 and 1997

  16. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution Profile of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor/Ca2+ Channels in α and β Cells of Pancreas: Dominant Localization in Secretory Granules and Common Error in Identification of Secretory Granule Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yong Suk; Yoo, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The α and β cells of pancreatic islet release important hormones in response to intracellular Ca increases that result from Ca releases through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphoshate receptor (IP3R)/Ca channels. Yet no systematic studies on distribution of IP3R/Ca channels have been done, prompting us to investigate the distribution of all 3 IP3R isoforms. Immunogold electron microscopy was performed to determine the presence and the relative concentrations of all 3 IP3R isoforms in 2 major organelles secretory granules (SGs) and the endoplasmic reticulum of α and β cells of rat pancreas. All 3 IP3R isoforms were present in SG membranes of both cells, and the IP3R concentrations in SGs were ∼2-fold higher than those in the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, large halos shown in the electron microscope images of insulin-containing SGs of β cells were gap spaces that resulted from separation of granule membranes from the surrounding cytoplasm. These results strongly suggest the important roles of SGs in IP3-induced, Ca-dependent regulatory secretory pathway in pancreas. Moreover, the accurate location of SG membranes of β cells was further confirmed by the location of another integral membrane protein synaptotagmin V and of membrane phospholipid PI(4,5)P2.

  18. Application of tumbling melt granulation (TMG) method to prepare controlled-release fine granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, T; Kubo, M; Osawa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M

    1998-03-01

    The tumbling melt granulation (TMG) method was applied to prepare controlled-release fine granules of diltiazem hydrochloride (DH). The entire process, from the preparation of the cores by the adherence of DH to the sucrose crystal to the subsequent coating of the controlled-release layer, was performed without using any solvent. A mixture of meltable material, talc, and ethylcellulose was used for the controlled-release layer and controlled-release fine granules approximately 400 microns in diameter were obtained with excellent producibility. The dissolution rate of DH from these fine granules was similar to that of a once-a-day dosage form obtained in the market; further, the dependency of the dissolution profile on pH of the media was less. Thus, it was concluded that this TMG method was very useful for preparing not only controlled-release beads of granule size (usually 500 to 1400 microns) but also fine granules.

  19. Morphological study of the solar granulation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, I.

    1980-01-01

    A time sequence of granulation images of 46 min long has allowed us to make a detailed study of the evolution of granules in an area of approximately 17 x 17 on the solar surface; It is found that the granules evolve by repeated fragmentation into smaller granules or merging with adjacent ones and that there are few granules which appear in the intergranular lanes as new granules (Table III). The statistical nature of granules is as follows: (1) A family of granules is defined as a group of granules produced from a single granule by fragmentation or merging. The lifetime is estimated for single granules and for families of granules. The lifetime shows a close correlation with the maximum size of a single granule or with that of the largest granule belonging to a family (Figures 5 and 7). (2) The smaller the size, the more probably a granule will disappear without further fragmentation or merging. The granule whose size is larger than 2 will certainly split or merge as the next evolutional step (Table IV.). (orig.)

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... morphometry and function. Eliane Florencio ... granules is greatest in the right atrium followed by the left atrium and left auricle and right auricle, in this order. ... family: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Urodilatin, Brain natriuretic ...

  1. Actinomyces associated with persistent vaginal granulation tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Clifford Y; Nihira, Mikio A; Drewes, Peter G; Chang, Joe S; Siddiqui, Momin T; Hemsell, David L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting. CASE: Three months after total vaginal hysterectomy and uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension, a woman complained of painless, intermittent vaginal discharge and spotting. Despite cauterization of granulation tissue, vaginal spotting persisted for another month. On re-examination, braided polyester sutu...

  2. Burst pressure and leak rate from fretted SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Jung, Man Kyo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2005-01-01

    Steam generator(SG) tubes of a pressurized water reactor(PWR) have suffered from various types of corrosion, such as pitting, wastage and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on both the primary and secondary side. Recently, fretting/wear degradation at the tube support region has been reported in some Korean nuclear power plants. In order to prevent the primary coolant from leaking to the secondary side, the tubes are repaired by a sleeving or plugging. It is important to establish the repair criteria to assure a reactor integrity and yet maintain the plugging ratio within the limits needed for an efficient operation. The objective of the burst test is to obtain a relationship between the burst/leak rate and the shape of the fretted flaws machined with an electro discharge machining (EDM)

  3. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  4. Granule size control and targeting in pulsed spray fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-07-30

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.

  5. Study of light scattering by a granulated coated sphere - a model of granulated blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; de Kanter, D.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    We performed extensive simulations of light scattering by granulated coated sphere model using the discrete dipole approximation and varying model parameters in the ranges of sizes and refractive indices of granulated blood cells. We compared these results with predictions of Maxwell-Garnett

  6. Investigation of Physicochemical Drug Properties to Prepare Fine Globular Granules Composed of Only Drug Substance in Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some drug properties (wettability and particle size distribution) on granule properties (mean particle size, particle size distribution, sphericity, and granule strength) were investigated in a high (>97%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution. Granules with mean particle sizes of 100-200 µm and a narrow particle size distribution (PSD) could be prepared regardless of the drug used. IBU and ETZ granules showed a higher sphericity than APAP granules, while APAP and ETZ granules exhibited higher granule strength than IBU. The relationship between drug and granule properties suggested that the wettability and the PSD of the drugs were critical parameters affecting sphericity and granule strength, respectively. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of granules prepared with poorly water-soluble drugs (IBU and ETZ) showed a rapid release (80% release in 20 min) because of the improved wettability with granulation. The present study demonstrated for the first time that fluidized bed rotor granulation can prepare high drug-loaded (>97%) globular granules with a mean particle size of less than 200 µm and the relationship between physicochemical drug properties and the properties of the granules obtained could be readily determined, indicating the potential for further application of this methodology to various drugs.

  7. [In silico CRISPR-based sgRNA design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanli; Chuai, Guohui; Yan, Jifang; Shi, Lei; Liu, Qi

    2017-10-25

    CRISPR-based genome editing has been widely implemented in various cell types. In-silico single guide RNA (sgRNA) design is a key step for successful gene editing using CRISPR system. Continuing efforts are made to refine in-silico sgRNA design with high on-target efficacy and reduced off-target effects. In this paper, we summarize the present sgRNA design tools, and show that efficient in-silico models can be built that integrate current heterogeneous genome-editing data to derive unbiased sgRNA design rules and identify key features for improving sgRNA design. Our review shows that systematic comparisons and evaluation of on-target and off-target effects of sgRNA will allow more precise genome editing and gene therapies using the CRISPR system.

  8. Recent progress in SG level control in French PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, A.; Petetrot, J.F.; Vivier, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Controlling the steam generator (SG) level is of major importance in a large PWR plant. This has led to extensive work on SG computer models. This paper presents results of the comparison between calculations and tests on the first four-loop plant in France. Four-loop plants started up after 1985 will be equipped with digital instead of analog controllers. A new SG level control has been designed and then optimised using the validated SG model. A prototype of this new system has been successfully tested on a three-loop plant. 4 refs

  9. A Survey of Sludge Granulation Theories Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the different theories developed on anaerobic sludge granulation. The theories are generally categorized as physical, microbial, and thermodynamic approaches. In the physical approach to the granulation process, granulation is described by such physical conditions of the reactor as upflow velocity of gas and liquid streams, suspended solids in the effluent flow, and excess sludge removal. Microbial theories are based on the properties of specific organisms and on granule properties (granule structure and its microbiology. The thermodynamic approach studies such factors as hydrophobia, electrophoretic mobility, effective energy in granule adhesion process, and effect of proton transferring activities on bacterial membrane surfaces.

  10. Study of granulated nickel alloy superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoshkin, N.F.; Fatkullin, O.Kh.; Ermanok, M.Z.; Sharshagin, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structure and properties of compact material obtained from granules of the EhI 698 and ZhS6U alloys in the form of pressed rods are investigated. It is shown, that granule metallurgy is the most rational technology method, ensuring the receipt of stable fine-grained structure in the initial blank. After appropriate thermal treatment the products obtained by the method of granule metallyrgy have more high strength characteristics at the room temperature and heat resistance, than typical for the products produced by traditional technology. Creation of specialized vertical presses providing low rates of deformation as well as their equipment by vacuum mechanizms which permit to use a tool from molybdenum alloys is necessary for successful introduction into production of the processes of plastic metal working under conditions of superplasticity

  11. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  12. Chromospheric impact of an exploding solar granule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C. E.; Bello González, N.; Rezaei, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Observations of multi-wavelength and therefore height-dependent information following events throughout the solar atmosphere and unambiguously assigning a relation between these rapidly evolving layers are rare and difficult to obtain. Yet, they are crucial for our understanding of the physical processes that couple the different regimes in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We characterize the exploding granule event with simultaneous observations of Hinode spectroplarimetric data in the solar photosphere and Hinode broadband Ca II H images combined with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit spectra. We follow the evolution of an exploding granule and its connectivity throughout the atmosphere and analyze the dynamics of a magnetic element that has been affected by the abnormal granule. Methods: In addition to magnetic flux maps we use a local correlation tracking method to infer the horizontal velocity flows in the photosphere and apply a wavelet analysis on several IRIS chromospheric emission features such as Mg II k2v and Mg II k3 to detect oscillatory phenomena indicating wave propagation. Results: During the vigorous expansion of the abnormal granule we detect radially outward horizontal flows, causing, together with the horizontal flows from the surrounding granules, the magnetic elements in the bordering intergranular lanes to be squeezed and elongated. In reaction to the squeezing, we detect a chromospheric intensity and velocity oscillation pulse which we identify as an upward traveling hot shock front propagating clearly through the IRIS spectral line diagnostics of Mg II h&k. Conclusions: Exploding granules can trigger upward-propagating shock fronts that dissipate in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. A.1 and A.2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Lemongrass Oil Granules AS Aedes Aegypti Larvicide

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyani, Sri

    2014-01-01

    One way to prevent the spread of Haemorrhage Dengue Fever is the use of abate. The use of abate as larvicides often complained causing an unpleasant smell, and can cause resistance. Lemongrass oil is reported to have activity as larvicides, and this study aims to make granules of lemongrass oil preparation, as well as determining the value of LC50, LC90 against larvae of Ae. aegypti instar III. The granules of lemongrass oil preparation are made with lactose filler and binder CMC-Na. Larvicid...

  14. Method of producing granulated ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    For the production of granulated ceramic nuclear fuels with a grain size spectrum as narrow as possible it is proposed to suspend the nuclear fuel powder in a non-aqueous solvent with small content of hydrogen (e.g. chloridized hydrocarbons) while adding a binding agent and then dry it by means of rays. As binding agent polybutyl methane acrylate in dibutyl phthalate is proposed. The method is described by the example of UO 2 -powder in trichloroethylene. The dry granulated material is produced in one working step. (UWI) [de

  15. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  16. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  17. Molecular composition of IMP1 ribonucleoprotein granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Vikesaa, Jonas; Krogh, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in mo......Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization...

  18. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  19. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  20. Sodium phenylbutyrate coated granules (Pheburane). Defective urea synthesis: a welcome formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Compared with Ammonaps granules, Pheburane coated granules mask the unpleasant taste of sodium phenylbutyrate. A more precise dosing device is provided with the coated granules than with the uncoated granules (Ammonaps).

  1. Detection and Analysis of the Quality of Ibuprofen Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-bin, Ji; Xin, LI; Guo-song, Xin; Qin-bing, Xue

    2017-12-01

    The Ibuprofen Granules comprehensive quality testing to ensure that it is in accordance with the provisions of Chinese pharmacopoeia. With reference of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the Ibuprofen Granules is tested by UV, HPLC, in terms of grain size checking, volume deviation, weight loss on drying detection, dissolution rate detection, and quality evaluation. Results indicated that Ibuprofen Granules conform to the standards. The Ibuprofen Granules are qualified and should be permitted to be marketed.

  2. Tracheostomy Decannulation: Suprastomal Granulation Tissue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suprastomal granulation tissue is a complication of tracheostomy which may make decannulation difficult and presents a therapeutic challenge to the Otorhinolaryngologists. The aims of this study therefore were to evaluate tracheostomy in black African population, determine the prevalence of suprastomal ...

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very electron dense ...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1468 - Naproxen granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1468 Naproxen granules. (a... musculoskeletal system of the horse. (2)(i) For oral maintenance therapy following initial intravenous dosage...

  5. Water Filtration through Homogeneous Granulated Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krautsou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.

  6. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole granules. 520.905b Section 520.905b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905b Fenbendazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of granules contains 222 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b) Sponsor. See...

  8. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of uncapped mRNAs under heat stress in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have showed that Tudor Staphylococcal Nuclease (TSN or Tudor-SN proteins (TSN1 and TSN2 are localized in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP complexes called stress granules (SG and processing bodies (PB under heat stress in Arabidopsis. One of the primary functions of these mRNP complexes is mRNA decay, which generates uncapped mRNAs by the action of endonucleases and decapping enzymes (Thomas et al., 2011 [1]. In order to figure out whether TSN proteins could be implicated in mRNA decay, we isolated uncapped and total mRNAs of Wild type (WT; Col and Ler and TSN double knock-out (tsn1tsn2 seedlings grown under heat stress (39 °C for 40 min and control (23 °C conditions. Here, we provide the experimental procedure to reproduce the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE63522 published by Gutierrez-Beltran et al. (2015 in The Plant Cell [2].

  10. Oscillating behavior of carbohydrate granule formation and dinitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Nayar, S.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that some aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacteria temporally separate photosynthetic O2 evolution and oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation. Cyanothece sp. ATCC strain 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that fixes N2 during discrete periods of its cell cycle. When the bacteria are maintained under diurnal light-dark cycles, N2 fixation occurs in the dark. Similar cycling is observed in continuous light, implicating a circadian rhythm. Under N2-fixing conditions, large inclusion granules form between the thylakoid membranes. Maximum granulation, as observed by electron microscopy, occurs before the onset of N2 fixation, and the granules decrease in number during the period of N2 fixation. The granules can be purified from cell homogenates by differential centrifugation. Biochemical analyses of the granules indicate that these structures are primarily carbohydrate, with some protein. Further analyses of the carbohydrate have shown that it is a glucose polymer with some characteristics of glycogen. It is proposed that N2 fixation is driven by energy and reducing power stored in these inclusion granules. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 represents an excellent experimental organism for the study of the protective mechanisms of nitrogenase, metabolic events in cyanobacteria under normal and stress conditions, the partitioning of resources between growth and storage, and biological rhythms.

  11. Reactor Power Meter type SG-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1981-01-01

    The report describes the principle and electronic circuits of the Reactor Power Meter type SG-8. The gamma radiation caused by the activity of the reactor first cooling circuit affectes the ionization chamber being the detector of the instrument. The output detector signal direct current is converted into the frequency of electric pulses by means of the current-to-frequency converter. The output converter frequency is measured by the digital frequency meter: the number of measured digits in time unit is proportional to the reactor power.

  12. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  13. Granulation of snow: From tumbler experiments to discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.

  14. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  15. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...... in beige mice are grossly enlarged with 1-2 granules per juxtaglomerular cell. Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole. Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable...

  16. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R; Cullis, Brian R; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority of the studies that have considered granule types analyse them based on a size threshold rather than chemical composition. This is understandable due to the expense of separating starch into different types. While the use of a size threshold to classify granule type is a low-cost measure, this results in misclassification. We present an alternative, statistical method to quantify the proportion of granule types by a fit of the mixture distribution, along with an R package, a web based app and a video tutorial for how to use the web app to enable its straightforward application. Our results show that the reliability of the genotypic effects increase approximately 60% using the proportions of the A-type and B-type granule estimated by the mixture distribution over the standard size-threshold measure. Although there was a marginal drop in reliability for C-type granules. The latter is likely due to the low observed genetic variance for C-type granules. The determination of the proportion of granule types from size-distribution is better achieved by using the mixing probabilities from the fit of the mixture distribution rather than using a size-threshold.

  17. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which...... increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter−1h−1 at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s−1 and 0...

  18. Mitigation of corrosion product ingress into SG's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    Design and operation experiences to mitigate corrosion product ingress into SGs in Korea nuclear power plants are briefly reviewed. Maintaining the feedwater pH above 9.6 with morpholine seems to contribute significantly to reduction of iron transport to SGs. Measured iron transport rates were 4.8 g/hr/100 MWe at pH 9.8 and 2.8 g/hr/100 MWe at 9.3, respectively. Removal of corrosion products through SG blowdown is very limited. Its removal efficiency at the higher pH plant was in the neighborhood of 10 %. In one of the Korea Nuclear Units, a large amount of sludge piles were found in the middle of tube bundles especially on the cold leg side. Damaged tubes were identified by the multi-frequency eddy current tests and plugged later during the refueling period. Intermittent blowdown-rate increase was tried to enhance ionic impurity removal through SG blowdown. Even though it was not effective against Na, removal other impurity was improved, resulting in prolonged condensate polisher operation periods by 1 - 2 days. Two-bed polisher design, a cation bed followed by a mixed bed, was chosen for future PWR plants to enhance corrosion product filtering capability of the polishers. Condensate pump discharge polishing and divided hot well polishing methods are currently in consideration. (Nogami, K.)

  19. SG39 Deliverables. Comments on Covariance Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The covariance matrix of a scattered data set, x_i (i=1,n), must be symmetric and positive-definite. As one of WPEC/SG39 contributions to the SG40/CIELO project, several comments or recommendations on the covariance data are described here from the viewpoint of nuclear-data users. To make the comments concrete and useful for nuclear-data evaluators, the covariance data of the latest evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are treated here as the representative materials. The surveyed nuclides are five isotopes that are most important for fast reactor application. The nuclides, reactions and energy regions dealt with are followings: Pu-239: fission (2.5∼10 keV) and capture (2.5∼10 keV), U-235: fission (500 eV∼10 keV) and capture (500 eV∼30 keV), U-238: fission (1∼10 MeV), capture (below 20 keV, 20∼150 keV), inelastic (above 100 keV) and elastic (above 20 keV), Fe-56: elastic (below 850 keV) and average scattering cosine (above 10 keV), and, Na-23: capture (600 eV∼600 keV), inelastic (above 1 MeV) and elastic (around 2 keV)

  20. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSarge, Candi L; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C

    2015-03-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offsets the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predict a net increase in granule cell innervation of CA3. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell communication with CA3. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of high-power ultrasound induced damage on potato starch granules using light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yue Yue J; Hébraud, Pascal; Hemar, Yacine; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-05-01

    A simple light microscopic technique was developed in order to quantify the damage inflicted by high-power low-frequency ultrasound (0-160 W, 20 kHz) treatment on potato starch granules in aqueous dispersions. The surface properties of the starch granules were modified using ethanol and SDS washing methods, which are known to displace proteins and lipids from the surface of the starch granules. The study showed that in the case of normal and ethanol-washed potato starch dispersions, two linear regions were observed. The number of defects first increased linearly with an increase in ultrasound power up to a threshold level. This was then followed by another linear dependence of the number of defects on the ultrasound power. The power threshold where the change-over occurred was higher for the ethanol-washed potato dispersions compared to non-washed potato dispersions. In the case of SDS-washed potato starch, although the increase in defects was linear with the ultrasound power, the power threshold for a second linear region was not observed. These results are discussed in terms of the different possible mechanisms of cavitation induced-damage (hydrodynamic shear stresses and micro-jetting) and by taking into account the hydrophobicity of the starch granule surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced evaluation method of SG TSP BEC hole blockage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Harada, Yutaka; Murakami, Ryuji

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the control of the water chemistry of SG secondary feed-water in PWR-SG, SG TSP BEC holes, which are the flow path of secondary water, are often clogged. In the past, the trending of BEC hole blockage rate has conducted by evaluating ECT original signals and visual inspections. However, the ECT original signals of deposits are diversified, it becomes difficult to analyze them with the existing evaluation method using the ECT original signals. In this regard, we have developed the secondary side visual inspection system, which enables the high-accuracy evaluation of BEC hole blockage rate, and new ECT signal evaluation method. (author)

  3. KIF20A-Mediated RNA Granule Transport System Promotes the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Taniuchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancers are aggressive because they are highly invasive and highly metastatic; moreover, effective treatments for aggressive pancreatic cancers are lacking. Here, we report that the motor kinesin protein KIF20A promoted the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through transporting the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts toward cell protrusions along microtubules. We previously reported that IGF2BP3 and its target transcripts are assembled into cytoplasmic stress granules of pancreatic cancer cells, and that IGF2BP3 promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of localized translation of IGF2BP3-bound transcripts in cell protrusions. We show that knockdown of KIF20A inhibited accumulation of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules in cell protrusions and suppressed local protein expression from specific IGF2BP3-bound transcripts, ARF6 and ARHGEF4, in the protrusions. Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of KIF20A-mediated trafficking of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules and modulation of the motility and invasiveness in pancreatic cancers.

  4. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate......, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential....

  5. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  7. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L.; Wilam, M. [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M. [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  8. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L; Wilam, M [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  9. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2008-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  10. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Denizli (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  11. Rab3A, a possible marker of cortical granules, participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Oscar Daniel; Cappa, Andrea Isabel; Paola, Matilde de; Zanetti, María Natalia [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Fukuda, Mitsunori [Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fissore, Rafael A. [Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 661 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mayorga, Luis S. [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: mmichaut@gmail.com [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina)

    2016-09-10

    Fusion of cortical granules with the oocyte plasma membrane is the most significant event to prevent polyspermy. This particular exocytosis, also known as cortical reaction, is regulated by calcium and its molecular mechanism is still not known. Rab3A, a member of the small GTP-binding protein superfamily, has been implicated in calcium-dependent exocytosis and is not yet clear whether Rab3A participates in cortical granules exocytosis. Here, we examine the involvement of Rab3A in the physiology of cortical granules, particularly, in their distribution during oocyte maturation and activation, and their participation in membrane fusion during cortical granule exocytosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that Rab3A and cortical granules have a similar migration pattern during oocyte maturation, and that Rab3A is no longer detected after cortical granule exocytosis. These results suggested that Rab3A might be a marker of cortical granules. Overexpression of EGFP-Rab3A colocalized with cortical granules with a Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.967, indicating that Rab3A and cortical granules have almost a perfect colocalization in the egg cortical region. Using a functional assay, we demonstrated that microinjection of recombinant, prenylated and active GST-Rab3A triggered cortical granule exocytosis, indicating that Rab3A has an active role in this secretory pathway. To confirm this active role, we inhibited the function of endogenous Rab3A by microinjecting a polyclonal antibody raised against Rab3A prior to parthenogenetic activation. Our results showed that Rab3A antibody microinjection abolished cortical granule exocytosis in parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Altogether, our findings confirm that Rab3A might function as a marker of cortical granules and participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs. - Highlights: • Rab3A has a similar migration pattern to cortical granules in mouse oocytes. • Rab3A can be a marker of

  12. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Park, Chul; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed with 2% glucose and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and pH 5.0 ± 0.1 under a thermophilic condition (50°C). The mixed liquor in the CSTR was then transferred to an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The fermentation performance and granulation process were monitored with a gradual decrease of HRT from 8.0 to 0.17 h, corresponding to an increase in the substrate loading from 60 to 2,880 g glucose L(-1) d(-1) . As the operation continued, the accumulation of biomass in the UASB was clearly observed, which changed from flocculent to granular form with decrease in HRT. Up to the HRT decrease to 0.5 h, the LA concentration was maintained at 19-20 g L(-1) with over 90% of substrate removal efficiency. However, further decrease of HRT resulted in a decrease of LA concentration with increase in residual glucose. Nevertheless, the volumetric LA productivity continuously increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter (-1) h(-1) at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s(-1) and 0.39-0.92, respectively. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Disintegration of aerobic granules induced by trans-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multimodal approach to characterization of hydrophilic matrices manufactured by wet and dry granulation or direct compression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Woyna-Orlewicz, Krzysztof; Obrał, Jadwiga; Rappen, Gerd-Martin; Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Wyszogrodzka, Gabriela; Klaja, Jolanta; Dorożyński, Przemysław P

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the effect of the manufacturing process of the controlled release hydrophilic matrix tablets on their hydration behavior, internal structure and drug release. Direct compression (DC) quetiapine hemifumarate matrices and matrices made of powders obtained by dry granulation (DG) and high shear wet granulation (HS) were prepared. They had the same quantitative composition and they were evaluated using X-ray microtomography, magnetic resonance imaging and biorelevant stress test dissolution. Principal results concerned matrices after 2 h of hydration: (i) layered structure of the DC and DG hydrated tablets with magnetic resonance image intensity decreasing towards the center of the matrix was observed, while in HS matrices layer of lower intensity appeared in the middle of hydrated part; (ii) the DC and DG tablets retained their core and consequently exhibited higher resistance to the physiological stresses during simulation of small intestinal passage than HS formulation. Comparing to DC, HS granulation changed properties of the matrix in terms of hydration pattern and resistance to stress in biorelevant dissolution apparatus. Dry granulation did not change these properties-similar hydration pattern and dissolution in biorelevant conditions were observed for DC and DG matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  17. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  18. New developments on transition radiation detectors using superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.C.L.

