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Sample records for stress field due

  1. Magnetostriction of a sphere: stress development during magnetization and residual stresses due to the remanent field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Stahn, Oliver; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2017-03-01

    Based on the principles of rational continuum mechanics and electrodynamics (see Truesdell and Toupin in Handbuch der Physik, Springer, Berlin, 1960 or Kovetz in Electromagnetic theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000), we present closed-form solutions for the mechanical displacements and stresses of two different magnets. Both magnets are initially of spherical shape. The first (hard) magnet is uniformly magnetized and deforms due to the field induced by the magnetization. In the second problem of a (soft) linear-magnetic sphere, the deformation is caused by an applied external field, giving rise to magnetization. Both problems can be used for modeling parts of general magnetization processes. We will address the similarities between both settings in context with the solutions for the stresses and displacements. In both problems, the volumetric Lorentz force density vanishes. However, a Lorentz surface traction is present. This traction is determined from the magnetic flux density. Since the obtained displacements and stresses are small in magnitude, we may use Hooke's law with a small-strain approximation, resulting in the Lamé- Navier equations of linear elasticity theory. If gravity is neglected and azimuthal symmetry is assumed, these equations can be solved in terms of a series. This has been done by Hiramatsu and Oka (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 3(2):89-90, 1966) before. We make use of their series solution for the displacements and the stresses and expand the Lorentz tractions of the analyzed problems suitably in order to find the expansion coefficients. The resulting algebraic system yields finite numbers of nonvanishing coefficients. Finally, the resulting stresses, displacements, principal strains and the Lorentz tractions are illustrated and discussed.

  2. Quantifying the stress fields due to a delta-hydride precipitate in alpha-Zr matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Hareesh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This report is a preliminary study on δ-hydride precipitate in zirconium alloy performed using 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations. The ability of dislocations in modifying the largely anisotropic stress fields developed by the hydride particle in a matrix phase is addressed for a specific dimension of the hydride. The influential role of probable dislocation nucleation at the hydride-matrix interface is reported. Dislocation nucleation around a hydride was found to decrease the shear stress (S13) and also increase the normal stresses inside the hydride. We derive conclusions on the formation of stacks of hydrides in zirconium alloys. The contribution of mechanical fields due to dislocations was found to have a non-negligible effect on such process.

  3. Ferroelectric behavior of a lead titanate nanosphere due to depolarization fields and mechanical stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Landeta, J.; Lascano, I.

    2017-07-01

    A theorical model has been developed based on the theory of Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire to study and predict the effects the decreasing of size particle in a nanosphere of PbTiO3 subjected to the action of depolarization fields and mechanical stress. It was considered that the nanosphere is surrounded by a layer of space charges on its surface, and containing 180° domains generated by minimizing free energy of depolarization. Energy density of depolarization, wall domain and electro-elastic energy have been incorporated into the free energy of the theory Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire. Free energy minimization was performed to determine the spontaneous polarization and transition temperature system. These results show that the transition temperature for nanosphere is substantially smaller than the corresponding bulk material. Also, it has been obtained that the stability of the ferroelectric phase of nanosphere is favored for configurations with a large number of 180° domains, with the decreasing of thickness space charge layer, and the application of tensile stress and decreases with compressive stress. (Author)

  4. Finite Element Modeling of Perturbation Fields due to Colonies of Stress Corrosion Cracks(SCCs) in a Gas Transmission Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sun Ho

    2001-01-01

    The detection of axial cracks using conventional MFL pig is a significant challenge in the gas pipeline inspection. In this study, a technique using interaction of circumferentially induced torrents with axial stress corrosion crack is presented. The feasibility of this technique is investigated using finite element modeling. Finite element analysis of such interaction is a difficult problem in terms of both computation time and memory requirements. The challenges arise due to the nonlinearity of material properties, the small sire of tight cracks relative to that of the magnetizer, and also time stepping involved in modeling velocity effects. This paper presents an approach based on perturbation methods. The overall analysis procedure is divided into 4 simple steps that can be performed sequentially. Modeling results show that this technique can effectively detect colonies of SCC as well as single SCC

  5. Investigation of an Axial Fan—Blade Stress and Vibration Due to Aerodynamic Pressure Field and Centrifugal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Amano, Ryoichi Samuel; Lee, Eng Kwong

    A 1.829m (6ft) diameter industrial large flow-rate axial fan operated at 1770rpm was studied experimentally in laboratory conditions. The flow characteristics on the fan blade surfaces were investigated by measuring the pressure distributions on the blade suction and pressure surfaces and the results were discussed by comparing with analytical formulations and CFD. Flow visualizations were also performed to validate the flow characteristics near the blade surface and it was demonstrated that the flow characteristics near the fan blade surface were dominated by the centrifugal force of the fan rotation which resulted in strong three-dimensional flows. The time-dependent pressure measurement showed that the pressure oscillations on the fan blade were significantly dominated by vortex shedding from the fan blades. It was further demonstrated that the pressure distributions during the fan start-up were highly unsteady, and the main frequency variation of the static pressure was much smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The time-dependent pressure measurement when the fan operated at a constant speed showed that the magnitude of the blade pressure variation with time and the main variation frequency was much smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The pressure variations that were related to the vortex shedding were slightly smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The strain gages were used to measure the blade stress and the results were compared with FEA results.

  6. Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale

  7. Stress field models from Maxwell stress functions: southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The lithospheric stress field is formally divided into three components: a standard pressure which is a function of elevation (only), a topographic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field) and a tectonic stress anomaly (3-D tensor field). The boundary between topographic and tectonic stress anomalies is somewhat arbitrary, and here is based on the modeling tools available. The topographic stress anomaly is computed by numerical convolution of density anomalies with three tensor Green's functions provided by Boussinesq, Cerruti and Mindlin. By assuming either a seismically estimated or isostatic Moho depth, and by using Poisson ratio of either 0.25 or 0.5, I obtain four alternative topographic stress models. The tectonic stress field, which satisfies the homogeneous quasi-static momentum equation, is obtained from particular second derivatives of Maxwell vector potential fields which are weighted sums of basis functions representing constant tectonic stress components, linearly varying tectonic stress components and tectonic stress components that vary harmonically in one, two and three dimensions. Boundary conditions include zero traction due to tectonic stress anomaly at sea level, and zero traction due to the total stress anomaly on model boundaries at depths within the asthenosphere. The total stress anomaly is fit by least squares to both World Stress Map data and to a previous faulted-lithosphere, realistic-rheology dynamic model of the region computed with finite-element program Shells. No conflict is seen between the two target data sets, and the best-fitting model (using an isostatic Moho and Poisson ratio 0.5) gives minimum directional misfits relative to both targets. Constraints of computer memory, execution time and ill-conditioning of the linear system (which requires damping) limit harmonically varying tectonic stress to no more than six cycles along each axis of the model. The primary limitation on close fitting is that the Shells model predicts very sharp

  8. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  9. CTCP temperature fields and stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjiang Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cross-tensioned concrete pavements (CTCPs are used in the construction of continuous Portland cement concrete pavements. They eliminate the need for transverse joints and also restrict cracking of the pavement. A CTCP consists of three components, namely, the CTCP slab, the sand sliding layer (SSL, and the cement-stabilized macadam base, from top to down. The retard-bonded tendons (RBTs of the CTCP slab are arranged diagonally. In the present study, a detailed 3D finite element model was developed and used to examine the temperature fields and stresses of a CTCP by thermal-mechanical coupling analysis, and the results were compared with field measurements. The model investigations revealed that, under typical cloudless summer conditions, the temperature field of the CTCP varied nonlinearly with both time and depth. The resultant step-type temperature gradient of the CTCP represents a significant deviation from that of a conventional pavement and impacts the thermal contact resistance of the SSL. It was found that the SSL could effectively reduce the temperature stresses in the CTCP, and that the residual temperature stresses were effectively resisted by the staged cross-tensioned RBTs. The potential problem areas in the vicinity of the temperature stresses were also investigated by the finite element method and field tests. Keywords: Portland cement concrete pavement, Prestressed concrete pavement, Temperature stress, Temperature field, Finite element method, Retard-bonded tendon

  10. Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....

  11. Heat exchanger nozzle stresses due to pipe vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolgemuth, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    A large diameter pipe in a heavy water production plant was excited into a low frequency vibration due to void collapse of the pipe contents at a sharp vertical drop in the pipe run. Fears that this vibration would fatigue the inlet nozzle to the heat exchanger prompted the introduction of a flow of cold water into the pipe to prevent the two-phase flow from developing but at the cost of reduced heat exchanger efficiency. An investigation was carried out to determine the stress levels in the nozzle with the quenching flow off and suggest means of reducing them if excessive. A finite element dynamic simulation of the pipe run was performed to determine the likely mode shapes. This information was used to optimize the placement of velocity probes on the pipe. Field measurements of vibration were taken for several operating conditions. This data was analyzed and the results used to refine the support stiffness used in the finite element simulation. The finite element model was then used to predict the nozzle forces and moments. In turn this data was used to determine the local stresses in the nozzle. The ASME Section III code was used to determine the allowable fully reversing stresses for the unit in question. It was found that the endurance limit of 83 MPa was exceeded in the analysis only when using the most conservative estimates for each uncertainty. It was recommended that if the safety factor was not deemed high enough, the nozzle should be built up with a reinforcing pad no thicker than 12 mm

  12. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buznikov, N.A.; Antonov, A.S.; Granovsky, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress

  13. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwires due to bias current: Effect of torsional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, N.A., E-mail: n_buznikov@mail.ru [Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies – GAZPROM VNIIGAZ, Razvilka, Leninsky District, Moscow Region 142717 (Russian Federation); Antonov, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    The influence of torsional stress on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance in a glass-coated negative magnetostrictive amorphous microwire due to bias current is studied theoretically. The longitudinal and off-diagonal impedance components are found assuming a simplified spatial distribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance components is attributed to the combination of the circular magnetic field produced by the bias current and a helical anisotropy induced by the torsional stress. The asymmetry in the magnetoimpedance and the low-field hysteresis are analyzed as a function of the bias current and torsional stress. It is shown that the application of torsional stress significantly changes the value of the bias current required to suppress the hysteresis effect. The results obtained may be useful for applications in magnetic-field and stress sensors. - Highlights: • Effects of torsional stress on magnetoimpedance in amorphous microwire are studied. • Asymmetry in magnetoimpedance is analyzed as a function of bias current and stress. • Torsional stress changes the anisotropy and effects on the microwire impedance. • Field-dependence of impedance is anhysteretic when bias current exceeds threshold value. • Threshold bias current can be tuned by the application of torsional stress.

  14. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  15. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  16. Method to estimate the internal stresses due to moisture in wood using transmission properties of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, T.; Taniguchi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a new method for detecting stress in wood due to moisture along the lines of a theory reported previously. According to the theory, the stress in wood could be estimated from the moisture content of the wood and the power voltage of a microwave moisture meter (i.e., attenuation of the projected microwave). This seems to suggest a possibility of utilizing microwaves in the field of stress detection. To develop such an idea, the stress formulas were initially modified to the form of an uni-variable function of power voltage, and the application method of the formulas to detection was tried. Finally, these results were applied to the data of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) lumber in the previous experiment. The estimated strains showed fairly good agreement with those observed. It could be concluded from this study that the proposed method might be available for detecting stress in wood due to moisture

  17. Evaluation of stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses for circumferential cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Beum

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of existing methods to estimate stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses, comparisons with finite element (FE) solutions are made for two types of generic welding residual stress profiles, generated by simulating repair welds. It is found that fitting residual stresses over the crack depth using third-order polynomials gives good estimates of stress intensity factors but fitting over the entire thickness can result in inaccurate estimates even with fourth-order polynomials. Noting that welding residual stresses are often determined from FE analyses, linearization of residual stresses to estimate stress intensity factors is proposed. Comparison with FE solutions shows good agreements. -- Highlights: ► Applicability of K estimation methods is investigated for welding residual stresses. ► Two types of generic residual stress profiles with repair welds are considered. ► Fitting residual stresses over the crack depth gives good estimates of K. ► A method to estimate K by linearising residual stress profiles is proposed

  18. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  19. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaobin, E-mail: yangxb@lzu.edu.cn; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  20. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    of the oceanic lithosphere. An entire modelling of the shallow Geopotential Energy is hereby approached, not taking into account possible deeper signals but all lithospheric signals for the subsequent stress calculation. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is necessary to calculate the corresponding...... response to Geopotential Energy and the Geoid. A linearized inverse method fits a lithospheric reference model to reproduce measured data sets, such as topography and surface heat flow, while assuming isostasy and solving the steady state heat equation. A FEM code solves the equations of equilibrium...

  1. Magnetic field aberration induced by cycle stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Li Luming; Chen Xing

    2007-01-01

    Magneto-mechanical effect has been causing people's growing interest because of its relevance to several technology problems. One of them is the variation of surface magnetic field induced by stress concentration under the geomagnetic field. It can be used as an innovative, simple and convenient potential NDE method, called as magnetic memory method. However, whether and how this can be used as a quantitative measurement method, is still a virginal research field where nobody sets foot in. In this paper, circle tensile stress within the elastic region was applied to ferromagnetic sample under geomagnetic field. Experiment results on the relation between surface magnetic field and elastic stress were presented, and a simple model was derived. Simulation of the model was reconciled with the experimental results. This can be of great importance for it provides a brighter future for the promising Magnetic Memory NDE method-the potential possibility of quantitative measurement

  2. Average thermal stress in the Al+SiC composite due to its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Boari, Zoroastro M.

    2013-01-01

    The numerical analyses framework to obtain the average thermal stress in the Al+SiC Composite due to its manufacturing process is presented along with the obtained results. The mixing of Aluminum and SiC powders is done at elevated temperature and the usage is at room temperature. A thermal stress state arises in the composite due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Due to the particles size and randomness in the SiC distribution, some sets of models were analyzed and a statistical procedure used to evaluate the average stress state in the composite. In each model the particles position, form and size are randomly generated considering a volumetric ratio (VR) between 20% and 25%, close to an actual composite. The obtained stress field is represented by a certain number of iso stress curves, each one weighted by the area it represents. Systematically it was investigated the influence of: (a) the material behavior: linear x non-linear; (b) the carbide particles form: circular x quadrilateral; (c) the number of iso stress curves considered in each analysis; and (e) the model size (the number of particles). Each of above analyzed condition produced conclusions to guide the next step. Considering a confidence level of 95%, the average thermal stress value in the studied composite (20% ≤ VR ≤ 25%) is 175 MPa with a standard deviation of 10 MPa. Depending on its usage, this value should be taken into account when evaluating the material strength. (author)

  3. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed ...

  4. Point defects dynamics in a stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetniansky de De Grande, Nelida.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of anisotropic defect diffusion on stress is studied for a hexagonal close packed (hcp) material under irradiation and uniaxially stressed. The diffusion is described as a discrete process of thermally activated jumps. It is shown that the presence of an external stress field enhances the intrinsic anisotropic diffusion, being this variation determined by the defect dipole tensors' symmetry in the equilibrium and saddle point configurations. Also, the point defect diffusion equations to sinks, like edge dislocations and spherical cavities, are solved and the sink strengths are calculated. The conclusion is that the dynamics of the interaction between defects and sinks is controlled by the changes in diffusivity induced by stress fields. (Author) [es

  5. Yang-Mills fields due to an infinite charge cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.; Nebraska Univ., Lincoln

    1981-01-01

    The problem of determining time-independent solutions of the classical Yang-Mills equations for infinitely long charge cylinders is studied. A useful expression for the total energy in the field in terms of just the sources is derived. Numerical solutions have been found in the special cases of a small charge cylinder with a magnetic field B that either lies along the axis of symmetry or encircles the axis. It is as if these two solutions were due to currents encircling the axis or parallelling it, respectively. The condition that the solutions behave well at infinity implies an exponential fall off for the fields in the azimuthal B field case and a fall off more rapid than 1/R in the axial B field case, so that in both cases the existence of a B field requires the charge on the axis to be shieled. Consequently, these solutions do not behave at infinity at all like the Maxwell solution for a charge cylinder, and they have a lower energy per unit length. They show that in Yang-Mills theories the source does not determine a unique field. A classical interpretation of this is that the field remembers how the charges were transported during the construction of the cylinder. It also suggests that a quantum mechanical version of this problem would exhibit a spontaneous symmetry breaking to a less symmetric, lower energy vacuum. These solutions exhibit a twofold degeneracy, as the magnetic field may be either left- or right-handed in the azimuthal B field case, or point along the +z or -z axis in the axial B field case. (orig.)

  6. Stress field reconstruction in an active mudslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Kernstocková, Markéta; Melichar, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    Meso-scale structures from gravitational slope deformation observed in landslides and deep-seated gravitational slope failures are very similar to those of endogenous ones. Therefore we applied palaeostress analysis of fault-slip data for reconstructing the stress field of an active mudslide in Pechgraben, Austria. This complex compound landslide has developed in clayey colluvium and shale and was activated after a certain period of dormancy in June 2013. During the active motion on June 12, 2013, 73 fault-slip traces at 9 locations were measured within the landslide body. The heterogeneous fault-slip data were processed in term of palaeostresses, the reconstructed palaeostress tensor being characterized by the orientations of the three principal stress axes and the stress ratio (which provides the shape of the stress ellipsoid). The results of the palaeostress analysis were compared to airborne laser scan digital terrain models that revealed dynamics and superficial displacements of the moving mass prior and after our survey. The results were generally in good agreement with the observed landslide displacement pattern and with the anticipated stress regime according to Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria and Anderson's theory. The compressional regime was mostly registered at the toe in areas, where a compressional stress field is expected during previous mass-movement stages, or at margins loaded by subsequent landslide bodies from above. On the other hand, extension regimes were identified at the head scarps of secondary slides, subsequently on bulged ridges at the toe and in the zone of horst-and-graben structures in the lower central part of the main landslide body, where the basal slip surface probably had locally convex character. Strike-slip regimes, as well as oblique normal or oblique reverse regimes were observed at the lateral margins of the landslide bodies. The directions of principal stresses could be used as markers of landslide movement directions

  7. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  8. Pipe cracking due to thermal stresses produced by valve opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stresses produced in a tube whose internal surface is abrupt cooled during a valve opening so that the water volume increases linearly with time are studied. A general solution for these stresses and its stress intensity factors in terms of non-dimensional parameters is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  9. On the vertigo due to static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Omar S; Li, Yan; Antunes, Andre; Glover, Paul M; Day, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Vertigo is sometimes experienced in and around MRI scanners. Mechanisms involving stimulation of the vestibular system by movement in magnetic fields or magnetic field spatial gradients have been proposed. However, it was recently shown that vestibular-dependent ocular nystagmus is evoked when stationary in homogenous static magnetic fields. The proposed mechanism involves Lorentz forces acting on endolymph to deflect semicircular canal (SCC) cupulae. To investigate whether vertigo arises from a similar mechanism we recorded qualitative and quantitative aspects of vertigo and 2D eye movements from supine healthy adults (n = 25) deprived of vision while pushed into the 7T static field of an MRI scanner. Exposures were variable and included up to 135s stationary at 7T. Nystagmus was mainly horizontal, persisted during long-exposures with partial decline, and reversed upon withdrawal. The dominant vertiginous perception with the head facing up was rotation in the horizontal plane (85% incidence) with a consistent direction across participants. With the head turned 90 degrees in yaw the perception did not transform into equivalent vertical plane rotation, indicating a context-dependency of the perception. During long exposures, illusory rotation lasted on average 50 s, including 42 s whilst stationary at 7T. Upon withdrawal, perception re-emerged and reversed, lasting on average 30 s. Onset fields for nystagmus and perception were significantly correlated (p<.05). Although perception did not persist as long as nystagmus, this is a known feature of continuous SSC stimulation. These observations, and others in the paper, are compatible with magnetic-field evoked-vertigo and nystagmus sharing a common mechanism. With this interpretation, response decay and reversal upon withdrawal from the field, are due to adaptation to continuous vestibular input. Although the study does not entirely exclude the possibility of mechanisms involving transient vestibular stimulation

  10. On the vertigo due to static magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S Mian

    Full Text Available Vertigo is sometimes experienced in and around MRI scanners. Mechanisms involving stimulation of the vestibular system by movement in magnetic fields or magnetic field spatial gradients have been proposed. However, it was recently shown that vestibular-dependent ocular nystagmus is evoked when stationary in homogenous static magnetic fields. The proposed mechanism involves Lorentz forces acting on endolymph to deflect semicircular canal (SCC cupulae. To investigate whether vertigo arises from a similar mechanism we recorded qualitative and quantitative aspects of vertigo and 2D eye movements from supine healthy adults (n = 25 deprived of vision while pushed into the 7T static field of an MRI scanner. Exposures were variable and included up to 135s stationary at 7T. Nystagmus was mainly horizontal, persisted during long-exposures with partial decline, and reversed upon withdrawal. The dominant vertiginous perception with the head facing up was rotation in the horizontal plane (85% incidence with a consistent direction across participants. With the head turned 90 degrees in yaw the perception did not transform into equivalent vertical plane rotation, indicating a context-dependency of the perception. During long exposures, illusory rotation lasted on average 50 s, including 42 s whilst stationary at 7T. Upon withdrawal, perception re-emerged and reversed, lasting on average 30 s. Onset fields for nystagmus and perception were significantly correlated (p<.05. Although perception did not persist as long as nystagmus, this is a known feature of continuous SSC stimulation. These observations, and others in the paper, are compatible with magnetic-field evoked-vertigo and nystagmus sharing a common mechanism. With this interpretation, response decay and reversal upon withdrawal from the field, are due to adaptation to continuous vestibular input. Although the study does not entirely exclude the possibility of mechanisms involving transient

  11. Field enhancement due to anomalous skin effect inside a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.; Tan, W.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on Fourier transformation to study the skin effects is presented. Using this method, the field amplitude in plasma is represented in terms of electric conductivity, and the normal and anomalous skin effects are described through one formula by omitting the plasma dispersion or not. The results are in agreement with other publications [e.g., J. P. Matte and K. Aguenaou, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2558 (1992)] for equivalent parameters. But for deeper positions inside a target, which have not been studied by others, it is found that the field amplitude is considerably enhanced due to an anomalous skin effect, even for constant collision frequency. In addition, the skin absorptions and some calculations on an anomalous skin effect for different collision frequencies are also presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  13. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S; Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  14. Transient thermal stresses in composite hollow circular cylinder due to partial heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshima, Takahito; Miyao, Kaju

    1979-01-01

    Clad materials are adopted for the machines and structures used in contact with high temperature, corrosive atmosphere in view of their strength and economy. Large thermal stress sometimes arises in clad cylinders due to uneaven temperature field and the difference in linear thermal expansion. Vessels are often heated uneavenly, and shearing stress occurs, which is not observed in uniform heating. In this study, infinitely long, concentric cylinders of two layers were analyzed, when the internal heat changing in stepped state is generated in cylindrical form. The unsteady thermal stress occurred was determined, using thermo-elastic potential and stress functions, and assuming the thermal properties and elastic modulus of materials as constant regardless of the temperature. Laplace transformation was used, and the basic equations for thermo-elastic displacement were employed as the basis of calculation. The analysis of the temperature distribution and stress is explained. Numerical calculation was carried out on the example of an internal cylinder of SUS 304 stainless steel and an external cylinder of mild steel. The maximum shearing stress occurred in the direction of 40 deg from the heat source, and was affected largely by the position of heat generation. The effect became remarkable as time elapsed. (Kako, I.)

  15. Electromagnetic field and mechanical stress analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Analysis TEXMAGST is a two stage linear finite element code for the analysis of static magnetic fields in three dimensional structures and associated mechanical stresses produced by the anti J x anti B forces within these structures. The electromagnetic problem is solved in terms of magnetic vector potential A for a given current density anti J as curl 1/μ curl anti A = anti J considering the magnetic permeability as constant. The Coulombian gauge (div anti A = o) was chosen and was implemented through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The second stage of the problem - the calculation of mechanical stresses in the same three dimensional structure is solved by using the same code with few modifications - through a restart card. Body forces anti J x anti B within each element are calculated from the solution of the first stage run and represent the input to the second stage run which will give the solution for the stress problem

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  17. Chromospheric Heating due to Cancellation of Quiet Sun Internetwork Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gošić, M.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Carlsson, M.; Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Ortiz, A.; Polito, V.

    2018-04-01

    The heating of the solar chromosphere remains one of the most important questions in solar physics. Our current understanding is that small-scale internetwork (IN) magnetic fields play an important role as a heating agent. Indeed, cancellations of IN magnetic elements in the photosphere can produce transient brightenings in the chromosphere and transition region. These bright structures might be the signature of energy release and plasma heating, probably driven by the magnetic reconnection of IN field lines. Although single events are not expected to release large amounts of energy, their global contribution to the chromosphere may be significant due to their ubiquitous presence in quiet Sun regions. In this paper, we study cancellations of IN elements and analyze their impact on the energetics and dynamics of the quiet Sun atmosphere. We use high-resolution, multiwavelength, coordinated observations obtained with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST) to identify cancellations of IN magnetic flux patches and follow their evolution. We find that, on average, these events live for ∼3 minutes in the photosphere and ∼12 minutes in the chromosphere and/or transition region. Employing multi-line inversions of the Mg II h and k lines, we show that cancellations produce clear signatures of heating in the upper atmospheric layers. However, at the resolution and sensitivity accessible to the SST, their number density still seems to be one order of magnitude too low to explain the global chromospheric heating.

  18. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  19. Stress triggering of earthquakes and subsidence in the Louisiana coastal zone due to hydrocarbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallman, Ellen P.

    This thesis presents contributions towards better understanding of the interaction between earthquakes through elastic stress triggering and the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in southern Louisiana. The first issue addressed in this thesis is that of the role of static stress changes on earthquake triggering. The first study investigated whether observed changes in seismicity rate following the 1992 Landers, California and 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquakes are accurately predicted by elastic Coulomb stress transfer models. The analyses found that for all the tested DeltaCFS models wherever seismicity rate changes could be resolved the rate increased regardless of whether the DeltaCFS theoretically promoted or inhibited failure. The second study the common definition of a stress shadow was extended to independently test the stress shadow hypothesis using a global catalog of seismicity. The analyses indicated that while stress shadows are subtle, they are present in the global catalog. It also explains why "classical" stress shadows, similar to what was observed following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake are rarely observed for individual main shocks. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. The two studies in this thesis extend previous work by modeling the effect of oil and gas production in the region in two ways. First, multiple producing oil and gas fields and multiple epochs of leveling data are considered to provide constraints on predicted subsidence. Second, the role of compaction of the reservoir bounding shales on the regional subsidence signal is included. The results of the two studies on the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence in the Louisiana Coastal Zone indicate that regional models of subsidence must include the effects of production-induced subsidence due to both sands and shales, but that this can not account for the

  20. L5 radiculopathy due to sacral stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylwin, Anthony; Saifuddin, Asif; Tucker, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a history of left buttock pain with radiation into the left leg in an L5 distribution. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed a left sacral stress fracture with periosteal reaction involving the left L5 nerve root anterior to the sacral ala. With spontaneous healing of the fracture, the patient's symptoms resolved completely. (orig.)

  1. Stress field determination in an alloy 600 stress corrosion crack specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, B.; Labbe, T.

    1995-05-01

    In the context of EDF studies on stress corrosion cracking rates in the Alloy 600 steam generators tubes, we studied the influence of strain hardened surface layers on the different stages of cracking for a tensile smooth specimen (TLT). The stress field was notably assessed to try and explain the slow/rapid-propagation change observed beyond the strain hardened layers. The main difficulty is to simulate in a finite element model the inner and outer surfaces of these strain hardened layers, produced by the final manufacturing stages of SG tubes which have not been heat treated. In the model, the strain hardening is introduced by simulating a multi-layer material. Residual stresses are simulated by an equivalent fictitious thermomechanical calculation, realigned with respect to X-ray measurements. The strain hardening introduction method was validated by an analytical calculation giving identical results. Stress field evolution induced by specimen tensile loading were studied using an elastoplastic 2D finite element calculations performed with the Aster Code. The stress profile obtained after load at 660 MPa shows no stress discontinuity at the boundary between the strain hardened layer and the rest of the tube. So we propose that a complementary calculation be performed, taking into account the multi-cracked state of the strain hardened zones by means of a damage variable. In fact, this state could induce stress redistribution in the un-cracked area, which would perhaps provide an explanation of the crack-ground rate change beyond the strain hardened zone. The calculations also evidence the harmful effects of plastic strains on a strain hardened layer due to the initial state of the tube (not heat-treated), to grit blasting or to shot peening. The initial compressive stress condition of this surface layer becomes, after plastic strain, a tensile stress condition. These results are confirmed by laboratory test. (author). 10 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs., 2 appends

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  3. Prediction of Near-Field Wave Attenuation Due to a Spherical Blast Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Kwang; Park, Duhee

    2017-11-01

    Empirical and theoretical far-field attenuation relationships, which do not capture the near-field response, are most often used to predict the peak amplitude of blast wave. Jiang et al. (Vibration due to a buried explosive source. PhD Thesis, Curtin University, Western Australian School of Mines, 1993) present rigorous wave equations that simulates the near-field attenuation to a spherical blast source in damped and undamped media. However, the effect of loading frequency and velocity of the media have not yet been investigated. We perform a suite of axisymmetric, dynamic finite difference analyses to simulate the propagation of stress waves induced by spherical blast source and to quantify the near-field attenuation. A broad range of loading frequencies, wave velocities, and damping ratios are used in the simulations. The near-field effect is revealed to be proportional to the rise time of the impulse load and wave velocity. We propose an empirical additive function to the theoretical far-field attenuation curve to predict the near-field range and attenuation. The proposed curve is validated against measurements recorded in a test blast.

  4. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...

  5. Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The embedded-atom method have been applied to study the strain field ... coordinates which are essentially the Fourier inverses of the direct space ..... stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and chemical compatibility in a variety of.

  6. Field enhanced luminescence of irradiated organics due to electron tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1981-01-01

    Many organic materials, following exposure to high energy radiation at low temperatures, continue to emit light for long periods. One possible mechanism is that electrons trapped near their parent cations can tunnel back over long times depending on trap depth and distance. This luminescence can be greatly enhanced by the post-radiation application of an external electric field. Calculations on the kinetics of recombination by tunnelling for various trap depths and distances are extended to allow for the effect of an electrical field subsequently applied. The quantitative results lead to two methods of assessing trap depth, depending on immediate light enhancement and on its subsequent decay. The effect of field reversal is also explained. (author)

  7. Macroscopic electrical field distribution and field-induced surface stresses of needle-shaped field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Charles K.S., E-mail: charles.moy@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ranzi, Gianluca [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Petersen, Timothy C. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    One major concern since the development of the field ion microscope is the mechanical strength of the specimens. The macroscopic shape of the imaging tip greatly influences field-induced stresses and there is merit in further study of this phenomenon from a classical perspective. Understanding the geometrical, as opposed to localized electronic, factors that affect the stress might improve the quality and success rate of atom probe experiments. This study uses macroscopic electrostatic principles and finite element modelling to investigate field-induced stresses in relation to the shape of the tip. Three two-dimensional idealized models are considered, namely hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone; the shapes of which are compared to experimental tips prepared by electro-polishing. Three dimensional morphologies of both a nano-porous and single-crystal aluminium tip are measured using electron tomography to quantitatively test the assumption of cylindrical symmetry for electro-polished tips. The porous tip was prepared and studied to demonstrate a fragile specimen for which such finite element studies could determine potential mechanical failure, prior to any exhaustive atom probe investigation. -- Research highlights: {yields} We use electrostatic principles and finite element to model field-induced stresses. {yields} We study two-dimensional idealized needle-shaped field emitters. {yields} Stress distribution of hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone tips mapped. {yields} Electron tomography to obtain the morphology of three-dimensional aluminium tips. {yields} Studies of the morphology of the porous tip demonstrate a fragile specimen.

  8. Prediction of residual stress distributions due to surface machining and welding and crack growth simulation under residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Katsuyama, JInya; Onizawa, Kunio; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual stress distributions due to welding and machining are evaluated by XRD and FEM. → Residual stress due to machining shows higher tensile stress than welding near the surface. → Crack growth analysis is performed using calculated residual stress. → Crack growth result is affected machining rather than welding. → Machining is an important factor for crack growth. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the weld zone of the core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel Type 316L. The joining process of pipes usually includes surface machining and welding. Both processes induce residual stresses, and residual stresses are thus important factors in the occurrence and propagation of SCC. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to estimate residual stress distributions generated by butt welding and surface machining. The thermoelastic-plastic analysis was performed for the welding simulation, and the thermo-mechanical coupled analysis based on the Johnson-Cook material model was performed for the surface machining simulation. In addition, a crack growth analysis based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) calculation was performed using the calculated residual stress distributions that are generated by welding and surface machining. The surface machining analysis showed that tensile residual stress due to surface machining only exists approximately 0.2 mm from the machined surface, and the surface residual stress increases with cutting speed. The crack growth analysis showed that the crack depth is affected by both surface machining and welding, and the crack length is more affected by surface machining than by welding.