    1977-01-01

    By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system

  19. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals.

  20. WPEC Subgroup Meetings. Joint SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, 14 May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, M.; Archier, P.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, Massimo; Dupont, E.; ); Leal, L.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This document is the proceedings of the Joint SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 19-20 May 2015. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: 1 - CIELO Progress (M. Chadwick); 2 - Revised Recommendations from ADJ2010 Adjustment (K. Yokoyama); 3 - Comparisons and Discussions on Adjustment trends from JEFF (CEA) (P. Archier); 4 - Feedback on CIELO Isotopes from ENDF/B-VII.0 Adjustment (G. Palmiotti); 5 - Demonstration - Plot comparisons of participants' results (E. Dupont); 6 - Some very preliminary indications from recent adjustment studies intercomparison (M. Salvatores); 7 - Resonance Region of "5"6Fe for the CIELO Project (L. Leal); 8 - A-priori and a-posteriori covariance data in nuclear cross section adjustments: issues and challenges (G. Palmiotti); 9 - Comments on Covariance Data of JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 (K

  1. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all

  2. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  3. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  4. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  5. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  6. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  7. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)

  8. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  9. Consolidating nanoparticles in micron-sized granules using spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, J S; Wahlberg, M

    2011-01-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (SiO 2 , SiC, TiO2, CNT, Nanoclay and Hydroxyapatite) were spray dried to produce dry granulated products. The nanoparticles were consolidated in granules making them more convenient and safer to use in further processing compared to handling of nanopowders.

  10. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  11. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro eJinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  12. Benchmarking CRISPR on-target sgRNA design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jifang; Chuai, Guohui; Zhou, Chi; Zhu, Chenyu; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Feng; Xu, Han; Wei, Jia; Liu, Qi

    2017-02-15

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-based gene editing has been widely implemented in various cell types and organisms. A major challenge in the effective application of the CRISPR system is the need to design highly efficient single-guide RNA (sgRNA) with minimal off-target cleavage. Several tools are available for sgRNA design, while limited tools were compared. In our opinion, benchmarking the performance of the available tools and indicating their applicable scenarios are important issues. Moreover, whether the reported sgRNA design rules are reproducible across different sgRNA libraries, cell types and organisms remains unclear. In our study, a systematic and unbiased benchmark of the sgRNA predicting efficacy was performed on nine representative on-target design tools, based on six benchmark data sets covering five different cell types. The benchmark study presented here provides novel quantitative insights into the available CRISPR tools. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A review on granules initiation and development inside UASB Reactor and the main factors affecting granules formation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, Ab Aziz Bin Abdul; Daud, Zawawi Bin; Ahmad, Zulkifli Bin [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Decades of investigations and explorations in the field of anaerobic wastewater treatment have resulted in significant indications about the role importance of sludge granules in biodegradation anaerobic process. It is believed that the development of anaerobic granules is reflecting an important role on the performance of reactor. An overview on the concept of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operation as well as the main parts that reactor consists of is briefly explained in this paper, whereas the major theories of anaerobic granules formation are listed by related researchers. The correlations and compositions of such sludge granule have been specifically explained. It is believed that the extracellular polymer (ECP) is totally responsible of bacterial cell correlations and the formation of bacterial communities in the form of granules. In addition, the dependable factors for the performance of anaerobic granules formation process e.g. temperature, organic loading rate, pH, and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations and heavy metals have been discussed in this paper. Strong evidences proved that the process of gas production in the form of biogas is related to the methanogens activities, which are practically found in the core of granules. The aim of this review is to explore and assess the mechanisms of granules initiation and development inside UASB reactor.

  14. Joint Effects of Granule Size and Degree of Substitution on Octenylsuccinated Sweet Potato Starch Granules As Pickering Emulsion Stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Ye, Fayin; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-05-02

    The granules of sweet potato starch were size fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters ( D 50 ) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized), and 16.96 μm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DS m ) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium), and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion-stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DS m on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology. For small-, medium-, and large-sized fractions, their highest emulsifying capacities are comparable but, respectively, encountered at high (0.0225), medium (0.0158), and low (0.0095) DS m levels. The emulsion droplet size increased with granule size, and the number of freely scattered granules in emulsions decreased with DS m . In addition, the term of surface density of the octenyl succinic group (SD -OSG ) was first proposed for modified starch granules, and it was proved better than DS m in interpreting the emulsifying capacities of starch granules with varying sizes. The present results implied that, as the particulate stabilizers, the optimal DS m of modified starch granules is size specific.

  15. How Deformation Behavior Controls Product Performance After Twin Screw Granulation With High Drug Loads and Crospovidone as Disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the quantitative influence of 12 different materials (active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients as surrogate active pharmaceutical ingredients) on the critical quality attributes of twin screw granulated products and subsequently produced tablets. Prestudies demonstrated the significant influence of the chosen model materials (in combination with crospovidone) on the disintegration behavior of the resulting tablets, despite comparable tablet porosities. This study elucidates possible reasons for the varying disintegration behavior by investigating raw material, granule, and tablet properties. An answer could be found in the mechanical properties of the raw materials and the produced granules. Through compressibility studies, the materials could be classified into materials with high compressibility, which deform rather plastically under compression stress, and low compressibility, which display breakages under compression stress. In general, and apart from (pseudo)-polymorphic transformations, brittle materials featured excellent disintegration performance, even at low resulting tablet porosities plastically deformable materials mostly did not reveal any disintegration. These findings must be considered in the development of simplified formulations with high drug loads, in which the active pharmaceutical ingredient predominantly defines the deformation behavior of the granule. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-shear granulation as a manufacturing method for cocrystal granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Sönke; Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    and the respective excipients). The drug release was slightly decreased by cocrystal formation, most likely due to the lower solubility of the cocrystal. In the presence of calcium hydrogenphosphate however, no influence of cocrystal formation on either compactability or on drug release were observed, compared...... with the reference tablets. It was concluded that high-shear wet granulation is a valuable, however complex, manufacturing method for cocrystals. Cocrystal formation may influence compactability and drug release and thus affect drug performance and should be investigated during pre-formulation.......Cocrystal formation allows the tailoring of physicochemical as well as of mechanical properties of an API. However, there is a lack of large-scale manufacturing methods of cocrystals. Therefore, the objective of this work was to examine the suitability of high-shear wet granulation...

  17. The Solar-flux Third Granulation Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David F.; Oostra, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The velocity shifts of spectral lines as a function of line strength, so-called the third signature of granulation, are investigated using three published solar-flux atlases. We use flux atlases because we wish to treat the Sun as a star, against which stellar observations can be compared and judged. The atlases are critiqued and compared to the lower-resolution observations taken with the Elginfield stellar spectrograph. Third-signature plots are constructed for the 6020–6340 Å region. No dependence on excitation potential or wavelength is found over this wavelength span. The shape of the plots from the three solar atlases is essentially the same, with rms line-core velocity differences of 30–35 m s‑1. High-resolution atlas data are degraded to the level of the Elginfield spectrograph and compared to direct observations taken with that spectrograph. The line-core velocities show good agreement, with rms differences of 38 m s‑1. A new standard curve is derived and compared with the previously published one. Only small differences in shape are found, but a significant (+97 m s‑1) change in the zero point is indicated. The bisector of the Fe I 6253 line is mapped onto the third-signature plots and flux deficits are derived, which measure the granule/lane flux imbalance. The lower spectral resolution lowers the flux deficit area slightly and moves the peak of the deficit 0.3–0.5 km s‑1 toward higher velocities. These differences, while significant, are not large compared to measurement errors for stellar data.

  18. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  19. Root cause analysis of SG tube leakage at Fessenheim unit 2 in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.; Deotto, G.; Mathon, C.; Madurel, A.; Pitner, P.; Gay, N.; Guivarch, M.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2008, a primary-to-secondary leak caused an unscheduled shutdown at Fessenheim Unit 2 NPP. A circumferential crack was observed just above the top support plate of Row 12 Column 62 U-bend tube on Steam Generator (SG) number 3, which has been attributed to high cycle fatigue. This tube was pulled out in 2011, just before the SG replacement at the third decenal outage, in order to perform exhaustive metallurgical investigations. The destructive examinations revealed that the circumferential crack (70 degrees of extension) was due to high cycle fatigue, with several external initiation areas associated with the presence of small piles of Intergranular Attack (IGA) (600 MA tube) and with very low stress intensity factors ΔK (close to the non-propagating threshold region). This paper complements the metallurgical investigations by carrying out numerical analyses (thermal-hydraulic computation, fluid-elastic instability evaluation, tube vibratory response analysis and fatigue evaluation). The first objective of the study is to attempt to clarify the effect of IGA and the role of several competing factors that could be involved in the tube vibration induced fatigue failure. From these results, a root cause analysis of the R12C62 tube fatigue failure is then provided. It appears that a combination of various factors led to the failure of the tube

  20. Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Kulis, Michael J.; Lytle, John K.; Fisher, John W.; Vaccaro, Helen; Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical needs are a key to long term space missions. Currently, trash and waste generated during a mission is carried during the entire roundtrip mission or stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The goal of the Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) project is to develop space technology alternatives for converting trash and other waste materials from human spaceflight into high-value products that might include propellants or power system fuels in addition to life support oxygen and water. In addition to producing a useful product from waste, TtSG will decrease the volume needed to store waste on long term space missions. This paper presents an overview of the TtSG technologies and future plans for the project.

  1. UNCERTAINTY HANDLING IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT USING HIERARCHICAL ROUGH SET GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sheikhian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the main concerns in geospatial data analysis. It affects different parts of decision making based on such data. In this paper, a new methodology to handle uncertainty for multi-criteria decision making problems is proposed. It integrates hierarchical rough granulation and rule extraction to build an accurate classifier. Rough granulation provides information granules with a detailed quality assessment. The granules are the basis for the rule extraction in granular computing, which applies quality measures on the rules to obtain the best set of classification rules. The proposed methodology is applied to assess seismic physical vulnerability in Tehran. Six effective criteria reflecting building age, height and material, topographic slope and earthquake intensity of the North Tehran fault have been tested. The criteria were discretized and the data set was granulated using a hierarchical rough method, where the best describing granules are determined according to the quality measures. The granules are fed into the granular computing algorithm resulting in classification rules that provide the highest prediction quality. This detailed uncertainty management resulted in 84% accuracy in prediction in a training data set. It was applied next to the whole study area to obtain the seismic vulnerability map of Tehran. A sensitivity analysis proved that earthquake intensity is the most effective criterion in the seismic vulnerability assessment of Tehran.

  2. Assessment of physical properties of granules with paracetamol and caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szumilo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine increases the analgesic properties of acetaminophen and therefore it is reasonable to use both substances together in one drug form in stronger pain. Currently, there are no commercially available pharmaceutical combination products containing acetaminophen and caffeine, which is present as granules. The aim of the study was to obtain twelve different granules with these therapeutic substances and determine the effect of various excipients on the quality of the drug form. All the granules were made by wet granulation. Two types of binders were used: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP as well as different types of fillers. The physical properties of granules were assessed in accordance to the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. The highest apparent density was found in preparations containing calcium hydrophosphate (0.609 g/mL and the lowest – containing mannitol (0.353 g/mL as a filler. The Hausner ratio of most prepared granules ranged from 1.05 to 1.11, while the compressibility index ranged from 4.59 to 10.48%. The evaluation of properties of individual granules helped to indicate formulation with good features, which perhaps will be a good alternative to currently available painkillers with caffeine and acetaminophen.

  3. RNA Binding Proteins in Eye Development and Disease: Implication of Conserved RNA Granule Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D.; Barnum, Carrie E.; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1 and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of post-transcriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila, as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated with for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as Processing bodies (P-bodies), Stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate post-transcriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2 and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving post-transcriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. PMID:27133484

  4. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  5. Mechanistic modelling of the drying behaviour of single pharmaceutical granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thérèse F.C. Mortier, Séverine; Beer, Thomas De; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    The trend to move towards continuous production processes in pharmaceutical applications enhances the necessity to develop mechanistic models to understand and control these processes. This work focuses on the drying behaviour of a single wet granule before tabletting, using a six...... phase (submodel 2), the water inside the granule evaporates. The second submodel contains an empirical power coefficient, b. A sensitivity analysis was performed to study the influence of parameters on the moisture content of single pharmaceutical granules, which clearly points towards the importance...

  6. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  7. Does Thermal Granulation Drive Tephra Jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.

    2011-12-01

    Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is

  8. Development of a graphical user interface for sgRNAcas9 and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-zhi; Zhang, Yi; Li, Guang-lei; Chen, Ji-liang; Li, Jing-Jin; Ren, Rui-min; Ni, Pan; Zhao, Shu-hong; Xie, Sheng-song

    2015-10-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique is a powerful tool for researchers. However, off-target effects of the Cas9 nuclease activity is a recurrent concern of the CRISPR system. Thus, designing sgRNA (single guide RNA) with minimal off-target effects is very important. sgRNAcas9 is a software package, which can be used to design sgRNA and to evaluate potential off-target cleavage sites. In this study, a graphical user interface for sgRNAcas9 was developed using the Java programming language. In addition, off-target effect for sgRNAs was evaluated according to mismatched number and "seed sequence" specification. Moreover, sgRNAcas9 software was used to design 34 124 sgRNAs, which can target 4691 microRNA (miRNA) precursors from human, mouse, rat, pig, and chicken. In particular, the off-target effect of a sgRNA targeting to human miR-206 precursor was analyzed, and the on/off-target activity of this sgRNA was validated by T7E1 assay in vitro. Taken together, these data showed that the interface can simplify the usage of the sgRNAcas9 program, which can be used to design sgRNAs for the majority of miRNA precursors. We also found that the GC% of those sgRNAs ranged from 40% to 60%. In summary, the sgRNAcas9 software can be easily used to design sgRNA with minimal off-target effects for any species. The software can be downloaded from BiooTools website (http://www.biootools.com/).

  9. The life cycle of platelet granules [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Sharda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types—dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes—although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.

  10. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  11. Treatment of hyper-granulated limb wounds in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Bader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the different methods of treating hyper granulation tissue on experimentally induced wounds in equine limbs. Wounds were induced by removal of a skin patch and subcutaneous tissue for about 5-7 cm width and 6-8 cm in length from the dorsal and lateral aspect of the fore and hind limbs below the carpal and tarsal joints. The wounds were left open without treatment and the animals were trained 2-2.5 hours every day for about 3-5 weeks until hyper granulation tissue was developed. The schedule for the treatment of hyper granulation was divided into five groups each contained eight wounds of hyper granulation tissue; each main group was divided into two subgroups. The subgroups of first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups were treated by the following schedules: bandage alone; copper sulphate ointment 10%; silver nitrate ointment 2%; red mercury ointment 11%; and laser therapy (at a total dose of 9.72 Joule / cm2 respectively. While the second subgroups were treated by surgical resection of the hyper granulation tissue, followed by the same treatments applied on the first subgroup. The bandage for all experimental groups was changed every 48 hours until healing was occurred. The clinical and histological observation of the first group revealed that the healing take long period comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing were 65 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup, while 57 days in surgical removed of hyper granulation tissue subgroup. The results of the second, third, fourth groups revealed that the caustic material especially red mercury has a role in healing processes through depressing the hyper granulation tissue. The mean of wound healing of the second group was 42.25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 37.25 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the third group the mean of wound healing was 45

  12. In vitro binding of puroindolines to wheat starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....

  13. A Review of Granulation Process for Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten slags of blast furnace is a second resources with great value of 1600~1 800 MJ sensible heat per ton. At present, water-quenching process plays a leading role in recovering waste heat of the molten slags. However, this method not only cost lots of water, but also recover little sensible heat and can pollute the surrounding environment. Dry granulation process, as an environmentally friendly method with high-efficiency heat recovery, have attracted widespread attentions. In this paper, the water quenching and dry granulation processes were discussed in detail. After a thorough comparative analysis of various treatment technologies, it can be concluded that centrifugal granulation affiliated with dry granulation is the optimum process, with smaller slag particle size (about 2mm, more glassy phase and higher recovery rate.

  14. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  15. Development of granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Pereira de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract using dry and wet granulation and to assess techniques to enable the production of granules with improved technological characteristics and yields. Granules were characterized by granulometry, reological parameters, compression and hygroscopic behavior. Independent of the granulation technique, technologically developed granules presented particle diameter, bulk and tapped densities and compressibility indexes suitable for a solid dosage form. The compression behavior showed plastic and fragmentary deformation for granules produced by the dry granulation technique and predominantly plastic deformation for wet granulation. Concerning the humidity sorption, the study showed that granules absorb less humidity than the spray-dried extract. However, granules with Eudragit® E 100 were the least hygroscopic.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver grânulos de extrato Phyllantus niruri seco por aspersão e por granulação úmida e avaliar técnicas que possibilitem a produção de grânulos com características tecnológicas e rendimentos aperfeiçoados. Os grânulos foram caracterizados por granulometria, parâmetros reológicos, compressão e comportamento higroscópico. Independentemente da técnica de granulação, os grânulos tecnologicamente desenvolvidos apresentaram diâmetro de partículas, densidades aparente e compactada e índices de compressibilidade adequados para a formulação sólida. O comportamento de compressão mostrou deformação plástica e elástica para os grânulos produzidos por técnicas de granulação seca e, predominantemente, deformação plástica para a granulação úmida. Com relação à absorção da umidade, o estudo mostrou que os grânulos absorvem menos umidade do que o extrato seco por aspersão. Entretanto, os grânulos com Eudragit E 100 foram os menos higroscópicos.

  16. Sludge granulation during anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 26.7 h to 2.2 h, while the organic load rate (OLR) ranged from 0.9 to 7.3 kgCOD/m3·d. Sludge granulation was observed after day 150 of operation, at an HRT of 3.4 h, when small granules of less than 2 ...

  17. Superheated superconducting granules: a detector for particle physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-01-01

    A general introduction to superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors is given and some recent results on their basic properties are presented. Granules recently made by industrial producers exhibit good metastability properties and show sensitivity, better than naively expected, to photons and ionizing particles. The behaviour of SSG detectors at very low temperatures is also discussed. We finally sketch a critical review of proposed applications to the cross-disciplinary frontier between particle physics and astrophysics

  18. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of granular activated carbon on the aerobic granulation of sludge and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jia; Qin, Lian; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Bolin; Chen, Junnan; You, Juan; Shen, Yitian; Chen, Xiaoguo

    2017-07-01

    The granulation of activated sludge and effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated under the alternative anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results showed that GAC accelerated the granulation, but had no obvious effect on the bacterial community structure of granules. The whole granulation process could be categorized into three phases, i.e. lag, granulation and granule maturation phase. During lag period GAC provided nuclei for sludge to attach, and thus enhanced the morphological regularization of sludge. During granulation period the granule size increased significantly due to the growth of bacteria in granules. GAC reduced the compression caused by the inter-particle collisions and thus accelerate the granulation. GAC has no negative effect on the performance of SBR, and thus efficient simultaneous removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained during most of the operating time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Incorporation of a circulating protein into megakaryocyte and platelet granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handagama, P. J.; George, J. N.; Shuman, M. A.; McEver, R. P.; Bainton, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether or not proteins circulating in plasma can be incorporated into megakaryocytes and platelets, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected intravenously into guinea pigs and these cells were examined for its uptake by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. Enriched samples of megakaryocytes enabled ultrastructural analysis of large numbers of these rare cells. In megakaryocytes, 50% of alpha granules contained HRP between 75 min and 7 hr after injection. At 24 hr, 25% of the megakaryocyte granules were peroxidase-positive, less were positive by 48 hr, and there were none at 4 days. Thus, the findings demonstrate that a circulating protein can be endocytosed by megakaryocytes and rapidly packaged into alpha granules. Platelet granules also contain HRP by 7 hr after injection, and they can secrete it in response to thrombin. Unfortunately, our present studies do not allow us to distinguish between direct endocytosis by the platelet and/or shedding of new platelets from recently labeled megakaryocytes. It is concluded that while some alpha granule proteins are synthesized by megakaryocytes, others may be acquired from plasma by endocytosis. In addition to providing evidence that some of the proteins of alpha granules may be of exogenous origin, this study has allowed the definition of a pathway whereby plasma proteins may be temporarily sequestered in megakaryocytes before reentering the circulation in platelets.

  1. Sol-Generating Chemical Vapor into Liquid (SG-CViL) deposition – a facile method for encapsulation of diverse cell types in silica matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Robert [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Materials Engineering Dept.; Rogelj, Snezna [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Biology Dept.; Harper, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Bioenergy and Biodefense Technologies Dept.; Tartis, Michaelann [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Materials and Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2014-12-12

    In nature, cells perform a variety of complex functions such as sensing, catalysis, and energy conversion which hold great potential for biotechnological device construction. However, cellular sensitivity to ex vivo environments necessitates development of bio–nano interfaces which allow integration of cells into devices and maintain their desired functionality. In order to develop such an interface, the use of a novel Sol-Generating Chemical Vapor into Liquid (SG-CViL) deposition process for whole cell encapsulation in silica was explored. In SG-CViL, the high vapor pressure of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) is utilized to deliver silica into an aqueous medium, creating a silica sol. Cells are then mixed with the resulting silica sol, facilitating encapsulation of cells in silica while minimizing cell contact with the cytotoxic products of silica generating reactions (i.e. methanol), and reduce exposure of cells to compressive stresses induced from silica condensation reactions. Using SG-CVIL, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) engineered with an inducible beta galactosidase system were encapsulated in silica solids and remained both viable and responsive 29 days post encapsulation. By tuning SG-CViL parameters, thin layer silica deposition on mammalian HeLa and U87 human cancer cells was also achieved. Thus, the ability to encapsulate various cell types in either a multi cell (S. cerevisiae) or a thin layer (HeLa and U87 cells) fashion shows the promise of SG-CViL as an encapsulation strategy for generating cell–silica constructs with diverse functions for incorporation into devices for sensing, bioelectronics, biocatalysis, and biofuel applications.

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE AND SMALL GRANULES IN SOLAR QUIET REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Daren; Xie Zongxia; Hu Qinghua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Wang Jingxiu, E-mail: caddiexie@hotmail.com, E-mail: zjun@ourstar.bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2011-12-10

    The normal mode observations of seven quiet regions obtained by the Hinode spacecraft are analyzed to study the physical properties of granules. An artificial intelligence technique is introduced to automatically find the spatial distribution of granules in feature spaces. In this work, we investigate the dependence of granular continuum intensity, mean Doppler velocity, and magnetic fields on granular diameter. We recognized 71,538 granules by an automatic segmentation technique and then extracted five properties: diameter, continuum intensity, Doppler velocity, and longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux density to describe the granules. To automatically explore the intrinsic structures of the granules in the five-dimensional parameter space, the X-means clustering algorithm and one-rule classifier are introduced to define the rules for classifying the granules. It is found that diameter is a dominating parameter in classifying the granules and two families of granules are derived: small granules with diameters smaller than 1.''44, and large granules with diameters larger than 1.''44. Based on statistical analysis of the detected granules, the following results are derived: (1) the averages of diameter, continuum intensity, and Doppler velocity in the upward direction of large granules are larger than those of small granules; (2) the averages of absolute longitudinal, transverse, and unsigned flux density of large granules are smaller than those of small granules; (3) for small granules, the average of continuum intensity increases with their diameters, while the averages of Doppler velocity, transverse, absolute longitudinal, and unsigned magnetic flux density decrease with their diameters. However, the mean properties of large granules are stable; (4) the intensity distributions of all granules and small granules do not satisfy Gaussian distribution, while that of large granules almost agrees with normal distribution with a peak at 1.04 I

  3. Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, Alexandre J.C.; Bressan, G.C.; Gava, L.M.; Lanza, D.C.F.; Ramos, C.H.I; Kobarg, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated on different levels ranging from pre-mRNA processing to translation. One of the most characterized families of RNA-binding proteins is the group of hnRNPs: heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Members of this protein family play important roles in gene expression control and mRNAs metabolism. In the cytoplasm, several hnRNPs proteins are involved in RNA-related processes and they can be frequently found in two specialized structures, known as GW-bodies (GWbs), previously known as processing bodies: PBs, and stress granules, which may be formed in response to specific stimuli. GWbs have been early reported to be involved in the mRNA decay process, acting as a site of mRNA degradation. In a similar way, stress granules (SGs) have been described as cytoplasmic aggregates, which contain accumulated mRNAs in cells under stress conditions and present reduced or inhibited translation. Here, we characterized the hnRNP Q localization after different stress conditions. hnRNP Q is a predominantly nuclear protein that exhibits a modular organization and several RNA-related functions. Our data suggest that the nuclear localization of hnRNP Q might be modified after different treatments, such as: PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat shock. Under different stress conditions, hnRNP Q can fully co-localize with the endoplasmatic reticulum specific chaperone, BiP. However, under stress, this protein only co-localizes partially with the proteins: GW182 - GWbs marker protein and TIA-1 stress granule component

  4. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  5. The F-actin modifier villin regulates insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis downstream of islet cell autoantigen 512

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mziaut

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Insulin release from pancreatic islet β cells should be tightly controlled to avoid hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. The cortical actin cytoskeleton is a gate for regulated exocytosis of insulin secretory granules (SGs by restricting their mobility and access to the plasma membrane. Prior studies suggest that SGs interact with F-actin through their transmembrane cargo islet cell autoantigen 512 (Ica512 (also known as islet antigen 2/Ptprn. Here we investigated how Ica512 modulates SG trafficking and exocytosis. Methods: Transcriptomic changes in Ica512−/− mouse islets were analyzed. Imaging as well as biophysical and biochemical methods were used to validate if and how the Ica512-regulated gene villin modulates insulin secretion in mouse islets and insulinoma cells. Results: The F-actin modifier villin was consistently downregulated in Ica512−/− mouse islets and in Ica512-depleted insulinoma cells. Villin was enriched at the cell cortex of β cells and dispersed villin−/− islet cells were less round and less deformable. Basal mobility of SGs in villin-depleted cells was enhanced. Moreover, in cells depleted either of villin or Ica512 F-actin cages restraining cortical SGs were enlarged, basal secretion was increased while glucose-stimulated insulin release was blunted. The latter changes were reverted by overexpressing villin in Ica512-depleted cells, but not vice versa. Conclusion: Our findings show that villin controls the size of the F-actin cages restricting SGs and, thus, regulates their dynamics and availability for exocytosis. Evidence that villin acts downstream of Ica512 also indicates that SGs directly influence the remodeling properties of the cortical actin cytoskeleton for tight control of insulin secretion. Keywords: F-actin, Granules, Ica512, Insulin, Secretion, Villin

  6. Recent results and prospects on superheated superconducting granules detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-11-01

    The basic properties of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors are reviewed. Recent results are presented and discussed. Granule samples of different sizes (10 μm -8 Ω.cm -6 Ω.cm) exhibit encouraging sensitivity to low energy β and γ sources (down to 55 Fe 6 KeV γ'S). All tests were performed with real-time read-out electronics, detecting single granule flips under the action of individual particles. Sensitivity is shown to depend on normal state resistivity. Irradiation of very large tin granules (45 μm ≤ Φ ≤ 400 μm) with α particles ( 241 Am, E ≅ 5.5 MeV) shows evidence for local heating, where the observed energy threshold is far below the one predicted by equilibrium thermodynamical calculations. Tests made at lower temperatures (T ≥ 450 mK) show the absence of avalanche effect (seen by other authors in different conditions) for several samples of tin granules. A theoretical discussion of the avalanche effect is presented. The understanding of the role of heat exchanges in the composite medium leads to the concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' and opens the way to drastic improvements of SSG performance for particle detection. Such a phenomenon should be obtained by a better thermal matching between dielectric and granules, working at temperatures where the released latent heat is slightly positive. Estimates of the behavior of the detector at very low T are also given, where a thin layer of normal electrons near the surface is shown to contribute to the heat capacity of a superheated granule. We discuss the main points to be studied in the near future, and give a brief evaluation of the present status of feasibility investigation for several proposed experiments (solar neutrinos, monopoles, dark matter, double β,...). An updated working program for SSG development is proposed

  7. In Silico Meets In Vivo: Towards Computational CRISPR-Based sgRNA Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Guo-Hui; Wang, Qi-Long; Liu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-based genome editing has been widely implemented in various cell types. In silico single guide RNA (sgRNA) design is a key step for successful gene editing using the CRISPR system, and continuing efforts are aimed at refining in silico sgRNA design with high on-target efficacy and reduced off-target effects. Many sgRNA design tools are available, but careful assessments of their application scenarios and performance benchmarks across different types of genome-editing data are needed. Efficient in silico models can be built that integrate current heterogeneous genome-editing data to derive unbiased sgRNA design rules and identify key features for improving sgRNA design. Comprehensive evaluation of on-target and off-target effects of sgRNA will allow more precise genome editing and gene therapies using the CRISPR system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser performance upgrade for precise ICF experiment in SG-Ⅲ laser facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanguo Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SG-Ⅲ laser facility (SG-Ⅲ is the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF researches in China, which has 48 beamlines and can deliver 180 kJ ultraviolet laser energy in 3 ns. In order to meet the requirements of precise physics experiments, some new functionalities need to be added to SG-Ⅲ and some intrinsic laser performances need upgrade. So at the end of SG-Ⅲ's engineering construction, the 2-year laser performance upgrade project started. This paper will introduce the newly added functionalities and the latest laser performance of SG-Ⅲ. With these function extensions and performance upgrade, SG-Ⅲ is now fully prepared for precise ICF experiments and solidly paves the way towards fusion ignition.

  9. The influence of substrate transport limitation on porosity and methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludge granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, P.A. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Perez, M.C. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Lettinga, G. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The relationship between porosity, diameter and methanogenic activity of anaerobic granules has been investigated. Experiments with different granular sludges revealed that substrate transport limitations increase with the diameter of the granules. As a consequence, autolysis can occur in the core of the granule, producing hollow granules. The porosity measurements revealed that the hollow centre is not available for substrate transport. Possibly as an effect of bacterial lysis, the porosity decreases in the more interior layers of the granules. This results in a inactive inner part of the large granules, which is not involved in the treatment process; the specific methanogenic activity decreases with granule size. No marked difference in substrate affinity is observed between granules of different sizes, which probably indicates that for large granules only the exterior is biological active. (orig.)

  10. Correlation between microbial community and granule conductivity in anaerobic bioreactors for brewery wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical conducti......Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial...... granules from an aerobic bioreactor designed for phosphate removal were not. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.67) between the abundance of Geobacter species in the UASB granules and granule conductivity, suggesting that Geobacter contributed to granule conductivity. These results, coupled...

  11. Granulation of Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in wall thickness of the casting of iron-nickel-aluminium-bronze, by the reduction of the cooling rate the size of κII phase precipitates increases. This process, in the case of complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and W is increased. Crystallization of big κII phase, during slow cooling of the casting, reduces the concentration of additives introduced to the bronze matrix and hardness. Undertaken research to develop technology of thick-walled products (g> 6 mm of complex aluminium bronzes. Particular attention was paid to the metallurgy of granules. As a result, a large cooling speed of the alloy, and also high-speed solidification casting a light weight of the granules allows: to avoid micro-and macrosegregation, decreasing the particle size, increase the dispersion of phases in multiphase alloys. Depending on the size granules as possible is to provide finished products with a wall thickness greater than 6 mm by infiltration of liquid alloy of granules (composites. Preliminary studies was conducted using drip method granulate of CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze melted in a INDUTHERM-VC 500 D Vacuum Pressure Casting Machine. This bronze is a starting alloy for the preparation of the complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo, W and C or Si. Optimizations of granulation process was carried out. As the process control parameters taken a casting temperature t (°C and the path h (mm of free-fall of the metal droplets in the surrounding atmosphere before it is intensively cooled in a container of water. The granulate was subjected to a sieve analysis. For the objective function was assume maximize of the product of Um*n, the percentage weight “Um” and the quantity of granules ‘n’ in the mesh fraction. The maximum value of the ratio obtained for mesh fraction a sieve with a mesh aperture of 6.3 mm. In the intensively cooled granule of bronze was identified microstructure composed of phases: β and fine bainite

  12. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsyama@restaff.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  13. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    The pelletizing of NaF granules on laboratory scale used for recovery and purification of fluorides of nuclear fuel materials are investigated, particularity experimental studies on how to pelletize, fluidity of granules and flow rate of the granules in mortar of tablet machine are carried out. As result, added quantity of H 2 O as binder at granulation process of spherical NaF granule influence to yield of NaF granules. The proper quantity of H 2 O to NaF powder is about 18--19%. Friction coefficient of unfixed shape NaF granule is higher than that of spherical granule, in opposition, density of the former granule is lower. So fluidity of unfixed shape NaF granule is low, flow rate of the granules through feeder of tablet machine is slow, and arching on mortar of the tablet machine occurs. Then, some further operation for getting better fluidity needs for pelletizing of NaF granules using unfixed shape granule. The other hand, using spherical NaF granule, continuous pelletizing by commercial tablet machine can be carried out. (auth.)

  14. Studi Awal Desain Pabrik Pupuk Organik Granul Dari Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfatul Hanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Banyak pertanian di Indonesia yang masih bergantung pada penggunaan pupuk kimia. Padahal penggunaan pupuk kimia yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan penurunan bahan organik tanah. Untuk menyeimbangkannnya saat ini petani juga sedang menggalakkan penggunaan pupuk organik. Sehingga membuat kebutuhan pupuk organik meningkat setiap tahunnya. Pendirian pabrik pupuk organik granul ini dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pupuk organik untuk petani. Prosess pembuatan pupuk organik granul terdiri dari pencampuran bahan baku, yakni sampah organik, kotoran sapi, kotoran domba, dan dipotong dengan rotary knife cutter. Tahap berikutnya adalah proses fermentasi, dengan penambahan bioactivator agar meningkatkan kandungan C-organik, phosphor, dan kalium. Selanjutnya adalah proses granulasi, pembesaran dari partikel dengan proses aglomerasi. Ukuran yang diharapkan pada proses granulasi ini adalah 2-4 mm sehingga produk undersize maupun oversize akan dikembalikan ke dalam granulator setelah melewati screener. Selanjutnya pupuk organik granul dikeringkan. Selanjutnya produk dipisahkan berdasarkan ukurannya lalu didinginkan di Rotary cooler. Setelah keluar dari Rotary Cooler suhu keluaran sekitar 40 oC dan masih mengandung kadar air sebesar 13,7%. Produk dari rotary cooler siap untuk di packaging dan masuk ke dalam pupuk organik granul storage. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 45% dengan POT sesudah pajak sebesar 4,8 tahun. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  15. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  16. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hydrogen Detection Technique for SG Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Mingyu; Pei Zhiyong; Yu Huajin

    2015-01-01

    SG that is pressure boundary between secondary loop and triple loop is the key equipment of fast reactor, in which heat in secondary loop is transferred to water or steam in triple loop. According to data from IAEA, SG is the highest failure rate equipment in fast reactor, especially because of failure of heat transfer tube. In order to monitor failure of heat transfer tube, Fast Reactor Engineering Department develops diffusion type hydrogen detection system, which is used to detect sodium-water reaction in time. This paper firstly introduces experimental research scheme and results of this hydrogen detection technique; Subsequently, it is described that how this technique can be engineering realized in CEFR; Moreover, through developing a series of calibration tests and hydrogen injection tests, it is obtained that sensitivity, response time and calibration curse for hydrogen detection system of CEFR. (author)

  18. Study on Temperature Control System Based on SG3525

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cong; Zhu, Yifeng; Wu, Junfeng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, it uses the way of dry bath temperature to heat the microfluidic chip directly by the heating plate and the liquid sample in microfluidic chip is heated through thermal conductivity, thus the liquid sample will maintain at target temperature. In order to improve the reliability of the whole machine, a temperature control system based on SG3525 is designed.SG3525 is the core of the system which uses PWM wave produced by itself to drive power tube to heat the heating plate. The bridge circuit consisted of thermistor and PID regulation ensure that the temperature can be controlled at 37 °C with a correctness of ± 0.2 °C and a fluctuation of ± 0.1 °C.

  19. Removal of strontium ions from solutions using granulated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The ion-exchange process on columns filled with granulated zeolites is determined by several physico-chemical parameters. The influence of these parameters (zeolite type, concentration of exchangeable ions in solution, temperature, flow rate, etc.) on the kinetics of ion-exchange process was studied by measuring the Sr 2+ ion concentration in solution before and after passing through a column filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 13X, zeolite A and synthetic mordenite). Using the experimental technique of radioactive labeling by 89 Sr, the distribution of Sr 2+ ions in column fillings were also determined. From the results obtained, the optimal conditions for the most efficient removal of strontium ions from solutions using granulated zeolites can be defined. (author) 24 refs.; 9 figs

  20. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  1. [Pharmacological availability of erythromycin granules for children's use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S V; Garsheva, G B; Nesterova, L Ia; Grakovskaia, L K; Tentsova, A I

    1990-08-01

    Pharmaceutical availability of erythromycin granules with polymeric coating of different composition+ was studied. With an account of the ++anatomo-physiological features of a child organism and the properties of the antibiotic, acetylphthalyl cellulose in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or methyl cellulose was used as a film forming agent. The coated granules were estimated by such parameters as the time of disintegration and the rate of dissolution in various media. The results of the study showed that coating of the erythromycin granules with the film composed of acetylphthalyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the ratio of 8 to 2 provided the required protection of the antibiotic in acid media and high pharmaceutical availability of the drug.

  2. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  3. Secondary circuit water chemistry and related problems with SG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatov, V; Ivanov, V [Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Necessity for SG feed water and blowdown systems modernization Balakovo NPP steam generators PGV-1000M was identified at Units with VVER-1000 during commissioning separational, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-chemical testings. It was discovered, that in zone of 'hot' header coolant salt concentration (concentration of dissolved salts) was almost 2 times more, than salt concentration in blowdown water. A number of chemical testings was performed to investigate and optimize salts distribution in water volume of PGV-1000. (R.P.)

  4. Secondary circuit water chemistry and related problems with SG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Necessity for SG feed water and blowdown systems modernization Balakovo NPP steam generators PGV-1000M was identified at Units with VVER-1000 during commissioning separational, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-chemical testings. It was discovered, that in zone of 'hot' header coolant salt concentration (concentration of dissolved salts) was almost 2 times more, than salt concentration in blowdown water. A number of chemical testings was performed to investigate and optimize salts distribution in water volume of PGV-1000. (R.P.)

  5. Giant arachnoid granulation: differential diagnosis of acute headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.A.; Heyer, C.M.; Frombach, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We present a case of intense, rapidly evolving headache clinically mimicking meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage or venous sinus thrombosis. Clinical examination, standard blood work and central nervous system studies were non-contributory and effectively ruled out these diagnoses. Cranial multidetector CT studies before and after application of intravenous contrast medium performed prior to lumbar tap disclosed a non-enhancing ovoid mass filling the superior sagittal sinus. This lesion posed a differential to venous sinus thrombosis, but ultimately fulfilled the criteria of a giant arachnoid granulation. The imaging characteristics and differential diagnosis of giant arachnoid granulations are discussed

  6. Morphological Constraints on Cerebellar Granule Cell Combinatorial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Jesse I; Person, Abigail L

    2017-12-13

    Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells (GrCs) sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar GCL and examined how GCL architecture contributes to GrC combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs. This local sampling also produced GrCs that were combinatorially redundant, even when input diversity was extremely high. In addition, we found that mossy fiber clustering, which is a common anatomical pattern, also led to increased redundancy of GrC input combinations. We related this redundancy to hypothesized roles of temporal expansion of GrC information encoding in service of learned timing, and we show that GCL architecture produces GrC populations that support both temporal and combinatorial expansion. Finally, we used novel anatomical measurements from mice of either sex to inform modeling of sparse and filopodia-bearing mossy fibers, finding that these circuit features uniquely contribute to enhancing GrC diversification and redundancy. Our results complement information theoretic studies of granule layer structure and provide insight into the contributions of granule layer anatomical features to afferent mixing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellar granule cells are among the simplest neurons, with tiny somata and, on average, just four dendrites. These characteristics, along with their dense organization, inspired influential theoretical work on the granule cell layer as a combinatorial expander, where each granule cell represents a unique combination of inputs

  7. Method of production of granulates of ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    To obtain a classified granulate of ceramic nuclear fuels with narrow grain size spectrum, the nuclear fuel powder is made into a slurry in a non-aqueous solvent with a water content as low as possible (e.g. chlorated hydrocarbon), a binder added to it, and spray-dried. The dry granulate desired is already obtained by this working stage. Polybutyl methacrylate in dibutylphthalate is proposed as binder. An example in which uranium dioxide powder is slurried in trichloro-ethylene is described in detail. (UWI/LH) [de

  8. Removal of cesium radioisotopes from solutions using granulated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of type of zeolite and the flow rate of solution through the column on the removal efficiency of radioactive cesium ions from solution has been investigated. The analysis of the change in the concentration of cesium ions in the solutions and distribution of cesium ions in the column fillings (granulated zeolites), after passing the solutions through the columns filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X, synthetic mordenite) was performed. On the basis of the results of this study, the conditions for the most efficient removal of cesium ions from solutions have been discussed. (author) 35 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  9. PHB granules are attached to the nucleoid via PhaM in Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Andreas; Schuth, Nora; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Nussberger, Stephan; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2012-11-16

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are important storage compounds of carbon and energy in many prokaryotes which allow survival of the cells in the absence of suitable carbon sources. Formation and subcellular localization of PHB granules was previously assumed to occur randomly in the cytoplasm of PHB accumulating bacteria. However, contradictionary results on subcellular localization of PHB granules in Ralstonia eutropha were published, recently. Here, we provide evidence by transmission electron microscopy that PHB granules are localized in close contact to the nucleoid region in R. eutropha during growth on nutrient broth. Binding of PHB granules to the nucleoid is mediated by PhaM, a PHB granule associated protein with phasin-like properties that is also able to bind to DNA and to phasin PhaP5. Over-expression of PhaM resulted in formation of many small PHB granules that were always attached to the nucleoid region. In contrast, PHB granules of ∆phaM strains became very large and distribution of granules to daughter cells was impaired. Association of PHB granules to the nucleoid region was prevented by over-expression of PhaP5 and clusters of several PHB granules were mainly localized near the cell poles. Subcellular localization of PHB granules is controlled in R. eutropha and depends on the presence and concentrations of at least two PHB granule associated proteins, PhaM and PhaP5.

  10. Phenotypic properties and microbial diversity of methanogenic granules from a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, E.E.; Stams, A.J.M.; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Methanogenic granules from an anaerobic bioreactor that treated wastewater of a beer brewery consisted of different morphological types of granules. In this study, the microbial compositions of the different granules were analyzed by molecular microbiological techniques: cloning, denaturing gradient

  11. Physical Properties of Granulates Used in Analogue Experiments of Caprock Failure and Sediment Remobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, N.; Warsitzka, M.; May, F.

    2014-12-01

    Geological systems consisting of a porous reservoir and a low-permeable caprock are prone to hydraulic fracturing, if pore pressure rises to the effective stress. Under certain conditions, hydraulic fracturing is associated with sediment remobilisation, e.g. sand injections or pipes, leading to reduced seal capacity of the caprock. In dynamically scaled analogue experiments using granular materials and air pressure, we intent to investigate strain patterns and deformation mechanisms during caprock failure and fluidisation of shallow over-pressured reservoirs. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of leakage potential of a sealing formation and the fluidisation potential of a reservoir formation depending on rock properties and effective stress. For reliable interpretation of analogue experiments, physical properties of analogue materials, e.g. frictional strength, cohesion, density, permeability etc., have to be correctly scaled according to those of their natural equivalents. The simulation of caprock requires that the analogue material possess a low permeability and is capable to shear failure and tensional failure. In contrast, materials representing the reservoir have to possess high porosity and low shear strength. In order to find suitable analogue materials, we measured the stress-strain behaviour and the permeability of over 25 different types of natural and artificial granular materials, e.g. glass powder, siliceous microspheres, diatomite powder, loess, or plastic granulate. Here, we present data of frictional parameters, compressibility and permeability of these granular materials characterized as a function of sphericity, grain size, and density. The repertoire of different types of granulates facilitates the adjustment of accurate mechanical properties in the analogue experiments. Furthermore, conditions during seal failure and fluidisation can be examined depending on the wide range of varying physical properties.

  12. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  13. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules ... massing paracetamol powder (200 g) with 20% (w/w) of maize starch mucilage as binder. .... The resulting tablets were stored overnight in a.

  14. FMRP Associates with Cytoplasmic Granules at the Onset of Meiosis in the Human Oocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseanne Rosario

    Full Text Available Germ cell development and primordial follicle formation during fetal life is critical in establishing the pool of oocytes that subsequently determines the reproductive lifespan of women. Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI is caused by inheritance of the FMR1 premutation allele and approximately 20% of women with the premutation allele develop ovarian dysfunction and premature ovarian insufficiency. However, the underlying disease mechanism remains obscure, and a potential role of FMRP in human ovarian development has not been explored. We have characterised the expression of FMR1 and FMRP in the human fetal ovary at the time of germ cell entry into meiosis through to primordial follicle formation. FMRP expression is exclusively in germ cells in the human fetal ovary. Increased FMRP expression in germ cells coincides with the loss of pluripotency-associated protein expression, and entry into meiosis is associated with FMRP granulation. In addition, we have uncovered FMRP association with components of P-bodies and stress granules, suggesting it may have a role in mRNA metabolism at the time of onset of meiosis. Therefore, this data support the hypothesis that FMRP plays a role regulating mRNAs during pivotal maturational processes in fetal germ cells, and ovarian dysfunction resulting from FMR1 premutation may have its origins during these stages of oocyte development.

  15. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Formulation of a poorly water-soluble drug in sustained-release hollow granules with a high viscosity water-soluble polymer using a fluidized bed rotor granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takumi; Yoshihara, Naoki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-25

    Water-soluble polymers with high viscosity are frequently used in the design of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs to enable complete release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets containing matrix granules with a water-soluble polymer are preferred because tablets are easier to handle and the multiple drug-release units of the matrix granules decreases the influences of the physiological environment on the drug. However, matrix granules with a particle size of over 800 μm sometimes cause a content uniformity problem in the tableting process because of the large particle size. An effective method of manufacturing controlled-release matrix granules with a smaller particle size is desired. The aim of this study was to develop tablets containing matrix granules with a smaller size and good controlled-release properties, using phenytoin as a model poorly water-soluble drug. We adapted the recently developed hollow spherical granule granulation technology, using water-soluble polymers with different viscosities. The prepared granules had an average particle size of 300 μm and sharp particle size distribution (relative width: 0.52-0.64). The values for the particle strength of the granules were 1.86-1.97 N/mm 2 , and the dissolution profiles of the granules were not affected by the tableting process. The dissolution profiles and the blood concentration levels of drug released from the granules depended on the viscosity of the polymer contained in the granules. We succeeded in developing the desired controlled-release granules, and this study should be valuable in the development of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Constitutively polarized granules prime KHYG-1 NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, Garnet; Branch, Donald R; Aravena, Paola; Mathieson, Mark; Helke, Simone; Keating, Armand

    2006-09-01

    The major mechanism for NK cell lysis of tumor cells is granule-mediated cytotoxicity. Polarization of granules is a prelude to the release of their cytotoxic contents in response to target-cell binding. We describe the novel observation of constitutive granule polarization in the cytotoxic NK cell line, KHYG-1. Continuous degranulation of KHYG-1 cells, however, does not occur and still requires target-cell contact. Disruption of microtubules with colcemid is sufficient to disperse the granules in KHYG-1 and significantly decreases cytotoxicity. A similar effect is not obtained by inhibiting extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), the most distal kinase investigated in the cytolytic pathway. Disruption of microtubules significantly down-regulates activation receptors, NKp44 and NKG2D, implicating them as potential microtubule-trafficking receptors. Such changes in upstream receptor expression may have caused deactivation of ERK2, since NKG2D cross-linking also leads to receptor down-regulation and diminished ERK phosphorylation. Thus, a functional role for NKG2D in KHYG-1 cytotoxicity is demonstrated. Moreover, the novel primed state may contribute to the high cytotoxicity exhibited by KHYG-1.