  9. Transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic finite rectangular plate due to arbitrary surface heat-generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic finite rectangular plate due to arbitrary surface heat-generations on two edges are studied by means of the Airy stress function. The purposes of this paper are to present a method of determing the transient thermal stresses in an orthographic rectangular plate with four edges of distinct thermal boundary condition of the third kind which exactly satisfy the traction-free conditions of shear stress over all boundaries including four corners of the plate, and to consider the effects of the anisotropies of material properties and the convective heat transfer on the upper and lower surfaces on the thermal stress distribution. (orig.)

  10. Near-Field Spectral Effects due to Electromagnetic Surface Excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegrov , Andrei ,; Joulain , Karl; Carminati , Rémi; Greffet , Jean-Jacques

    2000-01-01

    International audience; We demonstrate theoretically that the spectra of electromagnetic emission of surface systems can display remarkable differences in the near and the far zones. The spectral changes occur due to the loss of evanescent modes and are especially pronounced for systems which support surface waves. PACS numbers: 78.20. – e, 05.40. – a, 44.40. + a, 87.64.Xx Spectroscopy of electromagnetic radiation is perhaps the most powerful exploration tool employed in natural sciences: ast...

  11. Quantifying Cyclic Thermal Stresses Due to Solar Exposure in Rock Fragments in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Sletten, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Curiosity and earlier rovers on Mars have revealed in detail rocky landscapes with decaying outcrops, rubble, stone-littered regolith, and bedrock exposures that reflect the weathering processes operating on rock exposed to Mars' cold and hyperarid environment. Evidence from diverse sources points to the importance of thermal stresses driven by cyclic solar exposure in contributing to the mechanical weathering of exposed rock and generation of regolith in various settings on Earth [1,2,3], and even more so on extraterrestrial bodies where large, rapid cyclic temperature variations are frequent (e.g. Mars [4], as well as comets [5], asteroids [6] and other airless bodies [7]). To study these thermal stresses, we use a 3d finite element (FE) model constrained by ground-based surface temperature measurements from Curiosity's Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS). The numerical model couples radiation and conduction with elastic response to determine the temperature and stress fields in individual rocks on the surface of Mars based on rock size and thermo-mechanical properties. We provide specific quantitative results for boulder-size basalt rocks resting on the ground using a realistic thermal forcing that closely matches the REMS temperature observations, and related thermal inertia data. Moreover, we introduce analytical studies showing that these numerical results can readily be generalized. They are quite universal, informing us about thermal stresses due to cyclic solar exposure in general, for rock fragments of different sizes, lithologies, and fracture- thermal- and mechanical-properties. Using Earth-analogue studies to gain insight, we also consider how the shapes, fractures, and surface details of rock fragments imaged by Curiosity likely reflect the importance of rock breakdown due to thermal stresses relative to wind-driven rock erosion and other surface processes on Mars. References:[1] McFadden L et al. (2005) Geol. Soc.Am. Bull. 117(1-2): 161-173 [2

  12. A Comparison between Deep and Shallow Stress Fields in Korea Using Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversions and Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rayeon; Chang, Chandong; Hong, Tae-kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Bae, Seong-Ho; Park, Eui-Seob; Park, Chan

    2016-04-01

    We are characterizing stress fields in Korea using two types of stress data: earthquake focal mechanism inversions (FMF) and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (HF). The earthquake focal mechanism inversion data represent stress conditions at 2-20 km depths, whereas the hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, mostly conducted for geotechnical purposes, have been carried out at depths shallower than 1 km. We classified individual stress data based on the World Stress Map quality ranking scheme. A total of 20 FMF data were classified into A-B quality, possibly representing tectonic stress fields. A total of 83 HF data out of compiled 226 data were classified into B-C quality, which we use for shallow stress field characterization. The tectonic stress, revealed from the FMF data, is characterized by a remarkable consistency in its maximum stress (σ1) directions in and around Korea (N79±2° E), indicating a quite uniform deep stress field throughout. On the other hand, the shallow stress field, represented by HF data, exhibits local variations in σ1 directions, possibly due to effects of topography and geologic structures such as faults. Nonetheless, there is a general similarity in σ1 directions between deep and shallow stress fields. To investigate the shallow stress field statistically, we follow 'the mean orientation and wavelength analysis' suggested by Reiter et al. (2014). After the stress pattern analysis, the resulting stress points distribute sporadically over the country, not covering the entire region evenly. In the western part of Korea, the shallow σ1directions are generally uniform with their search radius reaching 100 km, where the average stress direction agrees well with those of the deep tectonic stress. We note two noticeable differences between shallow and deep stresses in the eastern part of Korea. First, the shallow σ1 orientations are markedly non-uniform in the southeastern part of Korea with their search radius less than 25 km

  13. Symmetry breaking due to quantum fluctuations in massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.; Datta, A.

    1977-10-01

    It is shown that quantum fluctuations can act as the driving mechanism for the spontaneous breakdown of both scale and the discrete phi→-phi symmetries in a lamdaphi 4 theory which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation. Consequently dimensional transformation occurs and the dimensionless and only parameter lambda in the theory is fixed and replaced by the vacuum expectation value of the field. These results are shown to be consistent with the appropriate renormalization group equation for the theory. A scalar electrodynamics which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation is also considered, and it is shown that the Higgs meson in such a theory is much heavier than the vector meson for small values of the gauge coupling constant e. Another interesting consequence of such a theory is that it possesses vortex-line solutions only when quantum fluctuations are taken into account

  14. Magnetic Field Fluctuations Due to Diel Vertical Migrations of Zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, C.; Soloviev, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dean et al. (2016) have indicated that at high zooplankton concentrations, diel vertical migrations (DVM) cause velocity fluctuations and a respective increase of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). In this work, we used a 3D non-hydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model with Lagrangian particle injections (a proxy for migrating organisms) via a discrete phase model to simulate the effect of turbulence generation by DVM. We tested a range of organism concentrations from 1000 to 10,000 organisms/m3. The simulation at an extreme concentration of zooplankton showed an increase in dissipation rate of TKE by two to three orders of magnitude during DVM over background turbulence, 10-8 W kg-1. At lower concentrations (Frank, J. Wood, 2016: Biomixing due to diel vertical migrations of zooplankton. Ocean Modelling 98, 51-64.

  15. The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.

  16. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses Due to Voltage Dips in Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Santos-Martin, David; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2011-01-01

    stresses transients that may have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of drivetrain system due to voltage dips. A rainflow cycle counting method for the stress history during the voltage dip event, analyses mean and amplitudes of the counted cycles, their occurrence moment and time of duration.......Voltage dips due to electrical grid faults generate transients of the generator electromagnetic torque which result in significant high stresses and noticeable vibrations for the wind turbine mechanical system. These events may also have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of important...

  17. The stress field and transient stress generation at shallow depths in the Canadian shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    A prominent feature of the stress field in eastern Canada is the high horizontal stress at shallow depths. Possible causative factors to this shallow stress field are remanent stresses from a previous tectonic orogeny, plate tectonic stresses and glacial-related stresses (glacial drag and flexual stress). The inherent difficulty in differentiating residual from current stress is one of the reasons why the relative contributions to the stress field from the phenomena described above are not properly understood. Maximum stress-strain changes an underground vault is likely to encounter from natural phenomena should occur when the periphery of the advancing or retreating glacier is near the vault. Theoretical calculations indicate that lithospheric flexure, differential postglacial uplift and possibly glacial drag may be able to generate significant horizontal stresses around a vault. In order to calculate the earthquake potential of these induced stress changes, the ambient tectonic stress field should also be included and a suitable failure criterion (e.g. Coulomb-Mohr) used. For earthquakes to generate appreciable stress-strain concentrations near a vault; the seismic signal must contain appreciable energy at appropriate frequencies (wavelengths comparable to vault dimensions) and be of appreciable duration; the particle velocity must be high (> 10 cm/s), induced strain is a function of particle velocity; and, the hypocentre must be less than half a fault length from the vault for residual deformation (strain and tilt) to be significant. The most severe case is when the causative fault intersects the vault

  18. Stresses and strains in pavement structures due to the effect of temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At its absolute amount, stresses due to the effect of temperature in the pavement structures, especially those rigid, are often of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from vehicles' load, but it happens that due to such impact many slabs become cracked before the road is handed over into operation. The temperature stresses which occur in pavement structures include stresses due to bending and buckling, stresses due to friction and hidden stresses. Stresses caused by the influence of temperature in the pavement structure during the day are generally below the strength of the component materials so they do not cause the consequences for structure. However, appearance of residual stresses and their accumulation after a sufficiently long period of time may lead to failure in structure, i.e. thermal fatigue. The paper presents the effects of temperature changes on the pavement structures in the physical and mechanical terms, and the manner in which the temperature is taken into account during the design of pavement structures.

  19. Rotation of principal axes and changes of stress due to mine-induced stresses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Koníček, Petr; Staš, Lubomír; Waclawik, Petr; Kukutsch, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 10 (2015), s. 1440-1447 ISSN 0008-3674. [International Colloquium on Geomechanics and Geophysics /5./. Karolinka, 25.06.2014-27.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : mining * principal stress * stress distribution * modified overcoring Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2015 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/cgj-2014-0364#.VgqDPpc70mt

  20. Superposition of Stress Fields in Diametrically Compressed Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto de Lima Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract The theoretical analysis for the Brazilian test is a classical plane stress problem of elasticity theory, where a vertical force is applied to a horizontal plane, the boundary of a semi-infinite medium. Hypothesizing a normal radial stress field, the results of that model are correct. Nevertheless, the superposition of three stress fields, with two being based on prior results and the third based on a hydrostatic stress field, is incorrect. Indeed, this work shows that the Cauchy vectors (tractions are non-vanishing in the parallel planes in which the two opposing vertical forces are applied. The aim of this work is to detail the process used in the construction of the theoretical model for the three stress fields used, with the objective being to demonstrate the inconsistency often stated in the literature.

  1. Heat induced fracturing of rock in an existing uniaxial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.; Stephansson, O.; Bjarnason, B.; Hakami, H.; Herdocia, A.; Mattila, U.; Singh, U.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated under the premise that it may be possible to determine the state of stress in the earth's crust by heat induced fracturing of the rock surrounding a borehole. The theory involved is superficially simple, involving the superposition of the stress field around a borehole due to the existing virgin stresses and the uniform stress field of thermally loaded rock as induced by a heater. Since the heat stress field is uniform, varying only in magnitude and gradient as a function of heater input, fracturing should be controlled by the non-uniform virgin stress field. To determine if the method was, in fact, feasible, a series of laboratory test were conducted. These tests consisted of physically loading center drilled cubes of rock, 0.3 m on a side, uniaxially from 0 to 25 MPa. The blocks were then thermally loaded with a nominally rated 3.7 kW heater until failure occurred. Results from these laboratory tests were then compared to analytical studies of the problem, i.e., finite element and discrete theoretical analysis. Overall, results were such that the method is likely eliminated as a stress measurement technique. The immediate development of a thermal compressive zone on the borehole wall overlaps the tensile zone created by the uniaxial stress field, forcing the failure is thus controlled largely by the power input of the heater, being retarded by the small compressive stresses genrated by the uniaxial stress field. This small retardation effect is of such low magnitude that the retardation effect is of such low magnitude that the fracture time is relatively insensitive to the local virgin stress field. (authors)

  2. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  3. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. Coupling analysis of the target temperature and thermal stress due to pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jie; Liu Meng; Lin Jufang; An Li; Long Xinggui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Target temperature has an important effect on the target life for the sealed neutron generator without cooling system. Purpose: To carry out the thermal-mechanical coupling analysis of the film-substrate target bombarded by the pulsed ion beam. Methods: The indirect coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with a 2-dimensional time-space Gaussian axisymmetric power density as heat source was used to simulate the target temperature and thermal stress fields. Results: The effects of the target temperature and thermal stress fields under difference pulse widths and beam sizes were analyzed in terms of the FEM results. Conclusions: Combining with the temperature requirement and the thermal stress inducing film thermal mechanical destruction effect of the sealed neutron generator film-substrate targets, an optimized pulsed ion beam work status was proposed. (authors)

  5. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through...... the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid...... flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications....

  6. Multiaxial Stress-Strain Modeling and Effect of Additional Hardening due to Nonproportional Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, G.; Ghajar, R.; Farrahi, G.

    2007-01-01

    Most engineering components are subjected to multiaxial rather than uniaxial cyclic loading, which causes multiaxial fatigue. The pre-requisite to predict the fatigue life of such components is to determine the multiaxial stress strain relationship. In this paper the multiaxial cyclic stress-strain model under proportional loading is derived using the modified power law stress-strain relationship. The equivalent strain amplitude consisted of the normal strain excursion and maximum shear strain amplitude is used in the proportional model to include the additional hardening effect due to nonproportional loading. Therefore a new multiaxial cyclic stress-strain relationship is devised for out of phase nonproportional loading. The model is applied to the nonproportional loading case and the results are compared with the other researchers' experimental data published in the literature, which are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The relationship presented here is convenient for the engineering applications

  7. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  8. Site characterization and validation - stress field in the SCV block and around the validation drift. Stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, S.; Carr, P.

    1990-04-01

    The results of previous stress measurement and stress modelling programmes carried out in the vicinity of the SCV block have been reviewed. Collectively, the results show that the stress field is influenced by the presence of the old mine excavations, and the measurements can be divided into near-field and far-field locations. The near-field measurements denote the extent and magnitude of the mining induced stresses while the far-field measurements reflect virgin conditions. Because of large scatter in the previous data, additional stress measurements were carried out using the CSIRO hollow inclusion cell. Combining all measurements, an estimate of the virgin stress tensor was made. Three-dimensional stress modelling was carried out using the program BEFE to determine the state of stress in the SCV block, and around the validation drift. This modelling showed that most of the SCV block is in a virgin stress field. Stresses acting on the fracture zones in the SCV block will be due only to the virgin stress field and induced stresses from the validation drift. (orig.)

  9. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  10. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  11. Stress distributions due to hydrogen concentrations in electrochemically charged and aged austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenak, P.; Loew, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of hydrogen concentration gradients in type austenitic stainless steels, formed during electrochemical charging and followed by hydrogen loss during aging, at room temperature, surface stresses were developed. These stresses were measured by X-ray technique and the crack formation thus induced could be studied using equilibrium stress equations. After various electrochemical charging and aging times, X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from samples indicated that the reflected and broadened diffraction peaks are the result of the formation of a non-uniform but continuous solid solution in the austenitic matrix. Since both hydrogen penetrations during charging and hydrogen release during aging are diffusion controlled processes and huge hydrogen concentration gradients in the thin surface layer, at depths comparable with the depth of X-ray penetration, are observed. The non-uniform hydrogen concentration in the austenitic matrix, results to the non-uniform expansion of the atomic microstructure and latter inevitably leads to the development of internal stresses. The internal stresses development formulae's are very similar to those relating to non-uniform heating of the materials, where thermal stresses appear due to non-uniform expansion or contraction. The relevant well developed theory is applicable in our case of non-uniform hydrogen concentrations in a solid solution of electrochemically charged and aged austenitic matrix. A few cracks were present on the surface after some minutes of electrochemical charging and the severity of cracking increased as hydrogen was lost during subsequent aging. This is consistent with the expectation of high compressive stresses in the bulk of the specimen during charging and high tensile surface stresses (at the level of 1 x 10 11 Pa) during the aging process. These stresses can induce the formation of surface cracks during the aging process after electrochemical charging in the AISI 316 stainless steel

  12. The entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole due to arbitrary spin fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yougen(沈有根)

    2002-01-01

    Using the membrane model which is based on brick wall model, we calculated the free energy and entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilatonic black hole due to arbitrary spin fields. The result shows that the entropy of scalar field and the entropy of Fermionic field have similar formulas. There is only a coefficient between them.

  13. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ε{111}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ε{111}–cos 2 ψ plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks

  14. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ɛ{111} and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200} in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ɛ{111}-cos2 ψ plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  15. Field instrumentation for hydrofracturing stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Bjarni; Torikka, Arne.

    1989-08-01

    A recently developed system for rock stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing method is documented in detail. The new equipment is intended for measurement in vertical or nearvertical boreholes, down to a maximum depth of 1000 m. The minimum borehole, diameter required is 56 mm. Downhole instrumentation comprises a straddle packer assembly for borehole fracturing, equipment for determination of fracture orientations and a pressure transducer. The downhole tools are operated by means of a multihose system, containing high pressure hydraulic tubings, signal cable and carrying wire into one hose unit. The surface components of the equipment include a system for generation and control of water pressures up to approximately 75 MPa, an hydraulically operated drum for the multihose and a data acquisition system. All surface instrumentation is permanently mounted on a truck, which also serves as power source for the instrumentation. In addition to the description of instrumentation, the theoretical fundament and the testing procedures associated with the hydraulic fracturing method are briefly outlined

  16. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-09-01

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  17. SATDSK: a numerical simulation of the magnetic field due to saturated iron in cyclotron poletips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-10-01

    SATDSK is a computer program, written in FORTRAN, which calculates the median plane magnetic field due to fully saturated iron poletips. Optionally, SATDSK calculates the magnetic field due to disks of magnetic charge, which can simulate the effect of holes in the iron poletip, or circular trim rods embedded in the poletip. SATDSK is intended for poletip geometries that are both symmetric about the median plane, and have azimuthal sector symmetry. Thus, the program is primarily designed to simulate the magnetic field due to iron poletips in superconducting cyclotrons

  18. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  19. Numerical analysis of interacting cracks in biaxial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.

    1999-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracks as seen for example in PWR steam generator tubing made of Inconel 600 usually produce highly irregular kinked and branched crack patterns. Crack initialization and propagation depends on stress state underlying the crack pattern. Numerical analysis (such as finite element method) of interacting kinked and branched cracks can provide accurate solutions. This paper discusses the use of general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS for evaluating stress fields at crack tips of interacting complex cracks. The results obtained showed reasonable agreement with the reference solutions and confirmed use of finite elements in such class of problems.(author)

  20. Investigations in thermal fields and stress fields induced by electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, G.

    1979-12-01

    This document presents the thermal study of electron beam welding and identifies stresses and strains from welding: description of the operating principles of the electron gun and characterization of various welding parameters, examination of the temperature fields during electron beam welding development of various mathematic models and comparison with experimental results, measurement and calculation of stresses and strains in the medium plane of the welding assembly, residual stresses analysis [fr

  1. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  2. Perihelic shift of planets due to the gravitational field of the charged Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teli, M.T.; Palaskar, D.

    1984-01-01

    The perihelic shift of planets due to the charged Sun is calculated. The results when compared with experimental shifts suggest that the planets Mercury, Venus and Icarus do not possess self-electromagnetic fields

  3. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  4. Resonance localization and poloidal electric field due to cyclo- tron wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Prater, R.; Wong, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed

  5. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  6. Stress fields in the Antarctic plate inferred from focal mechanisms of intraplate earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Kubo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical directional features of intraplate stresses are extracted from focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the Antarctic plate. Typical directions of stresses are obtained in the following regions, 1 Bellingshausen Sea, 2 south of Juan-Fernandez microplate, 3 Balleny Island region and 4 Kerguelen region. P axes in regions 1 and 2 have been interpreted by ridge push force. However these interpretations are based on one focal mechanism for each event and on crude physical concept of ridge push. It is difficult to explain intraplate stress fields in these regions only by the local ridge push force. The stress direction in region 3 can be interpreted by both deformation near triple junction and deformation due to deglaciation. Earthquakes near region 4 appear to be normal fault event. Because normal fault events appear only in the younger ocean floor, the stress field may be affected by thermal features such as hot spots Quantitative modeling and superposition of various stress factors are required to discriminate among stress origins. It is difficult to discuss stress directions in and around Antarctic continent, because number of the earthquakes is not enough.

  7. Calculation of Local Stress and Fatigue Resistance due to Thermal Stratification on Pressurized Surge Line Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Utaja

    2010-06-01

    Thermal stratification introduces thermal shock effect which results in local stress and fatique problems that must be considered in the design of nuclear power plant components. Local stress and fatique calculation were performed on the Pressurize Surge Line piping system of the Pressurize Water Reactor of the Nuclear Power Plant. Analysis was done on the operating temperature between 177 to 343° C and the operating pressure of 16 MPa (160 Bar). The stagnant and transient condition with two kinds of stratification model has been evaluated by the two dimensional finite elements method using the ANSYS program. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is developed based on the maximum local stress using the ASME standard Code formula. Maximum stress of 427 MPa occurred at the upper side of the top half of hot fluid pipe stratification model in the transient case condition. The evaluation of the fatigue resistance is performed on 500 operating cycles in the life time of 40 years and giving the usage value of 0,64 which met to the design requirement for class 1 of nuclear component. The out surge transient were the most significant case in the localized effects due to thermal stratification.

  8. Axial contraction in etched optical fiber due to internal stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok-Sing; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Cheong, Yew-Ken; Lim, Chin-Hong; Ali, Norfizah M; Ahmad, Harith

    2013-02-11

    When an optical fiber is dipped in an etching solution, the internal stress profile in the fiber varies with the fiber diameter. We observed a physical contraction as much as 0.2% in the fiber axial dimension when the fiber was reduced from its original diameter to ~6 µm through analysis using high resolution microscope images of the grating period of an etched FBG at different fiber diameters. This axial contraction is related to the varying axial stress profile in the fiber when the fiber diameter is reduced. On top of that, the refractive index of fiber core increases with reducing fiber diameter due to stress-optic effect. The calculated index increment is as much as 1.8 × 10(-3) at the center of fiber core after the diameter is reduced down to ~6 µm. In comparison with the conventional model that assumes constant grating period and neglects the variation in stress-induced index change in fiber core, our proposed model indicates a discrepancy as much as 3nm in Bragg wavelength at a fiber diameter of ~6 µm.

  9. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  10. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  11. Assessment of stress due to hot ambience in donkeys from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the stress due to hot ambience in donkeys from arid tracts in Rajasthan state, India, serum prolactin and cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The blood samples to harvest the serum were collected from the same animals during moderate (maximum temperature of 28 C - 29 C and hot (maximum temperature of 45 C- 46 C ambiences. During hot ambience the animals showed significantly (p0.05 higher levels of serum prolactin and cortisol when compared to the moderate ambience. The mean rise in prolactin was 4.42 times whereas cortisol levels were 4.22 times higher. Further a multiple fold rise in serum prolactin clearly suggested that it can also be used as an indicator of stress in donkeys along with the cortisol.

  12. Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tianfeng

    1984-10-01

    It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.

  13. Thermoelastic stress due to an instantaneous finite line heat source in an infinite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, J.; Hellstroem, G.

    1995-09-01

    The problem originates from studies of nuclear waste repositories in rock. The problem is by superposition reduced to the case of a single, infinite, antisymmetric, instantaneous line heat source. The dimensionless problem turns out to depend on the dimensionless radial and axial coordinates only, although the original time-dependent problem contains several parameters. An exact analytical solution is derived. The solution is surprisingly handy, considering the complexity of the original problem. The stress and strain field are readily obtained from derivatives of the displacement components. These fields are studied and presented in detail. Asymptotic behaviour, field of principal stresses, regions of compression and tension, and largest values of compression and tension of the components are given as exact formulas. The solution may be used to test numerical models for coupled thermoelastic processes. It may also be used in more detailed numerical simulations of the process near the heat sources as boundary conditions to account for the three-dimensional global process. 7 refs

  14. Study of the characteristics of crust stress field in East China by inversion of stress tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huilan, Z.; Rugang, D.

    1991-12-01

    This paper combines the search procedure with the optimization procedure to inverse the average stress tensor, and applies this method to study the crustal stress field using data of the solution of P wave first motion. By dealing with the data of Haicheng, Tangshan, Xingtai, Anyang, Liyang, Taiwan, Fujian and Guangdong areas, we obtain the characteristics of crust stress field of East China. The directions of the principal pressure stress always possess a small dip angle, but the azimuths vary from NEE (in north part of East China) to SEE (in the south part). This frame probably is related to the push-extrusive effects of the northwestern Pacific plate from NEE and the Philippine plate from SEE. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Photoelastic analyses of stresses in toroidal magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pih, H.

    1977-02-01

    Several two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses were made on models of circular and oval toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors. The circumferential variation of each coil's in-plane magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures to 16 segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. One special loading fixture was used for the model of each shape and size. Birefringence and isoclinic angles were measured in a transmission polariscope at selected points on the loaded model. Boundary stresses in the cases of known boundary conditions were determined directly from the isochromatics. Separate principal stresses were calculated using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data obtained by the electrical analogy method from the solution of Laplace's equation. Comparisons were made between experimental results and those computed using the finite element method. The stress distribution between theoretical and experimental agrees very well, although the finite element method yielded slightly higher stresses than the photoelastic method; further work is needed to resolve this difference. In this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods of support were evaluated. Based on experimental results, optimum structural designs of toroidal field coils were recommended

  16. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  17. Stress analysis in high-temperature superconductors under pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haowei; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2018-04-01

    Bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) have a high critical current density and can trap a large magnetic field. When bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique, they are also subjected to a large electromagnetic stress, and the resulting thermal stress may cause cracking of the superconductor due to the brittle nature of the sample. In this paper, based on the H-formulation and the law of heat transfer, we can obtain the distributions of electromagnetic field and temperature, which are in qualitative agreement with experiment. After that, based on the dynamic equilibrium equations, the mechanical response of the bulk superconductor is determined. During the PFM process, the change in temperature has a dramatic effect on the radial and hoop stresses, and the maximum radial and hoop stress are 24.2 {{MPa}} and 22.6 {{MPa}}, respectively. The mechanical responses of a superconductor for different cases are also studied, such as the peak value of the applied field and the size of bulk superconductors. Finally, the stresses are also presented for different magnetization methods.

  18. Emotion regulation's relationships with depression, anxiety and stress due to imagined smartphone and social media loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb

    2018-03-01

    A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  20. Internal Stresses in Wires for High Field Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.; Lawson, A.C.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Wood, J.T.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The codeformation of Cu-Ag or Cu-Nb composite wires used for high field magnets has a number of important microstructural consequences, including the production of very fine scale structures, the development of very high internal surface area to volume ratios during the drawing and the storage of defects at interphase interfaces. In addition, the fabrication and codeformation of phases which differ in crystal structure, thermal expansion, elastic modulus and lattice parameter lead to the development of short wavelength internal stresses. These internal stresses are measured by neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy as a function of the imposed drawing strain. The internal stresses lead to important changes in elastic plastic response which can be related to both magnet design and service life and these aspects will be described in detail

  1. Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru

  2. Degradation of Au–Ti contacts of SiGe HBTs during electromagnetic field stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaeddine, A; Genevois, C; Cuvilly, F; Daoud, K; Kadi, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses electromagnetic field stress effects on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs)' reliability issues, focusing on the relationship between the stress-induced current and device structure degradations. The origin of leakage currents and electrical parameter shifts in failed transistors has been studied by complementary failure analysis techniques. Characterization of the structure before and after ageing was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For the stressed samples, interface deformations of the titanium (Ti) thin film around all gold (Au) contacts have been clearly detected. These degradations include localized interface reaction between Au and Ti layers as well as their lateral atomic migration causing a significant reduction of Ti thickness. EDS analysis of the disordered region which is near the Si 3 N 4 interface has shown significant signals from Au. These observations could be attributed to the coupling between high current densities induced by stress and thermal effects due to local heating effects

  3. Study On Aftershock Triggering In Consideration Of Tectonic Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Cai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    : The occurrence of earthquake is related to the strength of rock and tectonic stress field. The seismic risk factor (SRF),D=\\left|{τn }\\right|/(μσn ) is proposed to describe the dangerous status of aftershock triggering in this paper. Dearthquakes, velocity field from GPS as well as geological survey. As one order of approximation, the magnitudes of the regional tectonic stress field can be estimated by the Coulomb failure criterion. Finite element method (FEM) and the concept of the factor D are used to study the aftershock triggering of the 1976 Tangshan Ms=7.8 earthquake. The results show that: (1) Most of the aftershocks triggered by the Tangshan earthquake occurred in the two-leaf-shaped regions of D≥ 1 near the north-east end of the main-shock fault. The largest leaf is about 100km long and 40km wide. (2) The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by the seismic risk factorD and Δ CFS (the changes in the Coulomb failure stress) are almost the same near the fault. The difference between them is that the aftershock area predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0 is too large and the area predicted by the factor D≥ 1 is limited. The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0.04 MPa are nearly the same as those of D≥ 1 obtained by the study. (3) Sometimes Δ CFS =0.01MPa is taken as a low threshold of aftershock triggering. However, Δ CFS≥ 0 only means the probability increase of the earthquake triggering, not means the earthquake will occur. The earthquake occurrence is not only related to Δ CFS, but also to the tectonic stress field before the main-shock.

  4. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    MRI confirmed a large coexisting haemangioma which may have confounded perception of stress fracture symptoms. Table 1 is a comprehensive subject...Johnson JR, Light KI, Yuan HA: A double-blind study of capacitively coupled electrical stimulation as an adjunct to lumbar spinal fusions. Spine 24...Simmons JW, Jr., Mooney V, Thacker I: Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Am J

  5. Stress field control during large caldera-forming eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crustal stress field can have a significant influence on the way magma is channelled through the crust and erupted explosively at the surface. Large Caldera Forming Eruptions (LCFEs can erupt hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma in a relatively short time along fissures under the control of a far-field extensional stress. The associated eruption intensities are estimated in the range 109 - 1011 kg/s. We analyse syn-eruptive dynamics of LCFEs, by simulating numerically explosive flow of magma through a shallow dyke conduit connected to a magma chamber that in turn is fed by a deeper magma reservoir, both under the action of an extensional far-field stress. Results indicate that huge amounts of high viscosity silicic magma can be erupted over timescales of a few to several hours. Our study provides answers to outstanding questions relating to the intensity and duration of catastrophic volcanic eruptions in the past. In addition, it presents far-reaching implications for the understanding of dynamics and intensity of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions on Earth and to highlight the necessity of a future research to advance our knowledge of these rare catastrophic events.

  6. Chronic stress enhances synaptic plasticity due to disinhibition in the anterior cingulate cortex and induces hyper-locomotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Nagano, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of mental disorders, many of which are exacerbated by stress. There are few studies, however, of stress-induced modification of synaptic function in the ACC that is relevant to emotional behavior. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS) on behavior and synaptic function in layers II/III of the ACC in mice. The duration of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) was longer in CRS mice than in control mice. The frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) recorded by whole-cell patch-clamping was reduced in CRS mice, while miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) remained unchanged. Paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) of the fEPSP and evoked EPSC were larger in CRS. There was no difference in NMDA component of evoked EPSCs between the groups. Both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression of fEPSP were larger in CRS mice than in control mice. The differences between the groups in fEPSP duration, PPRs and LTP level were not observed when the GABA(A) receptor was blocked by bicuculline. Compared to control mice, CRS mice exhibited hyper-locomotive activity in an open field test, while no difference was observed between the groups in anxiety-like behavior in a light/dark choice test. CRS mice displayed decreased freezing behavior in fear conditioning tests compared to control mice. These findings suggest that CRS facilitates synaptic plasticity in the ACC via increased excitability due to disinhibition of GABA(A) receptor signalling, which may underlie induction of behavioral hyper-locomotive activity after CRS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioopacity of the right paracardiac lung field due to pectus excavatum (funnel chest)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Winants, D.; Marcon, F.; Worms, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Increased density of the right paracardiac lung field is frequently visible in patients with pectus excavatum. This sign is due to compression of the lungs by the bent costal cartilages of the pectus and should not be interpreted as evidence of pulmonary infiltrate. (orig.) [de

  8. Gravitational lensing due to dark matter modelled by a vector field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V V; Yudin, D I

    2006-01-01

    The specified constant 4-vector field reproducing the spherically symmetric stationary metric of a cold dark matter halo in the region of flat rotation curves results in a constant angle of light deflection at small impact distances. The effective deflecting mass is a factor π/2 greater than the dark matter mass. The perturbation of deflection picture due to the halo edge is evaluated

  9. Surface potential at a ferroelectric grain due to asymmetric screening of depolarization fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genenko, Yuri A., E-mail: genenko@mm.tu-darmstadt.de; Hirsch, Ofer [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Erhart, Paul [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-03-14

    Nonlinear screening of electric depolarization fields, generated by a stripe domain structure in a ferroelectric grain of a polycrystalline material, is studied within a semiconductor model of ferroelectrics. It is shown that the maximum strength of local depolarization fields is rather determined by the electronic band gap than by the spontaneous polarization magnitude. Furthermore, field screening due to electronic band bending and due to presence of intrinsic defects leads to asymmetric space charge regions near the grain boundary, which produce an effective dipole layer at the surface of the grain. This results in the formation of a potential difference between the grain surface and its interior of the order of 1 V, which can be of either sign depending on defect transition levels and concentrations. Exemplary acceptor doping of BaTiO{sub 3} is shown to allow tuning of the said surface potential in the region between 0.1 and 1.3 V.