  18. Thermal effects on granules and direct determination of swelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... DEA. UAA. Abidjan. Côte d'Ivoire, pp. 25-28. Larrigue S, Alvarez G, Cuvelier G, Flick D (2008). Swelling kinetics of waxy maize and starches at high temperatures and heating rates. Carbohydr. Polym. 73: 148-155. Leach HW, MC Cowen LD, Schoch JJ (1959). Structure of the starch granule swelling and ...

  19. Electron microscopic analysis of the specific granule content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about the stimulus for the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from human atria is incomplete. Atrial stretch is known to be a stimulus and atrial tachyarrhythmias are thought to be another. The effects of atrial size (by twodimensional echocardiography) and atrial fibrillation on the atrial specific granule ...

  20. Glass foam granulate as growing medium for tomato and cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation

  1. ATP storage and uptake by isolated pancreatic zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for ...

  2. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  3. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...

  4. Granulated Silica Method for the Fiber Preform Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Pilz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, we have studied the granulated silica method as a versatile and cost effective way of fiber preform production and the sol-gel method. Until now, we have used the sol-gel technology together with an iterative re-melting and milling step in order to produce rare earth or transition metal doped granular material for the granulated silica method. Here, we present that the iterative re-melting (laser-assisted and milling step is no longer needed to reach a high homogeneity. The sol-gel method also offers a high degree of compositional flexibility with respect to dopants; it further facilitates achieving high concentrations, even in cases when several dopants are used. We employed optical active doped sol-gel derived granulate for the fiber core, whereas pure or index-raised granulated silica has been employed for the cladding. Based on the powder-in-tube technique, where silica glass tubes are appropriately filled with these granular materials, fibers has been directly drawn (“fiber rapid prototyping”, or eventually after an additional optional quality enhancing vitrification step. The powder-in-tube technique is also ideally suited for the preparation of microstructured optical fibers.

  5. Iron-based granules in body of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandacka, P.; Kasparova, B.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Dedkova, K.; Mamulová-Kutláková, K.; Kukutschová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-99 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnetoreception * Bumblebee * Biomineralisation * Iron granules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2015

  6. Automation system for production of UO2 granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, N.; Setty, C.R.P.; Banerjee, P.K.; Husnain, G.; Rao, K.C.M.; Satyanarayana, A.

    1990-01-01

    Precompaction of UO 2 powder into slugs and granulation of the slugs were used to be carried out in two different work centres involving manual loading/handling of powder and compacts which resulted in a very high level of air-borne activity. This has been simplified by integrating both the operations into one work centre on both the precompaction presses. In the present system, UO 2 powder is transferred to feed hopper through the use of high vac. feeder. The powder in metered quantities is fed into the shoe by deploying screw feeder driven by a compact hydraulic motor. The die cavity is filled with just the right quantity of powder to prevent spillage. The compacts are pushed on to the granulator through a set of guides mounted on the die platform. The granulated powder is made to pass through Vibro screen for separating the fines before collecting in a replaceable S.S. Container. This container is mounted on the final compacting press by using job crane installed on the press. The replaceable container handling facility drastically cuts down the manual handling of UO 2 granules and also eliminates spillage, air borne activity. The development and fabrication of hydraulically operated screw feeder, feed shoe, replaceable container and the job crane structure etc., were completely carried out at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Paper deals in detail the design of the system developed, present operational experiences and further improvements planned. (author). 6 figs

  7. Contribution of granule bound starch synthase in kernel modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of gbssI and gbssII genes, encoding granule bound starch synthase enzyme I and II, respectively, in quality protein maize (QPM) were studied at different days after pollination (DAP). Total RNA was used for first strand cDNA synthesis using the ImpromIISriptTM reverse transcriptase. No detectable levels of gbssI ...

  8. Population balance modelling of fluidized bed melt granulation: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Boerefijn, R.; Hounslow, M.J.; Salman, A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by our group to identify and quantify the rates processes active in fluidized bed melt granulation (FBMG). The process involves the identification and development of physically representative models to mechanistically describe FBMG using both

  9. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  10. Metabolic changes induced by Bushenhouxue Granules on striatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, while its mechanism is still unclear. Long-term levodopa-based treatment leads to decreased response or loss of response, as well as severe side effects. Our previous study has proved that Bushenhuoxue Granules have effects on Parkinson's disease, but ...

  11. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-01-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two δ Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffer cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.

  12. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon granules. 520.2520f Section 520.2520f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended...

  13. Granule-by-granule reconstruction of a sandpile from x-ray microtomography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, G. T.; Martinez, G.; Seeley, L. H.; Kim, K. H.; Behne, E. A.; Zaranek, S.; Chapman, B. D.; Heald, S. M.; Brewe, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Mesoscale disordered materials are ubiquitous in industry and in the environment. Any fundamental understanding of the transport and mechanical properties of such materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, experimental characterization of such materials has been limited to first- and second-order structural correlation functions, i.e., the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. We report here the successful combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and image processing to determine the full three-dimensional real-space structure of a model disordered material, a granular bed of relatively monodisperse glass spheres. Specifically, we determine the center location and the local connectivity of each granule. This complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible high-order correlation functions. We analyze nematic order parameters for contact bonds to characterize the geometric anisotropy or fabric induced by the sample boundary conditions. Away from the boundaries we find short-range bond orientational order exhibiting characteristics of the underlying polytetrahedral structure

  14. Estimation of S/G ratio in woods using 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Dharshana Padmakshan; Sarah Liu; Steven D. Karlen; Cliff Foster; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Two simple methods based on the 370 cm-1 Raman band intensity were developed for estimation of syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in woods. The methods, in principle, are representative of the whole cell wall lignin and not just the portion of lignin that gets cleaved to release monomers, for example, during certain S/G chemical analyses. As such,...

  15. CRISPRscan: designing highly efficient sgRNAs for CRISPR/Cas9 targeting in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A.; Vejnar, Charles E.; Beaudoin, Jean-Denis; Fernandez, Juan P.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Giraldez, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 technology provides a powerful system for genome engineering. However, variable activity across different single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) remains a significant limitation. We have analyzed the molecular features that influence sgRNA stability, activity and loading into Cas9 in vivo. We observe that guanine enrichment and adenine depletion increase sgRNA stability and activity, while loading, nucleosome positioning and Cas9 off-target binding are not major determinants. We additionally identified truncated and 5′ mismatch-containing sgRNAs as efficient alternatives to canonical sgRNAs. Based on these results, we created a predictive sgRNA-scoring algorithm (CRISPRscan.org) that effectively captures the sequence features affecting Cas9/sgRNA activity in vivo. Finally, we show that targeting Cas9 to the germ line using a Cas9-nanos-3′-UTR fusion can generate maternal-zygotic mutants, increase viability and reduce somatic mutations. Together, these results provide novel insights into the determinants that influence Cas9 activity and a framework to identify highly efficient sgRNAs for genome targeting in vivo. PMID:26322839

  16. THE EFFECT OF DRY GRANULATION ON THE CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VROMANS, H; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF

    1993-01-01

    The consolidation and compaction properties of granule fractions prepared by dry granulation (slugging) of alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose, respectively, were studied. The results showed that the compactibility of the granule fractions was determined by the type of lactose

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BULK-DENSITY AND COMPACTIBILITY OF LACTOSE GRANULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUURMAN, K; RIEPMA, KA; BOLHUIS, GK; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the bulk density and the compactibility of lactose granulations was studied. The granulations were prepared from different alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose powders by wet granulation, using different techniques with only water as a binder, or by

  18. The consequences of granulate heterogeneity towards breakage and attrition upon fluid-bed drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    High-shear granulated lactose granulates were dried in it fluid-bed dryer at various conditions. Granules were characterized by water content and size analysis. It is shown that the drying process is very dynamic in terms of growth and breakage phenomena. Granular size heterogeneity, composition and

  19. TABLETING PROPERTIES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE LACTOSE GRANULATIONS FOR DIRECT COMPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K

    1995-01-01

    Lactose granulations (125-250 mu m) were prepared from two different alpha-lactose monohydrate powders and one roller dried beta-lactose powder respectively, by wet granulation with only water as a binder. As an effect of the granulation process, the flow properties improved, but the compactibility

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. Surface Modification of Porous Titanium Granules for Improving Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab

    The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.

  2. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J.; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N. L.; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.75 mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109 × 109 × 218 μm 3 and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/ T1) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA] 2-) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4 mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA] 2- in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient ( D ejf) of [FeEDTA] 2- was found to be 2.8 × 10 -11 m 2 s -1, i.e. approximately 4% of D ejf of [FeEDTA] 2- in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  3. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  4. Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junxiang; Yu Qingbo; Li Peng; Du Wenya

    2012-01-01

    Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ►The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ► The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. ► The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ► Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ► A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

  5. High resolution of heterogeneity among human neutrophil granules: physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural properties of isolated fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W G; Kinkade, J M; Parmley, R T

    1986-08-01

    Previous studies on the fractionation of human neutrophil granules have identified two major populations: myeloperoxidase (MPO)-containing azurophil, or primary, granules and MPO-deficient specific, or secondary, granules. Peripheral blood neutrophils from individual donors were lysed in sucrose-free media by either hypotonic shock or nitrogen cavitation. Using a novel two-gradient Percoll density centrifugation system, the granule-rich postnuclear supernatant was rapidly (ten minutes) and reproducibly resolved into 13 granule fractions (L1 through L8 and H1 through H5). Granule flotation and recentrifugation experiments on both continuous, self-generated and multiple-step gradients using individual and mixed isolated fractions demonstrated that the banding patterns were isopycnic and nonartifactual. Isolated granules were intact based on the findings that biochemical latency of several granule enzymes was greater than 95%, and thin-sectioned electron micrographs demonstrated intact granule profiles. Biochemical analyses of the granule marker proteins MPO, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin indicated that a number of the fractions were related to the major azurophil and specific granule populations. Lactoferrin was found in ten of 13 fractions (L1 through L8, H1 to H2), whereas MPO was found in every fraction. Consistent with these biochemical data, all fractions exhibited varying degrees of heterogeneity based on ultrastructural morphology and cytochemistry, including diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactivity for peroxidase and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining for complex glycoconjugates. A variable but significant percentage (23% to 70%) of the granules in fractions L1 through L8 and H1 and H2 showed DAB reactivity, while about 90% of the granules in fractions H3 through H5 were peroxidase positive. These results demonstrated that DAB-reactive granules spanned the entire range of granule size and density. Ultrastructural PA

  6. Clarithromycin highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules prepared by high-shear melt granulation can enhance the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Mizoguchi, Midori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to develop a new gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) without a large amount of additives, 75% clarithromycin (CAM) loaded fine granules were prepared with three different hydrophobic binders by high-shear melt granulation and their properties were evaluated. Granules containing the higher hydrophobic binder showed sustained drug release and were able to float over 24h. The synchrotron X-ray CT measurement indicated that both the high hydrophobicity of the binder and the void space inside the granules might be involved in their buoyancy. In an in vivo experiment, the floating granules more effectively eradicated Helicobacter pylori than a CAM suspension by remaining in the stomach for a longer period. In short, CAM highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules can enhance the eradication efficiency of H. pylori compared with CAM alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  8. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25% and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  9. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone (EDA is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA- induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities.

  10. Free electron laser amplifier experiments on SG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Zhongxi; Zhou Chuanming; Wu Ruian

    1994-01-01

    The SG-1 FEL facility is composed of a linear induction accelerator (LIA), an electron beam transport system, a wiggler, a microwave source and a diagnostic system. SG-1 LIA provides a 2 kA, 3.0 MeV beam with a normalized emittance of 0.4∼0.6 (π rad·cm), an energy spread (FWHM) of 4%, resulting in a beam brightness of nearly 10 8 A/πm·rad) 2[1] . The beam current through the wiggler is about 600 A. The first ASE experiments began in September 1991. A 2.6-m long wiggler with a peak magnetic field of 0.3 T was used. At 35.8∼36.5 GHz an ASE output of 0.5 W was obtained for a beam current of nearly 50 A. After a shutdown of about 8 months, the second series of ASE experiments began in October 1992. The second series of ASE experiments were performed with a wiggler magnetic field between 0.25∼0.27 T. The maximum output power is about 100 kw for B w = 0.24 T, I = 600 A, At ν = 35.2 GHz. Based on the ASE experiments the amplifier experiments was carried out on SG-1. Using an 300 W input signal (TE 01 ), a beam current of about 600 A and wiggler magnetic fields of 0.24∼0.28 T, the authors measured the FEL output power as a function of the wiggler magnetic field. The resonant magnetic field was about 0.25 T. Meanwhile, in order to study the amplifier gain, the authors measured the FEL output power as a function of the wiggler length at a peak wiggler magnetic field of 0.26 T. The exponential gain is approximately 19 dB/m and the maximum output power is about 10 MW

  11. EDF field experience of 182 J-Groove welds on CRDMs and SG channel head nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duisabeau, L.; Deforge, D.; Thebault, Y.; Stindel, M.; Lemaire, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) replacement program, which began after a leak occurrence in a vessel head nozzle in Alloy 600 at Bugey Unit 3, was a unique opportunity to perform an extended inspection program on the welds from the decommissioned RPV heads. This paper presents the actual results of this program. More than 800 CRDM J groove welds from 18 decommissioned RPV heads were inspected by automatic dye penetrant testing. Detected indications were characterized by viewing tools specifically developed and in some specific cases, by destructive investigations in hot lab. Some welding defects were observed but no indication corresponding to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was detected at the welds wet surface nor propagation from welding manufacturing defects, including the weld with the longest operating time on EDF power plants (170 000 h). Very few cases of SCC propagation from Alloy 600 to Alloy 182 are reported. One case of initiation at the weld root pass was observed. From design, the weld root pass (mechanically loaded) of CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism) nozzles is not in contact with primary water and the cracking observed occurred after a through wall cracking of the Alloy 600 tube, enabling primary water to wet the root pass. Concerning the steam generator (SG) drain nozzle, the alloy 182 weld root is directly in contact with primary water. In June 2008, a primary water leakage was suspected on a steam generator bowl drain while conducting a bare metal visual examination during the plant's outage. Dye penetrant testing of the weld and metallographic replica were implemented during the 2008 and 2009 refuelling outages to confirm a leakage by SCC. Manufacturing reports analyses revealed that the drain nozzle weld was repaired and had not been stress relieved during manufacturing. EDF has decided to plug this nozzle and to enforce the maintenance policy for similar components with the same manufacturing specificity. Regarding national and

  12. In vivo phosphoproteome characterization reveals key starch granule-binding phosphoproteins involved in wheat water-deficit response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Xing; Zhen, Shou-Min; Liu, Yan-Lin; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Ming; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2017-10-23

    Drought stress during grain development causes significant yield loss in cereal production. The phosphorylated modification of starch granule-binding proteins (SGBPs) is an important mechanism regulating wheat starch biosynthesis. In this study, we performed the first proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses of SGBPs in elite Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Jingdong 17 under well-watered and water-stress conditions. Water stress treatment caused significant reductions in spike grain numbers and weight, total starch and amylopectin content, and grain yield. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the quantity of SGBPs was reduced significantly by water-deficit treatment. Phosphoproteome characterization of SGBPs under water-deficit treatment demonstrated a reduced level of phosphorylation of main starch synthesis enzymes, particularly for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS I), starch synthase II-a (SS II-a), and starch synthase III (SS III). Specifically, the Ser34 site of the GBSSI protein, the Tyr358 site of SS II-a, and the Ser837 site of SS III-a exhibited significant less phosphorylation under water-deficit treatment than well-watered treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of several key genes related with starch biosynthesis detected by qRT-PCR were decreased significantly at 15 days post-anthesis under water-deficit treatment. Immunolocalization showed a clear movement of GBSS I from the periphery to the interior of starch granules during grain development, under both water-deficit and well-watered conditions. Our results demonstrated that the reduction in gene expression or transcription level, protein expression and phosphorylation levels of starch biosynthesis related enzymes under water-deficit conditions is responsible for the significant decrease in total starch content and grain yield.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  14. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution

  15. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-11-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  16. Behavior of hollow balls containing granules bouncing repeatedly off the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Mu, Qing-song; Luo, Ning; Li, Gang; Peng, Ning-bo

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study of the behavior of hollow balls filled with some granules (mung beans or millets) bouncing repeatedly off a static flat horizontal surface is presented. We observed that the bounce number of the ball is limited and decreases regularly with an increasing number of granules. Moreover, for two balls containing a different kind of granules, their bounce numbers are basically equal when the two balls have the same mass of granules. While there is no clear relationship between the first rebound height of one ball and the number of granules, there appears an exponential decay of the second rebound height with an increase of the granule number. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical model has been created to find out the law of the ball's rebound height and the dissipation law of the granule nested system. A generalized prediction equation to reasonably explain the law of the bounce number has also been proposed.

  17. The converse magnetoelectric coupling in asymmetric granule/matrix composite film with Ni/PZT component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Su, Ning-Ning; Cui, Wen-Li; Yan, Shi-Nong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a type of asymmetric granule/matrix composite film is designed, where the Ni granule is dispersed in PZT matrix, meanwhile the top and bottom electrode is constituted by Au and SRO respectively. Predicted through the electrostatic screening model and mean field approximation, considerable electrostatic charge is induced on Ni granule surface by ferroelectric PZT polarization. Predicted through the spin splitting model and spherical shell approximation, both the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of Ni granule are modulated by ferroelectric PZT polarization. As the volume fraction of Ni granule is increased, the electric modulation of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is reduced and enhanced respectively. As the dimension of granule/matrix composite is varied, such modulation is retained. Due to the large area-volume ratio of nano-granule, this work benefits to realize the converse magnetoelectric coupling in nanoscale.

  18. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF STARCH GRANULES IN SELECTED PROCESSED INDIGENOUS FLOUR OF SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi A. JAYEOLA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch granules of yam stem tubers, plantain fruits and cassava root tubers were studied using the light microscope and then compared. Yam and plantain, both monocotyledons, had morphologically similar granules between locations, being mostly oval in shape while the granules of cassava, a dicot, were predominantly globular but varied between locations. Differences in processing methods between locations might be responsible for the observed variation in cassava granules. There is a suggestion that starch granule morphology might follow lineages in a broad sense. The unique micromorphology of cassava starch granule could make it easily detectable when adulterated, substituted or contaminated with yam or plantain granules and this could provide a cost effective clue in forensic determination.

  19. GRANULATION TRIALS OF WASTE THE DUST SILICON CARBIDE FOR UTILIZATION IN METALLURGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory granulation tests of dust silicon carbide and the results of research on the selection of the binder and the properties of the granules obtained. The research material was a waste of the silicon carbide powder with a high fragmentation, mixed with a cement or an organic modified starch specimen. Six tests were performed in a disc granulator with 100 cm in diameter. In each series of trial specified: the type and share of the binder, the diameter of the granules, tenderness, type of structure and mechanical properties. Good granules of silicon carbide obtained with the addition of cement binder with 4% of the mass fraction and at least 24 hours of seasoning. The binder should be added twice by powdering, first in a stirred granulator, and again after manufacture. It was found that the resulting granules may be used as a replacement of ferrosilicon in the process of steelmaking.

  20. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Self-organizing of critical state in granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru

  2. Block-based approach to modelling of granulated fertilizers' quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen, J.; Reinikainen, S. P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2009-01-01

    be defined through testing the flow rate with, e.g., seed drill. Besides the chemical composition, flowability can be considered as one of the most important characteristics. There are numerous factors affecting the flowability of a granulated fertilizer, several of them related to the particle size......Fertilizer manufacturing is a customer-driven industry, where the quality of a product is a key factor in order to survive the competition. However, measuring the most important feature with granulated fertilizers, flowability, is tedious, time-consuming and thus expensive. Flowability can...... size distribution. The goals are to find a reliable model for flowability using this data and to find the most important variables and to identify the effect of blocks to the quality....

  3. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  4. Contaminated fluid filtration plant using pneumatically renewable granulated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr

  5. Organic-mineral binder for molybdenum concentrate granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guro, Vitaliy P.; Ibragimova, Matluba A.; Safarov, Edgorjon T.

    2016-01-01

    Process of pyrite cinders production from Mo middlings consists of molybdenite concentrate granulation, firing to oxidize sulfide minerals and to recover Re-oxide. If kaolin binder is used a pyrite cinders dilution with Mo takes place. So, the development of organic binding agents, alternative to kaolin, is an actual issue. The approach is based on the comparison of the hydrophilic, strength and technological features of the hydrometallurgical processing of pellets. The new batch is developed. It differs from the traditional mixture by polymer burning and minimizing Mo dilution, thus aiming to maximize Re, Au, Ag recovery. The composition of the new organic-mineral batch is as follows: 97.3 % of molybdenite concentrate, 2 % of kaolin and 0.7 % of SK polymer. Keywords: molybdenum middlings, binder, organic additive, batch, granulation.

  6. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  7. The Sg-1 Glycosyltransferase Locus Regulates Structural Diversity of Triterpenoid Saponins of Soybean[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar–dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1a allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1b encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1a and Gly-138 in Sg-1b proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-10 is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products. PMID:22611180

  8. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  9. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and es......, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits....

  10. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian

    2017-08-01

    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  11. Studies on the influence of laser beams on wound granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of laser light of law energy on wound healing was tested on 204 rats in a blind study. The growth of granulation tissue in a polyvinylchloride cylinder implanted on the backs of the animals served as parameter for wound healing. Irradiation was carried out with a helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) at daily doses of 0.5 J/cm 2 , 1.5 J/cm 2 , 4 J/cm 2 , 10 J/cm 2 and 20 J/cm 2 , and with incoherent non-linear polarized red light (wavelength 630 nm) with a daily dose of 4 J/cm 2 . This was repeated 8 times. Laser irradiation caused a statistically significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight of 25% in the dose range 1.5 J/cm 2 to 20 J/cm 2 . At 0.5 J/cm 2 the effect was less, but the least effect was achieved by non-linear polarized incoherent red light. Bacteriological evaluation of wound germ counts revealed a marginally lower presence of high germ cell densities. In irradiated animals, histological and enzyme cytochemical findings revealed, in addition to a significant findings revealed, in addition to a significant increase in mast cells, a smaller increase in fibroblast count and a slight decrease in granulocytic and histiocytic elements. The biochemical evaluation of granulation tissue revealed no differences in collagen content between irradiated and unirradiated animals. (orig.) [de

  12. Convergent evolution of germ granule nucleators: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arpita; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2017-10-01

    Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells. The discovery that in some animals, the gene products of a small number of lineage-specific genes initiate the assembly (also termed nucleation) of germ granules and/or germ plasm is the first step towards facilitating a better understanding of these complex biological processes. Here, we draw on research spanning over 100years that supports the hypothesis that these nucleator genes may have evolved convergently, allowing them to perform analogous roles across animal lineages. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  14. Recreating the synthesis of starch granules in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Barbara; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Diaz, Ana; Lu, Kuanjen; Otto, Caroline; Holler, Mirko; Shaik, Farooque Razvi; Meier, Florence; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2016-01-01

    Starch, as the major nutritional component of our staple crops and a feedstock for industry, is a vital plant product. It is composed of glucose polymers that form massive semi-crystalline granules. Its precise structure and composition determine its functionality and thus applications; however, there is no versatile model system allowing the relationships between the biosynthetic apparatus, glucan structure and properties to be explored. Here, we expressed the core Arabidopsis starch-biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae purged of its endogenous glycogen-metabolic enzymes. Systematic variation of the set of biosynthetic enzymes illustrated how each affects glucan structure and solubility. Expression of the complete set resulted in dense, insoluble granules with a starch-like semi-crystalline organization, demonstrating that this system indeed simulates starch biosynthesis. Thus, the yeast system has the potential to accelerate starch research and help create a holistic understanding of starch granule biosynthesis, providing a basis for the targeted biotechnological improvement of crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15552.001 PMID:27871361

  15. [Multi-mathematical modelings for compatibility optimization of Jiangzhi granules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Li; Ge, Yingli; Lu, Yanliu; Ji, Guang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate into the method of "multi activity index evaluation and combination optimized of mult-component" for Chinese herbal formulas. According to the scheme of uniform experimental design, efficacy experiment, multi index evaluation, least absolute shrinkage, selection operator (LASSO) modeling, evolutionary optimization algorithm, validation experiment, we optimized the combination of Jiangzhi granules based on the activity indexes of blood serum ALT, ALT, AST, TG, TC, HDL, LDL and TG level of liver tissues, ratio of liver tissue to body. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combining with criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) for multi activity index evaluation was more reasonable and objective, it reflected the information of activity index's order and objective sample data. LASSO algorithm modeling could accurately reflect the relationship between different combination of Jiangzhi granule and the activity comprehensive indexes. The optimized combination of Jiangzhi granule showed better values of the activity comprehensive indexed than the original formula after the validation experiment. AHP combining with CRITIC can be used for multi activity index evaluation and LASSO algorithm, it is suitable for combination optimized of Chinese herbal formulas.