  10. Melt Motion Due to Peltier Marking During Bridgman Crystal Growth with an Axial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, C. C.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Motakef, Shariar

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a liquid-metal flow inside an electrically insulating cylinder with electrically conducting solids above and below the liquid region. There is a uniform axial magnetic field, and there is an electric current through the liquid and both solids. Since the lower liquid-solid interface is concave into the solid and since the liquid is a better electrical conductor than the adjacent solid, the electric current is locally concentrated near the centerline. The return to a uniform current distribution involves a radial electric current which interacts with the axial magnetic field to drive an azimuthal flow. The axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal velocity drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. This problem models the effects of Peltier marking during the vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductor crystals with an externally applied magnetic field, where the meridional circulation due to the Peltier Current may produce important mixing in the molten semiconductor.

  11. Green's Function and Stress Fields in Stochastic Heterogeneous Continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Vineet

    Many engineering materials used today are heterogenous in composition e.g. Composites - Polymer Matrix Composites, Metal Matrix Composites. Even, conventional engineering materials - metals, plastics, alloys etc. - may develop heterogeneities, like inclusions and residual stresses, during the manufacturing process. Moreover, these materials may also have intrinsic heterogeneities at a nanoscale in the form of grain boundaries in metals, crystallinity in amorphous polymers etc. While, the homogenized constitutive models for these materials may be satisfactory at a macroscale, recent studies of phenomena like fatigue failure, void nucleation, size-dependent brittle-ductile transition in polymeric nanofibers reveal a major play of micro/nanoscale physics in these phenomena. At this scale, heterogeneities in a material may no longer be ignored. Thus, this demands a study into the effects of various material heterogeneities. In this work, spatial heterogeneities in two material properties - elastic modulus and yield stress - have been investigated separately. The heterogeneity in the elastic modulus is studied in the context of Green's function. The Stochastic Finite Element method is adopted to get the mean statistics of the Green's function defined on a stochastic heterogeneous 2D infinite space. A study of the elastic-plastic transition in a domain having stochastic heterogenous yield stress was done using Mont-Carlo methods. The statistics for various stress and strain fields during the transition were obtained. Further, the effects of size of the domain and the strain-hardening rate on the stress fields during the heterogeneous elastic-plastic transition were investigated. Finally, a case is made for the role of the heterogenous elastic-plastic transition in damage nucleation and growth.

  12. Dynamics of Mount Somma-Vesuvius edifice: from stress field inversion to analogue and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; D'Auria, Luca; Castaldo, Raffaele

    2017-04-01

    Geological processes are generally very complex and too slow to be directly observed in their completeness; modelling procedures overcome this limit. The state of stress in the upper lithosphere is the main responsible for driving geodynamical processes; in order to retrieve the active stress field in a rock volume, stress inversion techniques can be applied on both seismological and structural datasets. This approach has been successfully applied to active tectonics as well as volcanic areas. In this context the best approach in managing heterogeneous datasets in volcanic environments consists in the analysis of spatial variations of the stress field by applying robust techniques of inversion. The study of volcanic seismicity is an efficient tool to retrieve spatial and temporal pattern of the pre-, syn- and inter-eruptive stress field: magma migration as well as dynamics of magma chamber and hydrothermal system are directly connected to the volcanic seismicity. Additionally, analysis of the temporal variations of stress field pattern in volcanoes could be a useful monitoring tool. Recently the stress field acting on several active volcanoes has been investigated by using stress inversion techniques on seismological datasets (Massa et al., 2016). The Bayesian Right Trihedra Method (BRTM; D'Auria and Massa, 2015) is able to successfully manage heterogeneous datasets allowing the identification of regional fields locally overcame by the stress field due to volcano specific dynamics. In particular, the analysis of seismicity and stress field inversion at the Somma-Vesuvius highlighted the presence of two superposed volumes characterized by different behaviour and stress field pattern: a top volume dominated by an extensional stress field, in accordance with a gravitational spreading-style of deformation, and a bottom volume related to a regional extensional stress field. In addition, in order to evaluate the dynamics of deformation, both analogue and numerical

  13. Relativistic electron flux dropout due to field line curvature during the storm on 1 June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. B.; Fok, M. C. H.; Engebretson, M. J.; Li, W.; Glocer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Significant electron flux depletion over a wide range of L-shell and energy, referred as a dropout, was observed by Van Allen Probes during the storm main phase on June 1, 2013. During the same period, MeV electron precipitation with isotropic pitch-angle distribution was also observed in the evening sector from POES but no EMIC waves were detected from either space- or ground-based magnetometers. Based on Tsyganenko empirical magnetic field model, magnetic field lines are highly non-dipolar and stretched at the night side in the inner magnetosphere. This condition can break the first adiabatic invariant (conservation of magnetic moment) and generate pitch-angle scattering of relativistic electron to the loss cone. To understand the relative roles of different physical mechanisms on this dropout event, we simulate flux and phase space density of relativistic electrons with event specific plasma wave intensities using the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (CIMI) model, as a global 4-D inner magnetosphere model. We also employ pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature in the CIMI model. We re-configure magnetic field every minute and update electric field every 20 seconds to capture radial transport. CIMI-simulation with pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature shows more depletion of relativistic electron fluxes and better agreement to observation than CIMI-simulation with radial transport only. We conclude that pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature is one of the dominant processes for the relativistic electron flux dropout.

  14. Structural effects on fusion reactor blankets due to liquid metals in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The transient stress distribution caused in the blanket structure when the plasma current suddenly switches off in a time short compared to the L/R decay time of the liquid metal blanket was studied. Poloidal field of the plasma will induce a current to flow in the liquid metal and blanket walls. Since the resistance of the liquid lithium will be much less than that of the metal walls, the current can be considered as flowing around the blanket near the cross section perimeter, but in the lithium

  15. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  16. Assessment of South Pars Gas Field Subsidence Due To Gas Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghazifard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Withdrawal of oil and gas from reservoirs causes a decrease in pore pressure and an increase in effective stress which results to a reservoir compaction. Reservoir compaction will result in surface subsidence through the elastic response of the subsurface. Usually in order to determine the subsidence above a hydrocarbon field, the reservoir compaction must be first calculated and then the effect of this compaction on the surface should be modeled. The use of the uniaxial compaction theory is more prevalent and an accepted method for determining the amount of reservoir compaction. But despite of the reservoir compaction calculation method, there are many methods with different advantages and shortcomings for modeling of surface subsidence. In this study, a simple analytical method and semi‌-analytical methods (AEsubs software were used for modeling of the surface subsidence of the South Pars gas field at the end of the production period.

  17. The effect of a tectonic stress field on coal and gas outbursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fenghua; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts have always been a serious threat to the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. Ground stress (especially the tectonic stress) has a notable effect on the occurrence and distribution of outbursts in the field practice. A numerical model considering the effect of coal gas was established to analyze the outburst danger from the perspective of stress conditions. To evaluate the outburst tendency, the potential energy of yielded coal mass accumulated during an outburst initiation was studied. The results showed that the gas pressure and the strength reduction from the adsorbed gas aggravated the coal mass failure and the ground stress altered by tectonics would affect the plastic zone distribution. To demonstrate the outburst tendency, the ratio of potential energy for the outburst initiation and the energy consumption was used. Increase of coal gas and tectonic stress could enhance the potential energy accumulation ratio, meaning larger outburst tendency. The component of potential energy for outburst initiation indicated that the proportion of elastic energy was increased due to tectonic stress. The elastic energy increase is deduced as the cause for a greater outburst danger in a tectonic area from the perspective of stress conditions.

  18. Event terms in the response spectra prediction equation and their deviation due to stress drop variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, H.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of strong ground motions separated from acceleration Fourier spectra and acceleration response spectra of 5% damping calculated from weak and moderate ground motions observed by K-NET, KiK-net, and the JMA Shindokei Network in Japan using the generalized spectral inversion method. The separation method used the outcrop motions at YMGH01 as reference where we extracted site responses due to shallow weathered layers. We include events with JMA magnitude equal to or larger than 4.5 observed from 1996 to 2011. We find that our frequency-dependent Q values are comparable to those of previous studies. From the corner frequencies of Fourier source spectra, we calculate Brune's stress parameters and found a clear magnitude dependence, in which smaller events tend to spread over a wider range while maintaining the same maximum value. We confirm that this is exactly the case for several mainshock-aftershock sequences. The average stress parameters for crustal earthquakes are much smaller than those of subduction zone, which can be explained by their depth dependence. We then compared the strong motion characteristics based on the acceleration response spectra and found that the separated characteristics of strong ground motions are different, especially in the lower frequency range less than 1Hz. These differences comes from the difference between Fourier spectra and response spectra found in the observed data; that is, predominant components in high frequency range of Fourier spectra contribute to increase the response in lower frequency range with small Fourier amplitude because strong high frequency component acts as an impulse to a Single-Degree-of-Freedom system. After the separation of the source terms for 5% damping response spectra we can obtain regression coefficients with respect to the magnitude, which lead to a new GMPE as shown in Fig.1 on the left. Although stress drops for inland earthquakes are 1/7 of the subduction

  19. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.

    1978-11-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking

  20. Numerical analysis of stress fields generated by quenching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bokota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In work the presented numerical models of tool steel hardening processes take into account mechanical phenomena generated by thermalphenomena and phase transformations. In the model of mechanical phenomena, apart from thermal, plastic and structural strain, alsotransformations plasticity was taken into account. The stress and strain fields are obtained using the solution of the Finite Elements Method of the equilibrium equation in rate form. The thermophysical constants occurring in constitutive relation depend on temperature and phase composite. For determination of plastic strain the Huber-Misses condition with isotropic strengthening was applied whereas fordetermination of transformation plasticity a modified Leblond model was used. In order to evaluate the quality and usefulness of thepresented models a numerical analysis of stresses and strains associated hardening process of a fang lathe of cone shaped made of tool steel was carried out.

  1. Non-linear diffusion of charged particles due to stochastic electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, A.M.; Balescu, R.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the energy confinement times observed in tokamak cannot be explained by the classical or neo-classical transport theory. The alternative explanations are based on the existence of various kinds of micro-instabilities, or on the stochastic destruction of the magnetic surfaces, due to the interaction of magnetic islands of different helicities. In the absence of a well established theory of anomalous transport it is perhaps important to study in some detail the diffusion coefficient of single charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuation, because it can provide the physical grounds for more complete and self-consistent calculations. In the present work we derive a general expression for the transverse diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions in a constant magnetic field and in the presence of space and time dependent electromagnetic fluctuation. We neglect macroscopic drifts due to inhomogeneity and field curvatures, but retain finite Larmor radius effects. (author) 3 refs

  2. Geometric corrections due to inhomogeneous field in the magnetospheric double current layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callebaut, D.K.; Van den Buys, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The case of oblique incidence and of a slope in the magnetic field for plane parallel models of the magnetospheric double layer is considered. The two models are the Magnetospheric Double Layer (MDL) and the Magnetospheric Double Current Layer (MDCL). The latter is more appropriate but due to some approximations it gives sometimes incorrect results. An improved model uses a triple current layer. (R.P.)

  3. Theoretical study of hyperfine fields due to S-P and transition impurities in gadolinium matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Leal, C.E. dos.

    1985-01-01

    This work presents a systematic theoretical study for the hyperfine field due to diluted s-p-and transition impurities in metallic gadolinium matrices. The peculiarities de a gadolinium matrix are shown, they are characterized by a semi-completed 4f-shell, which is far from (below) the energetic levels such as the type s-p and d-conduction bands. (author)

  4. Investigation of Triplet Exciplex Dynamics by Magnetic Field Effects due to the Triplet Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, T.; Steiner, Ulrich; Föll, Rudolf E.

    1983-01-01

    A reaction scheme is described allowing for magnetic field effects on the chemical kinetics of triplet reactions due to the selective decay of triplet sublevels. The theoretical treatment of this scheme is outlined on the basis of a stochastic Liouville equation, taking into account the rotational diffusion of molecules in liquid solution. Whereas the exact solution of the general case is obtained by a numerical procedure as described by Pedersen and Freed, an approximate analytical expressio...

  5. Identification of natural fractures and in situ stress at Rantau Dedap geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyanto, Andika; Sapiie, Benyamin; Idham Abdullah, Chalid; Permana Sidik, Ridwan

    2017-12-01

    Rantau Dedap Area is a geothermal field which is located in Great Sumatra Fault (GSF). The fault and fracture are main factor in the permeability of the geothermal system. However, not all faults and fractures have capability of to flow the fluids. Borehole image log is depiction of the borehole conditions, it is used to identify the natural fractures and drilling induced fracture. Both of them are used to identify the direction of the fracture, direction of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax), and geomechanics parameters. The natural fractures are the results of responses to stress on a rock and permeability which controlling factor in research area. Breakouts is found in this field as a trace of drilling induced fracture due to in situ stress work. Natural fractures are strongly clustered with true strike trending which first, second, and third major direction are N170°E - N180°E (N-S), N60°E - N70°E (NE-SW), and N310°E - N320°E (NW-SE), while the dominant dip is 80° -90°. Based on borehole breakout analysis, maximum horizontal stress orientation is identified in N162°E - N204°E (N-S) and N242°E (NE-SW) direction. It’s constantly similar with regional stress which is affected by GSF. Several parameters have been identified and analyzed are SHmax, SHmin, and Sy. It can be concluded that Rantau Dedap Geothermal Field is affected by strike-slip regime. The determination of in situ stress and natural fractures are important to study the pattern of permeability which is related to the fault in reservoir of this field.

  6. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  7. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  8. Monitoring Changes in Croplands Due to Water Stress in the Krishna River Basin Using Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Reddi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based assessments of large river basins such as the Krishna, which supplies water to many states in India, are useful for operationally monitoring agriculture, especially basins that are affected by abiotic stress. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series products can be used to understand cropland changes at the basin level due to abiotic stresses, especially water scarcity. Spectral matching techniques were used to identify land use/land cover (LULC areas for two crop years: 2013–2014, which was a normal year, and 2015–2016, which was a water stress year. Water stress-affected crop areas were categorized into three classes—severe, moderate and mild—based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and intensity of damage assessed through field sampling. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived classification individual products. Water inflows into and outflows from the Krishna river basin during the study period were used as direct indicators of water scarcity/availability in the Krishna Basin. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived LULC classification of individual year products. Rainfall data from the tropical rainfall monitoring mission (TRMM was used to support the water stress analysis. The nine LULC classes derived using the MODIS temporal imagery provided overall accuracies of 82% for the cropping year 2013–2014 and 85% for the year 2015–2016. Kappa values are 0.78 for 2013–2014 and 0.82 for 2015–2016. MODIS-derived cropland areas were compared with national statistics for the cropping year 2013–2014 with a R2 value of 0.87. Results show that both rainfed and irrigated areas in 2015–2016 saw significant changes that will have significant impacts on food security. It has been also observed that the farmers in the basin tend to use lower inputs and labour per ha during drought years. Among

  9. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  10. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  11. Dynamic Response in Transient Stress-Field Behavior Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique which is used to exploit geologic features and subsurface properties in an effort to increase production in low-permeability formations. The process of hydraulic fracturing provides a greater surface contact area between the producing formation and the wellbore and thus increases the amount of recoverable hydrocarbons from within the reservoir. The use of this stimulation technique has brought on massive applause from the industry due to its widespread success and effectiveness, however the dynamic processes that take part in the development of hydraulic fractures is a relatively new area of research with respect to the massive scale operations that are seen today. The process of hydraulic fracturing relies upon understanding and exploiting the in-situ stress distribution throughout the area of study. These in-situ stress conditions are responsible for directing fracture orientation and propagation paths throughout the period of injection. The relative magnitude of these principle stresses is key in developing a successful stimulation plan. In horizontal well plan development the interpretation of stress within the reservoir is required for determining the azimuth of the horizontal well path. These horizontal laterals are typically oriented in a manner such that the well path lies parallel to the minimum horizontal stress. This allows for vertical fractures to develop transversely to the wellbore, or normal to the least principle stress without the theoretical possibility of fractures overlapping, creating the most efficient use of the fluid energy during injection. The orientation and magnitude of these in-situ stress fields however can be dynamic, controlled by the subsequent fracture propagation and redistribution of the surrounding stresses. That is, that as the fracture propagates throughout the reservoir, the relative stress fields surrounding the fractures may see a shift and deviate from their original direction or

  12. Responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    We study responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses of scalar field pulses using numerical simulations. Double-null formalism is employed to implement the numerical simulations. If we supply a scalar field pulse, it will asymptotically form a black hole via dynamical interactions of the Brans-Dicke field. Hence, we can observe the responses of the Brans-Dicke field by two different regions. First, we observe the late time behaviors after the gravitational collapse, which include formations of a singularity and an apparent horizon. Second, we observe the fully dynamical behaviors during the gravitational collapse and view the energy-momentum tensor components. For the late time behaviors, if the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater (or smaller) than -1.5, the Brans-Dicke field decreases (or increases) during the gravitational collapse. Since the Brans-Dicke field should be relaxed to the asymptotic value with the elapse of time, the final apparent horizon becomes time-like (or space-like). For the dynamical behaviors, we observed the energy-momentum tensors around ω ∼ -1.5. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater than -1.5, the T uu component can be negative at the outside of the black hole. This can allow an instantaneous inflating region during the gravitational collapse. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is less than -1.5, the oscillation of the T vv component allows the apparent horizon to shrink. This allows a combination that violates weak cosmic censorship. Finally, we discuss the implications of the violation of the null energy condition and weak cosmic censorship.

  13. Responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-21

    We study responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses of scalar field pulses using numerical simulations. Double-null formalism is employed to implement the numerical simulations. If we supply a scalar field pulse, it will asymptotically form a black hole via dynamical interactions of the Brans-Dicke field. Hence, we can observe the responses of the Brans-Dicke field by two different regions. First, we observe the late time behaviors after the gravitational collapse, which include formations of a singularity and an apparent horizon. Second, we observe the fully dynamical behaviors during the gravitational collapse and view the energy-momentum tensor components. For the late time behaviors, if the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater (or smaller) than -1.5, the Brans-Dicke field decreases (or increases) during the gravitational collapse. Since the Brans-Dicke field should be relaxed to the asymptotic value with the elapse of time, the final apparent horizon becomes time-like (or space-like). For the dynamical behaviors, we observed the energy-momentum tensors around {omega} {approx} -1.5. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater than -1.5, the T{sub uu} component can be negative at the outside of the black hole. This can allow an instantaneous inflating region during the gravitational collapse. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is less than -1.5, the oscillation of the T{sub vv} component allows the apparent horizon to shrink. This allows a combination that violates weak cosmic censorship. Finally, we discuss the implications of the violation of the null energy condition and weak cosmic censorship.

  14. Interstitial relaxations due to hydrostatic stress in niobium--oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.N.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the anelastic relaxation induced by hydrostatic stress in the range from ambient to 81 ksi were made for niobium--oxygen alloys. The anelastic responses, both for the pressurization and the pressure release experiments, were followed by measuring the relative length change between the oxygenated niobium sample and a pure niobium frame with a precision of about 2 A. The relaxation spectrum observed was shown to be made up of three distinct relaxations with unique relaxation times and strengths. The pressure dependence of the relaxation times gave the apparent activation volume for these relaxations of the order of 4 cm 3 /mole. The relaxations were observed to have relaxation strengths of the order of 10 -4 which were found to be independent of pressure up to 81 ksi. The relaxation times for these relaxations were found to occur in the same general temperature range as those for the Snoek relaxations of oxygen clusters in niobium. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times, however, gave activation energies of about 11 to 15 kcal/mole, as compared with roughly 27 to 29 kcal/mole for the Snoek relaxation of oxygen clusters in niobium. Several possible models for these relaxations were developed, however, none could predict the observed temperature dependence. The best interpretation of the data is that due to some anomalous competing relaxation the actual temperature dependence of these relaxations could not be observed. A completely self-consistent analysis is found which is based upon this assumption. (U.S.)

  15. Relaxation of Si-SiO2 interfacial stress in bipolar screen oxides due to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, S.C.; Galloway, K.F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Suehle, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Current gain degradation due to ionizing radiation in complementary single-crystalline emitter bipolar transistors was found to grow progressively worse upon subjecting the transistors to repeated cycles of radiation exposure and high-temperature anneal. The increase in radiation sensitivity is independent of the emitter polarity or geometry and is most dramatic between the first and second radiation and anneal cycles. In parallel with the current gain measurements, samples from a monitor wafer simulating the screen oxide region above the extrinsic base in the npn transistors were measured for mechanical stress while undergoing similar cycles of irradiation and anneal. The oxide on the monitor wafer consisted of a 45 nm thermal layer and a 640 nm deposited layer. The results indicate that ionizing radiation helped relieve compressive stress at the Si surface. The magnitude of the stress change due to radiation is smaller than the stress induced by the emitter contact metallization followed by a post-metallization anneal. Correlation of radiation sensitivity in the bipolar transistors and mechanical stress in the monitor wafer suggests that mechanical stress may be influential in determining the radiation hardness of bipolar transistors and lends validation to previously reported observations that Si-SiO 2 interfaces are increasingly more susceptible to radiation damage with decreasing Si compressive stress. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes in stress and their effect on the radiation sensitivity of the bipolar transistors are discussed

  16. Remanent radiation fields around medical linear accelerators due to the induced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.; Khalifa, O.; Berka, Z.; Stankus, P.; Frencl, L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation fields around two linear accelerators, Saturn 43 and a Saturn 2 Plus, installed at radiotherapy department is Prague, were measured and interpreted. The measurements included the determination of the dose equivalent rate resulting from photons emitted by induced radionuclides produced in reactions of high-energy photons with certain elements present in air and accelerator components as well as in the shielding and building materials in the treatment rooms, which are irradiated by high-energy X-rays, and due to radionuclides formed by capture of photoneutrons. While scattered photons and photoneutrons are only present during the accelerator operation, residual radioactivity creates a remanent radiation field persisting for some time after the instrument shutdown. The activity induced in the accessories is also an important source of exposure. (P.A.)

  17. Positron cross-field transport due to quasibound states of antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahat, Y.; Correa, C.E.; Ordonez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Within the past few years, experiments have been reported in which antiprotons produced at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator facility were slowed, trapped in nested Penning traps and made to interact with a positron plasma such that antihydrogen was formed. Classical trajectory simulations of the interactions between the antiprotons and positrons have been reported to indicate that positive-energy, quasibound states of antihydrogen can form at a rate that exceeds the rate of formation of stable Rydberg states. The formation of quasibound states may affect the rate of diffusion of positrons across the magnetic field that confines them in the nested Penning trap. Simulations indicate that a binary interaction associated with the formation and disintegration of a quasibound state can cause a shift of the positron's guiding center that is much larger than the positron cyclotron radius before the interaction. A theory is presented that describes positron cross-magnetic-field diffusion due to quasibound states of antihydrogen

  18. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-07-07

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  19. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators. (paper)

  20. Simulation of stresses, residual stresses, and distortion in stepped cylinders of AISI 4140 due to martensitical hardening by immersion cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, M.; Mueller, H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science and Engineering I

    1999-09-01

    Heat treatment improves mechanical properties of steel parts, but also causes residual stresses and distortion. Stresses and deformation occurring during heat treatment can not be measured in-situ with appropriate temporal and spatial resolution. In order to evaluate the processes occurring in the workpiece during quenching as well as the residual stresses and distortions, numerical methods have to be used. Heat conduction, phase transformations, and mechanical behaviour of the material as well as the couplings between the processes such as transformation plasticity have to be modeled for the simulation of steel hardening. Temperature and phase dependent properties (including TTT-data) have to incorporated into calculations. One of the major factors determining the evolution of stress and deformation is the heat-transfer coefficient between component and quenching medium. For vapourizing liquids, heat transfer depends on temperature and location. But heat transfer is not only influenced by the quenchant but also by part geometry and size. Stepped cylinders of AISI 4140 steel were quenched in water and oil. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations were carried out. The variation of dive-in direction strongly influences the rewetting of the specimen surface and therefore the cooling behaviour, stress and deformation evolution, and resultant residual stresses and distortion. Excellent agreement is obtained between calculated and experimental results. (orig.)

  1. Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1 -background, for d=2,4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d=2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d=6.

  2. Structural transformations in Mn2NiGa due to residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.; Ranjan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Powder x-ray diffraction study of Mn 2 NiGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy shows the existence of a 7M monoclinic modulated structure at room temperature (RT). The structure of Mn 2 NiGa is found to be highly dependent on residual stress. For higher stress, the structure is tetragonal at RT, and for intermediate stress it is 7M monoclinic. However, only when the stress is considerably relaxed, the structure is cubic, as is expected at RT since the martensitic transition temperature is 230 K.

  3. Transient thermal stresses due to a zonal heat source moving back and forth over the surface on an infinite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, N.; Hetnarski, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    A solution is given for the transient thermal stresses due to a zonal heat source moving back and forth with a constant angular frequency over the surface of an infinite elastic plate. The transient temperature distribution is obtained by using the complex Fourier and Laplace transforms, and the associated thermal stresses are obtained by means of the thermoelastic displacement potential and the Galerkin function. Graphical representations for the solution in dimensionless terms are included in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Lithospheric stresses due to radiogenic heating of an ice-silicate planetary body - Implications for Ganymede's tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal evolution models of differentiated and undifferentiated ice-silicate bodies containing long-lived radiogenic heat sources are examined. Lithospheric sresses arise due to volume change of the interior and temperature change in the lithosphere. For an undifferentiated body, the surface stress peaks early in the evolution, while in the differentiated case, stresses peak later and continue to accumulate for longer periods of time. The variation of near-surface stress with depth shows that stresses for the undifferentiated body initially penetrate to great depths, but rapidly concentrate within a few kilometers of the surface. For the differentiated body, elastic stresses never accumulate at a depth greater than a few kilometers. These models are applied to consider long-term rdioactive heating as a possible mechanism of tectonic activity and bright terrain formation on Ganymede.

  5. Field Observation of Soil Displacements Resulting Due Unsupported Excavation and Its Effects on Proposed Adjacent Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Nasir Al-Jorany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil movement resulting due unsupported excavation nearby axially loaded piles imposes significant structural troubles on geotechnical engineers especially for piles that are not designed to account for loss of lateral confinement. In this study the field excavation works of 7.0 m deep open tunnel was continuously followed up by the authors. The work is related to the project of developing the Army canal in the east of Baghdad city in Iraq. A number of selected points around the field excavation are installed on the ground surface at different horizontal distance. The elevation and coordinates of points are recorded during 23 days with excavation progress period. The field excavation process was numerically simulated by using the finite element package PLAXIS 3D foundation. The obtained analysis results regarding the displacements of the selected points are compared with the field observation for verification purpose. Moreover, finite element analysis of axially loaded piles that are presumed to be existed at the locations of the observation points is carried out to study the effect of excavation on full scale piles behaviors. The field observation monitored an upward movement and positive lateral ground movement for shallow excavation depth. Later on and as the excavation process went deeper, a downward movement and negative lateral ground movement are noticed. The analyses results are in general well agreed with the monitored values of soil displacements at the selected points. It is found also that there are obvious effects of the nearby excavation on the presumed piles in terms of displacements and bending moments.

  6. Stress in film/substrate system due to diffusion and thermal misfit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shanshan; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    The stress in film/substrate systems has been analysed taking into consideration the coupling effects of diffusion and thermal misfit within the framework of Fick's second law. The solution of diffusion-induced stress in a film/substrate system involving the thermal misfit stress feedback is developed. The effects of modulus ratios, diffusivity ratios, thickness ratios of the substrate and the film and the partial molar volume of the diffusing component on the stress distribution in the film/substrate system are then discussed with the help of the finite difference method. Results indicate that the stresses in the film/substrate system vary with diffusion time. Diffusion enhances the magnitudes of film stress when the thermal misfit stress is compressive in the film. Furthermore, the absolute values of stress in the film increase with the increasing modulus ratios of the substrate and film, while they reduce with the increasing partial molar volume of the diffusing component and the diffusivity ratio of the substrate and the film.

  7. Investigations of the magnetic fields from ships due to corrosion and its countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter J.

    Corrosion is one of the main concerns for the shipping industry. The enormous cost associated with the corrosion of ships means that operators are more than ever seeking methods to provide optimal protection. Another problem which results from the corrosion of ships is that the electric currents produced give rise to a corrosion related magnetic field which adds to the ships overall electromagnetic field which can trigger underwater mines. Hence for the Admiralty to protect their fleet, they need to understand, predict and reduce these electromagnetic signatures. This will also be a concern for operators of merchant ships if, as recently suggested, terrorists begin to target them. There are a number of factors contributing to the electromagnetic signature of a ship. The work presented in this study is concerned with the magnetic field arising due to corrosion and the countermeasures employed against it (namely Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems]. This field is called the Corrosion Related Magnetic (CRM) field. Since this field is directly related to the rate of corrosion of a ship, it may also be used as an indicator as to the efficiency of the corrosion protection measures, This work presents a range of techniques which may be used to model the CRM field. Simple dipole models are used to investigate the general behaviour of a corroding ship in sea water. These investigations result in an expression for an approximation of the CRM field from a dipole-wire configuration which can be used to estimate the CRM field from a corroding ship with an active ICCP system. A second, more detailed, method was then developed using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to model a ship corroding in a tank of sea water. The BEM uses a large set of simultaneous equations, the coefficients of which are calculated by numerical integration using a new method based around the moments of triangular surface elements which discretise the boundary of the domain. By using a

  8. A finite element elastic-plastic analysis of residual stresses due to clad welding in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalet, C.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    Residual stresses due to weld deposited cladding on the inside of a typical Westinghouse pressurized water reactor vessel are investigated using an axisymmetric finite element elastic-plastic analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, one head of the weld cladding is assumed to lie on the reactor vessel wall at melting temperature (2600degF), but in the solid phase, while the vessel remains at 300degF (preheat temperature). All material properties used in the calculations are taken as temperature-dependent. Temperature profiles are obtained in the cladding and base metal at several discrete time intervals. These temperatures profiles are used to obtain the stress distribution for the same time intervals. Residual hoop tensile stresses of approximately 25 ksi were found to exist in the cladding. Peak tensile stresses in the hoop direction occur in the base metal near the cladding interface and reach a value of 60 ksi at the end of the transient. The tensile stress decreases very rapidly through the thickness of the base metal and becomes insignificant at about two inches from the inside surface. In order to lower residual stresses, a post-weld heat treatment is performed by uniformly heating the vessel to 1100degF, holding at that temperature for a specified period of time and then cooling slowly. The analysis shows that after this treatment, the peak stresses in the base metal decrease from 60 ksi to 32 ksi, while the stress in the cladding does not change significantly. (author)

  9. Dynamic stress relaxation due to cyclic variation of strain at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The relaxation of stress which occurs when low amplitude alternating strains are superimposed on constant mean total strains is studied in this paper. Experiments were carried out on a 0.16 per cent carbon steel and an AISI 347 stainless steel at 450 0 C and 650 0 C respectively in which the decrease of axial mean stress was measured as a function of time. When even a low amplitude alternating strain was applied, the rate of stress relaxation was observed to increase. Analytical predictions based on creep and static relaxation data show fairly good agreement with experiments in the period corresponding to transient creep. (author)

  10. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu A. Fenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  11. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  12. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsaaker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E x B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport

  13. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observed from this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  14. Changes in hydrological connectivity due to vegetation recovery and wall collapse in abandoned terraced fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; López-Vicente, Manuel; Oranjuren, Rafael; Ángel Llorente, José; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación; Arnáez, José

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces have been built in mountain regions worldwide in order to provide a larger surface for cultivation, improve water availability and reduce soil erosion, as they favour infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment connectivity from hillslopes to streams. In many Mediterranean countries, farmland abandonment has led to progressive natural revegetation and, in terraced slopes, due to a lack of maintenance, to a collapse of the water conservation structures, often followed by small mass movements and gullying. Little is known about the effect of such failures on the hydrological system, especially at catchment scale. The aim of this study is to contributing to fill in this gap by exploring the effect of vegetation recovery and terrace failure on hydrological connectivity in a small catchment (192 ha) in northern Spain mostly occupied by abandoned terraced fields. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). Besides using the C-RUSLE factor, as used by many authors, we tested the inclusion of an infiltration component (Kf) to assess the landscape-weighting factor. The Kf factor accounted for the high infiltration rates observed in the terraced soils and was estimated using the permeability classes of the K-RUSLE factor. A 2x2 m resolution DEM was used to capture the terraced fields and run the IC model. Following the recommendation of Cavalli et al. (2015), we used the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm (Tarboton, 1997) to represent the real flow paths, especially on hillslopes, where divergent flow predominates, and on stream channels. To ensure the continuity of the flow path lines, local sinks were filled in with the algorithm of Planchon & Darboux (2001) that preserved a minimum slope gradient of 0.01 degrees. Finally, linear landscape elements such as stonewalls, rock outcrops, and trails and forest roads were also considered. The IC was calculated for the current scenario

  15. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    tensors at all the investigated sites. Indeed, the maximum principal stress axis σ1 is vertical or subvertical, while the intermediate and the least axes (σ2 and σ3) lie on the horizontal plane or show low plunging values. The main direction of extension (σ3) at each site is in general agreement with the first-order regional stress field (WNW-ESE) even though some local perturbations have been recognized. These are interpreted as due to interferences between large active faults and their particular geometrical arrangement. In particular local stress deflections and stress swaps systematically occur in zones characterized by two overlapping fault segments or close to their tips.

  16. Small scale changes of geochemistry and flow field due to transient heat storage in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Boockmeyer, A.; Li, D.; Beyer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Heat exchangers in the subsurface are increasingly installed for transient heat storage due to the need of heating or cooling of buildings as well as the interim storage of heat to compensate for the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind or solar energy. For heat storage to be efficient, high temperatures must be achieved in the subsurface. Significant temporal changes of the soil and groundwater temperatures however effect both the local flow field by temperature dependent fluid parameters as well as reactive mass transport through temperature dependent diffusion coefficients, geochemical reaction rates and mineral equilibria. As the use of heat storage will be concentrated in urban areas, the use of the subsurface for (drinking) water supply and heat storage will typically coincide and a reliable prognosis of the processes occurring is needed. In the present work, the effects of a temporal variation of the groundwater temperature, as induced by a local heat exchanger introduced into a groundwater aquifer, are studied. For this purpose, the coupled non-isothermal groundwater flow, heat transport and reactive mass transport is simulated in the near filed of such a heat exchanger. By explicitly discretizing and incorporating the borehole, the borehole cementation and the heat exchanger tubes, a realistic geometrical and process representation is obtained. The numerical simulation code OpenGeoSys is used in this work, which incorporates the required processes of coupled groundwater flow, heat and mass transport as well as temperature dependent geochemistry. Due to the use of a Finite Element Method, a close representation of the geometric effects can be achieved. Synthetic scenario simulations for typical settings of salt water formations in northern Germany are used to investigate the geochemical effects arising from a high temperature heat storage by quantifying changes in groundwater chemistry and overall reaction rates. This work presents the

  17. The stress field and its sources in the North Atlantic Realm and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander

    A number of sources contribute to the lithospheric stress field. Lithospheric density heterogeneities cause horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, which give rise to gravitational/geopotential stresses. Variations of pressure, temperature and composition in the co...

  18. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  19. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  20. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to the spontaneous magnetic field in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Masatada; Takita, Masami.

    1981-08-01

    Spontaneous magnetic fields due to the temperature gradient nabla T 0 produced by a focussed laser beam on one point of a pellet are taken into account in deriving the dispersion relation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Growth rate γ decreases with time. Density fluctuation with wavelength shorter than 1.5(R/L sub(T)) x (n sub(s)/n 0 )sup(1/2) μm is remarkably stabilized, where R, L sub(T), n sub(s) and n 0 are the radius of a pellet, L sub(T)sup(-1) = + nabla T 0 /T 0 + , number densities of solid and the pellet. Validity condition of the theory is γt 0 >> 1 or in another form R >> L, where t 0 is the time of thermal expansion of a pellet and L -1 = + nabla n 0 /n 0 + . (author)

  2. Simulation of enhanced deposition due to magnetic field alignment of ellipsoidal particles in a lung bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R C; Roshchenko, A; Minev, P; Finlay, W H

    2013-02-01

    Aerosolized chemotherapy has been recognized as a potential treatment for lung cancer. The challenge of providing sufficient therapeutic effects without reaching dose-limiting toxicity levels hinders the development of aerosolized chemotherapy. This could be mitigated by increasing drug-delivery efficiency with a noninvasive drug-targeting delivery method. The purpose of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to study the resulting local enhancement of deposition due to magnetic field alignment of high aspect ratio particles. High aspect ratio particles were approximated by a rigid ellipsoid with a minor diameter of 0.5 μm and fluid particle density ratio of 1,000. Particle trajectories were calculated by solving the coupled fluid particle equations using an in-house micro-macro grid finite element algorithm based on a previously developed fictitious domain approach. Particle trajectories were simulated in a morphologically realistic geometry modeling a symmetrical terminal bronchiole bifurcation. Flow conditions were steady inspiratory air flow due to typical breathing at 18 L/min. Deposition efficiency was estimated for two different cases: [1] particles aligned with the streamlines and [2] particles with fixed angular orientation simulating the magnetic field alignment of our previous in vitro study. The local enhancement factor defined as the ratio between deposition efficiency of Case [1] and Case [2] was found to be 1.43 and 3.46 for particles with an aspect ratio of 6 and 20, respectively. Results indicate that externally forcing local alignment of high aspect ratio particles can increase local deposition considerably.

  3. Stress distributions of coils for toroidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Tateo; Miyamoto, Kenro.

    1976-01-01

    The stress distributions of a D shaped coil and a circular coil are computed by the finite element method. The dependences of the stress distribution on the geometrical parameters of the stress distribution on the geometrical parameters of the coils and supporting methods are examined. The maximum amount of the stress in the D shaped coil is not much smaller than that of the circular one. However, the stress distribution of the D shaped coil becomes much more uniform. The supporting method has as much effect as the geometrical parameters of the coil on the stress distribution. (auth.)

  4. Membrane permeabilization in relation to inactivation kinetics of Lactobacillus species due to pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, P C; Bos, A P; Ueckert, J

    2001-07-01

    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products.

  5. Membrane Permeabilization in Relation to Inactivation Kinetics of Lactobacillus Species due to Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Patrick C.; Bos, Ad P.; Ueckert, Joerg

    2001-01-01

    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products. PMID:11425727

  6. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining stress fields of shearer-loader picks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luszczkiewicz, J; Sikora, W

    1987-06-01

    Analyzes factors which influence stress distribution in the NK-4 shearer-loader picks during coal cutting. The AFT optically active cover, 0.0015 mm thick, was used. The pick with the AFT cover was loaded using a force of 33 kN. Isoclinic lines showing stress distribution were photographed. Effects of pick design and its holder type on stress distribution were investigated. Investigations showed that distribution of normal stresses in a pick shaft has a non-linear character. The hole in a pick shaft increased stress concentration in that shaft section. Eliminating the hole reduced stress concentration. Reducing shaft length by about 20 mm did not increase stresses in that shaft zone. 15 refs.

  8. Initialization shock in decadal hindcasts due to errors in wind stress over the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Holger; Kröger, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Müller, Wolfgang A.

    2017-10-01

    Low prediction skill in the tropical Pacific is a common problem in decadal prediction systems, especially for lead years 2-5 which, in many systems, is lower than in uninitialized experiments. On the other hand, the tropical Pacific is of almost worldwide climate relevance through its teleconnections with other tropical and extratropical regions and also of importance for global mean temperature. Understanding the causes of the reduced prediction skill is thus of major interest for decadal climate predictions. We look into the problem of reduced prediction skill by analyzing the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) decadal hindcasts for the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project and performing a sensitivity experiment in which hindcasts are initialized from a model run forced only by surface wind stress. In both systems, sea surface temperature variability in the tropical Pacific is successfully initialized, but most skill is lost at lead years 2-5. Utilizing the sensitivity experiment enables us to pin down the reason for the reduced prediction skill in MPI-ESM to errors in wind stress used for the initialization. A spurious trend in the wind stress forcing displaces the equatorial thermocline in MPI-ESM unrealistically. When the climate model is then switched into its forecast mode, the recovery process triggers artificial El Niño and La Niña events at the surface. Our results demonstrate the importance of realistic wind stress products for the initialization of decadal predictions.

  9. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 5057610. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : oxidative stress * developing rat brain * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  10. Genome-wide association of changes in swine feeding behaviour due to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Heat stress has a negative impact on pork production, particularly during the grow-finish phase. As temperature increases, feeding behaviour changes in order for pigs to decrease heat production. The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers associated with changes in feedi...

  11. Heavy Metal Stress, Signaling, and Tolerance Due to Plant-Associated Microbes: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shalini; Lata, Charu

    2018-01-01

    Several anthropogenic activities including mining, modern agricultural practices, and industrialization have long-term detrimental effect on our environment. All these factors lead to increase in heavy metal concentration in soil, water, and air. Soil contamination with heavy metals cause several environmental problems and imparts toxic effect on plant as well as animals. In response to these adverse conditions, plants evolve complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better adaptability, tolerance, and survival. Nowadays conventional breeding and transgenic technology are being used for development of metal stress resistant varieties which, however, are time consuming and labor intensive. Interestingly the use of microbes as an alternate technology for improving metal tolerance of plants is gaining momentum recently. The use of these beneficial microorganisms is considered as one of the most promising methods for safe crop-management practices. Interaction of plants with soil microorganisms can play a vital role in acclimatizing plants to metalliferous environments, and can thus be explored to improve microbe-assisted metal tolerance. Plant-associated microbes decrease metal accumulation in plant tissues and also help to reduce metal bioavailability in soil through various mechanisms. Nowadays, a novel phytobacterial strategy, i.e., genetically transformed bacteria has been used to increase remediation of heavy metals and stress tolerance in plants. This review takes into account our current state of knowledge of the harmful effects of heavy metal stress, the signaling responses to metal stress, and the role of plant-associated microbes in metal stress tolerance. The review also highlights the challenges and opportunities in this continued area of research on plant–microbe–metal interaction. PMID:29681916

  12. Heavy Metal Stress, Signaling, and Tolerance Due to Plant-Associated Microbes: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several anthropogenic activities including mining, modern agricultural practices, and industrialization have long-term detrimental effect on our environment. All these factors lead to increase in heavy metal concentration in soil, water, and air. Soil contamination with heavy metals cause several environmental problems and imparts toxic effect on plant as well as animals. In response to these adverse conditions, plants evolve complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better adaptability, tolerance, and survival. Nowadays conventional breeding and transgenic technology are being used for development of metal stress resistant varieties which, however, are time consuming and labor intensive. Interestingly the use of microbes as an alternate technology for improving metal tolerance of plants is gaining momentum recently. The use of these beneficial microorganisms is considered as one of the most promising methods for safe crop-management practices. Interaction of plants with soil microorganisms can play a vital role in acclimatizing plants to metalliferous environments, and can thus be explored to improve microbe-assisted metal tolerance. Plant-associated microbes decrease metal accumulation in plant tissues and also help to reduce metal bioavailability in soil through various mechanisms. Nowadays, a novel phytobacterial strategy, i.e., genetically transformed bacteria has been used to increase remediation of heavy metals and stress tolerance in plants. This review takes into account our current state of knowledge of the harmful effects of heavy metal stress, the signaling responses to metal stress, and the role of plant-associated microbes in metal stress tolerance. The review also highlights the challenges and opportunities in this continued area of research on plant–microbe–metal interaction.

  13. Behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel due to repeated impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Akira; Miyagawa, Hideaki

    1985-01-01

    Explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel is being tried for rail crossing recently. From the previous studies, it became clear that high tensile residual stress was generated in the hardened surface layer by explosion and microcracks were observed. In this study, therefore, the behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel due to repeated impact loads was examined and compared with those of the original and shot peened steels. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the initial stage of the repetition of impact, high tensile surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel decreased rapidly with the repetition of impact, while those of the original and shot peened steels increased rapidly. This difference was attributed to the difference in depth of the work hardened layer in three testing materials. (2) Beyond 20 impacts the residual stress of three test specimens decreased gradually, and at more than 2000 impacts the compressive stress of about 500 MPa was produced regardless of the histories of working of testing materials. (3) The linear law in the second stage of residual stress fading was applicable to this case, and the range of the linear relationship was related to the depth of the work hardened layer of testing material. (4) From the changes in half-value breadth and peak intensity of diffraction X-ray, it was supposed that a peculiar microscopic strain exists in explosion hardened steel. (author)

  14. Mixed function oxidase induction in Carcinus aestuarii. Field and experimental studies for the evaluation of toxicological risk due to Mediterranean contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Savelli, C.; Casini, S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test and validate the use of mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction, in the crab Carcinus aestuarii, under experimental and field studies, for the evaluation of toxicological risk due to the main contaminants in the Mediterranean. Two different experiments were performed in the laboratory in order to identify the most suitable tissues for MFO studies in this species and the most suitable and sensitive MFO responses for evaluating chemical stress due to lipophilic contaminants. In order to validate this methodology in the field, two studies were carried out in two polluted Mediterranean lagoons: a transplant experiment in Orbetello Lagoon and an in situ experiment in Venice Lagoon. The following MFO responses were investigated in hepatopancres and gills of the crabs: ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activities and reductase enzyme activities. The main results can be summarised as follows: midgut-gland and gills were confirmed to be useful for MFO tests; BPH activity in hepatopancreas was the most suitable and sensitive MFO response for evaluating chemical stress due to Mediterranean contaminants in laboratory and field studies; in the Orbetello Lagoon experiment, a statistically significant difference was found between sites subject to different human impact. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Stress field determination in an alloy 600 stress corrosion crack specimen; Determination du champ de contraintes dans une eprouvette de corrosion sous contrainte de l`alliage 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassineux, B.; Labbe, T.

    1995-05-01

    In the context of EDF studies on stress corrosion cracking rates in the Alloy 600 steam generators tubes, we studied the influence of strain hardened surface layers on the different stages of cracking for a tensile smooth specimen (TLT). The stress field was notably assessed to try and explain the slow/rapid-propagation change observed beyond the strain hardened layers. The main difficulty is to simulate in a finite element model the inner and outer surfaces of these strain hardened layers, produced by the final manufacturing stages of SG tubes which have not been heat treated. In the model, the strain hardening is introduced by simulating a multi-layer material. Residual stresses are simulated by an equivalent fictitious thermomechanical calculation, realigned with respect to X-ray measurements. The strain hardening introduction method was validated by an analytical calculation giving identical results. Stress field evolution induced by specimen tensile loading were studied using an elastoplastic 2D finite element calculations performed with the Aster Code. The stress profile obtained after load at 660 MPa shows no stress discontinuity at the boundary between the strain hardened layer and the rest of the tube. So we propose that a complementary calculation be performed, taking into account the multi-cracked state of the strain hardened zones by means of a damage variable. In fact, this state could induce stress redistribution in the un-cracked area, which would perhaps provide an explanation of the crack-ground rate change beyond the strain hardened zone. The calculations also evidence the harmful effects of plastic strains on a strain hardened layer due to the initial state of the tube (not heat-treated), to grit blasting or to shot peening. The initial compressive stress condition of this surface layer becomes, after plastic strain, a tensile stress condition. These results are confirmed by laboratory test. (author). 10 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs., 2 appends.

  16. Mapping Orbits regarding Perturbations due to the Gravitational Field of a Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane C. F. Venditti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbital dynamics around irregular shaped bodies is an actual topic in astrodynamics, because celestial bodies are not perfect spheres. When it comes to small celestial bodies, like asteroids and comets, it is even more import to consider the nonspherical shape. The gravitational field around them may generate trajectories that are different from Keplerian orbits. Modeling an irregular body can be a hard task, especially because it is difficult to know the exact shape when observing it from the Earth, due to their small sizes and long distances. Some asteroids have been observed, but it is still a small amount compared to all existing asteroids in the Solar System. An approximation of their shape can be made as a sum of several known geometric shapes. Some three-dimensional figures have closed equations for the potential and, in this work, the formulation of a cube is considered. The results give the mappings showing the orbits that are less perturbed and then have a good potential to be used by spacecrafts that need to minimize station-keeping maneuvers. Points in the orbit that minimizes the perturbations are found and they can be used for constellations of nanosatellites.

  17. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  18. Inhomogeneous Relaxation of a Molecular Layer on an Insulator due to Compressive Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, F.; Nony, L.; Mannsfeld, S. C. B.; Oison, V.; Pawlak, R.; Porte, L.; Loppacher, Ch.

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the inhomogeneous stress relaxation of a monolayer of hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) which adopts the rare line-on-line (LOL) coincidence on KCl(001) and forms moiré patterns. The fact that the hexagonal HHTP layer is uniaxially compressed along the LOL makes this system an ideal candidate to discuss the influence of inhomogeneous stress relaxation. Our work is a combination of noncontact atomic force microscopy experiments, density functional theory and potential energy calculations, and a thorough interpretation by means of the Frenkel-Kontorova model. We show that the assumption of a homogeneous molecular layer is not valid for this organic-inorganic heteroepitaxial system since the best calculated energy configuration correlates with the experimental data only if inhomogeneous relaxations of the layer are taken into account.

  19. Morphological Changes of Yeast Cells due to Oxidative Stress by Mercury and Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hyoun; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important microorganisms employed in industry. Growth rate, mutation, and environmental conditions affect yeast size and shape distributions but, in general, the influence of spatial variations in large-scale bioreactors is not considered. Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks in the nucleus, In addition, it causes lipid peroxidation, ceramide generation, and protein oxidation in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Metal ions are essential to life. However, some metals such as mercury are harmful, even when present at trace amounts. Toxicity of mercury arises mainly from its oxidizing properties. As a metal ion, it induces an oxidative stress or predisposes cells to an oxidative stress, with considerable damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. In this work, we investigated to effect of ionizing radiation (IR) and mercury chloride (II) on cell morphology.

  20. Service Life Of Main Piping Component Due To Low Thermal Stresses.Fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnik, R.; Jeager, A.; Ben Haim, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with estimating the service life of the power station Main piping component and describing the repair process for extending of its service life. After a long period of service, several circular fatigue cracks have been discovered at the bottom of the Main piping component chamber. Finite element analyses of transient thermal stresses, caused by power station startup, are carried out in the paper. The calculation results show good agreement between the theoretical locations of the maximum stresses and the actual locations of the cracks. There is a good agreement between theoretical evaluation and actual service life, as well. The possibility of machining out the cracks in order to prevent their growing is examined here. The machining enables us to extend the power station component's life service

  1. Storage of spent fuels: implementation of a research program on the risk of waste container rupture due to stress corrosion induced by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.; Walle, E.; Foct, J.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: research programm on stress corrosion of spent fuel casks materials due to fission products, such as iodine, chemical interactions with zirconium, chemical aspects of stress corrosion, rupture risk assessment

  2. Simulation of inter- and transgranular crack propagation in polycrystalline aggregates due to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musienko, Andrey; Cailletaud, Georges

    2009-01-01

    The motivation of the study is the development of a coupled approach able to account for the interaction between environment and plasticity in a polycrystalline material. The paper recalls first the constitutive equations used to describe the behavior of the grain core and of the grain boundary (GB). The procedure that is applied to generate synthetic polycrystalline aggregates with an explicit representation of the grain boundary area by 2D or 3D finite elements is then described. The approach is applied to the modeling of iodine-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in Zircaloy tubes used in nuclear power plants.

  3. Advanced LMFBR fuel cladding susceptability to stress corrosion due to reprocessing impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henslee, S.P.

    1987-03-01

    The potential degradation of LMFBR fuel cladding alloys by chlorides, when used in metallic fuel systems, was evaluated. The alloys tested were D-9 and HT-9 stainless steels, austenitic and ferritic alloys respectively. These two alloys were tested in parallel with and their performance compared to the austenitic stainless steel Type 316. All alloys were tested for 7400 hours in a stress rupture environment with chloride exposure at either 550/degree/C 650/degree/C. None of the alloys tested were found to exhibit any degradation in time-to-rupture by the presence of chlorides under the conditions imposed during testing. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. On the link between stress field and small-scale hydraulic fracture growth in anisotropic rock derived from microseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin Samuel; Doetsch, Joseph; Maurer, Hansruedi; Krietsch, Hannes; Amann, Florian; Evans, Keith Frederick; Nejati, Morteza; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Valley, Benoît; Obermann, Anne Christine; Wiemer, Stefan; Giardini, Domenico

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the stress field at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) underground rock laboratory, a series of hydrofracturing and overcoring tests were performed. Hydrofracturing was accompanied by seismic monitoring using a network of highly sensitive piezosensors and accelerometers that were able to record small seismic events associated with metre-sized fractures. Due to potential discrepancies between the hydrofracture orientation and stress field estimates from overcoring, it was essential to obtain high-precision hypocentre locations that reliably illuminate fracture growth. Absolute locations were improved using a transverse isotropic P-wave velocity model and by applying joint hypocentre determination that allowed for the computation of station corrections. We further exploited the high degree of waveform similarity of events by applying cluster analysis and relative relocation. Resulting clouds of absolute and relative located seismicity showed a consistent east-west strike and 70° dip for all hydrofractures. The fracture growth direction from microseismicity is consistent with the principal stress orientations from the overcoring stress tests, provided that an anisotropic elastic model for the rock mass is used in the data inversions. The σ1 stress is significantly larger than the other two principal stresses and has a reasonably well-defined orientation that is subparallel to the fracture plane; σ2 and σ3 are almost equal in magnitude and thus lie on a circle defined by the standard errors of the solutions. The poles of the microseismicity planes also lie on this circle towards the north. Analysis of P-wave polarizations suggested double-couple focal mechanisms with both thrust and normal faulting mechanisms present, whereas strike-slip and thrust mechanisms would be expected from the overcoring-derived stress solution. The reasons for these discrepancies can be explained by pressure leak-off, but possibly may also involve stress field rotation around the

  5. Laser-induced cracks in ice due to temperature gradient and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Yang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental and theoretical investigations on the mechanism of laser-induce cracks in ice. The laser-induced thermal gradient would generate significant thermal stress and lead to the cracking without thermal melting in the ice. The crack density induced by a pulsed laser in the ice critically depends on the laser scanning speed and the size of the laser spot on the surface, which determines the laser power density on the surface. A maximum of 16 cracks within an area of 17 cm × 10 cm can be generated when the laser scanning speed is at 10 mm/s and the focal point of the laser is right on the surface of the ice with a laser intensity of ∼4.6 × 107 W/cm2. By comparing the infrared images of the ice generated at various experimental conditions, it was found that a larger temperature gradient would result in more laser-induced cracks, while there is no visible melting of the ice by the laser beam. The data confirm that the laser-induced thermal stress is the main cause of the cracks created in the ice.

  6. Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Morgane; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2018-03-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.

  7. Cholesterol-producing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans lives longer due to newly acquired enhanced stress resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Chitwood, David J.; Hwang, Soon Baek; Lee, Junho; Paik, Young-Ki

    2005-01-01

    Because Caenorhabditis elegans lacks several components of the de novo sterol biosynthetic pathway, it requires sterol as an essential nutrient. Supplemented cholesterol undergoes extensive enzymatic modification in C. elegans to form other sterols of unknown function. 7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR) catalyzes the reduction of the Δ 7 double bond of sterols and is suspected to be defective in C. elegans, in which the major endogenous sterol is 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC). We microinjected a human DHCR expression vector into C. elegans, which was then incorporated into chromosome by γ-radiation. This transgenic C. elegans was named cholegans, i.e., cholesterol-producing C. elegans, because it was able to convert 7DHC into cholesterol. We investigated the effects of changes in sterol composition on longevity and stress resistance by examining brood size, mean life span, UV resistance, and thermotolerance. Cholegans contained 80% more cholesterol than the wild-type control. The brood size of cholegans was reduced by 40% compared to the wild-type control, although the growth rate was not significantly changed. The mean life span of cholegans was increased up to 131% in sterol-deficient medium as compared to wild-type. The biochemical basis for life span extension of cholegans appears to partly result from its acquired resistance against both UV irradiation and thermal stress

  8. Life prediction of steam generator tubing due to stress corrosion crack using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Liu Fei; Cheng Guangxu; Zhang Zaoxiao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A life prediction model for SG tubing was proposed. → The initial crack length for SCC was determined. → Two failure modes called rupture mode and leak mode were considered. → A probabilistic life prediction code based on Monte Carlo method was developed. - Abstract: The failure of steam generator tubing is one of the main accidents that seriously affects the availability and safety of a nuclear power plant. In order to estimate the probability of the failure, a probabilistic model was established to predict the whole life-span and residual life of steam generator (SG) tubing. The failure investigated was stress corrosion cracking (SCC) after the generation of one through-wall axial crack. Two failure modes called rupture mode and leak mode based on probabilistic fracture mechanics were considered in this proposed model. It took into account the variance in tube geometry and material properties, and the variance in residual stresses and operating conditions, all of which govern the propagations of cracks. The proposed model was numerically calculated by using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The plugging criteria were first verified and then the whole life-span and residual life of the SG tubing were obtained. Finally, important sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most important parameters affecting the life of SG tubing. The results will be useful in developing optimum strategies for life-cycle management of the feedwater system in nuclear power plants.

  9. Effect of stress-state and spacing on voids in a shear-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    in the overall average stress state can be prescribed. This also allows for studies of the effect of different initial void spacing in the two in-plane coordinate directions. The stress states considered are essentially simple shear, with various levels of tensile stresses or compressive stresses superposed, i.......e. low positive stress triaxiality or even negative stress triaxiality. For high aspect ratio unit cells a clear localization band is found inside the cell, which actually represents several parallel bands, due to periodicity. In the materials represented by a low aspect ratio unit cell localization...

  10. Systematic Review of Uit Parameters on Residual Stresses of Sensitized AA5456 and Field Based Residual Stress Measurements for Predicting and Mitigating Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    University Press, 2009, pp. 820–824. [30] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2003. [31] M. N.James et al...around welds in aluminum ship structures both in the laboratory and in the field. Tensile residual stresses are often generated during welding and, in...mitigate and even reverse these tensile residual stresses. This research uses x-ray diffraction to measure residual stresses around welds in AA5456 before

  11. Fractures in high-strength bolts due to hydrogen induced stress corrosion. Causes and corrective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, Holger; Oechsner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Delayed brittle fractures of high-strength bolts of the strength class 10.9 are presented, taking the example of three damage cases. The respective damage mechanisms could be attributed to hydrogen induced stress corrosion which was caused, in turn, by hydrogen absorption during operation. The examples were chosen with a particular focus on the material condition's susceptibility which explains the cause for the occurrence of the damage mechanism. However, in only one of the three cases the susceptibility was evident and could be explained by violations of normative specifications and an unfavorable material choice. Whereas in the two other examples, only slight or no deviations from the standards and/or regulations could be found. The influencing parameters that caused the damage, those that further promoted the damage, as well as possible corrective actions are discussed taking into account the three exemplary damage cases.

  12. Oxidative Stress at High Temperatures in Lactococcus lactis Due to an Insufficient Supply of Riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Solem, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed...... riboflavin to the medium, it was possible to improve growth and oxygen consumption at 37°C, and this also normalized the [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio. A codon-optimized redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into L. lactis and revealed a more oxidized cytoplasm at 37°C than at 30°C....... These results indicate that L. lactis suffers from heat-induced oxidative stress at increased temperatures. A decrease in intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which is derived from riboflavin, was observed with increasing growth temperature, but the presence of riboflavin made the decrease smaller...

  13. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H p (y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H p (y), its slope coefficient K S and maximum gradient K max changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H p (y) and its slope coefficient K S increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H p (y) and K S reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H p (y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H p (y), K S , K max and the change rate of K S increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H p (y) signals. • Magnitude of H p (y), K S and K max increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  14. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haihong, E-mail: huanghaihong@hfut.edu.cn; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-15

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H{sub p}(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H{sub p}(y), its slope coefficient K{sub S} and maximum gradient K{sub max} changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) and its slope coefficient K{sub S} increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H{sub p}(y) and K{sub S} reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S}, K{sub max} and the change rate of K{sub S} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H{sub p}(y) signals. • Magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S} and K{sub max} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  15. Do Capacitively Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 2-3 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  16. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases a% local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 4 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  17. Do Capacitively Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 2-3 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  18. Change in the flow curves of non-Newtonian oils due to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliev, F.G.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a variable magnetic field on the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids is evaluated. Bituminous pitch oils were analyzed by recording the flow curves Q.Q(Δp) - the dependence of the volumetric flow rate on the pressure gradient - with and without a field. The results obtained indicate that variable magnetic fields can produce obvious changes in the rheological properties of bituminous pitch oils, although they are nonmagnetoactive and practically electrically nonconducting

  19. Changing fluorescence in a streaming barium plasma due to an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, K.D.; Mason, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigations consider the case of a low-density laser-produced plasma expanding into a vacuum in the presence of an axial magnetic field. The time-integrated line intensities of neutral and singly ionized barium have been measured for magnetic fields up to 300 G. These measurements reveal three prominent changes in the intensities of individual lines as a function of increasing magnetic field: extinction, growth, and severe attenuation followed by enhancement. Measurements support a model that predicts the quenching of higher-lying transitions and the enhancement of lower-lying transitions for increasing magnetic fields

  20. Improvement of Eddy Current testing methods of steam generator tubings due to field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Meurgey, P.; David, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the main stages of the long rotating probe developed by EDF, this probe detects stress corrosion cracks. The method has been validated by the examination of numerous cracked tubes that the probe detected before. Methods to better characterize the signals with regard to the defects are being improved to avoid a complementary examination of the rolling zone more particularly [fr

  1. Estimation of inelastic behavior for a tapered nozzle in vessel due to thermal transient load using stress redistribution locus method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Simplified inelastic design procedures for elevated temperature components have been required to reduce simulation cost and to shorten a period of time for developing new projects. Stress redistribution locus (SRL) method has been proposed to provide a reasonable estimate employing both the elastic FEM analysis and a unique hyperbolic curve: ε tilde={1/σ tilde + (κ - 1)σ tilde}/κ, where ε tilde and σ tilde show dimensionless strain and stress normalized by corresponding elastic ones, respectively. This method is based on a fact that stress distribution in well deformed or high temperature components would change with deformation or time, and that the relation between the dimensionless stress and strain traces a kind of the elastic follow-up locus in spite of the constitutive equation of material and loading modes. In this paper, FEM analyses incorporating plasticity and creep in were performed for a tapered nozzle in reactor vessel under some thermal transient loads through the nozzle thickness. The normalized stress and strain was compared with the proposed SRL curve. Calculation results revealed that a critical point in the tapered nozzle due to the thermal transient load depended on a descending rate of temperature from the higher temperature in the operation cycle. Since the inelastic behavior in the nozzle resulted in a restricted area, the relationship between the normalized stress and strain was depicted inside the proposed SRL curve: Coefficient κ of the SRL in analyses is greater than the proposed one, and the present criterion guarantees robust structures for complicated components involving inelastic deformation. (author)

  2. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  3. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  4. Flow and Stress Field Analysis of Different Fluids and Blades for Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chi Wang; Po-Jen Cheng; Kuo-Chi Liu; Ming-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation techniques are applied for the biotechnology and are widely used for food manufacturing, materials processing, chemical reaction, and so forth. Different fluids and types of blades in the tank for fermentation cause distinct flow and stress field distributions on the surface between fluid and blade and various flow reactions in the tank appear. This paper is mainly focused on the analysis of flow field with different fluid viscosities and also studied the stress field acting on t...

  5. Plane-stress fields for sharp notches in pressure-sensitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abduljabbar, Abdulhamid

    2003-01-01

    The effect of pressure sensitive yield on materials toughness can be determined by investigating stress fields around cracks and notches. In this work, fully-developed plastic stress fields around sharp wedge-shaped notches of perfectly-plastic pressure-sensitive materials are investigated for plane-stress case and Mode 1 loading condition. The pressure-sensitive yielding behavior is represented using the Drucker-Prager criterion. Using equilibrium equations, boundary conditions, and the yield criterion, closed-form expressions for stress fields are derived. The analysis covers the gradual change in the notch angle and compares it with the limiting case of a pure horizontal crack. Effects of notch geometry and pressure sensitivity on stress fields are examined by considering different specimen geometries, as well as different levels of pressure sensitivity. Results indicate that while the stress values directly ahead of the notch-tip are not affected, the extent of stress sector at notch front is reduced, thereby causing increase in the radial stress value around the notch. As the pressure sensitivity increases the reduction of the stress sector directly ahead of the notch tip is more evident. Also, for high pressure sensitivity values, introduction of the notch angle reduces the variation of the stress levels. Results are useful for design of structural components. (author)

  6. Field generated within the SSC magnets due to persistant currents in the superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a number of computer studies of the magnetic fields generated by persistent circulating currents in the superconductor of superconducting dipoles. These magnetic fields are referred to as residual fields throughout this report. Since the field generated by persistent currents have a hysteric behavior, they are analagous to the residual filed found in iron bound conventional solenoids. The residual field calculations presented in this report were done using the LBL SCMAG4 computer code. This code has not been well tested against measured data, but a comparison with measured CBA data given in this report suggests that good agreement is possible. The residual fields generated by persistent superconducting currents are rich in higher multipoles. This is of concern to the accelerator designer for SSC. This report shows the effect of various superconductor parameters and coil parameters on the magnitude and structure of the residual fields. The effect of the magnet charging history on residual fields is aldo discussed. 14 references

  7. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM. The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.