  16. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-09-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  17. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Wan

    Full Text Available Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2 were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress.

  18. COMPARISON OF THE THERMAL SHOCK RESlST ANCE IN Alı03-SG AND Zr02-l2°/oSi+AI COATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMET ÖZEL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation� thennal and structure fınite eleınent analysis has been employed to aııalyse tlıe level of the thennal stresses developed in A1203-SG and Zr02- 12%Si+ Al coatings subjected to them1al loading. Systeıns \\Vith 0.4nıın coating thickness and 4nıın substrate ınaterial thickness were nıodelled. Alumina -Ductile Ca st Iran coatings \\Vith Ni Al, Ni Cr AIY, NiCoCrAIY inte rlayer \\vere also modelled. Noıninal and shear stresses at the cıitical interface regions ( filnı /inter laycr/substrate \\vere obtained and compared. The results showed that the Al203-SG coatings has higher tlıennal shock resistance than Zr02- 12o/oSi+Al coating systeıns. Furthern1ore� tlıe inte rlayer thickness and ınate rial coınbinations have a significant influence on the level of the devcloped tl1ennal stresses. It is also concluded that the finite eleınent technique can be used to optiınise the design and the processing of ceranı ic . coatıngs.

  19. A comparative study of the influence of alpha-lactose monohydrate particle morphology on granule and tablet properties after roll compaction/dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-05-29

    The influence of particle morphology and size of alpha-lactose monohydrate on dry granules and tablets was studied. Four different morphologies were investigated: Two grades of primary crystals, which differed in their particle size and structure (compact crystals vs. agglomerates). The materials were roll compacted at different specific compaction forces and changes in the particle size distribution and the specific surface area were measured. Afterwards, two fractions of granules were pressed to tablets and the tensile strength was compared to that from tablets compressed from the raw materials. The specific surface area was increased induced by roll compaction/dry granulation for all materials. At increased specific compaction forces, the materials showed sufficient size enlargement. The morphology of lactose determined the strength of direct compressed tablets. In contrast, the strength of granule tablets was leveled by the previous compression step during roll compaction/dry granulation. Thus, the tensile strength of tablets compressed directly from the powder mixtures determined whether materials exhibited a loss in tabletability after roll compaction/dry granulation or not. The granule size had only a slight influence on the strength of produced tablets. In some cases, the fraction of smaller granules showed a higher tensile strength compared to the larger fraction.

  20. Melting of fuel element racks and their recycling as granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.; Kluth, T.; Kreh, R.

    1998-01-01

    In order to increase the storage capacity for spent fuel elements in the Spanish NPPs of Almaraz and Asco, the existing racks were replaced by compact one in 1991/1993. The 28 racks from Almaraz NPP were cut on site, packed in 200-I-drums and taken to intermediate storage. For the remaining 28 racks of Asco NPP, ENRESA preferred the melting alternative. To demonstrate the recycling path melting in Germany, a test campaign with six racks was performed in 1997. As a result of this test melt, the limits for Carla melting plant were modified to 200 Bq/g total, α, β, γ 100 Bq/g nuclear fuels, max. 3g/100 kg 2,000 Bq/g total Fe55, H 3 , C-14 and Ni63. After the test melt campaign, the German authorities licensed the import and treatment of the remaining 22 racks on the condition that the waste resulting from the melting process as well as the granules produced were taken back to Spain. The shipment from Asco via France to Germany has been carried out in F 20-ft-IPII containers in accordance with ADR. Size reduction to chargeable dimensions was carried out by a plasma burner and hydraulic shears. For melting, a 3.2 Mg medium frequency induction furnace, operated in a separate housing, was used. For granules production outside this housing, the liquid iron was cast into a 5Mg ladle and then, through a water jet, into the granulating basin. The total mass of 287,659 Kg of 28 fuel elements racks and components of the storage basin yielded 297,914 kg of iron granulate. Secondary waste from melting amounted to 9,920 kg, corresponding to 3.45% of the input mass. The granulating process produced 6,589 kg, corresponding to 2.28% of the total mass to be melted. Radiological analysis of samples taken from the melt and different waste components confirmed the main nuclides Co60, Cs134 and Cs137. Fe55 was highly overestimated by the preliminary analysis. (Author) 2 refs

  1. Examination of the SG tube fatigue cracking at Fessenheim unit no.2 of EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccanfuso, M.; Lorthios, J.; Thebault, Y.; Bruyere, B.; Duisabeau, L.; Herms, E.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2008, a primary-to-secondary leak occurred at Fessenheim Unit No.2 on a steam generator. A circumferential fatigue crack was observed at the upper tube support plate level of the R12C62 tube although the stability ratio evaluation performed to take into account some prior international events, concluded that this tube had no risk of fluid-elastic instability. A new tube pull process was developed and performed by AREVA in 2011 just before the SG replacement. The extraction at the uppermost TSP elevation was a first occurrence in the French EDF PWR. Destructive examinations were carried out in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon in order to characterize damage mechanisms at the initiation and propagation stage. The document relates the major results of laboratory examinations leading us to exclude the fluid-elastic instability scenario as previously reported in North-Anna (1987) and Mihama (1991) tube rupture incidents. Results analysis with particular focus on the fracture surface description using Scanning Electron microscopy observations and metallurgical investigations provide new elements concerning the aggravating factors of fatigue damage. Fracture surface investigations reveal that the circumferential crack was due to high cycle fatigue with a very low stress intensity factor. Some aggravating factors like intergranular corrosion appeared to be critical for the fatigue cracking initiation stage. The deterioration was also largely promoted by the lack of tube support at the Anti-Vibration Bars

  2. Rice starch granule amylolysis--differentiating effects of particle size, morphology, thermal properties and crystalline polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Butardo, Vito M; Jobling, Stephen A; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-01-22

    The underlying mechanism of amylolysis of rice starch granules was investigated using isolated starch granules from wild-type, as well as SBEIIb mutant and down-regulated lines. Fused granule agglomerates isolated from mutant and transgenic lines were hydrolysed at similar rates by amylases, and had similar crystalline patterns and thermal properties as individual granules. Surface pores, a feature previously only reported for A-polymorphic starch granules, were also observed in B- and C-polymorphic rice starch granules. Although the microscopic patterns of hydrolysis among granules with different crystalline polymorphs were qualitatively similar, the extent and the rate of amylolysis were different, suggesting that B-type crystalline polymorphs are intrinsically more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis than A-type in rice starch granules. It is proposed that the slightly longer branch lengths of amylopectin which leads to the formation of more stable B-type double helical structures compared to their A-type counterparts is the major parameter, with other factors such as granule size, surface pores and interior channels having secondary roles, in determining the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of functionalized particle structure on roll compaction/dry granulation and tableting of calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-10

    The influence of a functionalized raw material particle structure on the granulation behavior and tabletabilty of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) was investigated. Therefore, a milled grade of CaCO 3 was compared to different binary mixtures of milled and functionalized CaCO 3 . Relevant properties of raw materials, ribbons and granules were measured. The starting materials and two fractions of dry granules were compressed to tablets. The tabletability of granules was compared to that of the powders and the influence of specific compaction force and granule size on tablet tensile strength was evaluated. Adding functionalized particles drastically influenced the granulation and tableting behavior of CaCO 3 . Increasing proportions increased the ribbon porosity and granule size. Tensile strength of tablets from powder mixtures and granules was increased as well. Nevertheless, adding functionalized CaCO 3 led to a loss in tabletability induced by a previous compaction step to an extent depending on its proportion in the formulation. A clear influence of the particle morphology on granulation and tableting behavior was demonstrated by the study. The functionalized structure showed aspects of a more plastic deformation behavior. Adding functionalized CaCO 3 to a mixture, even in small amounts, seemed to be beneficial to increase granule size and tablet strength. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkrasae La-Iad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7 is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network.

  5. The transformation from anammox granules to deammonification granules in micro-aerobic system by facilitating indigenous ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2018-02-01

    Granular deammonification process is a good way to retain aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and anammox bacteria) and exhaust flocculent nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this study, to facilitate indigenous AOB growth on anammox granules, by stepwise reducing influent nitrite, anammox granules were effectively transformed into deammonification granules in a micro-aerobic EGSB in 100 days. Total nitrogen removal efficiency of 90% and nitrogen removal rate of 2.3 g N/L/d were reached at stable deammonification stage. High influent FA and limited oxygen supply contributed suppression for Nitrospira-like NOB. In transition stages, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were always dominated. Anammox abundance decreased, while AOB abundance grew fast. Anammox bacteria and AOB were dominated by Brocadia fulgida and Nitrosomonas europaea, respectively. Denitrification activity and bacteria existed although without influent organic. The final AOB abundance was about 4.55-13.8 times more than anammox bacteria abundance, with almost equal potential activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit.

  7. Downstream processing from melt granulation towards tablets: In-depth analysis of a continuous twin-screw melt granulation process using polymeric binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpré, W; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C

    2018-03-01

    The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG. A first part of the study dealt with the screening of various amorphous polymers as binder for producing high-dosed melt granules of two model drug (i.e. acetaminophen and hydrochlorothiazide). The second part of this study described a quality-by-design (QbD) approach for melt granulation of hydrochlorothiazide in order to thoroughly evaluate TSMG, milling and tableting stage of the continuous TSMG line. Using amorphous polymeric binders resulted in melt granules with high milling efficiency due to their brittle behaviour without producing excessive amounts of fines, providing high granule yields with low friability. Therefore, it makes them extremely suitable for further downstream processing. One of the most important CPP during TSMG with polymeric binders was the granulation-torque, which - in case of polymers with high T g - increased during longer granulation runs to critical levels endangering the continuous process flow. However, by optimizing both screw speed and throughput or changing to polymeric binders with lower T g it was possible to significantly reduce this risk. This research paper highlighted that TSMG must be considered as a viable option during formulation development of solid oral dosage forms based on the robustness of the CQA of both melt granules and tablets. Copyright © 2017

  8. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  9. Frequent sgRNA-barcode recombination in single-cell perturbation assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Xie

    Full Text Available Simultaneously detecting CRISPR-based perturbations and induced transcriptional changes in the same cell is a powerful approach to unraveling genome function. Several lentiviral approaches have been developed, some of which rely on the detection of distally located genetic barcodes as an indirect proxy of sgRNA identity. Since barcodes are often several kilobases from their corresponding sgRNAs, viral recombination-mediated swapping of barcodes and sgRNAs is feasible. Using a self-circularization-based sgRNA-barcode library preparation protocol, we estimate the recombination rate to be ~50% and we trace this phenomenon to the pooled viral packaging step. Recombination is random, and decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of the assay. Our results suggest that alternative approaches can increase the throughput and sensitivity of single-cell perturbation assays.

  10. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Sheng-Chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

  11. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical......-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect...... quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline...

  12. In vivo Anomalous Diffusion and Weak Ergodicity Breaking of Lipid Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, J.-H.; Tejedor, V.; Burov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Combining extensive single particle tracking microscopy data of endogenous lipid granules in living fission yeast cells with analytical results we show evidence for anomalous diffusion and weak ergodicity breaking. Namely we demonstrate that at short times the granules perform subdiffusion...... according to the laws of continuous time random walk theory. The associated violation of ergodicity leads to a characteristic turnover between two scaling regimes of the time averaged mean squared displacement. At longer times the granule motion is consistent with fractional Brownian motion....

  13. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2013-01-01

    granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....

  14. High level waste containing granules coated and embedded in metal as an alternative to HLW glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.

    1980-01-01

    Simulated high level waste containing granules were overcoated with pyrocarbon or nickel respectively. The coatings were performed by the use of chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed. The coated granules were embedded in an aluminium-silicon-alloy to improve the dissipation of radiation induced heat. The metal-granules-composites obtained were of improved product stability related to the high level waste containing glasses. (orig.) [de

  15. Evaluation of reliability of EC inspection of VVER SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of eddy current data collected during inspection of VVER steam generators is very complex task because of numerous parameters which have affect on eddy current signals. That was the reason that recently ago INETEC has started related scientific project in order to evaluate the reliability of eddy current (EC) inspection of VVER steam generator (SG) tubing. In the scope of project the following objectives will be investigated: 1. Determination of POD (Probability of detection) of various types degradation cracks, where their basic parameters are variables (basic parameters are depth, length, width, orientation, number) on three different sets of tubes (clean ideal tubes, tubes with pilgering, tubes electroplated with copper) 2. Sizing quality (accuracy, repeatability) (same data sets as defined in 1.) 3. Effect of fill factor on POD and sizing quality. 4. Effect of tube bends on POD and sizing quality. 5. Effect of other tube geometry variations on POD and sizing quality (tube ovality, transition zone region, expanded (rolled) part of tube, dents, dings). Investigation will start with bobbin probe technique which is the most used technique for general purpose VVER tube examination. Since INETEC is the only world company which successfully developed and applied rotating probe technique for VVER SG tubes, scope of the project will be extended on rotating probe technique utilizing 'pancake' and 'point' coil. Method reliability will be investigated first on the huge set of EDM notches representing various defect morphologies and simulating different factors, and the second part will be investigated on sets of degradation defects obtained by artificial corrosion. In the scope of the project the measures for enhancing the method reliability have to be determined. This considers the proper definition of parameters of examination system, as well as establishment of the suitable analysis procedures. This article presents the temporary results of the first part of

  16. Active Intracellular Delivery of a Cas9/sgRNA Complex Using Ultrasound-Propelled Nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Bruhn, Malthe; de Ávila, Berta Esteban-Fernández; Beltrán-Gastélum, Mara; Zhao, Jing; Ramírez-Herrera, Doris E; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Vesterager Gothelf, Kurt; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    Direct and rapid intracellular delivery of a functional Cas9/sgRNA complex using ultrasound-powered nanomotors is reported. The Cas9/sgRNA complex is loaded onto the nanomotor surface through a reversible disulfide linkage. A 5 min ultrasound treatment enables the Cas9/sgRNA-loaded nanomotors to directly penetrate through the plasma membrane of GFP-expressing B16F10 cells. The Cas9/sgRNA is released inside the cells to achieve highly effective GFP gene knockout. The acoustic Cas9/sgRNA-loaded nanomotors display more than 80 % GFP knockout within 2 h of cell incubation compared to 30 % knockout using static nanowires. More impressively, the nanomotors enable highly efficient knockout with just 0.6 nm of the Cas9/sgRNA complex. This nanomotor-based intracellular delivery method thus offers an attractive route to overcome physiological barriers for intracellular delivery of functional proteins and RNAs, thus indicating considerable promise for highly efficient therapeutic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueju; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Huimin; Tan, Xinxin; Sun, Lichao; Sangare, Lancine; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI), FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05). Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  18. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueju Zhao

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI, FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05. Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  19. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  20. Common spectrum of polypeptides occurs in secretion granule membranes of different exocrine glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion

  1. The Effect of Wetting on The Course of The Drum Granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczyk Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics were determined.

  2. Three novel proteins co-localise with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Cagney, Gerard; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2018-04-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer accumulated by bacteria is deposited intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies often called granules. The granules are supramolecular complexes harbouring a varied number of proteins on their surface, which have specific but incompletely characterised functions. By comparison with other organisms that produce biodegradable polymers, only two phasins have been described to date for Rhodosprillum rubrum, raising the possibility that more await discovery. Using a comparative proteomics strategy to compare the granules of wild-type R. rubrum with a PHB-negative mutant housing artificial PHB granules, we identified four potential PHB granules' associated proteins. These were: Q2RSI4, an uncharacterised protein; Q2RWU9, annotated as an extracellular solute-binding protein; Q2RQL4, annotated as basic membrane lipoprotein; and Q2RQ51, annotated as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. In silico analysis revealed that Q2RSI4 harbours a Phasin_2 family domain and shares low identity with a single-strand DNA-binding protein from Sphaerochaeta coccoides. Fluorescence microscopy found that three proteins Q2RSI4, Q2EWU9 and Q2RQL4 co-localised with PHB granules. This work adds three potential new granule associated proteins to the repertoire of factors involved in bacterial storage granule formation, and confirms that proteomics screens are an effective strategy for discovery of novel granule associated proteins.

  3. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  4. Comparison of Ca2+ and Mg2+ enhancing aerobic granulation in SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Gao Dawen; Zhang Min; Fu Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effect of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ augmentation on aerobic granulation. Reactor R1 was augmented with Ca 2+ at 40 mg/L, while Mg 2+ was added to the reactor R2 with 40 mg/L. Results showed that the reactor R1 had a faster granulation process compared with R2, and the mature granules in R1 showed better physical characteristics. However, the mature granules in R2 had the higher production yield of polysaccharides and proteins, and aerobic granules in R2 experienced a faster substrate biodegradation. Microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The results revealed that Mg 2+ addition led to higher microbial diversity in mature granules. In addition, an uncultured bacterium (AB447697) was major specie in R1, and β-proteobacterium was dominant in R2. It can be concluded that Ca 2+ had an important effect on physical properties of aerobic granules, while Mg 2+ played a key role on biological properties during the sludge granulation.

  5. Titanium Granules for Augmentation of the Maxillary Sinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Verket, Anders; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are commonly used to augment the maxillary sinus floor prior to or in conjunction with dental implant installation. Recently, porous titanium granules (PTGs) have been used in oral implant surgery to stabilize implants and function as an osteoconductive matrix. PURPOSE...... in the study. RESULTS: One immobile implant was removed. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm, on the mesial and distal side, respectively. Histologically, all biopsies demonstrated bone ingrowth. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PTG can be safely and effectively used as augmentation material...

  6. Identification of the Polyhydroxybutyrate Granules in Mammalian Cultured Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Pia; Zakharian, Eleonora; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polyester present in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Long-chain (or storage) sPHB (up to 100,000 residues) is typically present in PHB-accumulating bacteria and localized in specialized granules known as carbonosomes. In these organisms, sPHB plays a major role as carbon and energy storage. On the other hand, short-chain (or complexed) cPHB (10–100 residues) is present in eukaryotic organisms, including mammals as well as in many bacteria. Previous ...

  7. Experimental consolidation of granulated rock salt with application to sleeve buckling. Technical memorandum report RSI-0044

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    Quasi-static and creep consolidation tests have been performed in order to determine the compressibility of granulated rock salt when subjected to uniaxial deformations. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the force-displacement characteristics of rock salt that may be used as a backfill material around waste canister sleeves. The test set-up involved placing rock salt pellets in a thin-walled steel cylinder and applying a uniaxial load which compressed the salt while allowing no lateral movement. Tests were run at room temperature, 100 and 200 0 C and consolidated to uniaxial stress levels between 1000 and 4000 psi. Axial force, displacement and time were monitored during each test and the relationships have been evaluated. In particular, compressibility of the rock salt is not drastically effected by the temperature differences, nor is there an appreciable difference between the consolidation tests that were allowed to creep and those that were tested quasi-statically. On the basis of experimental data relating volume change to uniaxial stress, the pressure on the waste canister sleeve has been shown to be a nonlinear function of drillhole displacement. For a proposed in situ field test geometry, a 16 inch drillhole and a canister with a 12.75 inch O.D., the pressure necessary to buckle the canister sleeve will develop when the drillhole closes diametrically 0.5 to 0.6 inches. By the nature of this experimental effort, the results obtained are conservative

  8. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  9. New gentle-wing high-shear granulator: impact of processing variables on granules and tablets characteristics of high-drug loading formulation using design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Mohamed H; Abdel-Rahman, Sayed I; Alanazi, Fars K; Ahmed, Mahrous O; Tawfeek, Hesham M; Al-Shdefat, Ramadan I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the application of design of experiment (DoE) approach in defining design space for granulation and tableting processes using a novel gentle-wing high-shear granulator. According to quality-by-design (QbD) prospective, critical attributes of granules, and tablets should be ensured by manufacturing process design. A face-centered central composite design has been employed in order to investigate the effect of water amount (X 1 ), impeller speed (X 2 ), wet massing time (X 3 ), and water addition rate (X 4 ) as independent process variables on granules and tablets characteristics. Acetaminophen was used as a model drug and granulation experiments were carried out using dry addition of povidone k30. The dried granules have been analyzed for their size distribution, density, and flow pattern. Additionally, the produced tablets have been investigated for; weight uniformity, breaking force, friability and percent capping, disintegration time, and drug dissolution. Results of regression analysis showed that water amount, impeller speed and wet massing time have significant (p tablets characteristics. However, the water amount had the most pronounced effect as indicated by its higher parameter estimate. On the other hand, water addition rate showed a minimal impact on granules and tablets properties. In conclusion, water amount, impeller speed, and wet massing time could be considered as critical process variables. Thus, understanding the relationship between these variables and quality attributes of granules and corresponding tablets provides the basis for adjusting granulation variables in order to optimize product performance.

  10. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1) product localizes to secretory granules and determines granule acidification in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Masayuki; Tanabe, Katsuya; Yanai, Akie; Ohta, Yasuharu; Kondo, Manabu; Akiyama, Masaru; Shinoda, Koh; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein. The Wfs1-null mouse exhibits progressive insulin deficiency causing diabetes. Previous work suggested that the function of the WFS1 protein is connected to unfolded protein response and to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, its precise molecular function in pancreatic β-cells remains elusive. In our present study, immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic analyses revealed that WFS1 localizes not only to ER but also to secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells. Intragranular acidification was assessed by measuring intracellular fluorescence intensity raised by the acidotrophic agent, 3-[2,4-dinitroanilino]-3'-amino-N-methyldipropyramine. Compared with wild-type β-cells, there was a 32% reduction in the intensity in WFS1-deficient β-cells, indicating the impairment of granular acidification. This phenotype may, at least partly, account for the evidence that Wfs1-null islets have impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in an increased circulating proinsulin level. Morphometric analysis using electron microscopy evidenced that the density of secretory granules attached to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced in Wfs1-null β-cells relative to that in wild-type β-cells. This may be relevant to the recent finding that granular acidification is required for the priming of secretory granules preceding exocytosis and may partly explain the fact that glucose-induced insulin secretion is profoundly impaired in young prediabetic Wfs1-null mice. These results thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in patients with Wolfram syndrome.

  11. Vanillin inhibits translation and induces messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granule formation in saccharomyces cerevisiae: application and validation of high-content, image-based profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells.

  12. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modifying the properties of finely ground limestone by tumbling granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Oliver; Eckert, Maroš; Tomášová, Barbora; Peciar, Peter; Ščasný, Martin; Fekete, Roman; Peciar, Marián

    2016-06-01

    Calcium carbonate in the form of finely ground limestone is a material that has found its application in a wide range of industries, in the chemical, rubber, agricultural, and paper industries, is used for desulfurization of boilers and other. In civil engineering, ground limestone is used for the production of building materials, plaster and mortar mixtures, as a filler in concrete mixtures, in road construction, and as an essential component of mastic asphalt. This paper deals with examining the modification of the properties of finely ground limestone by the tumbling agglomeration method. It has been shown that the components of concrete with a round grain have a positive effect on the pumping of concrete in comparison with an elongated grain or the rough surface of crushed stone. The experiments will be carried out on a granulation plate using a variety of granulation liquid. The agglomerates and their properties were compared with untreated finely ground limestone, with a focus on detecting changes in compressibility, density and particle size. The output of this paper is a description and graphical representation of the changes in the properties of ground limestone before and after the agglomeration process.

  14. Human oocyte cryopreservation and the fate of cortical granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetler, Yehudith; Skutelsky, Ehud; Ben Nun, Isaac; Ben Dor, Liah; Amihai, Dina; Shalgi, Ruth

    2006-07-01

    To examine the effect of the commonly used oocyte cryopreservation protocol on the cortical granules (CGs) of human immature germinal vesicle (GV) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Laboratory study. IVF unit. Unfertilized, intracytoplasmic sperm injected (ICSI) oocytes, and immature oocytes were cryopreserved using a slow freezing-rapid thawing program with 1,2-propanediol (PROH) as a cryoprotectant. Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) was assessed by either confocal microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The survival rates of frozen-thawed oocytes (mature and immature) were significantly lower compared with zygotes. Both mature and immature oocytes exhibited increased fluorescence after cryopreservation, indicating the occurrence of CGE. Mere exposure of oocytes to cryoprotectants induced CGE of 70% the value of control zygotes. The TEM revealed a drastic reduction in the amount of CGs at the cortex of frozen-thawed GV and MII oocytes, as well as appearance of vesicles in the ooplasm. The commonly used PROH freezing protocol for human oocytes resulted in extensive CGE. This finding explains why ICSI is needed to achieve fertilization of frozen-thawed human oocytes.

  15. PKCalpha regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Zhao, Yan; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Steve P; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2009-02-01

    Platelets are central players in atherothrombosis development in coronary artery disease. The PKC family provides important intracellular mechanisms for regulating platelet activity, and platelets express several members of this family, including the classical isoforms PKCalpha and PKCbeta and novel isoforms PKCdelta and PKCtheta. Here, we used a genetic approach to definitively demonstrate the role played by PKCalpha in regulating thrombus formation and platelet function. Thrombus formation in vivo was attenuated in Prkca-/- mice, and PKCalpha was required for thrombus formation in vitro, although this PKC isoform did not regulate platelet adhesion to collagen. The ablation of in vitro thrombus formation in Prkca-/- platelets was rescued by the addition of ADP, consistent with the key mechanistic finding that dense-granule biogenesis and secretion depend upon PKCalpha expression. Furthermore, defective platelet aggregation in response to either collagen-related peptide or thrombin could be overcome by an increase in agonist concentration. Evidence of overt bleeding, including gastrointestinal and tail bleeding, was not seen in Prkca-/- mice. In summary, the effects of PKCalpha ablation on thrombus formation and granule secretion may implicate PKCalpha as a drug target for antithrombotic therapy.

  16. High Plasticity of New Granule Cells in the Aging Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela F. Trinchero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: During aging, the brain undergoes changes that impair cognitive capacity and circuit plasticity, including a marked decrease in production of adult-born hippocampal neurons. It is unclear whether development and integration of those new neurons are also affected by age. Here, we show that adult-born granule cells (GCs in aging mice are scarce and exhibit slow development, but they display a remarkable potential for structural plasticity. Retrovirally labeled 3-week-old GCs in middle-aged mice were small, underdeveloped, and disconnected. Neuronal development and integration were accelerated by voluntary exercise or environmental enrichment. Similar effects were observed via knockdown of Lrig1, an endogenous negative modulator of neurotrophin receptors. Consistently, blocking neurotrophin signaling by Lrig1 overexpression abolished the positive effects of exercise. These results demonstrate an unparalleled degree of plasticity in the aging brain mediated by neurotrophins, whereby new GCs remain immature until becoming rapidly recruited to the network by activity. : Trinchero et al. show that development of new granule cells born in the adult hippocampus is strongly influenced by age. In the aging hippocampus, new neurons remain immature for prolonged intervals, yet voluntary exercise triggers their rapid growth and functional synaptogenesis. This extensive structural remodeling is mediated by neurotrophins. Keywords: adult neurogenesis, dentate gyrus, functional integration, neurotrophins, synaptogenesis, exercise

  17. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyar Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine

  18. Biodiesel production from microbial granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Hong, Yuling; Ye, Xin; Wei, Lili; Liao, Jie; Huang, Xu; Liu, Chaoxiang

    2018-02-01

    Effect of reaction variables of in situ transesterification on the biodiesel production, and the characteristic differences of biodiesel obtained from aerobic granular sludge (AG) and algae-bacteria granular consortia (AAG) were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of variables on the biodiesel yield decreased in the order of methanol quantity > catalyst concentration > reaction time, yet the parameters change will not significantly affect biodiesel properties. The maximum biodiesel yield of AAG was 66.21 ± 1.08 mg/g SS, what is significant higher than that of AG (35.44 ± 0.92 mg/g SS). Although methyl palmitate was the dominated composition of biodiesel obtained from both granules, poly-unsaturated fatty acid in the AAG showed a higher percentage (21.86%) than AG (1.2%) due to Scenedesmus addition. Further, microbial analysis confirmed that the composition of biodiesel obtained from microbial granules was also determined by bacterial community, and Xanthomonadaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were the dominant bacteria of AG and AAG, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modifying the properties of finely ground limestone by tumbling granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macho Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate in the form of finely ground limestone is a material that has found its application in a wide range of industries, in the chemical, rubber, agricultural, and paper industries, is used for desulfurization of boilers and other. In civil engineering, ground limestone is used for the production of building materials, plaster and mortar mixtures, as a filler in concrete mixtures, in road construction, and as an essential component of mastic asphalt. This paper deals with examining the modification of the properties of finely ground limestone by the tumbling agglomeration method. It has been shown that the components of concrete with a round grain have a positive effect on the pumping of concrete in comparison with an elongated grain or the rough surface of crushed stone. The experiments will be carried out on a granulation plate using a variety of granulation liquid. The agglomerates and their properties were compared with untreated finely ground limestone, with a focus on detecting changes in compressibility, density and particle size. The output of this paper is a description and graphical representation of the changes in the properties of ground limestone before and after the agglomeration process.

  20. State of the art of aerobic granulation in continuous flow bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Timothy R; Bott, Charles B; Wang, Zhi-Wu

    In the wake of the success of aerobic granulation in sequential batch reactors (SBRs) for treating wastewater, attention is beginning to turn to continuous flow applications. This is a necessary step given the advantages of continuous flow treatment processes and the fact that the majority of full-scale wastewater treatment plants across the world are operated with aeration tanks and clarifiers in a continuous flow mode. As in SBRs, applying a selection pressure, based on differences in either settling velocity or the size of the biomass, is essential for successful granulation in continuous flow reactors (CFRs). CFRs employed for aerobic granulation come in multiple configurations, each with their own means of achieving such a selection pressure. Other factors, such as bioaugmentation and hydraulic shear force, also contribute to aerobic granulation to some extent. Besides the formation of aerobic granules, long-term stability of aerobic granules is also a critical issue to be addressed. Inorganic precipitation, special inocula, and various operational optimization strategies have been used to improve granule long-term structural integrity. Accumulated studies reviewed in this work demonstrate that aerobic granulation in CFRs is capable of removing a wide spectrum of contaminants and achieving properties generally comparable to those in SBRs. Despite the notable research progress made toward successful aerobic granulation in lab-scale CFRs, to the best of our knowledge, there are only three full-scale tests of the technique, two being seeded with anammox-supported aerobic granules and the other with conventional aerobic granules; two other process alternatives are currently in development. Application of settling- or size-based selection pressures and feast/famine conditions are especially difficult to implement to these and similar mainstream systems. Future research efforts needs to be focused on the optimization of the granule-to-floc ratio, enhancement of

  1. The functional morphology of color changing in a spider: development of ommochrome pigment granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Teresita C; Casas, Jérôme

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the formation of ommochrome pigment granules are very few, despite their generalized occurrence as screening pigments in insect eyes. This is particularly true for ommochrome granules responsible for epidermal coloration. The aims of this study were to characterize the localization of major body pigments in a color changing mimetic spider, Misumena vatia (Thomisidae), and to describe the formation and location of ommochrome pigment granules responsible for the spider's color change from white to yellow. The unpigmented cuticula of this spider is transparent. Both the guanine localized in guanine cells in the opisthosoma and the uric acid localized in epidermis cells in the prosoma are responsible for the white coloration. The bright yellow color is due to the combination of ommochrome pigment granules and the white reflectance from coincident guanine and/or uric acid. The formation of ommochrome pigment granules in epidermis cells proceeds via three distinctive steps. Translucent, UV fluorescent, progranules (type I) are produced by a dense network of endoplasmic reticulum associated with numerous mitochondria and glycogen rosettes. These progranules are present in white spiders only, and regularly distributed in the cytoplasm. The merging of several progranules of type I into a transient state (progranule type II) leads to the formation of granules (type III) characterized by their lack of fluorescence, their spherical sections and their osmophilic-electron-dense contents. They are found in yellow spiders and in the red stripes on the body sides. Their color varies from yellow to red. Thus, white spiders contain only type I granules, yellow tinted spiders contain type II and III granules and bright yellow spiders contain only type III granules. We present a synthetic view of the ontogeny of ommochrome granules. We discuss the physiology of color changing and the nature of the chemical compounds in the different types of granules. Extended studies on the

  2. Adiponectin regulates contextual fear extinction and intrinsic excitability of dentate gyrus granule neurons through AdipoR2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Wang, X; Wang, B; Garza, J C; Fang, X; Wang, J; Scherer, P E; Brenner, R; Zhang, W; Lu, X-Y

    2017-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exaggerated fear expression and impaired fear extinction. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of PTSD are largely unknown. The current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for PTSD are either ineffective or temporary with high relapse rates. Here we report that adiponectin-deficient mice exhibited normal contextual fear conditioning but displayed slower extinction learning. Infusions of adiponectin into the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in fear-conditioned mice facilitated extinction of contextual fear. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices revealed that intrinsic excitability of DG granule neurons was enhanced by adiponectin deficiency and suppressed after treatment with the adiponectin mimetic AdipoRon, which were associated with increased input resistance and hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, respectively. Moreover, deletion of AdipoR2, but not AdipoR1 in the DG, resulted in augmented fear expression and reduced extinction, accompanied by intrinsic hyperexcitability of DG granule neurons. Adiponectin and AdipoRon failed to induce facilitation of fear extinction and elicit inhibition of intrinsic excitability of DG neurons in AdipoR2 knockout mice. These results indicated that adiponectin action via AdipoR2 was both necessary and sufficient for extinction of contextual fear and intrinsic excitability of DG granule neurons, implying that enhancing or dampening DG neuronal excitability may cause resistance to or facilitation of extinction. Therefore, our findings provide a functional link between adiponectin/AdipoR2 activation, DG neuronal excitability and contextual fear extinction, and suggest that targeting adiponectin/AdipoR2 may be used to strengthen extinction-based exposure therapies for PTSD.

  3. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ten, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flowability to that of spraydried powders. The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,… changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar gres porcelánico esmaltado utilizando un sistema de preparación de la composición del soporte más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, lo que implica una reducción importante de los consumos de agua y de energía térmica. El proceso que se estudia en el presente trabajo es el consistente en la molienda vía seca en molino pendular y en la posterior granulación (para obtener un polvo de prensas con fluidez similar a la de los polvos atomizados. La distinta morfología de los nuevos gránulos obtenidos respecto al polvo atomizado actual, modifica la microestuctura en crudo de las piezas y, con ello, el comportamiento y propiedades finales de las baldosas obtenidas. Por ello, ha sido necesario

  4. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation

  5. Stress analysis of HTR-10 steam generator heat exchanging tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianling; Zhang Xiaohang; Yin Dejian; Fu Jiyang

    2001-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) heat exchanging tubes of 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) are protective screens between the primary loop of helium with radioactivity and the secondary loop of feeding water and steam without radioactivity. Water and steam will enter into the primary loop when rupture of the heat exchanging tubes occurs, which lead to increase of the primary loop pressure and discharge of radioactive materials. Therefore it is important to guarantee the integrity of the tubes. The tube structure is spiral tube with small bending radius, which make it impossible to test with volumetric in-service detection. For such kind of spiral tube, using LBB concept to guarantee the integrity of the tubes is an important option. The author conducts stress analysis and calculation of HTR-10 SG heat exchanging tubes using the FEM code of piping stress analysis, PIPESTRESS. The maximum stress and the dangerous positions are obtained

  6. Granulation for Coking Wastewater Treatment in a Coupled Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjuan; Lv, Bingnan

    2018-06-01

    A coupled anaerobic-aerobic granular bio-film reactor was employed with two operation stages: Stage I, granular sludge was formed from digestion sludge using brewery wastewater, and Stage II, granular sludge was acclimatized using coking wastewater. Two oxygenation methods (i.e. A and B) were employed to acclimatize the granules. For method A, dissolved O 2 was supplied through a continuous oxygenation way of 800-15000ml-min-1 . And for method B, dissolved O2 was supplied of 800-15000ml-min-1 18-12 times at 20-60min intervals, 1h each time. The experimental results showed that granules could quickly form in 10d in the EGSB reactor seeded with digestion sludge and little loose granules lack of nutrition, and it was the key factor for granules forming to add little loose granules. It took only about 6 months for granules acclimation using coking wastewater. Both oxygenation methods could run well when acclimatizing the granules. However, method A could have comparatively high and stable operation effect. The actual coking wastewater had distinct inhibition effect on the granules, but the supplement of some oxygen could promote the recovery of SMA, and NaHCO3 supplement could also weaken the inhibition effect of the CWW. Method A had more strongly activity recovery ability than method B.

  7. Granulation in red giants: observations by the Kepler mission and three-dimensional convection simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; Garcia, R.A.; Huber, D.; Jimenez, A.; Mosser, B.; Bedding, T.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Regulo, C.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W.J.; de Ridder, J.; Hale, S.J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection

  8. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2016-06-20

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  9. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid dosage forms are invariably multiparticulate systems of heterogenous particle size distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size distribution of paracetamol granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules were formed by wet massing paracetamol ...

  10. N-methyl-D-aspartate promotes the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balázs, R; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Hack, N

    1988-01-01

    Our previous studies on the survival-promoting influence of elevated concentrations of extracellular K+ ([K+]e) on cultured cerebellar granule cells led to the proposal that depolarization in vitro mimics the effect of the earliest afferent inputs received by the granule cells in vivo. This, in t...

  11. Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules and methane in anaerobic treatment of black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha Costa, da J.M.R.; Tervahauta, T.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Hernández Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) granules were discovered in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (BW), using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. This allows simultaneous recovery of CaP granules and methane in the UASB reactor. However, the role of BW composition on CaP

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF TABLET FORMULATIONS BASED ON STARCH LACTOSE GRANULATIONS FOR USE IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; BOLHUIS, GK; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    Several granulations consisting of alpha-lactose monohydrate 200 mesh and native starch (corn, potato, rice or tapioca) were prepared. The influence of starch concentration, storage temperature and relative humidity on the physical properties of the tablets prepared from these granulations was

  13. A Single-Granule-Level Approach Reveals Ecological Heterogeneity in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Kuroda

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA-degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. "Candidatus Aminicenantes" and Methanosaeta are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach.

  14. A Single-Granule-Level Approach Reveals Ecological Heterogeneity in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Bocher, Benjamin T. W.; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a “macro”-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA–degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. “Candidatus Aminicenantes” and Methanosaeta) are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach. PMID:27936088

  15. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Gunjal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level.

  16. Impact of full range of amylose contents on the architecture of starch granules*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Putaux, Jean Luc

    2016-01-01

    The effects of amylose deposition on crystalline regions of barley starch granules were studied in granules containing zero to 99.1% amylose using "waxy" (WBS, 0% amylose), normal (NBS, 18% amylose) and amylose-only barley lines (AOS, 99.1% amylose). The effects were probed after hydrolysis of am...

  17. Performance of single carbon granules as perspective for larger scale capacitive bioanodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Casper; Liu, Dandan; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Heijne, ter Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    The use of high surface area electrodes, like carbon-based felt or granules, in Bioelectrochemical Systems is crucial for high volumetric current production. In case activated carbon granules are used, charge can also be stored in the form of an electric double layer in the pores, which has been

  18. LUBRICANT SENSITIVITY IN RELATION TO BULK-DENSITY FOR GRANULATIONS BASED ON STARCH OR CELLULOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    The study described in this paper was concerned with the susceptibility to lubrication with magnesium stearate of tablets compressed from granulations based on native starches or on modified celluloses. Different properties of the granulations, like particle size, flowability and surface area, were

  19. Internal structure of normal maize starch granules revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D D; Jane, J I

    2000-01-01

    Normal maize starch was fractionated into two sizes: large granules with diameters more than 5 microns and small granules with diameters less than 5 microns. The large granules were surface gelatinized by treating them with an aqueous LiCl solution (13 M) at 22-23 degrees C. Surface-gelatinized remaining granules were obtained by mechanical blending, and gelatinized surface starch was obtained by grinding with a mortar and a pestle. Starches of different granular sizes and radial locations, obtained after different degrees of surface gelatinization, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy, iodine potentiometric titration, gel-permeation chromatography, and amylopectin branch chain length analysis. Results showed that the remaining granules had a rough surface with a lamella structure. Amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core of the granule. Amylopectin had longer long B-chains at the core than at the periphery of the granule. Greater proportions of the long B-chains were present at the core than at the periphery of the granule.

  20. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Flemming, R.L.; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed

  1. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription ...

  2. Whole genome analysis of CRISPR Cas9 sgRNA off-target homologies via an efficient computational algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Michael; Li, Daisy; Manthey, Joseph; Lioutikova, Ekaterina; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-11-17

    The beauty and power of the genome editing mechanism, CRISPR Cas9 endonuclease system, lies in the fact that it is RNA-programmable such that Cas9 can be guided to any genomic loci complementary to a 20-nt RNA, single guide RNA (sgRNA), to cleave double stranded DNA, allowing the introduction of wanted mutations. Unfortunately, it has been reported repeatedly that the sgRNA can also guide Cas9 to off-target sites where the DNA sequence is homologous to sgRNA. Using human genome and Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) as an example, this article mathematically analyzed the probabilities of off-target homologies of sgRNAs and discovered that for large genome size such as human genome, potential off-target homologies are inevitable for sgRNA selection. A highly efficient computationl algorithm was developed for whole genome sgRNA design and off-target homology searches. By means of a dynamically constructed sequence-indexed database and a simplified sequence alignment method, this algorithm achieves very high efficiency while guaranteeing the identification of all existing potential off-target homologies. Via this algorithm, 1,876,775 sgRNAs were designed for the 19,153 human mRNA genes and only two sgRNAs were found to be free of off-target homology. By means of the novel and efficient sgRNA homology search algorithm introduced in this article, genome wide sgRNA design and off-target analysis were conducted and the results confirmed the mathematical analysis that for a sgRNA sequence, it is almost impossible to escape potential off-target homologies. Future innovations on the CRISPR Cas9 gene editing technology need to focus on how to eliminate the Cas9 off-target activity.

  3. Roll Compaction/Dry Granulation of Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Anhydrous-Does the Morphology of the Raw Material Influence the Tabletability of Dry Granules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The influence of raw material particle morphology on the tabletabilty of dry granules was investigated. Therefore, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous was used as a model material. One milled grade, 2 agglomerated grades with different porosities, and a functionalized structure, that is, an agglomerate formed by very small primary particles, were included. Particle size, density, and specific surface area of raw materials were measured. The starting materials and 2 fractions of dry granules were compressed to tablets. The tabletability of granules was compared to that of the powders and the influence of specific compaction force, granule size, and lubrication on tablet tensile strength was evaluated. All materials showed a loss in tabletability induced by a previous compaction step but to a varying extent. Only in case of the functionalized calcium phosphate morphology, this effect depended on the specific compaction force. In contrast to the other materials, the tabletability of functionalized calcium phosphate was influenced by the granule size. This effect was not related to an overlubrication as internal and external lubrication resulted in similar tensile strengths. A clear influence of the particle morphology on tablet strength was demonstrated by the study. The functionalized structure showed aspects of a more plastic deformation behavior. The functionalized dibasic calcium phosphate and the more porous agglomerate performed as potential filler/binder in the field of roll compaction/dry granulation. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  5. Nitrate removal from aquaculture effluents using woodchip bioreactors improved by adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects on nitrate removal when adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells to a woodchip bioreactor treating aquaculture effluents. Using a central composite design, the two components were added at three levels (0.000, 0.125 and 0.250 m3/m3 bioreactor volume) to 13......, the inclusion of crushed seashells together with sulfur granules helped to maintain the pH above 7.4 and prevent a production (i.e., release) of nitrite. According to the modeled response surfaces, a sulfur granule:crushed seashell:woodchip mixture ratio containing about 0.2 m3 sulfur granules and 0.1 m3...... crushed seashells per m3 reactor volume would give the best results with respect to high N removal and minimal nitrite release. In conclusion, the study showed that N removal in woodchip bioreactors may be improved by adding sulfur granules and seashells, contributing to the optimization of woodchip...

  6. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of an in-line particle imaging tool for monitoring twin-screw granulation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; De Leersnyder, Fien

    2015-01-01

    system. Off-line sieving was used as reference particle size analysis method. A twin-screw granulator which is part of the Consigma system was used to granulate a placebo formulation composed of lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 97.5:2.5% w/w). PVP was dissolvedin water, which was used......). The volumetric size distribution obtained from the in-line measurements of the granules leaving the twin-screw granulator using the Eyecon™ camera was compared with the off-line measurements obtainedby sieving of the granule samples collected before and after the drying unit operation. For the intermediate size...... range (diameter 250–1000 μm), the Eyecon™ measurements showed to be promising as they were in agreement with off-line measurement results obtained before the drying unit. However, the image analysis algorithm and data post-processing of the Eyecon™ images for the fines and oversized ranges require...

  8. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batchwise wet granulation processes. The twin-screw granulator (TSG) screws consist of transport and kneading element modules. Therefore, the granulation to a large extent is governed by the residence time distribution...... within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate...... the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate...

  9. rab3 mediates cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, S; Wessel, G M

    1998-11-15

    Egg activation at fertilization in the sea urchin results in the exocytosis of approximately 15,000 cortical granules that are docked at the plasma membrane. Previously, we reported that several integral membrane proteins modeled in the SNARE hypothesis, synaptotagmin, VAMP, and syntaxin, in addition to a small GTPase of the ras superfamily, rab3, were present on cortical granules (Conner, S., Leaf, D., and Wessel, G., Mol. Reprod. Dev. 48, 1-13, 1997). Here we report that rab3 is associated with cortical granules throughout oogenesis, during cortical granule translocation, and while docked at the egg plasma membrane. Following cortical granule exocytosis, however, rab3 reassociates with a different population of vesicles, at least some of which are of endocytic origin. Because of its selective association with cortical granules in eggs and oocytes, we hypothesize that rab3 functions in cortical granule exocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we used a strategy of interfering with rab3 function by peptide competition with its effector domain, a conserved region within specific rab types. We first identified the effector domain sequence in Lytechinus variegatus eggs and find the sequence 94% identical to the effector domain of rab3 in Stronglocentrotus purpuratus. Then, with synthetic peptides to different regions of the rab3 protein, we find that cortical granule exocytosis is inhibited in eggs injected with effector domain peptides, but not with peptides from the hypervariable region or with a scrambled effector peptide. Additionally, effector-peptide-injected eggs injected with IP3 are blocked in their ability to exocytose cortical granules, suggesting that the inhibition is directly on the membrane fusion event and not the result of interference with the signal transduction mechanism leading to calcium release. We interpret these results to mean that rab3 functions in the regulation of cortical granule exocytosis following vesicle docking. Copyright 1998 Academic

  10. Distorted secretory granule composition in mast cells with multiple protease deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Calounova, Gabriela; Eriksson, Inger; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Tchougounova, Elena; Kjellén, Lena; Pejler, Gunnar

    2013-10-01

    Mast cells are characterized by an abundance of secretory granules densely packed with inflammatory mediators such as bioactive amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycans with negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains of either heparin or chondroitin sulfate type, and large amounts of positively charged proteases. Despite the large biological impact of mast cell granules and their contents on various pathologies, the mechanisms that regulate granule composition are incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that granule composition is dependent on a dynamic electrostatic interrelationship between different granule compounds. As a tool to evaluate this possibility, we generated mice in which mast cells are multideficient in a panel of positively charged proteases: the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4, the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6, and carboxypeptidase A3. Through a posttranslational effect, mast cells from these mice additionally lack mouse mast cell protease-5 protein. Mast cells from mice deficient in individual proteases showed normal morphology. In contrast, mast cells with combined protease deficiency displayed a profound distortion of granule integrity, as seen both by conventional morphological criteria and by transmission electron microscopy. An assessment of granule content revealed that the distorted granule integrity in multiprotease-deficient mast cells was associated with a profound reduction of highly negatively charged heparin, whereas no reduction in chondroitin sulfate storage was observed. Taken together with previous findings showing that the storage of basic proteases conversely is regulated by anionic proteoglycans, these data suggest that secretory granule composition in mast cells is dependent on a dynamic interrelationship between granule compounds of opposite electrical charge.