  8. Stress Field Variation after the 2001 Skyros Earthquake, Greece, Derived from Seismicity Rate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaropoulos, K.; Papadimitriou, E.; Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Karakostas, V.

    2012-04-01

    The spatial variation of the stress field (ΔCFF) after the 2001 strong (Mw=6.4) Skyros earthquake in North Aegean Sea, Greece, is investigated in association with the changes of earthquake production rates. A detailed slip model is considered in which the causative fault is consisted of several sub-faults with different coseismic slip onto each one of them. First the spatial distribution of aftershock productivity is compared with the static stress changes due to the coseismic slip. Calculations of ΔCFF are performed at different depths inside the seismogenic layer, defined from the vertical distribution of the aftershocks. Seismicity rates of the smaller magnitude events with M≥Mc for different time increments before and after the main shock are then derived from the application of a Probability Density Function (PDF). These rates are computed by spatially smoothing the seismicity and for this purpose a normal grid of rectangular cells is superimposed onto the area and the PDF determines seismicity rate values at the center of each cell. The differences between the earthquake occurrence rates before and after the main shock are compared and used as input data in a stress inversion algorithm based upon the Rate/State dependent friction concept in order to provide an independent estimation of stress changes. This model incorporates the physical properties of the fault zones (characteristic relaxation time, fault constitutive parameters, effective friction coefficient) with a probabilistic estimation of the spatial distribution of seismicity rates, derived from the application of the PDF. The stress patterns derived from the previously mentioned approaches are compared and the quantitative correlation between the respective results is accomplished by the evaluation of Pearson linear correlation coefficient and its confidence intervals to quantify their significance. Different assumptions and combinations of the physical and statistical parameters are tested for

  9. Temperature field due to time-dependent heat sources in a large rectangular grid - Derivation of analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, J.; Probert, T.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature field in rock due to a large rectangular grid of heat releasing canisters containing nuclear waste is studied. The solution is by superposition divided into different parts. There is a global temperature field due to the large rectangular canister area, while a local field accounts for the remaining heat source problem. The global field is reduced to a single integral. The local field is also solved analytically using solutions for a finite line heat source and for an infinite grid of point sources. The local solution is reduced to three parts, each of which depends on two spatial coordinates only. The temperatures at the envelope of a canister are given by a single thermal resistance, which is given by an explicit formula. The results are illustrated by a few numerical examples dealing with the KBS-3 concept for storage of nuclear waste. 8 refs

  10. Quantification of nanoparticle release from polymer nanocomposite coatings due to environmental stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Davis, Rick; Uddin, Nasir; Nyden, Marc; Rabb, Savelas A

    2016-01-01

    Certain engineered nanoparticles (ENP) reduce the flammability of components used in soft furnishings (mattresses and upholstered furniture). However, because of the ENP's small size and ability to interact with biological molecules, these fire retardant ENPs may pose a health and environmental risks, if they are released sometime during the life cycle of the soft furnishing. Quantifying the released amount of these ENPs under normal end-use circumstances provides a basis for assessing their potential health and environmental impact. In this article, we report on efforts to identify suitable methodologies for quantifying the release of carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and sodium montmorillonites from coatings applied to the surfaces of barrier fabric and polyurethane foam. The ENPs released in simulated chewing and mechanical stressing experiments were collected in aqueous solution and quantified using Ultraviolet-Visible and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The microstructures of the released ENPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The reported methodology and results provide important milestones to estimate the impact and toxicity of the ENP release during the life cycle of the nanocomposites. To our knowledge, this is the first study of ENP release from the soft furnishing coating, something that can be important application area for fire safety.

  11. Immunoelectron microscopic studies on metallothionein induction in Nile cichlid due to heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Singh, L.; Das, T.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants and many of them are toxic even in low concentrations. The uncontrolled input of such elements in milieu is undesirable because once accumulated, are hard to remove. The release of toxic metals in biologically available forms by human activity may damage or alter both natural and man-made ecosystems. The cellular adaptation to toxicity of metals is one of the important factors for organisms living in the stressful conditions. The major type of cellular effect at the cytoplasmic level involves binding of metals through specific metal binding proteins. One of these metalloproteins is metallothionein (MT), MT is a low-molecular-weight (6-7 kDa) cysteine rich protein ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and can bind with essential (Cu + and Zn 2+ ) and nonessential (Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Ag + ) metals with a high thermodynamic and low kinetic stability. Again, the induction of MT by other heavy metals such as Cr, Mn and Pb was also reported by several workers

  12. Intrapartum sacral stress fracture due to pregnancy-related osteoporosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Aydoğ, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and hip pain frequently occur during pregnancy and postpartum period. Although pelvic and mechanic lesions of the soft tissues are most responsible for the etiology, sacral fracture is also one of the rare causes. A 32-year-old primigravid patient presented with LBP and right hip pain which started 3 days after vaginal delivery. Although direct radiographic examination was normal, magnetic resonance imaging of the sacrum revealed sacral stress fracture. Lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral density showed osteoporosis as a risk factor. There were no other risk factors such as trauma, excessive weight gain, and strenuous physical activity. It is considered that the patient had sacral fatigue and insufficiency fracture in intrapartum period. The patient's symptoms subsided in 3 months after physical therapy and rest. In conclusion, sacral fractures during pregnancy and postpartum period, especially resulting from childbirth, are very rare. To date, there are two cases in the literature. In cases who even do not have risk factors related to vaginal delivery such as high birth weight infant and the use of forceps, exc., sacral fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of LBP and hip pain started soon after child birth. Pregnancy-related osteoporosis may lead to fracture during vaginal delivery.

  13. [STRESS DUE TO THE WORK-LIFE CONFLICT: ADVICES FROM APPLIED RESEARCH FOR COPING IT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike most of the work-related stress research, which emphasizes how to manage stressors and maximize the psychological well-being, the present article focuses on one particular kind of stressor: the experience of conflict or interference between demands at work and responsibilities and commitments outside of the work setting, especially in respect offamily life and one's personal life. Referred to as "work-family conflict" or (more recently) "work-life conflict", this stressor has been demonstrated in research since the 1990s to exert a considerable impact on individuals' well-being along with other areas such as family functioning and even performance on the job. In contrast to the intra-role conflict, which refers to interference between roles within a single domain (e.g., the work context), work-family (or work-life) conflict is a form of inter-role interference which occurs when there is conflict across domains. In the 1980s and 1990s, research and writing in this area focused predominantly on work versus family, but in recent years the "non-work" component has been expanded to include other aspects of people's lives. For simplicity, we will refer to the two major spheres as the "work domain" (i.e., a person's paid employment) and the "life domain" (which comprises all other dimensions of life, including family, recreation, community activities and personal life). Although this classification is not entirely appropriate, it enables differentiation between the two spheres.

  14. Influence of plastic slip localization on grain boundary stress fields and microcrack nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauzay, Maxime; Vor, Kokleang

    2013-01-01

    Slip localization is widely observed in metallic polycrystals after tensile deformation, cyclic deformation (persistent slip bands) or pre-irradiation followed by tensile deformation (channels). Such strong deformation localized in thin slip bands induces local stress concentrations in the quasi-elastic matrix around, at the intersections between slip bands and grain boundaries where microcracks are often observed. Since the work of Stroh, such stress fields have been modeled using the dislocation pile-up theory which leads to stress singularities similar to the LEFM ones. The Griffith criterion has then been widely applied, leading usually to strong underestimations of the macroscopic stress for microcrack nucleation. In fact, slip band thickness is finite: 50-1000 nm depending on material, temperature and loading conditions. Then, many slip planes are plastically activated through the thickness. Stress fields have probably been overestimated using the pile-up theory which assumes that all dislocations are located on the same atomic plane. To evaluate more realistic stress fields, crystalline finite element (FE) computations are carried out using microstructure inputs (slip band aspect ratio and spacing). Slip bands (low critical resolved shear stress) are embedded in an elastic matrix. The following results are obtained concerning grain boundary normal stress fields: - strong influence of slip band thickness close to the slip band corner, which is not accounted for by the pile-up theory. But far away, the thickness has a negligible effect and the predicted stress fields are close to the one predicted by the pile-up theory, - analytical formulae are deduced from the numerous FE computation results which allows the prediction of surface/bulk slips as well as grain boundary stress fields. Slip band plasticity parameters, slip band length and thickness, Schmid factor and remote stress are taken into account. The dependence with respect to the various parameters can

  15. Measurement and modeling of magnetic hysteresis under field and stress application in iron–gallium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Phillip G.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are performed to characterize the hysteresis in magnetomechanical coupling of iron–gallium (Galfenol) alloys. Magnetization and strain of production and research grade Galfenol are measured under applied stress at constant field, applied field at constant stress, and alternately applied field and stress. A high degree of reversibility in the magnetomechanical coupling is demonstrated by comparing a series of applied field at constant stress measurements with a single applied stress at constant field measurement. Accommodation is not evident and magnetic hysteresis for applied field and stress is shown to be coupled. A thermodynamic model is formulated for 3-D magnetization and strain. It employs a stress, field, and direction dependent hysteron that has an instantaneous loss mechanism, similar to Coulomb-friction or Preisach-type models. Stochastic homogenization is utilized to account for the smoothing effect that material inhomogeneities have on bulk processes. - Highlights: ► We conduct coupled experiments and develop nonlinear thermodynamic models for magnetostrictive iron–gallium (Galfenol) alloys. ► The measurements show unexpected kinematic reversibility in the magnetomechanical coupling. ► This is in contrast with the magnetomechanical coupling in steel which is both thermodynamically and kinematically irreversible. ► The model accurately describes the measurements and provides a framework for understanding hysteresis in ferromagnetic materials which exhibit kinematically reversible magnetomechanical coupling.

  16. Usefulness of dipyridamole stress myocardial imaging in patients who have exercise limitations due to various orthopedic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hirofumi; Ashihara, Toshiaki; Fukuyama, Takaya; Matsui, Kanji; Yamamoto, Sumiki; Yamamoto, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease in patients unable to exercise adequately because of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, hip bone fractures or disk herniation, we performed dipyridamole-stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in thirty-three patients. Twelve of the 33 patients showed perfusion defect and redistribution by thallium imaging. Coronary angiography was performed in 9 patients out of these 12 dipyridamole-positive patients and significant coronary artery stenosis was detected in 7 of them (78%). Due to these results of dipyridamole-imaging and coronary angiograms, surgical intervention for the underlying bone or joint disorder was performed under cardioprotective strategy in 15 patients, in which no cardiovascular events occurred. Thus, dipyridamole-stress myocardial imaging is a satisfactory alternative to the exercise test for detecting coronary artery disease in patients with bone or joint disorders. (author)

  17. On the mechanical stress of Zr, Zry, and other materials due to the formation of oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1977-06-01

    Several mechanisms are indicated which during oxidation of sheets, tubes, and cylinders of pure metals and alloys might lead to plastic deformation of the remaining uncorroded cross section. Some experimental methods are described which allow evaluation of stresses occurring in oxide layers. The main reason for the creep deformation of flat and tubular specimens made of Zr and Zr alloys lies in the stresses that arise from volume increase due to the growth of oxide layers. Plastic deformations of the sheet metal specimens can be up to 100% and are anisotropic. In tubular specimens the changes in geometry (axial, radial) are much smaller in the course of oxidation and attain 2% at the maximum for Zr- or Zry-tubes and go up to 10% for Ta-tubes when no differential pressure is applied simultaneously. (orig.) [de

  18. Oxidative Stress at High Temperatures in Lactococcus lactis Due to an Insufficient Supply of Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 was found to be unable to grow at temperatures above 37°C in a defined medium without riboflavin, and the cause was identified to be dissolved oxygen introduced during preparation of the medium. At 30°C, growth was unaffected by dissolved oxygen and oxygen was consumed quickly. Raising the temperature to 37°C resulted in severe growth inhibition and only slow removal of dissolved oxygen. Under these conditions, an abnormally low intracellular ratio of [ATP] to [ADP] (1.4) was found (normally around 5), which indicates that the cells are energy limited. By adding riboflavin to the medium, it was possible to improve growth and oxygen consumption at 37°C, and this also normalized the [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio. A codon-optimized redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into L. lactis and revealed a more oxidized cytoplasm at 37°C than at 30°C. These results indicate that L. lactis suffers from heat-induced oxidative stress at increased temperatures. A decrease in intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which is derived from riboflavin, was observed with increasing growth temperature, but the presence of riboflavin made the decrease smaller. The drop was accompanied by a decrease in NADH oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, both of which depend on FAD as a cofactor. By overexpressing the riboflavin transporter, it was possible to improve FAD biosynthesis, which resulted in increased NADH oxidase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities and improved fitness at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen. PMID:23913422

  19. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  20. The water avoidance stress induces bladder pain due to a prolonged alpha1A adrenoceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Rita; Serrão, Paula; Rodriguez, Larissa; Birder, Lori Ann; Cruz, Francisco; Charrua, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (BPS/IC) remains an elusive disease with the cause for the pain unclear. BPS/IC patients present increased sympathetic activity and high levels of urinary noradrenaline. At the experimental level, it has been shown that chronic adrenergic stimulation produces pain and bladder changes through an alpha 1A adrenoceptor mediated mechanism. Water avoidance stress (WAS) in rodents reproduces signs of nociception and bladder changes seen in BPS/IC patients. In this study, we explore the possible role of alpha 1A adrenoceptor in bladder pain and morphological changes. WAS was induced in a group of female Wistar rats. A separate WAS group received 0.2 mg/kg day silodosin (WAS + S). Lower abdominal pain was determined by performing sensitivity to Von Frey filaments. Bladder reflex activity was determined by cystometry in anaesthetised animals. Urine was collected for noradrenaline quantification by HPLC. Bladders were harvested and stained with Haematoxylin-eosin (to analyse urothelial morphology and to determine the disruption of surface umbrella cells) or with Toluidine Blue 0.1% to analyse mast cell infiltration. WAS increased urinary noradrenaline level and bladder frequency and decreased mechanical pain threshold, which was reversed by silodosin. WAS induced lymphocytic and mast cells infiltration in the mucosa and mild urothelial disruption, which was absent in WAS + S group. Alpha 1A adrenoceptor stimulation has an important role in the appearance of bladder pain in rats. Since BPS/IC patients present high levels of noradrenaline, alpha 1A stimulation may be an additional trigger for bladder dysfunction presented by these patients. Further studies will determine the clinical relevance of this finding in the treatment of BPS/IC patients.

  1. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  2. Kilotesla Magnetic Field due to a Capacitor-Coil Target Driven by High Power Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Zhang, Zhe; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Youichiro; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory generation of strong magnetic fields opens new frontiers in plasma and beam physics, astro- and solar-physics, materials science, and atomic and molecular physics. Although kilotesla magnetic fields have already been produced by magnetic flux compression using an imploding metal tube or plasma shell, accessibility at multiple points and better controlled shapes of the field are desirable. Here we have generated kilotesla magnetic fields using a capacitor-coil target, in which two nickel disks are connected by a U-turn coil. A magnetic flux density of 1.5 kT was measured using the Faraday effect 650 μm away from the coil, when the capacitor was driven by two beams from the GEKKO-XII laser (at 1 kJ (total), 1.3 ns, 0.53 or 1 μm, and 5 × 1016 W/cm2). PMID:23378905

  3. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF STRAIN FIELDS DUE TO NANOSCALE PRECIPITATES USING THE PHASE IMAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donnadieu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing the phase image method (Hytch, 1998, strain fields can be derived from HREM images. The method is here applied to the nanoscale precipitates responsible for hardening in Aluminum alloys. Since the method is a very sensitive one, we have examined the impact of several aspects of the image quality (noise, fluctuations, distortion. The strain field information derived from the HREM image analysis is further introduced in a simulation of the dislocation motion in the matrix.

  5. Formation of magnetic islands due to field perturbations in toroidal stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.K.; Harris, J.H.; Lee, G.S.

    1990-06-01

    An explicit formulation is developed to determine the width of a magnetic island separatrix generated by magnetic field perturbations in a general toroidal stellarator geometry. A conventional method is employed to recast the analysis in a magnetic flux coordinate system without using any simplifying approximations. The island width is seen to be proportional to the square root of the Fourier harmonic of B ρ /B ζ that is in resonance with the rational value of the rotational transform, where B ρ and B ζ are contravariant normal and toroidal components of the perturbed magnetic field, respectively. The procedure, which is based on a representation of three-dimensional flux surfaces by double Fourier series, allows rapid and fairly accurate calculation of the island widths in real vacuum field configurations, without the need to follow field lines through numerical integration of the field line equations. Numerical results of the island width obtained in the flux coordinate representation for the Advanced Toroidal Facility agree closely with those determined from Poincare puncture points obtained by following field lines. 22 refs., 5 tabs

  6. A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow

  7. Particle-in-cell simulations of fast magnetic field penetration into plasmas due to the Hall electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S.B.; Grossmann, J.M.; Fruchtman, A.; Oliver, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to study the penetration of magnetic field into plasmas in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) regime. These simulations represent the first definitive verification of EMHD with a PIC code. When ions are immobile, the PIC results reproduce many aspects of fluid treatments of the problem. However, the PIC results show a speed of penetration that is between 10% and 50% slower than predicted by one-dimensional fluid treatments. In addition, the PIC simulations show the formation of vortices in the electron flow behind the EMHD shock front. The size of these vortices is on the order of the collisionless electron skin depth and is closely coupled to the effects of electron inertia. An energy analysis shows that one-half the energy entering the plasma is stored as magnetic field energy while the other half is shared between internal plasma energy (thermal motion and electron vortices) and electron kinetic energy loss from the volume to the boundaries. The amount of internal plasma energy saturates after an initial transient phase so that late in time the rate that magnetic energy increases in the plasma is the same as the rate at which kinetic energy flows out through the boundaries. When ions are mobile it is observed that axial magnetic field penetration is followed by localized thinning in the ion density. The density thinning is produced by the large electrostatic fields that exist inside the electron vortices which act to reduce the space-charge imbalance necessary to support the vortices. This mechanism may play a role during the opening process of a plasma opening switch. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Phase-matched light amplification by three-wave mixing process in a birefringent fiber due to externally applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, M.; Kitayama, K.; Ishida, Y.; Uchida, N.

    1982-01-01

    A novel method to achieve phase-matched light amplification in a birefringent fiber via the three-wave mixing is proposed by using frequency shift change due to the stress applied to the fiber. It is confirmed that the signal power from a cw laser diode at lambda = 1.292 μm is amplified by 6.1 x 10 3 times in the birefringent fiber pumped with a Q-switched Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet laser at lambda = 1.064 μm. This will provide a new fiber-optic light signal amplifier having a good tolerance for variation of signal wavelengths

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Bereavement: Early Psychological Sequelae of Losing a Close Relative Due to Terminal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. E.; Elklit, A.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of bereavement from terminal illness. Therefore, knowledge on the traumatizing effects of bereavement and risk factors for traumatization from bereavement is rather sparse. This study investigated prevalence...... and predictors of PTSD in a group of people who had recently lost a close relative due to incurable cancer. The participants were 132 persons who were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, and the Crisis Support Scale. One month after the loss, 29.5% of the subjects had...

  10. Oxyradical accumulation and rapid deterioration of soybean seeds due to field weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sanjeev; Bhatia, V S; Guruprasad, K N

    2006-02-01

    The effect of field weathering on oxyradical accumulation and subsequent changes were studied in the seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv. JS 71-05. Electron spin resonance (ESR) quantification of oxyradical revealed that field weathering plays an important role in acceleration of their accumulation. One week of weathering increased the accumulation of oxyradicals to almost 2-fold and triggered the deteriorative cascade, by enhancing the lipid peroxidation and membrane perturbation, leading to cell death in seed tissues and poor germinability and vigour of soybean seeds. Thus, the weather conditions at the time of physiological maturity to harvesting of crop are very crucial and the field weathering plays a critical role for the maintenance of seed quality.

  11. Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hong; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ((var e psilon) -1 ) larger than the E x B velocity, where (var e psilon) is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.

  12. Evaluation of the residual stress field in a steam generator end tube after hydraulic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, F.; Kang, S.; Chabrerie, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element elastoplastic model of a nuclear steam generator end tube, used to evaluate the residual stress field existing after hydraulic expansion of the tube into the tubesheet of the heat exchanger. This model has been tested against an experimental hydraulic expansion, carried out on full scale end tubes. The operation was monitored thanks to strain gages localized on the outer surface of the tubes, subjected to elastoplastic deformations. After a presentation of the expansion test and the description of the numerical model, the authors compare the stress fields issues from the gages and from the model. The comparison shows a good agreement. These results allow them to calculate the stress field resulting from normal operating conditions, while taking into account a correct initial state of stress. Therefore the authors can improve the understanding of the behavior of a steam generator end tube, with respect to stress corrosion cracking and crack growth

  13. Energy flux due to electromagnetic fluctuations during guide field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Yanai, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    Large electromagnetic fluctuations inside the current sheet and large reconnection electric fields are observed during fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field. The fluctuations transport 2.5% of the dissipated magnetic energy from the reconnection region. Although the energy gains of the ions and electrons are approximately 60% and 12%, respectively, of the dissipated magnetic energy after the fast reconnection, the energy of fluctuations is not comparable to their energy gains. The fluctuations do not directly contribute to the energy conversion but might cause the fast reconnection leading to the rapid release of magnetic energy. (author)

  14. Calculating the electromagnetic field on the earth due to an electrodynamic tethered system in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the electromagnetic wave field on the earth's surface associated with the operation of an electrodynamic tethered satellite system of constant or slowly varying current in the upper ionosphere. The wave field at the ionospheric boundary and on the earth's surface is obtained by numerical integration. The results suggest that the ionospheric waves do not propagate into the atmosphere and that the image of the Alfven wings from a steady-current tether should be greatly broadened on the earth's surface.

  15. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  16. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Protection by IGF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratou, K.; Karakantza, M.; Giannopoulou, E.; Antonacopoulou, A.; Adonakis, G.; Kardamakis, D.; Matsouka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34 + irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34 + from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. (author)

  17. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and relationship to the regional stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, J.M.; Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and acoustic borehole televiewer logs were run in holes USW G-1 and USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the U. S. Department of Energy. Eight tests in the saturated zone, at depths from 646 to 1288 m, yielded values of the least horizontal stress S/sub h/ that are considerably lower than the vertical principal stress S/sub v/. In tests for which the greatest horizontal principal stress S/sub H/ could be determined, it was found to be less than S/sub v/, indicating a normal faulting stress regime. The borehole televiewer logs showed the presence of long (in excess of 10 m), vertical, drilling-induced fractures in the first 300 m below the water table. These are believed to form by the propagation of small preexisting cracks under the excess downhole fluid pressures (up to 5.2 MPa) applied during drilling. The presence of these drilling-induced hydrofractures provides further confirmation of the low value of the least horizontal stresses. A least horizontal principal stress direction of N60 0 W--N65 0 W is indicated by the orientation of the drilling-induced hydrofractures (N25 0 E--N30 0 E), and the orientation of stress-induced well bore breakouts in the lower part of USW G-2 (N65 0 W). This direction is in good agreement with indicators of stress direction from elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site. The observed stress magnitudes and directions were examined for the possibility of slip on preexisting faults. Using these data, the Coulomb criterion for frictional sliding suggests that for coefficients of friction close to 0.6, movement on favorably oriented faults could be expected

  18. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Global CMT Database, reconstructions based on the first catalog are mapped. In the maps showing consolidated patterns of the state of stresses, spacious areas of horizontal extension of the crust in Tibet are clearly identified. In the south, such areas are bordered by regions of horizontal compression of the crust in Himalaya; in the north and north-east, they are bordered by regions of horizontal shear of the crust in East Kunlun. According to results of calculations at stage 2 of the method of cataclastic analyses, the crust in the central part of Tibet is subject to intensive confining pressure and lateral compression that is reduced in the neighboring regions. The crust in the southern and northern parts of Pamir is also subject to horizontal extension and shear. Regions of horizontal compression are located to the north, west and south of Pamir. Regulations of the field of recent tectonic stresses of Tibet and Pamir, which are revealed in this study, can be explained by the concept of ‘tectonic spreading’ of these regions due to gravity, which causes intensive horizontal spreading of the crust in Himalaya when the southern boundary of Tibet bends outwards and spreads over the Indian ‘indenter’ moving in the north–north-eastern direction. It is suggested by the data on horizontal extension of the crust in Tibet and underthrusting shear stresses over the horizontal zones that the impact Indian ‘indenter’ does not go beyond the crust of Pamir and the crust of the central parts of Tibet which is located above the long-term active mantle plume.  

  19. Consequences of thermal fracture developments due to injection cold CO2 into depleted gas fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Pizzocolo, F.; Loeve, D.; Fokker, P.A.; Hofstee, C.; Orlic, B.; Maas, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 storage is planned in a depleted gas field called P18, which is located offshore in the vicinity of the Dutch coast. This project is also known as the ROAD project, which is the Rotterdam capture and storage demonstration project. In the P18-4 compartment, cold CO2 will be injected into a

  20. Nucleation and evaporation of domains due to electric field at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by methanol, since methanol acts as a cleaning agent and removes impurity clusters from the surfaces.21. This suggests that these areas marked by N and P correspond to the 180° domains. Photomicrograph shown in figure 7b is again of the same surface as referred in figure 7a but now with the electric field of about 7 kV ...

  1. Laser light absorption and harmonic generation due to self-generated magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that self-generated magnetic fields can play a significant role in laser light absorption. Even normally incident light will then be resonantly absorbed. Computer simulations and theoretical estimates for this absorption and the concomitant harmonic generation are given for parameters characteristic of some recent experiments

  2. RF fields due to Schottky noise in a coasting particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Faltin, L

    1977-01-01

    The RF fields inside a rectangular chamber excited by the Schottky noise current inherently present in a coasting particle beam are calculated, using a simple beam model. Vertical betatron oscillations are assumed. The power flow accompanying the beam is given as well as the resulting characteristic impedance. Numerical results are presented.

  3. Annual losses of weed seeds due to predation in organic cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.; Wes, J.S.; Kropff, M.J.; Werf, van der W.

    2003-01-01

    1. Post-dispersal seed losses in annual arable weed species are poorly quantified, but may be of significance for natural population control, especially if they can be manipulated. We hypothesized that weed seed predation on the soil surface was significant, so we measured rates in the field to

  4. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage due to cyclic stress loading at 77 K for MOCVD-YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M; Yoshida, Y; Hojo, M; Shikimachi, K; Hirano, N; Nagaya, S

    2008-01-01

    Tensile fatigue tests were carried out at 77 K for YBCO-coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The S-N relationship, variation of critical current (I c ) during cyclic loading and microscopic fatigue damage were investigated. Fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles was evaluated to be σ max = 1300 MPa and 890 MPa under the stress ratios of 0.5 and 0.1. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage, depending on the number of stress cycles to failure, were observed. In one of the fracture mechanisms, fatigue behavior is characterized by overall fracture which occurs at 10 4 -10 5 cycles. For these specimens, I c after unloading does not degrade before overall fracture. Although only shallow slip bands were found at the Ag surface, fatigue cracks were found on the Hastelloy C-276 surface of the fractured specimen. These results suggest that overall fracture due to cyclic stress was caused by fatigue of the Hastelloy substrate. In the other fracture mechanism, even though overall fracture did not occur at 10 6 cycles, a slight decrease of I c was detected after 10 5 cycles. No fatigue crack was found on the Hastelloy surface, while deep slip bands corresponding to the initial stage of fatigue crack were observed on the Ag surface. From these results, we concluded that I c degradation at a high cycle number is attributed to the fatigue of the Ag stabilizing layer

  5. Psychometric characteristics of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and obesity in Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Velazquez-Alva, María del Consuelo; Salinas-Ávila, Jaqueline

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been defined as eating in a response to negative emotions and it is associated with weight gain. The English version of Eating Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) was developed to assess how individuals use food in order to cope with stress and emotions. To analyze psychometric characteristics of Spanish version of EADES and to identify whether the constructs of EADES were associated with obesity in university students. The EADES (Spanish version) was administered to 232 Mexican university students from 18 to 29 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A test-retest evaluation was conducted with 75 participants. Cronbach's alpha of EADES was 0.92; the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.88. Regarding BMI and EADES results, the subscale Emotion and Stress Related Eating was significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.026). Through factor analysis of the instrument, three factors were extracted and items that showed factor loading obesity and the 40-items version of the instrument, a statistically significance association was found for the total score (OR = 0.973, p = 0.020) and for the factor Self-confidence related to Emotional Eating component (OR = 0.940, p = 0.026). A good internal consistency and temporal stability of the Spanish version of the instrument were found; the 40-item EADES version was positively associated with obesity. This instrument could be useful in assessing emotional eating. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields for the Treatment of Pelvic Stress Fractures Among Female Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    1995-01-01

    .... Pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs)have been shown to speed the healing of non-union fractures and we have used them successfully to treat stress fractures in the lower limbs. All women at Ft...

  7. Fracture mechanics and residual fatigue life analysis for complex stress fields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This report reviews the development and application of an influence function method for calculating stress intensity factors and residual fatigue life for two- and three-dimensional structures with complex stress fields and geometries. Through elastic superposition, the method properly accounts for redistribution of stress as the crack grows through the structure. The analytical methods used and the computer programs necessary for computation and application of load independent influence functions are presented. A new exact solution is obtained for the buried elliptical crack, under an arbitrary Mode I stress field, for stress intensity factors at four positions around the crack front. The IF method is then applied to two fracture mechanics problems with complex stress fields and geometries. These problems are of current interest to the electric power generating industry and include (1) the fatigue analysis of a crack in a pipe weld under nominal and residual stresses and (2) fatigue analysis of a reactor pressure vessel nozzle corner crack under a complex bivariate stress field

  8. Biofeedback for stress reduction: towards a brigth future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broek, E.L.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. Thisarticle proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. Aconcise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental health

  9. Numerical and experimental study of moisture-induced stress and strain field developments in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2013-01-01

    shrinkage and the inhomogeneity of the material. To obtain a better understanding of how stresses develop during climatic variations, the field histories of stresses (and strains) in cross sections in their entirety need to be studied. The present paper reports on experiments and numerical simulations...

  10. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  11. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  12. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  13. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all de...

  14. Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials

  15. Ultrasonic propagation velocity in magnetic and magnetorheological fluids due to an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramantya, M A; Sawada, T; Motozawa, M

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF.

  16. Bifurcation of radial electric field in tokamak edge plasmas due to ion orbit loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.J.; Zhang, X.D.