  11. Studies on rye starch properties and modification. Pt. 1. Composition and properties of rye starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, F; Radosta, S; Richter, M; Kettlitz, B [Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung, Potsdam (Germany); Gernat, C [Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    1991-09-01

    Rye is considered as a potential raw material for starch industry. Starting from a survey of technical procedures of isolating starches from rye-flour and -grits investigations will be reported, which were performed on pilot plant- and laboratory-isolated rye starches. The present paper deals with its granule appearance and composition. A distribution of granule size between small granules ({<=} 10 {mu}m - 15%) and large granules ({>=} 11 ... {<=} 40 {mu}m = 85%) is typical for the totality of the starches. Differing distributions depend on the conditions of isolation: The entity of starch containing samples resulted from the latoratory procedures under investigation. Large-granule starch preparations were isolated in the pilot plant: The centrifuge-overflow contains the small-granule fraction which is high in impurities. Granule crystallinity amounts to 16%. The crystalline component - like in wheat and triticale starches - consists predominantly of A-polymorph - with up to 9% of the B-type. The isotherms of water exchange are of the cereal type. The contents of minor constituents largely relate to the small granule fraction which assembles the majority of crude protein, pentosans and lipids, which are difficult to remove. Lipid components in all fractions influence the results of linear chain-iodine interactions and they must be removed to proceed from apparent to absolute polysaccharide indices. The absolute amylose contents amount to {approx equal} 25% for large granule samples and to 20-21% for small granule samples. The average chain-length of iodine binding helical regions was determined with 220-240 AGU. (orig.).

  12. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  13. Cell labelling. Granule and platelet kinetics. Recent concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Dresch, C.; Dassin, E.

    Some unsolved problems are reviewed concerning the lifetime of blood platelets, with special reference to excessive platelet consumption and its possible correction by anti-aggregation agents, in many vascular diseases. Regarding the production of platelets it is considered that the 75 Se-methionine labelling method alone offers a quantitative approach to the process and could be used for the physiological study of thrombopoietic factors. A short chapter is devoted to a survey of the points of agreement and disagreement regarding the lifetime of polynuclear cells and a tentative analysis of the reasons explaining the quite different results obtained with DFP and radiochromium labelling. Finally the methods used to study granule formation are criticized, though it is acknowledged that certain ideas useful in physiopathology have emerged from these different procedures [fr

  14. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  15. Intracisternal granules in the adipokinetic cells of locusts are not degraded and apparently function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J

    2000-01-01

    The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

  16. Liquid‐to‐solid ratio control as an advanced process control solution for continuous twin‐screw wet granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaï, Niels; Leersnyder, Fien De; Copot, Dana

    2018-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the granule liquid‐to‐solid ratio (w) at the end of the granulation unit of a commercial ConsiGmaTM‐25 production line. Near‐infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the granule composition in‐line. The outcome for both the tracking and regulator problem using either conventional...

  17. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  4. Molecular characterization of SG33 and Borghi vaccines used against myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadini, Patrizia; Botti, Giuliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2010-07-26

    Myxoma virus is a poxvirus responsible for myxomatosis in European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The entire genome of the myxoma virus has been sequenced, allowing a systemic survey of the functions of a large number of putative pathogenic factors that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts. In Italy, industrial rabbits are mostly vaccinated against myxomatosis using the attenuated myxoma virus strains Borghi or SG33. We have identified genetic markers specific for Borghi or SG33 vaccine strains and established a PCR-based assay that could be used to: (a) rapidly diagnose the presence of myxoma virus in infected organs; (b) discriminate between field strain-infected and vaccinated rabbits and (c) differentiate between Borghi or SG33 vaccine strain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

  6. Simulation of the condensation experiment for the SG primary of SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong Won [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SMART is new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. MIDAS/SMR V1.0.3 code has been used for estimating the severe accident from SMART. SMART has the SG tube with helical shape that is different from that of PWR. MIDAS code has the condensation model for the both sides of surfaces from the various kinds of geometry. But it does not have the condensation model for the helical type of tube. In this study, the condensation experiment for the outer surface of the SG tube in SMART that was performed by Po-Hang university was simulated with MIDAS/SMR under the assumption of straight pipe. The simulation results showed well predictions of the amount of heat removal from the SG tube primary side and thermal hydraulic parameters

  7. Simulation of the condensation experiment for the SG primary of SMART with MIDAS/SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won

    2012-01-01

    SMART is new concept of reactor that all the main components such as the steam generator, the coolant pumps and the pressurizer are located inside the reactor vessel. MIDAS/SMR V1.0.3 code has been used for estimating the severe accident from SMART. SMART has the SG tube with helical shape that is different from that of PWR. MIDAS code has the condensation model for the both sides of surfaces from the various kinds of geometry. But it does not have the condensation model for the helical type of tube. In this study, the condensation experiment for the outer surface of the SG tube in SMART that was performed by Po-Hang university was simulated with MIDAS/SMR under the assumption of straight pipe. The simulation results showed well predictions of the amount of heat removal from the SG tube primary side and thermal hydraulic parameters

  8. Methodology for failure assessment of SMART SG tube with once-through helical-coiled type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Shin Beom; Cho, Doo Ho; Chang, Yoon Suk

    2010-09-01

    In this research project, existing integrity evaluation method for SMART steam generator tube with crack-like flaw was reviewed to determine subject analysis model and investigate possibility of failure under crack closure behavior. Furthermore, failure pressure estimation was proposed for SMART steam generator tubes containing wear-type defects. For each subject, the following issues are addressed: 1. Determination of subject analysis model for SMART SG tube contaning crack-like flaw 2. Applicability review on existing integrity evaluation method and investigation of failure possibility for SMART SG tube containing crack-like flaw 3. Development of failure pressure estimation model for SMART SG tube with wear type defect It is anticipated that if the technologies developed in this study are applied, structural integrity can be estimated accurately

  9. Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thong, P.S.P.; Watt, F. E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S.K.; He, Y.; Lee, T.K.Y

    1999-09-02

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN

  10. Artificial Intelligence Tools for Scaling Up of High Shear Wet Granulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of artificial intelligence tools for predicting the endpoint of the granulation process in high-speed mixer granulators of different scales from 25L to 600L. The combination of neurofuzzy logic and gene expression programing technologies allowed the modeling of the impeller power as a function of operation conditions and wet granule properties, establishing the critical variables that affect the response and obtaining a unique experimental polynomial equation (transparent model) of high predictability (R 2 > 86.78%) for all size equipment. Gene expression programing allowed the modeling of the granulation process for granulators of similar and dissimilar geometries and can be improved by implementing additional characteristics of the process, as composition variables or operation parameters (e.g., batch size, chopper speed). The principles and the methodology proposed here can be applied to understand and control manufacturing process, using any other granulation equipment, including continuous granulation processes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutrophil glycoprotein Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma membranes and specific granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, K.B.; Nauseef, W.M.; Clark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The glucoprotein Mo1 has previously been demonstrated to be on the cell surface and in the specific granule fraction of neutrophils and to be translocated to the cell surface during degranulation. It is not known, however, whether Mo1 is an integral membrane protein or a soluble, intragranular constituent loosely associated with the specific granule membrane. Purified neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and separated on Percoll density gradients into four fractions enriched for azurophilic granules, specific granules, plasma membrane, and cytosol, respectively. The glycoproteins in these fractions were labeled with 3 H-borohydride reduction, extracted with Triton X-114, and immunoprecipitated with 60.3, an anti-Mo1 monoclonal antibody. Mo1 was detected only in the specific granule and plasma membrane fractions and partitioned exclusively into the detergent-rich fraction consistent with Mo1 being an integral membrane protein. In addition, treatment of specific granule membranes with a high salt, high urea buffer to remove adsorbed or peripheral proteins failed to dissociate Mo1. These data support the hypothesis that Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma and specific granule membranes in human neutrophils

  12. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (Panalysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Qiang, E-mail: kongqiang0531@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Ngo, Huu Hao [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Shu, Li [School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Miao, Ming-sheng, E-mail: mingshengmiao@163.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe{sup 2+} dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation.

  14. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Granule-based Partial Nitritation Reactor: A Model-based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yiwen; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-04-03

    Sustainable wastewater treatment has been attracting increasing attentions over the past decades. However, the production of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent GHG, from the energy-efficient granule-based autotrophic nitrogen removal is largely unknown. This study applied a previously established N 2 O model, which incorporated two N 2 O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) oxidation). The two-pathway model was used to describe N 2 O production from a granule-based partial nitritation (PN) reactor and provide insights into the N 2 O distribution inside granules. The model was evaluated by comparing simulation results with N 2 O monitoring profiles as well as isotopic measurement data from the PN reactor. The model demonstrated its good predictive ability against N 2 O dynamics and provided useful information about the shift of N 2 O production pathways inside granules for the first time. The simulation results indicated that the increase of oxygen concentration and granule size would significantly enhance N 2 O production. The results further revealed a linear relationship between N 2 O production and ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) (R 2  = 0.99) under the conditions of varying oxygen levels and granule diameters, suggesting that bulk oxygen and granule size may exert an indirect effect on N 2 O production by causing a change in AOR.

  15. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of grey system theory on the influencing parameters of aerobic granulation in SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, B K; Madhu, G

    2017-09-01

    Aerobic granulation is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. Four operational parameters were selected as influencing factors for this study. Aerobic granulation was experimented with three different values of organic loading rate (3, 6 and 9 kg COD m -3  d -1 ), superficial upflow air velocity (SUAV) (2, 3 and 4 cm s -1 ), settling time (3, 5 and 10 min) and volume exchange ratio (25%, 50% and 75%) in sequencing batch reactor in nine trials for the optimal performance of aerobic granulation. The influence of compared parameters on five reference parameters (sludge volume index (SVI), time taken for the appearance of granules, size and specific gravity of granules and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal) was analyzed using grey system theory. The grey relational coefficients and grey entropy relational grade of each parameter were calculated. Hydrodynamic shear force in terms of SUAV was found to have the greatest influence on granule appearance, specific gravity of granules and COD removal efficiency. SVI is greatly affected by settling time. The optimal scopes of all the compared parameters were found.

  17. Ultraviolet and gamma-radiation effect on the zymotic characteristics of turnip moth's granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakimova, M A

    1975-01-01

    Virus granules of the winter cutworm (Agrotis segetum Schiff) were used as agents for biological control of this pest of field and vegetable crops. The authors first studied the effect of uv and gamma radiation on granules of the cutworm. A purified suspension of winter moth granules, 0.5 mg of granules per mm/sup 3/, was irradiated with a BUV-15 lamp at a distance of 9 cm from the radiation source. The dose rate was 6.6x10/sup 3/ ergs/cm/sup 2/.sec. The results showed that a uv dose of 71.1x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ decreased the virulence of the granules by a factor of 3 compared to the original suspension (larval mortality of 27.5%) and a dose of 95x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ completely inactivated the granules. With gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) the inactivating dose was only 21.6x10/sup 5/ rads. The work indicated that cutworm granules are very resistant to uv and gamma radiation.

  18. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Qiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Shu, Li; Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe 2+ dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation

  19. Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 1--development of sustained-release granule--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Kaoru; Ohno, Yukiko; Ito, Mikio

    2009-02-01

    Progesterone (P) is an important hormone for the establishment of pregnancy, and its administration is useful for luteal insufficiency. Considering the problems of commercially available oral and injection drugs, hospital-formulated vaginal suppositories are clinically used. However, since the half-life of P suppositories is short, it is difficult to maintain its constant blood concentration. To sustain drug efficacy and prevent side-effects, we are attempting to develop sustained-release suppositories by examining the degree of sustained-release of active ingredients. In this study, we examined the combinations of granulation methods and release systems for the preparation of sustained-release granules of P, and produced 13 types of sustained-release granules. We also examined the diameter, content, and dissolution of each type of granules, and confirmed that the sustained-release of all types of granules was satisfactory. Among the sustained-release granules, we selected granules with a content and a degree of sustained-release suitable for sustained-release suppositories.

  20. Turnover of pigment granules: cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Casas, J

    2009-12-01

    Ommochromes are end products of the tryptophan metabolism in arthropods. While the anabolism of ommochromes has been well studied, the catabolism is totally unknown. In order to study it, we used the crab-spider Misumena vatia, which is able to change color reversibly in a few days, from yellow to white and back. Ommochromes is the only pigment class responsible for the body coloration in this animal. The aim of this study was to analyze the fine structure of the epidermal cells in bleaching spiders, in an attempt to correlate morphological changes with the fate of the pigment granules. Central to the process of bleaching is the lysis of the ommochrome granules. In the same cell, intact granules and granules in different degradation stages are found. The degradation begins with granule autolysis. Some components are extruded in the extracellular space and others are recycled via autophagy. Abundant glycogen appears associated to granulolysis. In a later stage of bleaching, ommochrome progranules, typical of white spiders, appear in the distal zone of the same epidermal cell. Catabolism and anabolism of pigment granules thus take place simultaneously in spider epidermal cells. A cyclic pathway of pigment granules formation and degradation, throughout a complete cycle of color change is proposed, together with an explanation for this turnover, involving photoprotection against UV by ommochromes metabolites. The presence of this turnover for melanins is discussed.

  1. Cold experiment of slag centrifugal granulation by rotary atomizer: Effect of atomizer configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun-Jun; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Li, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal granulation has recently been employed to produce small blast furnace slag particles, so as to recover the waste heat from the high-temperature molten blast furnace slag. An appropriate atomizer enables centrifugal granulation to become a better cost-effective process for particle production. Thus, increasing emphasis has been placed on influence of atomizer configuration on granulation. In present study, three groups of atomizers were specially designed and the granulation performance of each atomizer was experimentally tested during cold experiments. The influences of atomizer configuration on granulation modes and droplet characteristics were investigated visually. Two modified correlations were proposed to predict the granulating droplet size by means of data fitting. The results indicated that the rotary cup atomizers can inhibit the film formation in contrast to rotary disc atomizer. Moreover, atomizers with outer angle of 90° was capable of producing smaller droplets. The revised correlation as well as the newly-developed correlation including the influence of atomizer configurations, presented in good agreement with the experiment data. In addition, an analysis on atomizer design was conducted to provide a good insight for industrialization. It was recommended to adopt cup-like atomizer in granulation for its ability to produce fine particles with smaller atomizer size.

  2. Cloning and expression of SgCYP450-4 from Siraitia grosvenorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Tu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CYP450 plays an essential role in the development and growth of the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii. However, little is known about the SgCYP450-4 gene in S. grosvenorii. Here, based on transcriptome data, a full-length cDNA sequence of SgCYP450-4 was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE strategies. SgCYP450-4 is 1677 bp in length (GenBank accession No. AEM42985.1 and contains a complete open reading frame (ORF of 1422 bp. The deduced protein was composed of 473 amino acids, the molecular weight is 54.01 kDa, the theoretical isoelectric point (PI is 8.8, and the protein was predicted to possess cytochrome P450 domains. SgCYP450-4 gene was highly expressed in root, diploid fruit and fruit treated with hormone and pollination. At 10 days after treatment with pollination and hormones, the expression of SgCYP450-4 had the highest level and then decreased over time, which was consistent with the development of fruits of S. Grosvenorii. Hormonal treatment could significantly induce the expression of SgCYP450-4. These results provide a reference for regulation of fruit development and the use of parthenocarpy to generate seedless fruit, and provide a scientific basis for the production of growth regulator application agents.

  3. Interaction between granulation and small-scale magnetic flux observed by Hinode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Jin Chunlan

    2009-01-01

    With the polarimetric observations obtained by the Spectro-Polarimeter on board Hinode, we study the relationship between granular development and magnetic field evolution in the quiet Sun. Six typical cases are displayed to exhibit interaction between granules and magnetic elements, and we have obtained the following results. (1) A granule develops centrosymmetrically when no magnetic flux emerges within the granular cell. (2) A granule develops and splits noncentrosymmetrically while flux emerges at an outer part of the granular cell. (3) Magnetic flux emergence in a cluster of mixed polarities is detected at the position of a granule as soon as the granule breaks up. (4) A dipole emerges accompanied by the development of a granule, and the two elements of the dipole are rooted in the adjacent intergranular lanes and face each other across the granule. Advected by the horizontal granular motion, the positive element of the dipole then cancels with the pre-existing negative flux. (5) Flux cancellation also takes place between a positive element, which is advected by granular flow, and its surrounding negative flux. (6) While magnetic flux cancellation takes place in a granular cell, the granule shrinks and then disappears. (7) Horizontal magnetic fields are enhanced at the places where dipoles emerge and where opposite polarities cancel each other, but only the horizontal fields between the dipolar elements point in an orderly way from the positive elements to the negative ones. Our results reveal that granules and small-scale magnetic fluxes influence each other. Granular flow advects magnetic flux, and magnetic flux evolution suppresses granular development. There exist extremely large Doppler blue-shifts at the site of one canceling magnetic element. This phenomenon may be caused by the upward flow produced by magnetic reconnection below the photosphere. (research papers)

  4. Acoustic emission monitoring from a lab scale high shear granulator--a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N J; Povey, M J W; Reynolds, G K; Xu, B H; Ding, Y

    2014-04-25

    A new approach to the monitoring of granulation processes using passive acoustics together with precise control over the granulation process has highlighted the importance of particle-particle and particle-bowl collisions in acoustic emission. The results have shown that repeatable acoustic results could be obtained but only when a spray nozzle water addition system was used. Acoustic emissions were recorded from a transducer attached to the bowl and an airborne transducer. It was found that the airborne transducer detected very little from the granulation and only experienced small changes throughout the process. The results from the bowl transducer showed that during granulation the frequency content of the acoustic emission shifted towards the lower frequencies. Results from the discrete element model indicate that when larger particles are used the number of collisions the particles experience reduces. This is a result of the volume conservation methodology used in this study, therefore larger particles results in less particles. These simulation results coupled with previous theoretical work on the frequency content of an impacting sphere explain why the frequency content of the acoustic emissions reduces during granule growth. The acoustic system used was also clearly able to identify when large over-wetted granules were present in the system, highlighting its benefit for detecting undesirable operational conditions. High-speed photography was used to study if visual changes in the granule properties could be linked with the changing acoustic emissions. The high speed photography was only possible towards the latter stages of the granulation process and it was found that larger granules produced a higher magnitude of acoustic emission across a broader frequency range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CSR-1 and P granules suppress sperm-specific transcription in the C. elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne C; Updike, Dustin L

    2015-05-15

    Germ granules (P granules) in C. elegans are required for fertility and function to maintain germ cell identity and pluripotency. Sterility in the absence of P granules is often accompanied by the misexpression of soma-specific proteins and the initiation of somatic differentiation in germ cells. To investigate whether this is caused by the accumulation of somatic transcripts, we performed mRNA-seq on dissected germlines with and without P granules. Strikingly, we found that somatic transcripts do not increase in the young adult germline when P granules are impaired. Instead, we found that impairing P granules causes sperm-specific mRNAs to become highly overexpressed. This includes the accumulation of major sperm protein (MSP) transcripts in germ cells, a phenotype that is suppressed by feminization of the germline. A core component of P granules, the endo-siRNA-binding Argonaute protein CSR-1, has recently been ascribed with the ability to license transcripts for germline expression. However, impairing CSR-1 has very little effect on the accumulation of its mRNA targets. Instead, we found that CSR-1 functions with P granules to prevent MSP and sperm-specific mRNAs from being transcribed in the hermaphrodite germline. These findings suggest that P granules protect germline integrity through two different mechanisms, by (1) preventing the inappropriate expression of somatic proteins at the level of translational regulation, and by (2) functioning with CSR-1 to limit the domain of sperm-specific expression at the level of transcription. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The Finnish subtitling of neologisms in the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kurki, Riikka

    2012-01-01

    Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma käsittelee kanadalais–amerikkalaisen tieteissarjan Stargate SG-1 (tunnettu Suomessa myös nimellä Tähtiportti) neologismien eli uudissanojen tekstitystä englannista suomeksi. Uudissana on sana, joka ei ole virallisissa sanakirjoissa tai jolla on sanakirjoissa eri merkitys kuin sen uudessa käyttömuodossa. Tutkimusta varten on kerätty kaikki uudissanat Stargate SG-1 -sarjan seitsemännen tuotantokauden DVD-julkaisulta ja analysoitu, millaisia käännöstekniikoita sarjan ka...

  7. Analysis of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in lignin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spark, A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available the acidolysis products – Validate the new S/G ratio method Why are S/G ratios important? Gives a good indication of the reactivity of the lignin Experimental design Literature Review Establishing Acidolysis conditions Permanganate oxidation Lignin...-method is quick • Permanganate oxidation-method is slow but it is the standard method used at present • Nitrobenzene Oxidation, Pyrolysis, Cupric Oxidation and Thioacidolysis Lignin can be broken down to syringyl and guaiacyl subunits: OCH3 OH OCH3 OH...

  8. The new isotope 270110 and its decay products 266Hs and 262Sg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Hessberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.

    2000-11-01

    The even-even nucleus 270 110 was synthesized using the reaction 64 Ni + 207 Pb. A total of eight α-decay chains was measured during an irradiation time of seven days. Decay data were obtained for the ground-state and a high spin K isomer. The new nuclei 266 Hs and 262 Sg were identified as daughter products after α decay. Spontaneous fission of 262 Sg terminates the decay chain. The measured data are in agreement with calculations using the macroscopic-microscopic model and with self-consistent HFB calculations with Skyrme-Sly4 interaction. (orig.)

  9. Influence of chemical, physical and texture characteristics in the dry milled clays micro granulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, L.B.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of the granulation in ceramic dry process classified as BIIb. For this we used a high intensity granulator to obtain information on the technical and economic viability in the production line and the possible contributions to the improvement of the process. Industrial compositions of clays were used. These materials were processed under different conditions and subsequently processed for obtaining the ceramic bodies pressed. The results indicate that the use of high intensity granulator, with or without modifications to the particle size distribution of mass, can decrease the firing cycle and / or sintering temperature of the ceramic, causing economic gain (author)

  10. Hydrate formation during wet granulation studied by spectroscopic methods and multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna; Rantanen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Milja

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to follow hydrate formation of two structurally related drugs, theophylline and caffeine, during wet granulation using fast and nondestructive spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Anhydrous theophylline and caffeine were granulated with purified water. Charge-coupled device (CCD......) Raman spectroscopy was compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in following hydrate formation of drugs during wet granulation (off-line). To perform an at-line process analysis, the effect of water addition was monitored by NIR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA). The changes...