    2015-01-01

    The ion orbit loss and the formation of radial electric field Er in tokamak edge region are calculated. The ion orbit loss generates a negative Er, which in turn affects the ion loss. As a result, Er can saturates at either a low or a high value, depending on the plasma parameters. When the ion temperature in the plasma edge is higher than a threshold a self-sustaining growth in both the ion loss and Er is found, leading to a high saturation value of Er in the milliseconds time. This mechanism provides a possible explanation for the formation of the edge radial electric field during the L to H-mode transition observed in tokamak experiments. (author)

  17. Antiproton cross-field diffusion in antihydrogen production experiments due to anisotropic binary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.; Correa, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Collisional processes in electrostatic ion storage rings and reflecting-beam-type electrostatic ion traps can be associated with anisotropic binary interactions, because shielding of the Coulomb interactions may not take place in one or more dimensions. Collisional scattering theory has recently been developed for describing the velocity-space scattering processes in such systems [J.R. Correa, Y. Chang, C.A. Ordonez, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 084505]. The theory is extended to enable the effect of a magnetic field to be included. The theory is intended to be applicable, for example, to antiproton scattering within nested Penning traps that are used to produce antihydrogen [M. Amoretti et al., Nature 419 (2002) 456; G. Gabrielse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 213401]. The theory is applied for considering the cross-magnetic-field diffusion of the antiprotons

  18. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm 2 large detector array with 20 (micro)m and 40 (micro)m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  19. Modelling of electric tree progression due to space charge modified fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seralathan, K E; Mahajan, A; Gupta, Nandini

    2008-01-01

    Tree initiation and growth require localized field enhancement that results in material erosion and formation of tree channels. Tree progression is linked to partial discharges within the tree tubules, characterized by recurrent periods of activity followed by quiescent states. Charge builds up across the non-conducting tree channels during the inactive regime, and discharge follows. In this work, the role of the space charge modified field during the non-discharging regime in deciding the site of subsequent discharges and thereby shaping tree structures is studied. A simple stochastic model was developed, in order to understand the respective effects of charges trapped on the walls of tree tubules, at channel tips, or in the volume of the dielectric. While some charge distributions are seen to arrest tree growth, others encourage axial growth towards the other electrode, and some aid in producing bushy trees clustered around the needle tip. The effect of carbon deposition within tree channels, making them effectively conducting, was also investigated. The insights gained from the simulations were successfully used to explain tree growth in the laboratory under high- and low-field conditions

  20. Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, Hugo José Oliveira; do Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Zonta, Everaldo; Luisi, Marcus Vinícius; Marcon, Gracioso; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Only a few studies have assessed the joint incorporation of heavy metals into agricultural systems based on the range of agrochemicals used on a specific agricultural crop. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals input through application of the main agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields. A total of 56 samples of different batches of 5 fertilizers, 3 substrates, 8 insecticides, 3 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 1 growth regulator commonly used in the cultivation of tobacco in Brazil's Southern Region were collected from 3 warehouses located in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. The total As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content of the samples was then determined and compared with the regulations of different countries and information found in the available literature. The fertilizers were identified as the primary source of heavy metals among the agrochemicals used. Application of pesticides directly to the shoots of tobacco plants contributed very little to the supply of heavy metals. The agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields provide lower inputs of the main heavy metals that are nonessential for plants than those registered in the international literature for the majority of crop fields in different regions of the world.

  1. Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Norden, Tenzin; Zhang, Peiyao; Zhao, Puqin; Cheng, Yingchun; Sun, Fan; Parry, James P; Taheri, Payam; Wang, Jieqiong; Yang, Yihang; Scrace, Thomas; Kang, Kaifei; Yang, Sen; Miao, Guo-Xing; Sabirianov, Renat; Kioseoglou, George; Huang, Wei; Petrou, Athos; Zeng, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Exploiting the valley degree of freedom to store and manipulate information provides a novel paradigm for future electronics. A monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) with a broken inversion symmetry possesses two degenerate yet inequivalent valleys, which offers unique opportunities for valley control through the helicity of light. Lifting the valley degeneracy by Zeeman splitting has been demonstrated recently, which may enable valley control by a magnetic field. However, the realized valley splitting is modest (∼0.2 meV T -1 ). Here we show greatly enhanced valley spitting in monolayer WSe 2 , utilizing the interfacial magnetic exchange field (MEF) from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate. A valley splitting of 2.5 meV is demonstrated at 1 T by magnetoreflectance measurements and corresponds to an effective exchange field of ∼12 T. Moreover, the splitting follows the magnetization of EuS, a hallmark of the MEF. Utilizing the MEF of a magnetic insulator can induce magnetic order and valley and spin polarization in TMDCs, which may enable valleytronic and quantum-computing applications.

  2. Irregular focal mechanisms observed at Salton Sea Geothermal Field: Possible influences of anthropogenic stress perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall-Bear, Aren; Barbour, Andrew J.; Schoenball, Martin; Schoenball, Martin

    2018-01-01

    At the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), strain accumulation is released through seismic slip and aseismic deformation. Earthquake activity at the SSGF often occurs in swarm-like clusters, some with clear migration patterns. We have identified an earthquake sequence composed entirely of focal mechanisms representing an ambiguous style of faulting, where strikes are similar but deformation occurs due to steeply-dipping normal faults with varied stress states. In order to more accurately determine the style of faulting for these events, we revisit the original waveforms and refine estimates of P and S wave arrival times and displacement amplitudes. We calculate the acceptable focal plane solutions using P-wave polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, and determine the preferred fault plane. Without constraints on local variations in stress, found by inverting the full earthquake catalog, it is difficult to explain the occurrence of such events using standard fault-mechanics and friction. Comparing these variations with the expected poroelastic effects from local production and injection of geothermal fluids suggests that anthropogenic activity could affect the style of faulting.

  3. Strain field due to transition metal impurities in Ni and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 2. 28 1 π. ¯h2r3 2. dH mr5. (44). In eqs (41) to (44), ∆φFE(r), ∆φc(r) and ∆φb(r) are impurity induced changes in the po- tential due to free electron, s–d hybridization and d-bandwidth contributions respectively. 3. Calculations and results. The above formalism is used to calculate the atomic displacements in Ni and Pd dilute.

  4. Comorbidity in illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder versus posttraumatic stress disorder due to external events in a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jordana L; Mota, Natalie; Edmondson, Donald; El-Gabalawy, Renée

    2018-05-10

    The current study compared physical and mental health characteristics and quality of life of illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus those with PTSD due to external traumatic events in a population-based sample. PTSD was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5) using DSM-5 criteria in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants with past-year PTSD (n = 1779) were categorized into two groups: illness-induced (6.5%) and other trauma-induced PTSD (92.9%) based on index trauma. Group differences in physical health, mental health, and quality of life were estimated using multiple logistic and linear regressions with adjustment for demographics and medical morbidity. Compared to PTSD due to external events, illness-induced PTSD had higher rates of life-threatening illness in the past year. Illness-induced PTSD compared to PTSD due to external events was associated with reduced odds of depressive/bipolar disorders and antisocial personality disorder, but increased odds of cannabis use disorder. The groups did not differ on quality of life after accounting for medical morbidity. Illness-induced PTSD is common among American adults and has a similar impact on quality of life as PTSD due to external events, but may have distinct mental health correlates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modified field enhancement and extinction by plasmonic nanowire dimers due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of nonlocal optical response on the optical properties of metallic nanowires, by numerically implementing the hydrodynamical Drude model for arbitrary nanowire geometries. We first demonstrate the accuracy of our frequency-domain finite-element implementation by benchmarking...... it in a wide frequency range against analytical results for the extinction cross section of a cylindrical plasmonic nanowire. Our main results concern more complex geometries, namely cylindrical and bow-tie nanowire dimers that can strongly enhance optical fields. For both types of dimers we find that nonlocal...

  6. The measurement of internal stress fields in weldments and around cracks using high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Windsor, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes and illustrates the capability of neutron diffraction to measure the complete internal lattice macrostrain field, and hence the stress field, within steel components and weldments arising from their fabrication. A brief outline is given of the theory of the neutron method. The experimental considerations are discussed. The method is illustrated by its application to the measurement of the stress distribution in a:- uniaxially stressed mild steel rod, a double - V test weld, a tube-plate weld, and a cracked fatigue test specimen. (U.K.)

  7. Mean-Field Scenario for the Athermal Creep Dynamics of Yield-Stress Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Martens, Kirsten; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theoretical description based on an existent mean-field model for the transient dynamics prior to the steady flow of yielding materials. The mean-field model not only reproduces the experimentally observed nonlinear time dependence of the shear-rate response to an external stress, but also allows for the determination of the different physical processes involved in the onset of the reacceleration phase after the initial slowing down and a distinct fluidization phase. The fluidization time displays a power-law dependence on the distance of the applied stress to an age-dependent yield stress, which is not universal but strongly dependent on initial conditions.

  8. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H.C.; Lee, S.J.; Kang, T.W.; Park, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  9. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.C. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J., E-mail: leesj@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.W. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  10. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chayut

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  11. Implications of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field to the PCI stress corrosion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fractographic observations on irradiated Zircaloy cladding stress corrosion fracture surfaces are considered against the background of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field. Dimples have been observed on the fracture surfaces of failed cladding, even though the cracks in metallographic sections are tight, i.e., crack propagation is associated with a low crack tip opening angle. This result is interpreted as providing evidence for an environmentally assisted ductile mode of fracture. The presence of this fracture mode forms the basis of an argument, which adds further support for the view that power ramp stress corrosion cladding failures are caused by stress concentrations that produce stress gradients in the cladding. (orig.)

  12. Mechanical stress analysis for the poloidal field coils of TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ane, J.M.; Perin, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Hoop stresses, up to 100 MPa, in the poloidal field coils of TORE SUPRA have to be reacted back to the main body of the coil where a conductor ends or is twisted for an interturn or an interlayer transition. The load is taken by shear stress through the insulation. Carefully designed configurations, based on 1D, 2D and 3D analysis results, limit the shear stress levels to 15 MPa. A fatigue test of a conductor termination has shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated stresses

  13. Stress field of a near-surface basal screw dislocation in elastically anisotropic hexagonal crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri S. Harutyunyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we derive and analyze the analytical expressions for stress components of the dislocation elastic field induced by a near-surface basal screw dislocation in a semi-infinite elastically anisotropic material with hexagonal crystal lattice. The variation of above stress components depending on “free surface–dislocation” distance (i.e., free surface effect is studied by means of plotting the stress distribution maps for elastically anisotropic crystals of GaN and TiB2 that exhibit different degrees of elastic anisotropy. The dependence both of the image force on a screw dislocation and the force of interaction between two neighboring basal screw dislocations on the “free surface–dislocation” distance is analyzed as well. The influence of elastic anisotropy on the latter force is numerically analyzed for GaN and TiB2 and also for crystals of such highly elastically-anisotropic materials as Ti, Zn, Cd, and graphite. The comparatively stronger effect of the elastic anisotropy on dislocation-induced stress distribution quantified for TiB2 is attributed to the higher degree of elastic anisotropy of this compound in comparison to that of the GaN. For GaN and TiB2, the dislocation stress distribution maps are highly influenced by the free surface effect at “free surface–dislocation” distances roughly smaller than ≈15 and ≈50 nm, respectively. It is found that, for above indicated materials, the relative decrease of the force of interaction between near-surface screw dislocations due to free surface effect is in the order Ti > GaN > TiB2 > Zn > Cd > Graphite that results from increase of the specific shear anisotropy parameter in the reverse order Ti < GaN < TiB2 < Zn < Cd < Graphite. The results obtained in this study are also applicable to the case when a screw dislocation is situated in the “thin film–substrate” system at a (0001 basal interface between the film and substrate provided that the elastic constants

  14. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} large detector array with 20 {micro}m and 40 {micro}m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  15. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current–voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm2 V−1 s−1), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current–voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  16. XML Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is reduced

  17. Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. . Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. .Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. .Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is

  18. Flow and Stress Field Analysis of Different Fluids and Blades for Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation techniques are applied for the biotechnology and are widely used for food manufacturing, materials processing, chemical reaction, and so forth. Different fluids and types of blades in the tank for fermentation cause distinct flow and stress field distributions on the surface between fluid and blade and various flow reactions in the tank appear. This paper is mainly focused on the analysis of flow field with different fluid viscosities and also studied the stress field acting on the blades with different scales and shapes of them under specific rotational speed. The results show that the viscosity of fluid influences the flow field and stress distributions on the blades. The maximum stress that acts on the blade is increased with the increasing of viscosity. On the other hand, the ratio of blade length to width influences stress distributions on the blade. At the same time, the inclined angle of blade is also the key parameter for the consideration of design and appropriate inclined angle of blade will decrease the maximum stress. The results provide effective means of gaining insights into the flow and stress distribution of fermentation process.

  19. On the diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects in the stress field of a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellular model of a dislocation is used for an investigation of the time-dependent diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects interacting with the stress field of a moving dislocation. An analytic solution is given taking into account the elastic interaction due to the first-order size effect and the stress-induced interaction, the kinematic interaction due to the dislocation motion as well as the presence of secondary neutral sinks. The results for the space and time-dependent point defect concentration, represented in terms of Mathieu-Bessel and Mathieu-Hankel functions, emphasize the influence of the parameters which have been taken into consideration. Proceeding from these solutions, formulae for the diffusion flux reaching unit length of the dislocation, which plays an important role with regard to void swelling and irradiation-induced creep, are derived

  20. Stress fields around a crack lying parallel to a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, Yutaka; Kamada, K.

    1980-12-01

    A method of stress analysis for a two dimentional crack, which is subjected to internal gas pressure, and situated parallel to a free surface of a material, is presented. It is based on the concept of continuously distributed edge dislocations of two kinds, i.e. one with Burgers vector normal to the free surface and the other with parallel to it. Stress fields of individual dislocations are chosen so as to satisfy stress free boundary conditions at the free surface, by taking account of image dislocations. Distributions of the both kinds of dislocations in the crack are derived so as to give the internal gas pressure and, at the same time, to satisfy shear stress free boundary condition on the crack surface. Stress fields σsub(xx), σsub(yy) and σsub(xy) in the sub-surface layer are then determined from them. They have square root singularities at the crack-tip. (author)

  1. Overestimation of Crop Root Biomass in Field Experiments Due to Extraneous Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirte, Juliane; Leifeld, Jens; Abiven, Samuel; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Hammelehle, Andreas; Mayer, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial "DOK." We additionally evaluated the effects of agricultural management (bio-organic and conventional), sampling depth (0-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-0.75 m) and position (within and between maize rows), and root size class (coarse and fine roots) as defined by sieve mesh size (2 and 0.5 mm) on those proportions, and quantified the success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples. Only 60% of the root mass that we retrieved from field soil cores was actual maize root biomass from the current season. While the proportions of maize root biomass carbon were not affected by agricultural management, they increased consistently with soil depth, were higher within than between maize rows, and were higher in coarse (>2 mm) than in fine (≤2 and >0.5) root samples. The success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples was related to agricultural management and, at best, about 60%. We assume that the composition of extraneous organic matter is strongly influenced by agricultural management and soil depth and governs the effect size of the investigated factors. Extraneous organic matter may result in severe overestimation of recovered root biomass and has, therefore, large implications for soil carbon modeling and estimations

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  3. Full-field stress determination in photoelasticity with phase shifting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enhai; Liu, Yonggang; Han, Yongsheng; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2018-04-01

    Photoelasticity is an effective method for evaluating the stress and its spatial variations within a stressed body. In the present study, a method to determine the stress distribution by means of phase shifting and a modified shear-difference is proposed. First, the orientation of the first principal stress and the retardation between the principal stresses are determined in the full-field through phase shifting. Then, through bicubic interpolation and derivation of a modified shear-difference method, the internal stress is calculated from the point with a free boundary along its normal direction. A method to reduce integration error in the shear difference scheme is proposed and compared to the existing methods; the integration error is reduced when using theoretical photoelastic parameters to calculate the stress component with the same points. Results show that when the value of Δx/Δy approaches one, the error is minimum, and although the interpolation error is inevitable, it has limited influence on the accuracy of the result. Finally, examples are presented for determining the stresses in a circular plate and ring subjected to diametric loading. Results show that the proposed approach provides a complete solution for determining the full-field stresses in photoelastic models.

  4. Numerical simulation of dipolar magnetic field inflation due to equatorial ring-current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, Yoshihiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Shinohara, Iku; Usui, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Masaharu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Magneto Plasma Sail (MPS) is one of the next generation space propulsion systems which generates a propulsive force using the interaction between the solar wind plasma and an artificial inflated magnetosphere generated by a superconductive coil. In the MPS system, the magnetosphere as a sail must be inflated by the plasma injection from the spacecraft in order to obtain the thrust gain. In the present study, the magnetic inflation concept is numerically tested by so-called ion one-component plasma model. As a simulation result, the magnetic moment of the system is drastically increased up to 45 times that of the coil current at plasma-β = 20 and r Li /L (radius of gyro motion / characteristics length of the magnetic field) = 0.01, and this is the first successful magnetosphere inflation obtained by numerical simulation. Corresponding maximum thrust gain is also estimated to be about 45. (author)

  5. Energy-level splitting of multicharged ions due to interaction with own radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.; Kalashnikov, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overlapping of the energy levels of He-like uranium states with identical principal quantum numbers is investigated. Results are presented of a numerical calculation of the states produced as a result of mixing of the 2s 1/2 8p 1/2 and 2p 1/2 8p 1/2 states and of the respective spectral lines. It is shown that the interaction between the ion and its own radiation field splits each of the overlapping energy levels into several sublevels. The sublevels are isolated from each to other such an extent that interference effects become insignificant. The shapes of the spectral lines differ pronouncedly from the Lorentz shape and many of the line are anomaously narrow

  6. Effects of upper mantle heterogeneities on the lithospheric stress field and dynamic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei Tutu, Anthony; Steinberger, Bernhard; Sobolev, Stephan V.; Rogozhina, Irina; Popov, Anton A.

    2018-05-01

    The orientation and tectonic regime of the observed crustal/lithospheric stress field contribute to our knowledge of different deformation processes occurring within the Earth's crust and lithosphere. In this study, we analyze the influence of the thermal and density structure of the upper mantle on the lithospheric stress field and topography. We use a 3-D lithosphere-asthenosphere numerical model with power-law rheology, coupled to a spectral mantle flow code at 300 km depth. Our results are validated against the World Stress Map 2016 (WSM2016) and the observation-based residual topography. We derive the upper mantle thermal structure from either a heat flow model combined with a seafloor age model (TM1) or a global S-wave velocity model (TM2). We show that lateral density heterogeneities in the upper 300 km have a limited influence on the modeled horizontal stress field as opposed to the resulting dynamic topography that appears more sensitive to such heterogeneities. The modeled stress field directions, using only the mantle heterogeneities below 300 km, are not perturbed much when the effects of lithosphere and crust above 300 km are added. In contrast, modeled stress magnitudes and dynamic topography are to a greater extent controlled by the upper mantle density structure. After correction for the chemical depletion of continents, the TM2 model leads to a much better fit with the observed residual topography giving a good correlation of 0.51 in continents, but this correction leads to no significant improvement of the fit between the WSM2016 and the resulting lithosphere stresses. In continental regions with abundant heat flow data, TM1 results in relatively small angular misfits. For example, in western Europe the misfit between the modeled and observation-based stress is 18.3°. Our findings emphasize that the relative contributions coming from shallow and deep mantle dynamic forces are quite different for the lithospheric stress field and dynamic

  7. Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Guvanasen, V.; Littlestone, N.

    1981-03-01

    Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

  8. Enhanced O2 Loss at Mars Due to an Ambipolar Electric Field from Electron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mcenulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (T sub e) in Mars dayside ionosphere above approx. 180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to approx. 500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher T(sub e) (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher T(sub e) may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced T(sub e) in Mars ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (e) of several k(sub b)T(sub e), which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  9. Experimental investigation of heating phenomena in linac mechanical interfaces due to RF field penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a high duty-factor, high-current, drift-tube linear accelerator, a critical interface exists between the drift-tube stem and the tank wall. This interface must provide vacuum integrity and RF continuity, while simultaneously allowing alignment flexibility. Because of past difficulties with RF heating of vacuum bellows and RF joints encountered by others, a paucity of available information, and the high reliability requirement for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, a program was initiated to study the problem. Because RF heating is the common failure mode, an attempt was made to find a correlation between the drift-tube-stem/linac-tank interface geometry and RF field penetration from the tank into the interface region. Experiments were performed at 80 MHz on an RF structure designed to simulate the conditions to which a drift-tube stem and vacuum bellows are exposed in a drift-tube linac. Additional testing was performed on a 367-MHz model of the FMIT prototype drift-tube linac. Experimental results, and a method to predict excessive RF heating, is presented. An experimentally tested solution to the problem is discussed

  10. Microstructural changes in a cementitious membrane due to the application of a DC electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, Alba; Diaz, Belen; Freire, Lorena; Novoa, X Ramon; Perez, M Consuelo

    2008-07-01

    The use of electromigration techniques to accelerate chloride ions motion is commonly employed to characterise the permeability of cementitious samples to chlorides, a relevant parameter in reinforced concrete corrosion. This paper is devoted to the study of microstructure's changes occurring in mortar samples when submitted to natural diffusion and migration experiments. The application of an electric field reduces testing time in about one order of magnitude with respect to natural diffusion experiments. Nevertheless, the final sample's microstructure differs in both tests. Impedance Spectroscopy is employed for real time monitoring of microstructural changes. During migration experiments the global impedance undergoes important increase in shorter period of time compared to natural diffusion tests. So, the forced motion of ions through the concrete membrane induces significant variations in the porous structure, as confirmed by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. After migration experiments, an important increase in the capillary pore size (10-100 nm) was detected. Conversely, no relevant variations are found after natural diffusion tests. Results presented in this work cast doubt on the significance of diffusion coefficient values obtained under accelerated conditions.

  11. On the stress calculation within phase-field approaches: a model for finite deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Schwab, Felix; Schoof, Ephraim; Reiter, Andreas; Herrmann, Christoph; Selzer, Michael; Böhlke, Thomas; Nestler, Britta

    2017-08-01

    Numerical simulations based on phase-field methods are indispensable in order to investigate interesting and important phenomena in the evolution of microstructures. Microscopic phase transitions are highly affected by mechanical driving forces and therefore the accurate calculation of the stresses in the transition region is essential. We present a method for stress calculations within the phase-field framework, which satisfies the mechanical jump conditions corresponding to sharp interfaces, although the sharp interface is represented as a volumetric region using the phase-field approach. This model is formulated for finite deformations, is independent of constitutive laws, and allows using any type of phase inherent inelastic strains.

  12. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  13. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banibrata Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. Material and Methods: For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Results: Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%, hands (93%, knees (86%, wrists (85%, shoulders (76% and neck (65%. Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%, carrying bricks (95% and molding (87%. The results showed a significantly lower p value < 0.001 in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR in brick field workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. Conclusions: This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  14. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  15. Numerical modeling of tectonic stress field and fault activity in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a 3-dimension visco-elastic finite element model of lithosphere in North China, we numerically simulate the recent mutative figures of tectonic stress field. Annual change characteristics of stress field are; 1 Maximum principal tensile stress is about 3–9 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NNW-SSE. 2 Maximum principal compressive stress is about 1–6 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NEE-SWW. 3 Maximum principal tensile stress is higher both in the west region and Liaoning Province. 4 Variation of tectonic stress field benefits fault movement in the west part and northeast part of North China. 5 Annual accumulative rates of Coulomb fracture stress in Tanlu fault belt have segmentation patterns: Jiashan-Guangji segment is the highest (6 kPaa−1, Anshan-Liaodongwan segment is the second (5 kPaa−1, and others are relatively lower (3–4 kPaa−1.

  16. Physiologic response of rats to cold stress after exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Free, M.J.; Lang, L.L.; Chandon, J.H.; Kaune, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In two experiments, the responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems were assessed in rats subjected to cold stress after exposure to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 100 kV/m for one month. In the first experiment, plasma corticosterone levels were measured following exposure or sham exposure with the animals maintained at room temperature (∼23 deg). Corticosterone levels were also measured in rats subjected to cold stress (-13 deg. for one hour) immediately after the exposure period. Plasma corticosterone levels in the cold-stressed animals were significantly higher than in those kept at room temperature; however, there were no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals for either the ambient or cold-stress situations. The second experiment followed the same field exposure and cold-stress protocol, only measurements of heart rate, deep colonic temperature and skin temperature were made before, during and after cold-stressing. The results for exposed and sham-exposed animals were essentially identical, failing to demonstrate any effect of electric field exposure on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular response to cold stress. (author)

  17. Cavitation microstreaming and stress fields created by microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, James; Manasseh, Richard; Liovic, Petar; Tho, Paul; Ooi, Andrew; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Zhu, Yonggang

    2010-02-01

    Cavitation microstreaming plays a role in the therapeutic action of microbubbles driven by ultrasound, such as the sonoporative and sonothrombolytic phenomena. Microscopic particle-image velocimetry experiments are presented. Results show that many different microstreaming patterns are possible around a microbubble when it is on a surface, albeit for microbubbles much larger than used in clinical practice. Each pattern is associated with a particular oscillation mode of the bubble, and changing between patterns is achieved by changing the sound frequency. Each microstreaming pattern also generates different shear stress and stretch/compression distributions in the vicinity of a bubble on a wall. Analysis of the micro-PIV results also shows that ultrasound-driven microstreaming flows around bubbles are feasible mechanisms for mixing therapeutic agents into the surrounding blood, as well as assisting sonoporative delivery of molecules across cell membranes. Patterns show significant variations around the bubble, suggesting sonoporation may be either enhanced or inhibited in different zones across a cellular surface. Thus, alternating the patterns may result in improved sonoporation and sonothrombolysis. The clear and reproducible delineation of microstreaming patterns based on driving frequency makes frequency-based pattern alternation a feasible alternative to the clinically less desirable practice of increasing sound pressure for equivalent sonoporative or sonothrombolytic effect. Surface divergence is proposed as a measure relevant to sonoporation.

  18. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.; Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due

  19. Temperature field due to time-dependent heat sources in a large rectangular grid. Application for the KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, T.; Claesson, Johan

    1997-04-01

    In the KBS-3 concept canisters containing nuclear waste are deposited along parallel tunnels over a large rectangular area deep below the ground surface. The temperature field in rock due to such a rectangular grid of heat-releasing canisters is studied. An analytical solution for this problem for any heat source has been presented in a preceding paper. The complete solution is summarized in this paper. The solution is by superposition divided into two main parts. There is a global temperature field due to the large rectangular canister area, while a local field accounts for the remaining heat source problem. In this sequel to the first report, the local solution is discussed in detail. The local solution consists of three parts corresponding to line heat sources along tunnels, point heat sources along a tunnel and a line heat source along a canister. Each part depends on two special variables only. These parts are illustrated in dimensionless form. Inside the repository the local temperature field is periodic in the horizontal directions and has a short extent in the vertical direction. This allows us to look at the solution in a parallelepiped around a canister. The solution in the parallelepiped is valid for all canisters that are not too close to the repository edges. The total temperature field is calculated for the KBS-3 case. The temperature field is calculated using a heat release that is valid for the first 10 000 years after deposition. The temperature field is shown in 23 figures in order to illustrate different aspects of the complex thermal process

  20. Stress analyses of ITER toroidal field coils under fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1990-02-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is intended as an experimental thermonuclear tokamak reactor for testing the basic physics, performance and technologies essential to future fusion reactors. The ITER design will be based on extensive new design work, supported by new physical and technological results, and on the great body of experience built up over several years from previous national and international reactor studies. Conversely, the ITER design process should provide the fusion community with valuable insights into what key areas need further development or clarification as we move forward towards practical fusion power. As part of the design process of the ITER toroidal field coils the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in more detail. This paper describes the work carried out to create a detailed finite element model of two toroidal field coils as well as some results of linear elastic analyses with fault conditions. The analyses have been performed with the finite element code ANSYS. (author). 5 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Temporal changes of static stress drop as a proxy for poroelastic effects at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszek, Monika; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    One of the major environmental impacts of shale gas exploitation is triggered and induced seismicity. Due to the similarity of fluid injection process data from geothermal fields can be used as a proxy for shale gas exploitation associated seismicity. Therefore, in this paper we utilize 'The Geysers' dataset compiled within SHale gas Exploration and Exploitation induced Risks (SHEER) project. The dependence of earthquake static stress drops on pore pressure in the medium was previously suggested by Goertz-Allmann et al. (2011), who observed an increase of the static stress drop with the distance from injection well during reservoir stimulation at Deep Heat Mining project in Basel, Switzerland. Similar observation has been done by Kwiatek et al. (2014) in Berlín geothermal field, El Salvador. In this study, we use a high-quality data from The Geysers geothermal field to determine whether the static stress drops and the stress drop distributions change statistically significantly in time or not, and how such changes are correlated with the values of hypocenter depth, water injection rate, and distance from injection well. For the analyses we use a group of 354 earthquakes, which occurred in the proximity of Prati-9 and Prati-29 injection wells. Spectral parameters of these earthquakes were determined using mesh spectral ratio technique. Our results indicate that: (1) the static stress drop variation in time is statistically significant, (2) median static stress drop is inversely related to median injection rate. Therefore, it is highly expected that static stress drop is influenced by pore pressure in underground fluid injection conditions. References: Goertz-Allmann B., Goertz A., Wiemer S. (2011), Stress drop variations of induced earthquakes at the Basel geothermal site. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L09308, doi:10.1029/2011GL047498. Kwiatek G., Bulut F., Bohnhoff M., Dresen G. (2014), High-resolution analysis of seismicity induced at Berlin geothermal field

  2. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculation of the residual stress field created by quenching and grinding in a cast duplex stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Le Delliou, P.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate with a finite element program the residual stresses generated by quenching and grinding a cast duplex stainless steel pipe. These calculations are performed with Code Aster (developed by EDF/R and D D). They are preliminary to a 3D study concerning an elbow made of the same material. Quenching is simulated by an axisymmetric thermomechanical calculation. Grinding are simulated either by lowering mechanical properties in ground parts of the pipe, either by the releasing the nodes. Stresses due to quenching are in high compression in the skin and tensile in the middle. After grinding (the first concerning both internal and external skins, the second concerning only the internal skin), stresses become tensile on the skin. These results are compared to those obtained in a similar study by CEA and also to the measurement. Some important differences appear in the thermal results between the two FE programs, due to a too coarse time step in the CASTEM 2000 calculation. However, the effect on the residual stress field is not very important. Two complementary studies have shown a negligible influence of mesh size, as well as an equivalence of the two numerical methods used for simulating grinding (lowering the Young modulus and releasing the nodes), according the values given at the notes of the skin by the first method are corrected. (authors)

  4. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-06-01

    The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i) to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii) to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%), hands (93%), knees (86%), wrists (85%), shoulders (76%) and neck (65%). Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%), carrying bricks (95%) and molding (87%). The results showed a significantly lower p value workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  5. Thermal Stress FE Analysis of Large-scale Gas Holder Under Sunshine Temperature Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyu; Yang, Ranxia; Wang, Hehui

    2018-03-01

    The temperature field and thermal stress of Man type gas holder is simulated by using the theory of sunshine temperature field based on ASHRAE clear-sky model and the finite element method. The distribution of surface temperature and thermal stress of gas holder under the given sunshine condition is obtained. The results show that the thermal stress caused by sunshine can be identified as one of the important factors for the failure of local cracked oil leakage which happens on the sunny side before on the shady side. Therefore, it is of great importance to consider the sunshine thermal load in the stress analysis, design and operation of large-scale steel structures such as the gas holder.

  6. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  7. Evaluation of properties and thermal stress field for thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良; 齐红宇; 杨晓光; 李旭

    2008-01-01

    In order to get thermal stress field of the hot section with thermal barrier coating (TBCs), the thermal conductivity and elastic modulus of top-coat are the physical key properties. The porosity of top-coat was tested and evaluated under different high temperatures. The relationship between the microstructure (porosity of top-coat) and properties of TBCs were analyzed to predict the thermal properties of ceramic top-coat, such as thermal conductivity and elastic modulus. The temperature and stress field of the vane with TBCs were simulated using two sets of thermal conductivity data and elastic modulus, which are from literatures and this work, respectively. The results show that the temperature and stress distributions change with thermal conductivity and elastic modulus. The differences of maximum temperatures and stress are 6.5% and 8.0%, respectively.

  8. Numerical and experimental evaluation of the residual stress relaxation and the influence zone due to application of the crack compliance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval-Pineda, J M; Garcia-Lira, J; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Beltran-Fernandez, J A; RodrIguez-Martinez, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results concerning an evaluation of the crack compliance method. The research was focused on the relaxation caused by a cut induced to obtain the data required to calculate the residual stress field. The main objective in this research is to establish the optimum place to cut in a specimen that has suffered a failure and how extended is the zone of relaxed stresses. It has been recognized that a crack vanishes the beneficial or detrimental effects of the residual stress fields. This research has been performed in a numerical and experimental way, so results can be compared and FEM on this topic can be assessed.

  9. Numerical and experimental evaluation of the residual stress relaxation and the influence zone due to application of the crack compliance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Pineda, J M; Garcia-Lira, J [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Unidad profesional, Azcapotzalco, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Beltran-Fernandez, J A; RodrIguez-Martinez, R, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results concerning an evaluation of the crack compliance method. The research was focused on the relaxation caused by a cut induced to obtain the data required to calculate the residual stress field. The main objective in this research is to establish the optimum place to cut in a specimen that has suffered a failure and how extended is the zone of relaxed stresses. It has been recognized that a crack vanishes the beneficial or detrimental effects of the residual stress fields. This research has been performed in a numerical and experimental way, so results can be compared and FEM on this topic can be assessed.

  10. Application of H-matrices method to the calculation of the stress field in a viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.

    2017-12-01

    In SW Japan, the Philippine Sea plate subducts from the south and the large earthquakes around M (Magnitude) 8 repeatedly occur at the plate boundary along the Nankai Trough, called as Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes. Near the rupture area of these earthquakes, the active volcanoes lines in the Kyushu region SW Japan, such as Sakurajima volcano. There are also distributed in the Tokai-Kanto region SE Japan, such as Mt. Fuji. The eruption of Mt. Fuji in 1707, called as Hoei eruption, have occurred 49 days after the one of the series of Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes, 1707 Hoei earthquake (M8.4). It suggests that the stress field due to the earthquake sometimes helps the volcanoes to erupt. When we consider the stress change due to the earthquake, the effect of viscoelastic deformation of the crust will be important. FEM is always used for modeling such inelastic effect. However, it requires the high computational cost of O(N3), where N is the number of discretized cells of the inelastic medium. Recently, a new method based on BIEM is proposed by Barbot and Fialko (2010). In their method, calculation of the stress field due to the inelastic strain is replaced to solve the inhomogeneous Navier's equation with equivalent body forces of the inelastic strain. Then, using the stress-strain greenfunction in an elastic medium, we can take into account the inelastic effect. In this study, we employ their method to evaluate the stress change at the active volcanoes around the Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes. Their method requires the computational cost and memory storage of O(N2). We try to reduce the computational amount and the memory by applying the fast computation method of H-matrices method. With H-matrices method, a dense matrix is divided into hierarchical structure of submatrices, and each submatrix is approximated to be low rank. When we divide the viscoelastic medium into N = 8,640 or 69,120 uniform cuboid cells and apply the H-matrices method, the required storage memory for

  11. Extreme of random field over rectangle with application to concrete rupture stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2000-01-01

    to time consuming simulation procedures. This paperrevives a conceptually simple approach that gives surprisingly good results in particular for wide band typesof random processes and fields. The closed form formulas obtained for smooth Gaussian fieldsover rectangles contain size effects both with respect...... to the area of the rectangle and the side lengths of therectangle. Published rupture stress data for plain concrete beams illustrate the applicability of the derivedclosed form extreme value distributions as models for distributions of rupture stresses related to weakest linkmechanisms....

  12. THEORETICAL COMPUTATION OF A STRESS FIELD IN A CYLINDRICAL GLASS SPECIMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORBERT KREČMER

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the computation of the stress field generated in an infinitely high glass cylinder while cooling. The theory of structural relaxation is used in order to compute the heat capacity, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the viscosity. The relaxation of the stress components is solved in the frame of the Maxwell viscoelasticity model. The obtained results were verified by the sensitivity analysis and compared with some experimental data.

  13. Evaluation of creep damage due to stress relaxation in SA533 grade B class 1 and SA508 class 3 pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.L.; Urko, W.

    1993-01-01

    Creep damage can result from stress relaxation of residual stresses in components when exposed to high temperature thermal cycles. Pressure vessels, such as the reactor vessel of the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR), which normally operate at temperatures well below the creep range can develop relatively high residual stresses in high stress locations. During short term excursions to elevated-temperatures, creep damage can be produced by the loadings on the vessel. In addition, residual stresses will relax out, causing greater creep damage in the pressure vessel material than might otherwise be calculated. The evaluation described in this paper assesses the magnitude of the creep damage due to relaxation of residual stresses resulting from short term exposure of the pressure vessel material to temperatures in the creep range. Creep relaxation curves were generated for SA533 Grade B, Class 1 and SA508 Class 3 pressure vessel steels using finite element analysis of a simple uniaxial truss loaded under constant strain conditions to produce an initial axial stress equal to 1.25 times the material yield strength at temperature. The strain is held constant for 1000 hours at prescribed temperatures from 700 F to 1000 F. The material creep law is used to calculate the relaxed stress for each time increment. The calculated stress relaxation versus time curves are compared with stress relaxation test data. Creep damage fractions are calculated by integrating the stress relaxation versus time curves and performing a linear creep damage summation using the minimum stress to rupture curves at the respective relaxation temperatures. Cumulative creep damage due to stress relaxation as a function of time and temperature is derived from the linear damage summation

  14. Prediction of residual stresses and distortions due to laser beam welding of butt joints in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Labeas, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    A two-level three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed to predict keyhole formation and thermo-mechanical response during Laser Beam Welding (LBW) of steel and aluminium pressure vessel or pipe butt-joints. A very detailed and localized (level-1) non-linear three-dimensional transient thermal model is initially developed, which simulates the mechanisms of keyhole formation, calculates the temperature distribution in the local weld area and predicts the keyhole size and shape. Subsequently, using a laser beam heat source model based on keyhole assumptions, a global (level-2) thermo-mechanical analysis of the LBW butt-joint is performed, from which the joint residual stresses and distortions are calculated. All the major physical phenomena associated to LBW, such as laser heat input via radiation, heat losses through convection and radiation, as well as latent heat are accounted for in the numerical model. Material properties and particularly enthalpy, which is very important due to significant material phase changes, are introduced as temperature-dependent functions. The main advantages of the developed model are its efficiency, flexibility and applicability to a wide range of LBW problems (e.g. welding for pressure vessel or pipework construction, welding of automotive, marine or aircraft components, etc). The model efficiency arises from the two-scale approach applied. Minimal or no experimental data are required for the keyhole size and shape computation by the level-1 model, while the thermo-mechanical response calculation by the level-2 model requires only process and material data. Therefore, it becomes possible to efficiently apply the developed simulation model to different material types and varying welding parameters (i.e. welding speed, heat source power, joint geometry, etc.) in order to control residual stresses and distortions within the welded structure

  15. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  16. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    impact of fault geometry and frictional properties is observed within a distance of impact on the stress state is caused by the variability of the geomechanical stratigraphy. The stress anisotropy increases when tectonic shortening is applied to the models. Stress magnitudes and anisotropy are largest within the stiff formations such as limestone. These stiff formations carry the load due to far field tectonic forces, whereas weak formations, like the argillaceous target horizon for the waste disposal, exhibits smaller stress magnitudes. Using the fracture potential as a more unambiguous indicator, the stiff overburden rocks are closer to failure than the target horizon for the repository, whereas stiff formations below the target rocks are far from failure.

  17. Anisotropy, magnetic field and stress influences on the phase transitions on spin-flop-type antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.F.; Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria; Tsallis, C.

    1983-01-01

    Within a mean field approximation, the influences of anisotropy (in the spin space) and external uniaxial stress on the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the presence of magnetic field are discussed. The phase diagram evolution (as function of anisotropy and stress) which is obtained, enables a satisfactory overall interpretation of recent experiments on Mn(Br sub(1-x) Cl sub(x)) 2 .4H 2 O, K 2 [FeCl 5 (H 2 O)], CoCl 2 .6H 2 O and (C 2 H 5 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 . (Author) [pt

  18. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  19. A study on the flow field and local heat transfer performance due to geometric scaling of centrifugal fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, Jason; Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Velocity field and local heat transfer trends of centrifugal fans. ► Time-averaged vortices are generated by flow separation. ► Local vortex and impingement regions are evident on surface heat transfer maps. ► Miniature centrifugal fans should be designed with an aspect ratio below 0.3. ► Theory under predicts heat transfer due to complex, unsteady outlet flow. - Abstract: Scaled versions of fan designs are often chosen to address thermal management issues in space constrained applications. Using velocity field and local heat transfer measurement techniques, the thermal performance characteristics of a range of geometrically scaled centrifugal fan designs have been investigated. Complex fluid flow structures and surface heat transfer trends due to centrifugal fans were found to be common over a wide range of fan aspect ratios (blade height to fan diameter). The limiting aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement was 0.3, as larger aspect ratios were shown to result in a reduction in overall thermal performance. Over the range of fans examined, the low profile centrifugal designs produced significant enhancement in thermal performance when compared to that predicted using classical laminar flow theory. The limiting non-dimensional distance from the fan, where this enhancement is no longer apparent, has also been determined. Using the fundamental information inferred from local velocity field and heat transfer measurements, selection criteria can be determined for both low and high power practical applications where space restrictions exist.

  20. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  1. The effects of a stress field and chemical diffusion on electronic behaviour in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Wang Chongyu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a stress field and chemical diffusion on electronic behaviour in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) are investigated by using first-principle calculations. We find that a potential well appears in a QD without a lattice misfit and chemical diffusion, and both stress field and Ga chemical diffusion can induce the formation of a potential barrier, which strongly affects the electronic behaviour within the QD. The stress field can localize electrons to the base of the QD. And associated with Ga diffusion, the stress field will induce an inverted electronic alignment. The electronic behaviour in the QD without a stress field does not present the confined or localized characteristics caused by a lattice misfit, atomic size and Ga diffusion. This study provides useful information for modulating electronic behaviour by introducing a stress field and chemical diffusion

  2. Everyday hassles and uplifts among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gun; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2012-05-01

    A balance between different experiences of occupations in everyday life is important for well-being. The study aim was to describe hassles and uplifts in everyday occupations among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders. The sample consisted of 77 women and experiences were collected by the THU-5 instrument. The statements were analysed using quantitative content analysis. Data were categorized into three domains of hassles concerning oneself, doings, and social and physical context. The same domains occurred among the uplifts. Hassles were mostly generated by disturbing people around the women and by their limited body functions. The women were uplifted by supportive social relationships and by performing relaxing and calming occupations. The study illuminates the strong need for social support among women on sick-leave, as well as their low level of energy, which was an obvious obstacle for performing occupations. It is suggested that, in order to increase well-being in the target group, the occupational therapist should meet their need for occupations that match their current level of energy. The challenge for the client is to avoid remaining in a pattern of low-demand occupations without exceeding her/his capacity and returning to an unhealthy pattern of occupations.

  3. Magnetopriming - an alternate strategy for crop stress management of field crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are major deterrent to sustainable crop production worldwide. Seed germination and early seedling growth are considered as the most critical stages of plant growth under stress conditions. Maximising stress tolerance of crop species by breeding is an integral part of development of strategies for improving sustainable food production under stressed environment but the unprecedented rate at which stress is increasing vis-a-vis the time taken for development of a tolerant variety, necessitates exploring alternate strategies of crop stress management. Seed priming has emerged as a promising crop stress management technique that increases the speed of germination thus ensuring synchronized field emergence of the crop. Magnetopriming (exposure of seeds to magnetic field) is a non invasive physical stimulant used for improving seedling vigour that helps in establishment of crop stand under stress. In our experiments on maize; chickpea and wheat under water deficit and salinity, respectively, improved seed water absorption characteristics resulted in faster hydration of enzymes (amylases, protease and dehydrogenase) leading to early germination and enhanced vigour of seedlings under stress. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in faster germinating - magnetoprimed seeds, under both the growing conditions, suggested its role in oxidative signaling during seed germination process. An 'oxidative window' for reactive oxygen species ensured that faster germination rate in magnetoprimed seeds led to vigourous seedlings. Improved root system integrated with higher photosynthetic efficiency and efficient partitioning of Na + increased yield from magnetoprimed seeds under salinity in controlled experiments. Magnetopriming can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for mitigating adverse effects of water deficit and salinity at seed germination and early seedling growth. Unlike other conventional priming techniques it avoids seed hydration and

  4. Effect of the induced magnetic field on peristaltic flow of a couple stress fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekheimer, Kh.S.

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed the MHD flow of a conducting couple stress fluid in a slit channel with rhythmically contracting walls. In this analysis we are taking into account the induced magnetic field. Analytical expressions for the stream function, the magnetic force function, the axial pressure gradient, the axial induced magnetic field and the distribution of the current density across the channel are obtained using long wavelength approximation. The results for the pressure rise, the frictional force per wave length, the axial induced magnetic field and distribution of the current density across the channel have been computed numerically and the results were studied for various values of the physical parameters of interest, such as the couple stress parameter γ, the Hartmann number M, the magnetic Reynolds number R m and the time averaged mean flow rate θ. Contour plots for the stream and magnetic force functions are obtained and the trapping phenomena for the flow field is discussed

  5. Stress Response to High Magnetic Fields in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. N.; Watson, B. C.; Maloney, J. R.; Meisel, M. W.; Brooks, J. S.; Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2000-03-01

    With increasingly greater strength magnetic fields becoming available in research and medicine, the response of living tissue exposed to high magnetic fields has come under investigation. In this experiment, genetically engineered arabidopsis plants were exposed to homogeneous magnetic fields of varying strengths using a superconducting NMR magnet (0 to 9 T) at UF and a resistive magnet (0 to 25 T) at the NHMFL. The engineered plants produce the enzyme β-glucaronidase (GUS) when under stressful environmental conditions. The level of GUS activity is determined through qualitative histochemical assays and quantitative fluorometric assays. The control group of plants experienced baseline levels of GUS activity, but some of the plants that were exposed to magnetic fields in excess of 9 T show increased stress response. Additional information is available at http://www.phys.ufl.edu/ ~meisel/maglev.htm.

  6. Simulation of permafrost changes due to technogenic influences of different ingeneering constructions used in nothern oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Significant amount of oil and gas is producted in Russian Federation on the territories with permafrost soils. Ice-saturated rocks thawing due to global warming or effects of various human activity will be accompanied by termocarst and others dangerous geological processes in permafrost. Design and construction of well pads in permafrost zones have some special features. The main objective is to minimize the influence of different heat sources (engineering objects) inserted into permafrost and accounting long-term forecast of development of permafrost degradation due to different factors in particular generated by human activity. In this work on the basis a mathematical model and numerical algorithms approved on 11 northern oil and gas fields some effects obtained by carrying out numerical simulations for various engineering systems are discussed.

  7. Analytical model of stress field in submerged arc welding butt joint with thorough penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winczek Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical model of temporary and residual stresses for butt welding with thorough penetration was described assuming planar section hypothesis and using integral equations of stress equilibrium of the bar and simple Hooke’s law. In solution the effect of phase transformations (structure changes and structural strains has been taken into account. Phase transformations during heating are limited by temperature values at the beginning and at the end of austenitic transformation, depending on chemical composition of steel while the progress of phase transformations during cooling is determined on the basis of TTT-welding diagram. Temperature values at the beginning and at the end of transformation are conditioned by the speed of heating. Kinetics of diffusional transformation is described basing on Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, while martensitic transformation, basing on Koistinen-Marburger equation. Stresses in elasto-plastic state are determined by iteration, using elastic solutions method with changeable longitudinal modulus of elasticity, conditioned by stress-strain curve. Computations of stress field have been conducted for one-side butt welded of two steel flats made from S235 steel. It has enabled a clear interpretation of influence of temperature field and phase transformation on stresses caused by welding using Submerged Arc Welding (SAW method.

  8. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  9. Modelling and experimental characterisation of a residual stress field in a ferritic compact tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenman, M.R.; Price, A.J.; Steuwer, A.; Chard-Tuckey, P.R.; Crocombe, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the work is to elucidate the influence of plasticity behaviour on the residual stress field in a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel. To this end, we investigate two compressively pre-loaded compact tension (CT) specimens to generate a mechanical residual stress field. One specimen was subsequently pre-cracked by fatigue before both specimens were measured using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A fine grain size microstructure (∼5-10 μm grain size) allowed a small X-ray beam slit size and therefore gauge volume. The results provide an excellent data set for validation of finite element (FE) modelling predictions against which they have been compared. The results of both mechanical testing and modelling suggest that the use of a combined hardening model is needed to accurately predict the residual stress field present in the specimen after pre-loading. Some discrepancy between the modelled crack tip stress values and those found by X-ray diffraction remain which can be partly explained by volume averaging effects in the presence of very high stress/strain gradients.

  10. Modelling and experimental characterisation of a residual stress field in a ferritic compact tension specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenman, M.R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.u [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Price, A.J. [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (J5), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Steuwer, A. [ESS Scandinavia, Stora Algatan 4, 22350 Lund (Sweden) and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Chard-Tuckey, P.R. [Nuclear Department, Defence College of Management and Technology, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hants PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Crocombe, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (J5), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the work is to elucidate the influence of plasticity behaviour on the residual stress field in a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel. To this end, we investigate two compressively pre-loaded compact tension (CT) specimens to generate a mechanical residual stress field. One specimen was subsequently pre-cracked by fatigue before both specimens were measured using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A fine grain size microstructure (approx5-10 mum grain size) allowed a small X-ray beam slit size and therefore gauge volume. The results provide an excellent data set for validation of finite element (FE) modelling predictions against which they have been compared. The results of both mechanical testing and modelling suggest that the use of a combined hardening model is needed to accurately predict the residual stress field present in the specimen after pre-loading. Some discrepancy between the modelled crack tip stress values and those found by X-ray diffraction remain which can be partly explained by volume averaging effects in the presence of very high stress/strain gradients.

  11. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  12. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil. (author)

  13. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described in this report. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil

  14. Hardening of particle/oil/water suspensions due to capillary bridges: Experimental yield stress and theoretical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Georgiev, Mihail T; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Gurkov, Theodor D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2018-01-01

    Suspensions of colloid particles possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of a second liquid that preferentially wets the particles. The hardening is due to the formation of capillary bridges (pendular rings), which connect the particles. Here, we review works on the mechanical properties of such suspensions and related works on the capillary-bridge force, and present new rheological data for the weakly studied concentration range 30-55 vol% particles. The mechanical strength of the solidified capillary suspensions, characterized by the yield stress Y, is measured at the elastic limit for various volume fractions of the particles and the preferentially wetting liquid. A quantitative theoretical model is developed, which relates Y with the maximum of the capillary-bridge force, projected on the shear plane. A semi-empirical expression for the mean number of capillary bridges per particle is proposed. The model agrees very well with the experimental data and gives a quantitative description of the yield stress, which increases with the rise of interfacial tension and with the volume fractions of particles and capillary bridges, but decreases with the rise of particle radius and contact angle. The quantitative description of capillary force is based on the exact theory and numerical calculation of the capillary bridge profile at various bridge volumes and contact angles. An analytical formula for Y is also derived. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental strain at the elastic limit reveals that the fluidization of the capillary suspension takes place only in a deformation zone of thickness up to several hundred particle diameters, which is adjacent to the rheometer's mobile plate. The reported experimental results refer to water-continuous suspension with hydrophobic particles and oily capillary bridges. The comparison of data for bridges from soybean oil and hexadecane surprisingly indicate that the yield strength is

  15. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Ping, Gu; Huan-Tao, Duan; Jin-Yu, Ni; Yue, Hao; Jin-Cheng, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Xiao-Hua, Ma

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are fabricated by employing SiN passivation, this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress. After the stress, a recoverable degradation has been found, consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current I Dsat , maximal transconductance g m , and the positive shift of threshold voltage V TH at high drain-source voltage V DS . The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer. The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress. After the hot carrier stress with V DS = 20 V and V GS = 0 V applied to the device for 10 4 sec, the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of I Dsat from 36% to 30%. Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of I Dsat , which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states, it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature. So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer, prepassivation surface treatments, or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Life estimation of low-cycle fatigue of pipe elbows. Proposed criteria of low-cycle fatigue life under the multi-axial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kotoji; Takahashi, Koji; Matsuo, Kazuya; Urabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Pipe elbows were important parts frequently used in the pipelines of nuclear power, thermal power and chemical plants, and their integrity needed to be assured under seismic loads and thermal stresses considering local wall thinning or complex stress distribution due to special configuration different from straight pipe. This article investigated in details elastic-plastic stress-strain state of pipe elbow using finite element analysis and clarified there existed high bi-axial stress field at side inner surface of pipe elbow axial cracks initiated. Bi-axial stress factor was around 0.6 for sound elbow and up to 0.95 for local wall thinning at crown. Fracture strain of 1.15 was reduced to around 0.15 for bi-axial stress factor from 0.6 to 0.9. Normalized fatigue life for bi-axial stress field (0.6 - 0.8) was largely reduced to around 15, 19 and 10% of fatigue life of uni-axial state dependent on material strength level. Proposed revised universal slopes taking account of multi-axial stress factor could explain qualitatively effects of strain range, internal pressure and ratchet strain (pre-strain) on low-cycle fatigue life of pipe elbow. (T. Tanaka)

  17. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  18. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  19. Bias stress effect and recovery in organic field effect transistors : proton migration mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; Bao, Z.; McCulloch, I.

    2010-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors exhibit operational instabilities when a gate bias is applied. For a constant gate bias the threshold voltage shifts towards the applied gate bias voltage, an effect known as the bias-stress effect. We have performed a detailed experimental and theoretical study of

  20. Stochastic electron dynamics due to drift waves in a sheared magnetic field and other drift motion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1986-12-01

    Electron motion in a single electrostatic wave in a sheared magnetic field is shown to become stochastic in the presence of a second wave at an amplitude well below that obtained from the overlapping pendulum resonance approximation. The enhanced stochasticity occurs for low parallel velocity electrons for which the parallel trapping motion from eE/sub parallel//m interacts strongly with the E x B trapping motion due to the presence of magnetic shear. The guiding-center equations for single particle electron orbits in given fields are investigated using both analytical and numerical techniques. The model assumes a slab magnetic field geometry with shear and two electrostatic plane waves propagating at an angle with respect to each other. Collisions and the self-consistent effect of the electron motion upon the fields are ignored. The guiding-center motion in an inertial reference frame moving in phase with the two waves is given by a two degree-of-freedom, autonomous Hamiltonian system. The single wave particle motion may be reduced to a two parameter family of one degree-of-freedom Hamiltonians which bifurcate from a pendulum phase space to a topology with three chains of elliptic and hyperbolic fixed points separated in radius about the mode-rational surface. In the presence of a perturbing wave with a different helicity, electrons in the small parallel velocity regime become stochastic at an amplitude scaling as the fourth root of the wave potential. The results obtained for stochastic motion apply directly to the problem of electron diffusion in drift waves occurring in toroidal fusion confinement devices. The effect of an adiabatically changing radial electric field upon guiding-center orbits in tokamaks is also investigated. This perturbation causes a radial polarization drift of trapped particle tokamak orbits

  1. The secondary stress analyses in the fuel pin cladding due to the swelling gradient across the wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation deformation analyses of FBR fuel cladding were made by using the finite element method. In these analyses the history of the stress occurred in the cladding was evaluated paying attention to the secondary stress induced by the swelling difference across the wall thickness. It was revealed that the difference of the swelling incubation dose in the direction of the thickness and the irradiation creep deformation play an important role in the history of the secondary stress. The effect of the stress-enhanced swelling was also analyzed in this study

  2. Monodimensional estimation of maximum Reynolds shear stress in the downstream flow field of bileaflet valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Vincenzo

    2002-05-01

    Turbulent flow generated by prosthetic devices at the bloodstream level may cause mechanical stress on blood particles. Measurement of the Reynolds stress tensor and/or some of its components is a mandatory step to evaluate the mechanical load on blood components exerted by fluid stresses, as well as possible consequent blood damage (hemolysis or platelet activation). Because of the three-dimensional nature of turbulence, in general, a three-component anemometer should be used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor, but this is difficult, especially in vivo. The present study aimed to derive the maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in three commercially available prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) of wide diffusion, starting with monodimensional data provided in vivo by echo Doppler. Accurate measurement of PHV flow field was made using laser Doppler anemometry; this provided the principal turbulence quantities (mean velocity, root-mean-square value of velocity fluctuations, average value of cross-product of velocity fluctuations in orthogonal directions) needed to quantify the maximum turbulence-related shear stress. The recorded data enabled determination of the relationship, the Reynolds stresses ratio (RSR) between maximum RSS and Reynolds normal stress in the main flow direction. The RSR was found to be dependent upon the local structure of the flow field. The reported RSR profiles, which permit a simple calculation of maximum RSS, may prove valuable during the post-implantation phase, when an assessment of valve function is made echocardiographically. Hence, the risk of damage to blood constituents associated with bileaflet valve implantation may be accurately quantified in vivo.

  3. Timing effects of heat-stress on plant physiological characteristics and growth: a field study with prairie vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic agricultural, economic and ecological impacts. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS treatment at different timing in naturally-occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5 ºC were applied to 12 1m2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by Andropogon gerardii (warm-season C4 grass and Solidago canadensis (warm-season C3 forb at different growing stages. During and after HS, air, canopy, and soil temperature were monitored; net CO2 assimilation (Pn, quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII, stomatal conductance (gs, and internal CO2 level (Ci of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species was determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii, indicated by negative heat stress effect on both physiological and growth responses. There were significant timing effect of heat stress on the two species, with greater reductions in the photosynthesis and productivity occurred when heat stress was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that heat stress, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe heat stress occur in the future.

  4. Stress Distribution in the Dissimilar Metal Butt Weld of Nuclear Reactor Piping due to the Simulation Technique for the Repair Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hweeseung; Huh, Namsu; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jinho

    2013-01-01

    During welding, the dissimilar metal butt welds of nuclear piping are typically subjected to repair welding in order to eliminate defects that are found during post-weld inspection. It has been found that the repair weld can significantly increase the tensile residual stress in the weldment, and therefore, accurate estimation of the weld residual stress due to repair weld, especially for dissimilar metal welds using Ni-based alloy 82/182 in nuclear components, is of great importance in order to assess susceptibility to primary water stress corrosion cracking. In the present study, the stress distributions of dissimilar metal butt welds in nuclear reactor piping subjected to repair weld were investigated based on detailed nonlinear finite element analyses. Particular emphasis was placed on the variation of the stress distribution in the dissimilar metal butt weld according to the finite element welding analysis sequence for the repair welding process

  5. Corrosion of metals exposed to 25% magnesium chloride solution and tensile stress: Field and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemicals for snow and ice control operations is a common practice for improving the safety and mobility of roadways in cold climate, but brings significant concerns over their risks including the corrosive effects on transportation infrastructure and motor vehicles. The vast majority of existing studies and methods to test the deicer corrosivity have been restricted to laboratory environments and unstressed metals, which may not reliably simulate actual service conditions. As such, we report a case study in which stainless steel SS 304 (unstressed and externally tensile stressed, aluminum (Al 1100 and low carbon steel (C1010 coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 under field conditions for six weeks. A new corrosion test-bed was developed in Montana to accelerate the field exposure to this deicer. To further investigate the observed effect of tensile stress on the corrosion of stainless steel, SS 304 (unstressed and externally stressed coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 solution under the laboratory conditions. The C 1010 exhibited the highest percentage of rust area and suffered the most weight loss as a result of field exposure and MgCl2 sprays. In terms of ultimate tensile strength, the Al 1100 coupons saw the greatest reduction and the unstressed and externally stressed SS 304 coupons saw the least. The ability of MgCl2 to penetrate deep into the matrix of aluminum alloy poses great risk to such structural material. Tensile stressed SS 304 suffered more corrosion than unstressed SS 304 in both the field and laboratory conditions. Results from this case study may shed new light on the deicer corrosion issue and help develop improved field testing methods to evaluate the deicer corrosivity to metals in service.

  6. Barotropic Eulerian residual circulation in the Gulf of California due to the M{sub 2} tide and wind stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote, M. L.; Lavin, M. F.; Amador, A. [Departamento de Oceanografia Fisica, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    A vertically integrated, non-linear numerical model in finite differences is used to analyze two forcing mechanisms of the mean barotropic circulation in the Gulf of California: topographic rectification due to tidal currents (M{sub 2}) and wind stress. Under tidal forcing the nonlinearities of the momentum equations induce unorganized strong tidal induced residual currents (u{sub e} > 5 cm s{sup -}1) in the channels between the islands, and along-isobath anticyclonic circulation in the Northern Gulf, with speeds u{sub 3} < 2.5 cm s{sup -}1 over the edge of Delfin Basin. These numerical results are in agreement with analytical results, which indicate that the tidal-induced currents are mostly due to the advective terms, and that continuity and the Coriolis term (but regulated by bottom friction) are responsible for the along-isobath flow. The quadratic bottom friction plays a role in generating mean currents only in the very shallow area off the Colorado River Delta. The effect of wind stress was modeled by imposing upon the running M{sub 2} model a constant surface stress ( r = 0.016 Pa), from the NW for winter conditions and from the SE for summer conditions. The wind-induced circulation was obtained by averaging over a tidal cycle and then subtracting the tidal residuals. The two wind directions produce almost identical circulation patterns, but with opposite directions. For the NW wind stress, the main features of the predicted circulation are: (a) In the Northern Gulf an anticyclonic circulation pattern, with the strongest currents (up to {approx} 10 cm s-1) following the bathymetry of the rim of Delfin Basin, Wagner Basin and the mainland coast off Bahia Adair and Bahia San Jorge. There is also a southward flow along the peninsula coast, from the Colorado River to Bahia San Luis Gonzaga. (b) In the Southern Gulf, there is a strong flow ({approx} 10 to 15 cm s{sup -}1) to the SE over the continental shelf along the mainland coast. A somewhat less well

  7. Transient thermal stresses in a transversely isotropic finite composite hollow circular cylinder due to arbitrary surface heat-generations and surrounding temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.

    1981-01-01

    An exact solution is given for the temperature distribution, the thermal stresses and displacements in a transversely isotropic finite composite hollow circular cylinder composed of two distinct cylindrical laminae. The temperature field is determined by using of the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier-cosine transform, respectively, with respect to time and axial coordinate included in the governing equation and the associated thermal stresses and displacements are analvsed by the use of a set of stress functions closely related to the Love's function valid for the axisymmetric isothermal problem of isotropic bodies. (orig.)

  8. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  9. A study on the flow field and local heat transfer performance due to geometric scaling of centrifugal fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Jason, E-mail: jason.stafford@ul.ie [Stokes Institute, Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Walsh, Ed; Egan, Vanessa [Stokes Institute, Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Velocity field and local heat transfer trends of centrifugal fans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-averaged vortices are generated by flow separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local vortex and impingement regions are evident on surface heat transfer maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Miniature centrifugal fans should be designed with an aspect ratio below 0.3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theory under predicts heat transfer due to complex, unsteady outlet flow. - Abstract: Scaled versions of fan designs are often chosen to address thermal management issues in space constrained applications. Using velocity field and local heat transfer measurement techniques, the thermal performance characteristics of a range of geometrically scaled centrifugal fan designs have been investigated. Complex fluid flow structures and surface heat transfer trends due to centrifugal fans were found to be common over a wide range of fan aspect ratios (blade height to fan diameter). The limiting aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement was 0.3, as larger aspect ratios were shown to result in a reduction in overall thermal performance. Over the range of fans examined, the low profile centrifugal designs produced significant enhancement in thermal performance when compared to that predicted using classical laminar flow theory. The limiting non-dimensional distance from the fan, where this enhancement is no longer apparent, has also been determined. Using the fundamental information inferred from local velocity field and heat transfer measurements, selection criteria can be determined for both low and high power practical applications where space restrictions exist.

  10. Analysis of temperature profile and electric field in natural rubber glove due to microwave heating: effects of waveguide position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keangin, P.; Narumitbowonkul, U.; Rattanadecho, P.

    2018-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is the key raw material used in the manufacture of other products such as rubber band, tire and shoes. Recently, the NR is used in natural rubber glove ( NRG) manufacturing in the industrial and medical fields. This research aims to investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer in NRG due to heating with microwave energy within the microwave oven at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The comparative effects of waveguide position on the electric field and temperature profile in NRG when subjected to microwave energy are discussed. The finite element method (FEM) is used to solve the transient Maxwell’s equation coupled with the transient heat transfer equation. The simulation results with computer programs are validated with experimental results. The placement of waveguides in three cases are left hand side of microwave oven, right hand side of microwave oven and left and right hand sides of microwave oven are investigated. The findings revealed that the placing the waveguide on the right side of the microwave oven gives the highest electric field and temperature profile. The values obtained provide an indication toward understanding the study of heat transfer in NRG during microwave heating in the industry.

  11. Improved tolerance to drought stress after anthesis due to priming before anthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) var. Vinjett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Jiang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress occurring during the reproductive growth stage leads to considerable reductions in crop production and has become an important limiting factor for food security globally. In order to explore the possible role of drought priming (pre-exposure of the plants to mild drought stress...

  12. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  13. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Harada, Masaru, E-mail: msrharada@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  14. Reproductive function in the sons of women who experienced stress due to bereavement before and during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Li, Jiong; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and reproductive disorders in Danish men, where prenatal stress exposure was defined as the mother's loss of a close relative during pregnancy or in the 12 months before conception. DESIGN: Population-based cohort...

  15. Stress on Cold Mass Due to the Supporting System of the CMS Coil in the Vacuum Tank

    CERN Document Server

    Farinon, S

    2000-01-01

    This report contains a verification analysis of the stress on cold mass coming from the supporting system of the CMS coil in the vacuum tank. The need to carry out this analysis is related to the high mechanical requirements for $9 Al-alloy mandrels (218 MPa yield at cryogenic temperature), demanding accurate analysis of the impact of supporting system on cylinder stress.

  16. Notes on the measurement of stress by resistance gauges in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, G.; Lapujoulade, J.