  11. Theoretical analysis of experimental results on SG-1 FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Wu Shangqing; Tian Shihong; Dong Zhiwei; Wu Yupu

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the SG-1 FEL and the beam transport thoroughly, and draw certain quantitative conclusions, we developed 3-D WAGFEL code to describe the FEL evolution and 3-D CEBQ code to describe the beam transport. The CEBQ code can simulate the 3-D transport of the electron beam in the modulation section with linear approximation of space charge. According to the first ASE experiments results, the LIA provided a 2 kA, 3.0 MeV beam with a normalized emittance of 0.6 πrad·cm, an energy spread (FWHM) of 4%, resulting in a beam brightness nearly 10 8 A/(πm·rad) 2 . The numerical simulation showed that the quality of the beam was good enough to abandon the 9-m long beam line and substitute it with a 2-m long drifting and focusing region. The second series of ASE and amplifier experiments began in October 1992. The beam transport section was modified. The ASE output power, the amplifier output power and detuning curve was measured. We analysed the experimental results using the WAGFEL and CEBQ codes with parameters equal to those of experiments. Firstly we followed 4096 electrons to simulate the transport process of the beam in the beam line under the condition of I = 2 kA, r b = 1 cm, γ = 6.8, Δγ/γ 4%, ε rms = 0.6 (πrad·cm). Through the simulation, we predicted that the beam current injected into the wiggler was about 611 A. Based on these beam parameters at the entrance of the wiggler, we simulated the FEL process with P in = 300 W. The results are also in Fig.7,8,9

  12. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  13. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  14. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Wan, Chunli, E-mail: hitwan@163.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: sybil_zhang@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tay, JooHwa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  15. Measurement of the internal pH of mast cell granules using microvolumetric fluorescence and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intragranular pH of isolated mast cell granules was measured. Because of the minute amounts of isolated granules available, two techniques were developed by modifying aminoacridine fluorescence and [ 14 C]methylamine accumulation techniques to permit measurements with microliter sample volumes. Granule purity was demonstrated by electron microscopy, ruthenium red exclusion, and biochemical (histamine, mast cell granule protease) analysis. The internal pH was determined to be 5.55 +/- 0.06, indicating that the pH environment within mast cell granules is not significantly different from that of previously studied granule types (i.e., chromaffin, platelet, pancreatic islet, and pituitary granules). Collapse of the pH gradient by NH+4 was demonstrated with both techniques. No evidence of Cl-/OH- or specific cation/H+ transport was found, and major chloride permeability could not be unequivocably demonstrated. Ca 2+ and Cl- at concentrations normally present extracellularly destabilized granules in the presence of NH+4, but this phenomenon does not necessarily indicate a role for these ions in the exocytotic release of granule contents from intact cells. The pH measurement techniques developed for investigating the properties of granules in mast cells may be useful for studying other granules that can be obtained only in limited quantities

  16. The mysterious case of the C. elegans gut granule: death fluorescence, anthranilic acid and the kynurenine pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGems

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on the nematode C. elegans, it still contains many hidden secrets. One such is the function of the prominent organelles known as gut granules, which are numerous in the intestinal cells of nematodes throughout the suborder Rhabditina. A striking feature of gut granules is the blue fluorescence that they emit under ultraviolet light. Clues to gut granule function include their acidic interior and capacity for endocytosis, both lysosome-like features (though gut granules are much bigger than normal lysosomes. This and the fluorescent material within identify gut granules as lysosome-like organelles (LROs, akin to pigment-containing melanosomes in mammals and eye pigment granules in Drosophila. Thus, the identity of the blue fluorescent substance could provide a key to understanding gut granule function.

  17. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V; Cowen, James P; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-09-15

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 microg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 microg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(e)) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP

  18. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V.; Cowen, James P.; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-01-01

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15 L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 μg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 μg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1 L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e ) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis

  19. Granulation study of porous silica particles for MA recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ichiro; Kofuji, Hirohide; Oriuchi, Akio; Watanabe, Sou; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    JAEA has been working on partition of MA from HLLW generated in the reprocessing by extraction chromatography technology. This technology utilizes 50 μm porous silica particles coated by styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer in which an extractant for MA recovery is impregnated as adsorbent. In this study, spray drying granulating experiments with various operating conditions and with different experimental apparatuses were carried out to find an appropriate condition to control the size of the particle and the pore. The target average sizes of the particle and pore are more than 50 μm and 600 nm respectively. Suspension containing fine silica particles were supplied to the spray drying devices, and small droplets generated through the spray nozzle were dried inside the drying chamber. In this study, viscosity of the feed solution and some granulation conditions were parametrically changed, and two different types of the spray nozzles were used. An air atomizing nozzle and a rotary disk nozzle were equipped at different chambers respectively. Then, performance of the product particle was evaluated by particle and pore size distributions and adsorption experiment after the polymer coating and an extractant impregnation. The particle size of the product depended on the atomizing pressure and viscosity of the feed solution, and the size increased with decrease in the pressure and in the viscosity. The maximum size obtained in this study was about 40 μm. Large viscosity of the feed solution lead poor recovery ratio and uniformity in the size distribution of the product powder. The pore size of the resultant particle was 550-800 nm as expected. As the type of the nozzle changed from the air atomizing nozzle to the rotary disk nozzle and size of the drying chamber became large, the average particle size and the particle size distribution became large and sharp, respectively. Rotation speed of the nozzle also influenced on the particle size, and targeted average size of the

  20. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  1. Granular computing and intelligent systems design with information granules of higher order and higher type

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold; Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information granules are conceptual entities that aid the perception of complex phenomena. This book looks at granular computing techniques such as algorithmic pursuits and includes diverse applications and case studies from fields such as power engineering.

  2. Investigating the Mechanisms of Amylolysis of Starch Granules by Solution-State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a prominent component of the human diet and is hydrolyzed by α-amylase post-ingestion. Probing the mechanism of this process has proven challenging, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of individual starch granules. By means of solution-state NMR, we demonstrate that flexible polysaccharide chains protruding from the solvent-exposed surfaces of waxy rice starch granules are highly mobile and that during hydrothermal treatment, when the granules swell, the number of flexible residues on the exposed surfaces increases by a factor of 15. Moreover, we show that these flexible chains are the primary substrates for α-amylase, being cleaved in the initial stages of hydrolysis. These findings allow us to conclude that the quantity of flexible α-glucan chains protruding from the granule surface will greatly influence the rate of energy acquisition from digestion of starch. PMID:25815624

  3. Microbial community changes in methanogenic granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is one of the most applied technologies for various high-strength wastewater treatments. The present study analysed the microbial community changes in UASB granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. Dynamicity...

  4. The influence of roller compaction processing variables on the rheological properties of granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Freeman

    2016-08-01

    The results demonstrate several rheological properties of the granulate, which have been shown to be closely correlated with variance in die filling and tablet strength, and are predictably influenced by the processing parameters.

  5. Condition of granulating titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent and its adsorption for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takao; Katoh, Shunsaku; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi

    1979-01-01

    The powdery titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent was granulated, and the strength and uranium adsorptivity of the granulated adsorbent were studied in relation to its granulating condition. By use of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) with degree of polymerization above 2,000 as binder, the granular adsorbent with as much the same strength as commercial granular activated carbon was obtained. Addition of PVA did not affect the amount of adsorbed uranium in equilibrium, but decreased the adsorption rate. Effect of granule size between 2-5 mm on the uranium adsorption rate was that the uranium adsorption rate changed proportionally to surface area of assumed sphere. As a test for practical use, 5 times repetitions of adsorption and desorption were carried out on the same granular adsorbent. During this repetition the adsorbent containing formalized PVA revealed smaller weight loss than non-treated adsorbent. The amount of adsorbed uranium decreased with increasing repetition times, and reason of this was discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... compacts formed from larger granules as a result of plastic deformation and fragmentation than ... whether an increase or a decrease in particle size will ... many) was used for the preparation of the tablets from the various.

  7. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  8. Transplantation of colon carcinoma into granulation tissue induces an invasive morphotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, K. P.; Zeeman-Boeschoten, I. M.; Keep, R. F.; Das, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    The stroma surrounding many malignant tumors resembles granulation tissue. To test the hypothesis that such stroma stimulates tumor invasiveness, we compared, by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the growth patterns of CC531 rat colon adenocarcinoma in 2 experimental situations: (i)

  9. Furosemide removal in constructed wetlands: Comparative efficiency of LECA and Cork granulates as support matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Dordio, A; Fragoso, R; Leitão, A E; Duarte, E

    2017-12-01

    The removal efficiency of LECA and cork granulates as support matrix for pharmaceuticals active compounds in a constructed wetland system was investigated using the diuretic drug Furosemide. Kinetics studies were performed testing three different concentrations of Furosemide in an ultrapure water matrix, along seven days. LECA achieved higher removal values compared to cork granulates. However, cork granulates presented a higher removal in the first 24 h of contact time compared to the other adsorbent. The kinetic studies showed that LECA and cork granulates have different adsorption behaviours for Furosemide which is controlled by different adsorption mechanisms. Both materials showed good removal efficiencies and a combination of the two should be further explored in order to applied both materials as support matrix to cope with different furosemide concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated....... Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque...

  11. The Prohormone VGF Regulates β Cell Function via Insulin Secretory Granule Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B. Stephens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prohormone VGF is expressed in neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues and regulates nutrient and energy status both centrally and peripherally. We and others have shown that VGF-derived peptides have direct action on the islet β cell as secretagogues and cytoprotective agents; however, the endogenous function of VGF in the β cell has not been described. Here, we demonstrate that VGF regulates secretory granule formation. VGF loss-of-function studies in both isolated islets and conditional knockout mice reveal a profound decrease in stimulus-coupled insulin secretion. Moreover, VGF is necessary to facilitate efficient exit of granule cargo from the trans-Golgi network and proinsulin processing. It also functions to replenish insulin granule stores following nutrient stimulation. Our data support a model in which VGF operates at a critical node of granule biogenesis in the islet β cell to coordinate insulin biosynthesis with β cell secretory capacity.

  12. Serglycin proteoglycan is not implicated in localizing exocrine pancreas enzymes to zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Cowland, Jack B; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Storage and release of proteins from granules forms the basis of cellular functions as diverse as cell mediated cytotoxicity, neuronal communication, activation of muscle fibres, and release of hormones or digestive enzymes from endocrine and exocrine glands, such as the pancreas. Serglycin...... is the major intracellular proteoglycan of haematopoietic cells. Serglycin is important for localization of proteins in granules of different haematopoietic cell types. Previous reports have indicated a role for serglycin in granule formation and localization of zymogens in granules of the exocrine pancreas...... in rat. We here present data showing that serglycin is not present at the protein level in human or murine pancreas. Furthermore, the amount and localization of three exocrine pancreas zymogens (amylase, trypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase A) is not affected by the absence of serglycin in a serglycin knock...

  13. Efficient Removal of Arsenic Using Magnetic Multi-Granule Nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungho; Cha, Jinmyung; Sim, Kyunjong; Lee, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic multi-granule nanoclusters (MGNCs) were investigated as an inexpensive means to effectively remove arsenic from aqueous environment, particularly groundwater sources consumed by humans. Various size MGNCs were examined to determine both their capacity and efficiency for arsenic adsorption for different initial arsenic concentrations. The MGNCs showed highly efficient arsenic adsorption characteristics, thereby meeting the allowable safety limit of 10 μg/L (ppb), prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and confirming that 0.4 g and 0.6 g of MGNCs were sufficient to remove 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L of arsenate (AsO 4 3- ) from water, respectively. Adsorption isotherm models for the MGNCs were used to estimate the adsorption parameters. They showed similar parameters for both the Langmuir and Sips models, confirming that the adsorption process in this work was active at a region of low arsenic concentration. The actual efficiency of arsenate removal was then tested against 1 L of artificial arsenic-contaminated groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 0.6 mg/L in the presence of competing ions. In this case, only 1.0 g of 100 nm MGNCs was sufficient to reduce the arsenic concentrations to below the WHO permissible safety limit for drinking water, without adjusting the pH or temperature, which is highly advantageous for practical field applications

  14. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  15. Efficient Removal of Arsenic Using Magnetic Multi-Granule Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungho; Cha, Jinmyung; Sim, Kyunjong; Lee, Jinkyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Magnetic multi-granule nanoclusters (MGNCs) were investigated as an inexpensive means to effectively remove arsenic from aqueous environment, particularly groundwater sources consumed by humans. Various size MGNCs were examined to determine both their capacity and efficiency for arsenic adsorption for different initial arsenic concentrations. The MGNCs showed highly efficient arsenic adsorption characteristics, thereby meeting the allowable safety limit of 10 μg/L (ppb), prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and confirming that 0.4 g and 0.6 g of MGNCs were sufficient to remove 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L of arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) from water, respectively. Adsorption isotherm models for the MGNCs were used to estimate the adsorption parameters. They showed similar parameters for both the Langmuir and Sips models, confirming that the adsorption process in this work was active at a region of low arsenic concentration. The actual efficiency of arsenate removal was then tested against 1 L of artificial arsenic-contaminated groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 0.6 mg/L in the presence of competing ions. In this case, only 1.0 g of 100 nm MGNCs was sufficient to reduce the arsenic concentrations to below the WHO permissible safety limit for drinking water, without adjusting the pH or temperature, which is highly advantageous for practical field applications.

  16. [Comparative analysis between origin of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Tian, Wei-Lan; Hou, Ji-Ru; Jin, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules. According to the comparative analysis for the application characteristics of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules, ①the popularity of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder in the Song Dynasty has six factors: soaring numbers of medical students and medical practitioners, high medical expenses due to huge army, rapid population growth, frequent epidemics and increasing diseases, and insufficient finances of central and local governments. ②On the basis of clinical application characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, traditional Chinese medicine formula granules contain extracted and concentrated effective components, which guarantee the curative effect, meet modern people's demands for "quick, simple and convenience" traditional Chinese medicine decoctions, show a relatively high cost performance; however, formula granules are restricted by their varieties and lack unified quality control standards, and single-extract formula granules have not synergy and attenuation effects of combined traditional

  17. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  18. Optimized paired-sgRNA/Cas9 cloning and expression cassette triggers high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zupeng; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Li; Zhong, Caihong; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen

    2018-01-13

    Kiwifruit is an important fruit crop; however, technologies for its functional genomic and molecular improvement are limited. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been successfully applied to genetic improvement in many crops, but its editing capability is variable depending on the different combinations of the synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein expression devices. Optimizing conditions for its use within a particular species is therefore needed to achieve highly efficient genome editing. In this study, we developed a new cloning strategy for generating paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing four sgRNAs targeting the kiwifruit phytoene desaturase gene (AcPDS). Comparing to the previous method of paired-sgRNA cloning, our strategy only requires the synthesis of two gRNA-containing primers which largely reduces the cost. We further compared efficiencies of paired-sgRNA/Cas9 vectors containing different sgRNA expression devices, including both the polycistronic tRNA-sgRNA cassette (PTG) and the traditional CRISPR expression cassette. We found the mutagenesis frequency of the PTG/Cas9 system was 10-fold higher than that of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, coinciding with the relative expressions of sgRNAs in two different expression cassettes. In particular, we identified large chromosomal fragment deletions induced by the paired-sgRNAs of the PTG/Cas9 system. Finally, as expected, we found both systems can successfully induce the albino phenotype of kiwifruit plantlets regenerated from the G418-resistance callus lines. We conclude that the PTG/Cas9 system is a more powerful system than the traditional CRISPR/Cas9 system for kiwifruit genome editing, which provides valuable clues for optimizing CRISPR/Cas9 editing system in other plants. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  19. Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welkie, David G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sherman, Debra M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chrisler, William B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orr, Galya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sherman, Louis A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-10-19

    The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

  20. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  1. Clinical observation of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Lan Wan; Ming-Chang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops in treatment of dry eye.METHODS: A randomized, parallel-control approach was adopted, 100 cases of dry eye patients were divided into treatment group and control group equally, observation on the treatment of 3 months. The treatment group was applied Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops combined with oral Qiming granule, simply Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for control group. Before and after tr...

  2. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  3. Development of Sustained Release Capsules Containing “Coated Matrix Granules of Metoprolol Tartrate”

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet gr...

  4. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  5. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development...... of mechanistic models of multi‐phase systems which in the end allow process control. This contribution focuses on continuous fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical wet granules. A stepwise approach is used in model development, starting with the drying behaviour of single granules. Experiments to determine...

  6. 77 FR 12845 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Surgeon General's (SG) Youth Video Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... of the Contest and their immediate family (spouse, parents and step-parents, siblings and step-siblings, and children and step- children) and household members (people who share the same residence at... conjunction with the launch of the new SG Report, the Surgeon General will be releasing a Consumer Piece in...

  7. Selection of number of SG modules per secondary sodium loop for a Prototype SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Yoo, Jae-Woon; Joo, Hyung-Kook; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Steam generator is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on shell side and water-steam in tubes. The concept of steam generator modularization is discussed and the advantages of large and small steam generator modules are presented. To estimate the economics of the steam generator modularization for the PGSFR, detailed optimization studies were carried out for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 steam generator modules per loop, taking into consideration the effect of capital cost, operating cost, and outage cost. For the economics of the steam generator modularization for a PGSFR, detailed optimization studies were carried out for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 steam generator modules per loop. The effect of capital cost, operating cost, and outage cost were taken into consideration. The studies indicated that the design with less SG modules is found to be more economical, if the weld failure rate is below 2.0x1E-5 failure/year. From the economics of the modularization, thermal rate of SG, reliability, operability considerations, appropriate number of SG modules required for PGSFR will be 1 SG module per loop

  8. Optimum Frequency for Eddy Current Testing Method of SMART SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Choung, Yun Hang

    2009-01-01

    The SMART SG tubes will be made of Alloy 690. The outside diameter will be 17 mm and the thickness will be 2.5 mm. They will be assembled helically around, and their innermost diameter will be about 600 mm and the total length will be about 32 meters. For safety, SMART SG tubes are designed for use with thick tubes such as 2.5 mm thickness compared to about 1 mm thickness of normal Korean standard pressurized water reactor tubes. Due to using thick tubes such as 2.5 mm varieties, it was doubted that the Eddy Current Testing Method (ECT) would be a feasible method. Therefore we are trying to simulate the bobbin probe signal for SMART SG tubes and comparing it to PWR SG ECT probe signal using VIM software, checking for the applicability of ECT. Also we are trying to compare the ECT signal of 2.5 mm thick stainless tubes to check if they are possible substitute material

  9. Information Flow Analysis for Human-System Interaction in the SG Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between automatic control and operators is one of main issues in the application of automation technology. Inappropriate information from automatic control systems causes unexpected problems in human-automation collaboration. Poor information becomes critical, especially when the operator takes over the control from an automation system. Operators cannot properly handle the situation transferred from the automatic mode because of inadequate situation awareness, if the operator is out-of-the loop and the automatic control system fails. Some cases of unplanned reactor trips during the transition between the manual mode and the automatic mode are reported in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Among unplanned reactor trips since 2002, two cases were partially caused by automation-related failures of steam generator (SG) level control. This paper conducts information flow analysis to identify information and control requirement for human-system interaction of SG level control. At first, this paper identifies the level of automation in SG level control systems and then function allocation between system control and human operators. Then information flow analysis for monitoring and transition of automation is performed by adapting job process chart. Information and control requirements will be useful as an input for the human-system interface (HSI) design of SG level control

  10. Preliminary observation on the effects of Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules in treating corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Ying Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules on corneal edema after phacoemulsification.METHODS: Ninety cases with at least second degree corneal edema the first day after phacoemulsification were randomly divided into the routinely treated group and the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, 45 cases for each group. To the routinely treated group, Tobramycin and Dexamethasone Eye Drops, Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops and Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Eye Drops were administered in turn during the treatment. While to the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, traditional Chinese medicines with the function of promoting blood circulation, alleviating water retention and removing nebula named Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules were additionally administered. The curative effects and the time taken for vanishment of corneal edema in each group were then observed. One week was counted as a course of treatment and curative effects were calculated after two courses.RESULTS: The Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group showed a much higher clinical cure rate and took quite shorter time for vanishment of corneal edema compared with the group treated with routine drugs(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules has a preferable clinical effect on corneal edema after phacoemulsification, shortening the duration of corneal edema and restoring the sight of patients in advance.

  11. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somanath, Sangeeta [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Partridge, Christopher J. [Diabetes Research Laboratories, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Catriona [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Rowe, Tony [CSL Limited, 45 Poplar Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Turner, Mark D., E-mail: mark.turner@ntu.ac.uk [Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-29

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  12. Characterization by X-ray tomography of granulated alumina powder during in situ die compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrino, Sandrine; Jorand, Yves, E-mail: yves.jorand@insa-lyon.fr; Maire, Eric; Adrien, Jérôme

    2013-07-15

    Compaction process, the aim of which being to obtain green bodies with low porosity and small size, is often used before sintering treatment. Prior to die filling, the ceramic powder is generally granulated to improve flowability. However during compaction, density heterogeneity and critical size defects may appear due to intergranule and granule-die wall frictions. In this work, the influence of granule formulation on the compact morphology has been studied. To do so, a compaction setup was installed inside an X-ray tomography equipment so that the evolution of the compact morphology could be analysed during the whole compaction process. We have demonstrated that high humidity rate and the addition of binder in the granule formulation increase density heterogeneity and generate larger defects. - Highlights: • An original compaction set up was installed inside an X-Ray tomography equipment. • The compaction process of granulated ceramic powder is imaged. • The compact green microstructure is quantified and related to the compaction stages. • The most detrimental defects of dry-pressed parts are caused by hollow granules. • Formulations without binder allow a reduction of the number of large defects.

  13. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated, the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  14. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  15. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanath, Sangeeta; Partridge, Christopher J.; Marshall, Catriona; Rowe, Tony; Turner, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  16. Partial nitrification using aerobic granules in continuous-flow reactor: rapid startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Sun, Supu; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Li; Yang, Xue; Pan, Xiangliang

    2013-08-01

    This study applied a novel strategy to rapid startup of partial nitrification in continuous-flow reactor using aerobic granules. Mature aerobic granules were first cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor at high chemical oxygen demand in 16 days. The strains including the Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain were enriched in cultivated granules to enhance their structural stability. Then the cultivated granules were incubated in a continuous-flow reactor with influent chemical oxygen deamnad being stepped decreased from 1,500 ± 100 (0-19 days) to 750 ± 50 (20-30 days), and then to 350 ± 50 mg l(-1) (31-50 days); while in the final stage 350 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was also supplied. Using this strategy the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was enriched in the incubated granules to achieve partial nitrification efficiency of 85-90% since 36 days and onwards. The partial nitrification granules were successfully harvested after 52 days, a period much shorter than those reported in literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  18. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  19. Alkali-silica reactivity of expanded glass granules in structure of lightweight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G; Bajare, D; Korjakins, A; Locs, J

    2013-01-01

    Main component in the lightweight concrete, which provides its properties, is aggregate. A lot of investigations on alkali silica reaction (ASR) between cement and lightweight aggregates have been done with their results published in the academic literature. Whereas expanded glass granules, which is relatively new product in the market of building materials, has not been a frequent research object. Therefore lightweight granules made from waste glass and eight types of cement with different chemical and mineralogical composition were examined in this research. Expanded glass granules used in this research is commercially available material produced by Penostek. Lightweight concrete mixtures were prepared by using commercial chemical additives to improve workability of concrete. The aim of the study is to identify effect of cement composition to the ASR reaction which occurs between expanded glass granules and binder. Expanded glass granules mechanical and physical properties were determined. In addition, properties of fresh and hardened concrete were determined. The ASR test was processed according to RILEM AAR-2 testing recommendation. Tests with scanning electron microscope and microstructural investigations were performed for expanded glass granules and hardened concrete specimens before and after exposing them in alkali solution

  20. Metop SG Ice Cloud Imager data analysis preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Patrick; Mendrok, Jana; Ekelund, Robin; Rydberg, Bengt; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2017-04-01

    The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), one the instruments to be onboard the second generation (SG) of Metop satellites, will be the first operational instrument making use of sub-millimeter wavelengths. Increasing the sensitivity of microwave ice hydrometeor measurements with at least two orders of magnitude, its primary aim is to characterize the bulk mass of ice hydrometeors, where the basic retrieval products will be ice water path, mean mass size, and mean mass altitude. With the expected competitive accuracy it can e.g. complement the narrow horizontal coverage of active instruments. Here we present our activities to develop and improve the data analysis for passive sub-millimeter sensors and ICI in particular, where for the latter we are also developing the froaen hydrometeor retrieval algorithm on behalf of EUMETSAT and its NWC-SAF. One crucial aspect in the data analysis is the quality of the forward modeling, the ability to produce realistic, statistically representative synthetic measurements and to reproduce the performed observations, which poses challenges regarding representation of hydrometeor microphysical as well as optical properties and of the radiative transfer problem itself (atmospheric dimensionality, polarization, etc.). One of our core activities is the creation of a consistent database of ice hydrometeor single scattering properties that covers not only ICI applications, but passive and active sensors in the whole microwave region. The database will fill the gaps (spectral, temperature, habits) of and between existing databases (e.g. by Liu, Hong, Ding, Kuo) and will also hold data for oriented particles. Furthermore, sensitivity to forward modeling assumptions is tested, and the results are validated statistically versus existing (satellite microwave and airborne sub-millimeter) observations. These assumptions include microphysics (e.g. size distributions, habit choices, particle orientation) as well as model complexity (e.g. 3D effects