    1961-01-01

    The technique of stress measurement by resistance gauges is well known. Although it is not yet perfect it possesses many advantages and shows great possibilities. In the presence of a magnetic field the measurement is perturbed by certain phenomena, and we have undertaken to calculate their order of magnitude with a view to establishing the error involved in the measurement. Our problem was to measure the stresses on the various parts of the magnet in the synchrotron Saturne. It is known that the induction passes from a value of about nil to 15000 gauss in 0.8 second, and returns to zero in the same time interval; this cycle recurs every 3.2 seconds. In order to isolate the effects the problem of measurements in a static field will be examined first, after which the results obtained will be extended to the case of dynamic fields. (author) [fr

  17. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  18. Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratus, Jonathan, E-mail: j.gratus@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Obukhov, Yuri N., E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany); Tucker, Robin W., E-mail: r.tucker@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics in media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.

  19. The Effect of Magnetic Field and Initial Stress on Fractional Order Generalized Thermoelastic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Deswal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study magneto-thermoelastic interactions in an initially stressed isotropic homogeneous half-space in the context of fractional order theory of generalized thermoelasticity. State space formulation with the Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the general solution, and the resulting formulation is applied to the ramp type increase in thermal load and zero stress. Solutions of the problem in the physical domain are obtained by using a numerical method of the Laplace inverse transform based on the Fourier expansion technique, and the expressions for the displacement, temperature, and stress inside the half-space are obtained. Numerical computations are carried out for a particular material for illustrating the results. Results obtained for the field variables are displayed graphically. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to present the effect of fractional parameter, ramp parameter, magnetic field, and initial stress on the field variables. Some particular cases of special interest have been deduced from the present investigation.

  20. Transient thermal stresses in a transversely isotropic finite hollow circular cylinder due to arbitrary surface heat generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Takanori.

    1980-01-01

    The materials macroscopically regarded as anisotropic materials such as fiber-reinforced composite materials have become to be used for the structural elements at elevated temperature, and the studies on the problem of thermal stress in anisotropic bodies are carried out actively. The unsteady thermal stress in anisotropic finite circular cylinders has not been analyzed so far. In this study, the problem of unsteady thermal stress in an anisotropic finite circular cylinder having arbitrary surface heat generation in axial direction on the internal and external surfaces, and emitting heat from both ends and the internal and external surfaces, was analyzed. For the analysis of temperature distribution, generalized finite Fourier transformation and finite Hankel transformation were used, and thermal stress and thermal displacement were analyzed by the use of the stress function of Singh. By adopting the function used for the transformation nucleus in generalized finite Fourier transformation as the stress function, the analysis was made without separating symmetric and opposite symmetric problems. Numerical calculation was carried out on the basis of the analytical results, and the effects of the anisotropy in thermal conductivity, Young's modulus and linear expansion on unsteady temperature distribution, thermal stress and thermal displacement were quantitatively examined. (Kako, I.)

  1. MRI Shows that Exhaustion Syndrome Due to Chronic Occupational Stress is Associated with Partially Reversible Cerebral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, I; Perski, A; Osika, W

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the cerebral effects of chronic occupational stress and its possible reversibility. Forty-eight patients with occupational exhaustion syndrome (29 women) and 80 controls (47 women) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Forty-four participants (25 patients, 19 controls) also completed a second MRI scan after 1-2 years. Only patients received cognitive therapy. The stressed group at intake had reduced thickness in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left superior temporal gyrus (STG), enlarged amygdala volumes, and reduced caudate volumes. Except for the caudate volume, these abnormalities were more pronounced in females. They were all related to perceived stress, which was similar for both genders. Thickness of the PFC also correlated with an impaired ability to down-modulate negative emotions. Thinning of PFC and reduction of caudate volume normalized in the follow-up. The amygdala enlargement and the left STG thinning remained. Longitudinal changes were not detected among controls. Chronic occupational stress was associated with partially reversible structural abnormalities in key regions for stress processing. These changes were dynamically correlated with the degree of perceived stress, highlighting a possible causal link. They seem more pronounced in women, and could be a substrate for an increased cerebral vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mechanical stress calculations for toroidal field coils by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soell, M.; Jandl, O.; Gorenflo, H.

    1976-09-01

    After discussing fundamental relationships of the finite element method, this report describes the calculation steps worked out for mechanical stress calculations in the case of magnetic forces and forces produced by thermal expansion or compression of toroidal field coils using the SOLID SAP IV computer program. The displacement and stress analysis are based on the 20-node isoparametric solid element. The calculation of the nodal forces produced by magnetic body forces are discussed in detail. The computer programs, which can be used generally for mesh generation and determination of the nodal forces, are published elsewhere. (orig.) [de

  3. Effective stresses and shear failure pressure from in situ Biot's coefficient, Hejre Field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regel, Jeppe Bendix; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2017-01-01

    , is significantly different from 1. The log-derived Biot's coefficient is above 0.8 in the Shetland Chalk Group and in the Tyne Group, and 0.6-0.8 in the Heno Sandstone Formation. We show that the effective vertical and horizontal stresses obtained using the log-derived Biot's coefficient result in a drilling......We propose a combination of Biot's equations for effective stress and the expression for shear failure in a rock to obtain an expression for minimum pore pressure in a stable vertical well bore. We show that a Biot's coefficient calculated from logging data in the Hejre Field, North Sea...

  4. Phase-Field Relaxation of Topology Optimization with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Burger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    inequality constraints. We discretize the problem by finite elements and solve the arising finite-dimensional programming problems by a primal-dual interior point method. Numerical experiments for problems with local stress constraints based on different criteria indicate the success and robustness......We introduce a new relaxation scheme for structural topology optimization problems with local stress constraints based on a phase-field method. In the basic formulation we have a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the finite element and design analysis are solved simultaneously...

  5. Quercitol and osmotic adaptation of field-grown Eucalyptus under seasonal drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stefan K; Livesley, Stephen J; Merchant, Andrew; Bleby, Timothy M; Grierson, Pauline F

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the role of quercitol in osmotic adjustment in field-grown Eucalyptus astringens Maiden subject to seasonal drought stress over the course of 1 year. The trees grew in a native woodland and a farm plantation in the semi-arid wheatbelt region of south Western Australia. Plantation trees allocated relatively more biomass to leaves than woodland trees, but they suffered greater drought stress over summer, as indicated by lower water potentials, CO(2)assimilation rates and stomatal conductances. In contrast, woodland trees had relatively fewer leaves and suffered less drought stress. Plantation trees under drought stress engaged in osmotic adjustment, but woodland trees did not. Quercitol made a significant contribution to osmotic adjustment in drought-stressed trees (25% of total solutes), and substantially more quercitol was measured in the leaves of plantation trees (5% dry matter) than in the leaves of woodland trees (2% dry matter). We found no evidence that quercitol was used as a carbon storage compound while starch reserves were depleted under drought stress. Differences in stomatal conductance, biomass allocation and quercitol production clearly indicate that E. astringens is both morphologically and physiologically 'plastic' in response to growth environment, and that osmotic adjustment is only one part of a complex strategy employed by this species to tolerate drought.

  6. Residual and working stresses in pipe joints in heterogeneous metals, due to common action of welding and service loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.N.; Voronin, N.N.; Roshchin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The stresses in the welded joints of cylindrical shells are studied, which are caused by the total effect of the thermal deformation welding cycles, by the preheats connected with the thermal treatment or operation, and by power loads. Studied were the shell joints made of the steels Kh18N10T and St.3, as well as the joints of three shells made of different metals, St.3+18N1aT steel+copper. The schematic diagram showing the residual stresses set up under effect of different factors are presented. The following has been shown by the study: the preheating of the welded joints of the shells made of diverse metals up to the operational temperatures does not result in obviating the residual stresses. If the welded shells are loaded by the internal pressure up to the stresses of (0.8-O.9) sigmasub(T), in certain cases an essential (up to 60-70%) reduction in the residual welding stresses may be obtained. The effectiveness of a variation in the residual stresses is reduced in the joints that have been thermally treated after welding. The working stresses set up in the welded joints of the shells made of different metals under the operational loading may be essentially reduced through initial preheating with the application of a pressure or without it. The preheating temperature and the pressures applied may be chosen so that to create the residual strains and the stresses of inverse sign as compared with the working stresses

  7. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  8. Residual stress relaxation due to fretting fatigue in shot peened surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, S.A.; Blodgett, M.P.; Mall, S.; Sathish, S.; Namjoshi, S.

    2003-01-01

    Fretting fatigue occurs at locations where the materials are sliding against each other under load. In order to enhance the fatigue life under fretting conditions the surface of the component is shot peened. In general, the shot peening process produces a compressive stress on the surface of the material, thereby increasing the resistance of the material to crack initiation. This paper presents the relaxation of residual stress caused during fretting fatigue. X-ray diffraction has been utilized as the method to measure residual stress in fretting fatigued samples of Ti-6Al-4V

  9. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  10. Spectral and far-field broadening due to stimulated rotational Raman scattering driven by the Nike krypton fluoride laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James; Lehmberg, Robert; Obenschain, Stephen; Kehne, David; Wolford, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) in the ultraviolet region (λ=248  nm) has been observed at the Nike laser over extended propagation paths in air during high power operation. Although this phenomenon is not significant for standard operating configurations at Nike, broadening of the laser spectrum and far-field focal profiles has been observed once the intensity-path length product exceeds a threshold of approximately 1  TW/cm. This paper presents experimental results and a new theoretical evaluation of these effects. The observations suggest that significantly broader spectra can be achieved with modest degradation of the final focal distribution. These results point to a possible path for enhanced laser-target coupling with the reduction of laser-plasma instabilities due to broad laser bandwidth produced by the SRRS.

  11. Stress-free states of continuum dislocation fields : Rotations, grain boundaries, and the Nye dislocation density tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limkumnerd, Surachate; Sethna, James P.

    We derive general relations between grain boundaries, rotational deformations, and stress-free states for the mesoscale continuum Nye dislocation density tensor. Dislocations generally are associated with long-range stress fields. We provide the general form for dislocation density fields whose

  12. Geophysical Properties of Hard Rock for Investigation of Stress Fields in Deep Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, M.; Young, R. P.; Schmitt, D. R.; Milkereit, B.

    2014-12-01

    A complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines is the high-stress dependency of the physical properties of hard rocks. In-mine observations show anisotropic variability of the in situ P- and S-wave velocities and resistivity of the hard rocks that are likely related to stress field changes. As part of a comprehensive study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, data from in situ monitoring of the seismicity, conductivity, stress, and stress dependent physical properties has been obtain. In-laboratory experiments are also being performed on borehole cores from the Sudbury mines. These experiments will measure the Norite borehole core's properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. Hydraulic fracturing has been successfully implemented in industries such as oil and gas and enhanced geothermal systems, and is currently being investigated as a potential method for preconditioning in mining. However, further research is required to quantify how hydraulic fractures propagate through hard, unfractured rock as well as naturally fractured rock typically found in mines. These in laboratory experiments will contribute to a hydraulic fracturing project evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing as a method of de-stressing hard rock mines. A tri-axial deformation cell equipped with 18 Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors will be used to bring the borehole cores to a tri-axial state of stress. The cores will then be injected with fluid until the the hydraulic fracture has propagated to the edge of the core, while AE waveforms will be digitized continuously at 10 MHz and 12-bit resolution for the duration of each experiment. These laboratory hydraulic fracture experiments will contribute to understanding how parameters including stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and viscosity, affect the fracturing process.

  13. β-cell dysfunction due to increased ER stress in a stem cell model of Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linshan; Hua, Haiqing; Foo, Kylie; Martinez, Hector; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Zimmer, Matthew; Kahler, David J; Freeby, Matthew; Chung, Wendy; LeDuc, Charles; Goland, Robin; Leibel, Rudolph L; Egli, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in WFS1 and is characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. To investigate the cause of β-cell failure, we used induced pluripotent stem cells to create insulin-producing cells from individuals with Wolfram syndrome. WFS1-deficient β-cells showed increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress molecules and decreased insulin content. Upon exposure to experimental ER stress, Wolfram β-cells showed impaired insulin processing and failed to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. Importantly, 4-phenyl butyric acid, a chemical protein folding and trafficking chaperone, restored normal insulin synthesis and the ability to upregulate insulin secretion. These studies show that ER stress plays a central role in β-cell failure in Wolfram syndrome and indicate that chemical chaperones might have therapeutic relevance under conditions of ER stress in Wolfram syndrome and other forms of diabetes.

  14. Days out of role due to mental and physical illness in the South African stress and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Sumaya; Lund, Crick; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J

    2015-03-01

    Both mental and physical disorders can result in role limitation, such as 'days out of role', which have an important impact on national productivity losses. This paper analyses data from the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) on the association of both mental and physical disorders with days out of role. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 4,351 adult South Africans. The World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess the presence of 21 mental and physical disorders that were grouped into 10 disorder categories for the analysis: major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorders, any substance abuse disorders, headaches or migraine, arthritis, chronic pain, cardiovascular, respiratory, diabetes and digestive disorders. Multiple regression techniques were used to explore associations between individual disorders, comorbid conditions, and annual days spent out of role. The estimated societal effects of the disorders [population attributable risk proportion (PARP)] were obtained. The majority of respondents who reported a mental or physical disorder also reported another disorder (62.98 %). The average number of disorders reported by respondents who had at least one disorder was 2.3. Overall 12.4 % of respondents reported any days out of role due to mental or physical disorder. Anxiety disorders and depression were associated with highest days out of role (28.2 and 27.2, respectively) followed closely by arthritis and pain (24.7 and 21.7, respectively). Any mental disorder was associated with 23.6 days out of role, while any physical disorder was associated with 15.5 days out of role. Of the mental disorders, anxiety disorders had the highest PARP in relation to days out of role (9.0 %) followed by depression (4.8 %) and substance disorder (3.3. %). More than one-third (37.6 %) of days out of role are attributable to physical disorders and 16.1 % to mental

  15. Evidence of high-field radio-frequency hot spots due to trapped vortices in niobium cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciovati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting radio-frequency (rf cavities made of high-purity niobium exhibit strong anomalous rf losses starting at peak surface magnetic fields of about 90–100 mT in the gigahertz range. This phenomenon is referred to as “Q drop.” Temperature maps of the cavity surface have revealed the presence of “hot spots” in the high magnetic field region of the cavities. Several models have been proposed over the years to explain this phenomenon but there is still no experimental evidence on the mechanisms behind such hot spots. In this work we show that at least some of the hot spots are due to trapped vortices responsible for the anomalous losses. Here we report experiments in which a local thermal gradient was applied to the hot spot regions of a cavity in order to displace the vortices. Temperature maps measured before and after applying the thermal gradient unambiguously show that the hot spots do move and change their intensities, allowing us to determine changes in the hot spot positions and strengths and their effect on the cavity performance. Results on a large-grain niobium cavity clearly show a different distribution and in some cases a weakening of the intensity of the “hot spots,” suggesting new ways of improving the cavity performance without additional material treatments.

  16. Hybrid excitations due to crystal field, spin-orbit coupling, and spin waves in LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Yuen; Le, Manh Duc; Toft-Peterson, Rasmus; Ehlers, Georg; McQueeney, Robert J.; Vaknin, David

    2017-03-01

    We report on the spin waves and crystal field excitations in single crystal LiFePO4 by inelastic neutron scattering over a wide range of temperatures, below and above the antiferromagnetic transition of this system. In particular, we find extra excitations below TN=50 K that are nearly dispersionless and are most intense around magnetic zone centers. We show that these excitations correspond to transitions between thermally occupied excited states of Fe2 + due to splitting of the S =2 levels that arise from the crystal field and spin-orbit interactions. These excitations are further amplified by the highly distorted nature of the oxygen octahedron surrounding the iron atoms. Above TN, magnetic fluctuations are observed up to at least 720 K, with an additional inelastic excitation around 4 meV, which we attribute to single-ion effects, as its intensity weakens slightly at 720 K compared to 100 K, which is consistent with the calculated cross sections using a single-ion model. Our theoretical analysis, using the MF-RPA model, provides both detailed spectra of the Fe d shell and estimates of the average ordered magnetic moment and TN. By applying the MF-RPA model to a number of existing spin-wave results from other Li M PO4 (M =Mn , Co, and Ni), we are able to obtain reasonable predictions for the moment sizes and transition temperatures.

  17. Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Siegel

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ treatment of wild type mice and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/- models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

  18. A possible origin of viscosity in Keplerian accretion disks due to secondary perturbation: Turbulent transport without magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Saha, Kanak

    2011-01-01

    The origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flow is a long standing puzzle. Resolving it is especially important in astrophysics when the flow's angular momentum profile is Keplerian which forms an accretion disk having negligible molecular viscosity. Hence, any viscosity in such systems must be due to turbulence, arguably governed by magnetorotational instability, especially when temperature T > or approx. 10 5 . However, such disks around quiescent cataclysmic variables, protoplanetary and star-forming disks, and the outer regions of disks in active galactic nuclei are practically neutral in charge because of their low temperature, and thus are not expected to be coupled with magnetic fields enough to generate any transport due to the magnetorotational instability. This flow is similar to plane Couette flow including the Coriolis force, at least locally. What drives their turbulence and then transport, when such flows do not exhibit any unstable mode under linear hydrodynamic perturbation? We demonstrate that the three-dimensional secondary disturbance to the primarily perturbed flow that triggers elliptical instability may generate significant turbulent viscosity in the range 0.0001 ∼ t ∼< 0.1, which can explain transport in accretion flows.

  19. Calculation of stochastic broadening due to noise and field errors in the simple map in action-angle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Courtney; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-11-01

    The simple map is the simplest map that has topology of divertor tokamaks [1]. Recently, the action-angle coordinates for simple map are analytically calculated, and simple map is constructed in action-angle coordinates [2]. Action-angle coordinates for simple map can not be inverted to real space coordinates (R,Z). Because there is logarithmic singularity on the ideal separatrix, trajectories can not cross separatrix [2]. Simple map in action-angle coordinates is applied to calculate stochastic broadening due to magnetic noise and field errors. Mode numbers for noise + field errors from the DIII-D tokamak are used. Mode numbers are (m,n)=(3,1), (4,1), (6,2), (7,2), (8,2), (9,3), (10,3), (11,3), (12,3) [3]. The common amplitude δ is varied from 0.8X10-5 to 2.0X10-5. For this noise and field errors, the width of stochastic layer in simple map is calculated. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793 1. A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Let. A 364, 140--145 (2007). 2. O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, to appear in Physics of Plasmas. 3. A. Punjabi and H. Ali, P1.012, 35^th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, June 9-13, 2008, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece.

  20. Analysis of the stress field in a wedge using the fast expansions with pointwise determined coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, A. D.; Goryainov, V. V.; Danshin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The stress problem for the elastic wedge-shaped cutter of finite dimensions with mixed boundary conditions is considered. The differential problem is reduced to the system of linear algebraic equations by applying twice the fast expansions with respect to the angular and radial coordinate. In order to determine the unknown coefficients of fast expansions, the pointwise method is utilized. The problem solution derived has explicit analytical form and it’s valid for the entire domain including its boundary. The computed profiles of the displacements and stresses in a cross-section of the cutter are provided. The stress field is investigated for various values of opening angle and cusp’s radius.

  1. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  2. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, J Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y Adejoke; Akanmu, A Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (subdivided into 6 groups of 10 each, based on sex), and administered vehicle or graded oral doses of caffeine (10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. On day 14, a main group was subjected to 6 h of total sleep-deprivation by 'gentle-handling'. Open-field behaviours were then assessed in both groups, after which animals were euthanized, and levels of corticosterone, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase assayed. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly, compared to control, with sleep-deprived (SD) mice showing stronger caffeine-driven responses at higher doses; and SD female mice showing sustained response to caffeine, compared to respective males. Plasma corticosterone increased with increasing doses of caffeine in both non sleep-deprived (NSD) and SD mice; although SD mice had higher corticosterone levels. Sleep-deprivation and/or higher doses of caffeine were associated with derangements in brain antioxidant levels. Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  3. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  4. Work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for psychological complaints in patients on sick leave due to work-related stress: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Glasscock, David John

    2017-08-22

    Work-related stress is a global problem with negative implications for individuals and society. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stress management intervention for patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints using a three-armed randomized controlled design. Participants were patients referred from three municipalities to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were: 1) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints, 2) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder or reactions to severe stress (ICD 10 code: F43,2 - F 43,9 not PTSD) or mild depressive episode (F 32.0). Through a double randomization procedure patients (n = 163) were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 58), a 'control group A' receiving a clinical examination (n = 56), or 'control group B' (n = 49) receiving no offers at the department. The intervention comprised six sessions of individual cognitive behavioral therapy and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaire data were analyzed with multivariate repeated measurements analysis. Primary outcomes assessed were perceived stress and general mental health. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and cognitive failures. Follow-up was at four and 10 months after baseline. Complaints were significantly reduced in all groups over time. No group effects were observed between the intervention group and control group A that was clinically assessed. Significant group effects were found for perceived stress and memory when comparing the intervention group to group B, but most likely not due to an intervention effect. Psychological complaints improved substantially over time in all groups, but there was no significant treatment effect on any outcomes when the intervention group was compared to control group A that received a clinical assessment. ISRCTN ISRCTN91404229. Registered 03 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  5. Worsening of Heat Stress Due To Global Warming in South Korea Based on Multi-RCM Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the future changes in summer (June-July-August; JJA) heat stress over South Korea under global warming. To better resolve the region-specific changes in terms of geographical patterns and severity of heat stress in the Korean peninsula, four regional climate models (RCMs) are used for dynamical downscaling of Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2—Atmosphere and Ocean global projections forced by two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Dynamically downscaled simulations (horizontal resolution of 12.5 km and output interval of 3 h) facilitate in-depth analysis of diurnal variation and extremes over South Korea, as well as focusing on the particular location, Daegu, that is characterized by high vulnerability to rising temperature. Both maximum temperature and heat stress indices such as wet bulb globe temperature and apparent temperature, which include the effect of humidity, are examined in order to comprehensively interpret the behaviors of heat stress in response to anthropogenic climate change. Ensemble projections reveal robust patterns of temperature and resultant humidity increases that are roughly constrained by the approximate 7%/K increase in the moisture holding capacity. The changes in temperature and humidity are directly transmitted to the heat stress indices, showing a significant increase. The heat stress is exacerbated in a differentiated way, with more intensification in diurnal variation at nighttime and in regional variation at low-elevation basins. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios project the statistical likelihood of a notable increase of extreme heat stress indices, much stronger and more extended heat waves, and the emergence of a long period of consecutive tropical nights.

  6. Hypoxic stress induces, but cannot sustain trophoblast stem cell differentiation to labyrinthine placenta due to mitochondrial insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufen Xie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional stem cell differentiation into placental lineages is associated with gestational diseases. Of the differentiated lineages available to trophoblast stem cells (TSC, elevated O2 and mitochondrial function are necessary to placental lineages at the maternal–placental surface and important in the etiology of preeclampsia. TSC lineage imbalance leads to embryonic failure during uterine implantation. Stress at implantation exacerbates stem cell depletion by decreasing proliferation and increasing differentiation. In an implantation site O2 is normally ~2%. In culture, exposure to 2% O2 and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4 enabled the highest mouse TSC multipotency and proliferation. In contrast, hypoxic stress (0.5% O2 initiated the most TSC differentiation after 24 h despite exposure to FGF4. However, hypoxic stress supported differentiation poorly after 4–7 days, despite FGF4 removal. At all tested O2 levels, FGF4 maintained Warburg metabolism; mitochondrial inactivity and aerobic glycolysis. However, hypoxic stress suppressed mitochondrial membrane potential and maintained low mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (oxidative phosphorylation/OxPhos, and high pyruvate kinase M2 (glycolysis despite FGF4 removal. Inhibiting OxPhos inhibited optimum differentiation at 20% O2. Moreover, adding differentiation-inducing hyperosmolar stress failed to induce differentiation during hypoxia. Thus, differentiation depended on OxPhos at 20% O2; hypoxic and hyperosmolar stresses did not induce differentiation at 0.5% O2. Hypoxia-limited differentiation and mitochondrial inhibition and activation suggest that differentiation into two lineages of the labyrinthine placenta requires O2 > 0.5–2% and mitochondrial function. Stress-activated protein kinase increases an early lineage and suppresses later lineages in proportion to the deviation from optimal O2 for multipotency, thus it is the first enzyme reported to prioritize differentiation.

  7. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determinate the relationship between oxidative stress with psychological disturbances, low self-esteem, depressive mood and anxiety, and quality of life in the postmenopausal women. We carried out a cross-sectional study with101 premenopausal and 101 postmenopausal women from Mexico City. As markers of oxidative stress we measured plasma lipoperoxide levels, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and total antioxidant status. We calculate a stress score as global oxidative stress status, with cut-off values for each parameter; this score range from 0 to 6, representing the severity of markers modifications. All the women were rated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales, and the WHO Quality of Life-brief. The postmenopausal women with low quality of life in the WHO Quality of Life-brief and their subscales had higher stress score compared with premenopausal women with high quality of life (p Life-brief scores (r = -0.266, p Life-brief, after adjusted for pro-oxidant factors. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales scores also contribute to increase lipoperoxides levels, but not significant. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in postmenopausal women with psychological disturbances and low quality of life.

  8. Photoelastic and analytical investigation of stress in toroidal magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pih, H.; Gray, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses on circular and oval toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors were made. The circumferential variation of the coil's magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures to sixteen segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. Isochromatics and isoclinics were measured at selected points on the loaded model in a transmission polariscope using a microphotometer. Separate principal stresses were obtained using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data measured from the solution of Laplace's equation by the electrical analog method. Analysis of the same coil geometries, loadings, and boundary conditions were made using the finite element method. General agreement between theory and experiment was realized. From this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods of support were evaluated. Based upon this experiment, suggestions for optimum structural design of toroidal field coils are presented

  9. Developing Field Test Procedures for Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Farhat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production and petrochemical plants in the Arabian Gulf are exposed to severe environmental conditions of high temperature and humidity. This makes these plants susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CSCC. The laboratory testing fails to provide the exact field environmental conditions. A cost efficient field test setup for CSCC was designed and developed for the Arabian Gulf. The setup included designing self-sustained loading devices, samples, and sample racks. The samples were exposed to a stress equivalent to 80% and 100% of their yield strength. This paper describes the developed test procedures to establish testing with high level of accuracy and repeatability. It also discusses the design aspects and the challenges that were met.

  10. GOLIA-RK, Structure Stress for Isotropic Materials with Creep and Temperature Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Giuliani, S.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Stress analysis of complex structures in presence of creep, dimensional changes and thermal field. Plane stress, plane strain, generalized plane strain and axisymmetric problems can be solved. The material is assumed to be either isotropic or transversely isotropic. Any laws of material behaviour can easily be incorporated by the user (see subroutines WIGNER and CLAW). 2 - Method of solution: Finite element method using triangular elements with linear local fields. The equations for the displacements are solved by Choleski's method. An algorithm is incorporated to calculate automatically the successive time steps in a creep problem. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of elements is 700. Maximum number of nodal points is 400. The indexes of two adjacent nodes are not permitted to differ by more than 19

  11. Analytical Solution for Stress Field and Intensity Factor in CSTBD under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Ali Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that rocks fail faster under tensile stress, rock tensile strength is of greatimportance in applications such as blasting, rock fragmentation, slope stability, hydraulic fracturing,caprock integrity, and geothermal energy extraction. There are two direct and indirect methods tomeasure tensile strength. Since direct methods always encompass difficulties in test setup, indirectmethods, specifically the Brazilian test, have often been employed for tensile strength measurement.Tensile failure is technically attributed to crack propagation in rock. Fracture mechanics hassignificant potential for the determination of crack behaviour as well as propagation pattern. To applyBrazilian tests, cracked disc geometry has been suggested by the International Society for RockMechanics ISRM. Accordingly, a comprehensive study is necessary to evaluate stress field and stressintensity factor (SIF around the crack in the centre of the specimen. In this paper, superpositionprinciple is employed to solve the problem of cracked straight-through Brazilian disc (CSTBD, usingtwo methods of dislocation and complex stress function. Stress field and SIF in the vicinity of thecrack tip are then calculated. With the proposed method, the magnitude of critical load for crackinitiation in structures can be predicted. This method is valid for any crack of any arbitrary length andangle. In addition, numerical modelling has been carried out for the Brazilian disc. Finally, theanalytical solution has been compared with numerical modelling results showing the same outcomefor both methods.

  12. Heat transfer and thermal stress analysis in fluid-structure coupled field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jian; Pan, Jun-Hua; Ni, Ming-Jiu; Zhang, Nian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, three-dimensional simulation on conjugate heat transfer in a fluid-structure coupled field was carried out. The structure considered is from the dual-coolant lithium-lead (DCLL) blanket, which is the key technology of International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The model was developed based on finite element-finite volume method and was employed to investigate mechanical behaviours of Flow Channel Insert (FCI) and heat transfer in the blanket under nuclear reaction. Temperature distribution, thermal deformation and thermal stresses were calculated in this work, and the effects of thermal conductivity, convection heat transfer coefficient and flow velocity were analyzed. Results show that temperature gradients and thermal stresses of FCI decrease when FCI has better heat conductivity. Higher convection heat transfer coefficient will result in lower temperature, thermal deformations and stresses in FCI. Analysis in this work could be a theoretical basis of blanket optimization. - Highlights: • We use FVM and FEM to investigate FCI structural safety considering heat transfer and FSI effects. • Higher convective heat transfer coefficient is beneficial for the FCI structural safety without much affect to bulk flow temperature. • Smaller FCI thermal conductivity can better prevent heat leakage into helium, yet will increase FCI temperature gradient and thermal stress. • Three-dimensional simulation on conjugate heat transfer in a fluid-structure coupled field was carried out

  13. Influence of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary on the stress field northwest of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, J.; Cornet, F. H.; Cara, M.

    2014-11-01

    In 1356, a magnitude 6-7 earthquake occurred near Basel, in Switzerland. But recent compilations of GPS measurements reveal that measured horizontal deformation rates in northwestern continental Europe are smaller than error bars on the measurements, proving present tectonic activity, if any, is very small in this area. We propose to reconcile these apparently antinomic observations with a mechanical model of the lithosphere that takes into account the geometry of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, assuming that the only loading mechanism is gravity. The lithosphere is considered to be an elastoplastic material satisfying a Von Mises plasticity criterion. The model, which is 400 km long, 360 km wide and 230 km thick, is centred near Belfort in eastern France, with its width oriented parallel to the N145°E direction. It also takes into account the real topography of both the ground surface and that of the Moho discontinuity. Not only does the model reproduce observed principal stress directions orientations, it also identifies a plastic zone that fits roughly the most seismically active domain of the region. Interestingly, a somewhat similar stress map may be produced by considering an elastic lithosphere and an ad-hoc horizontal `tectonic' stress field. However, for the latter model, examination of the plasticity criterion suggests that plastic deformation should have taken place. It is concluded that the present-day stress field in this region is likely controlled by gravity and rheology, rather than by active Alpine tectonics.

  14. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oizumi, T.; Laakso, I.; Hirata, A.; Fujiwara, O.; Watanabe, S.; Taki, M.; Kojima, M.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.

    2013-01-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye. (authors)

  15. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizumi, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye.

  16. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  17. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  18. Impact of Brake Pad Structure on Temperature and Stress Fields of Brake Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoshun; Fu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing ABAQUS finite element software, the study established the relationship between a brake pad structure and distributions of temperature and thermal stress on brake disc. By introducing radial structure factor and circular structure factor concepts, the research characterized the effect of friction block radial and circumferential arrangement on temperature field of the brake disc. A method was proposed for improving heat flow distribution of the brake disc through optimizing the posit...

  19. Nanoscale multiphase phase field approach for stress- and temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations with interfacial stresses at finite strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Anup; Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamically consistent, novel multiphase phase field approach for stress- and temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations at finite strains and with interfacial stresses has been developed. The model considers a single order parameter to describe the austenite↔martensitic transformations, and another N order parameters describing N variants and constrained to a plane in an N-dimensional order parameter space. In the free energy model coexistence of three or more phases at a single material point (multiphase junction), and deviation of each variant-variant transformation path from a straight line have been penalized. Some shortcomings of the existing models are resolved. Three different kinematic models (KMs) for the transformation deformation gradient tensors are assumed: (i) In KM-I the transformation deformation gradient tensor is a linear function of the Bain tensors for the variants. (ii) In KM-II the natural logarithms of the transformation deformation gradient is taken as a linear combination of the natural logarithm of the Bain tensors multiplied with the interpolation functions. (iii) In KM-III it is derived using the twinning equation from the crystallographic theory. The instability criteria for all the phase transformations have been derived for all the kinematic models, and their comparative study is presented. A large strain finite element procedure has been developed and used for studying the evolution of some complex microstructures in nanoscale samples under various loading conditions. Also, the stresses within variant-variant boundaries, the sample size effect, effect of penalizing the triple junctions, and twinned microstructures have been studied. The present approach can be extended for studying grain growth, solidifications, para↔ferro electric transformations, and diffusive phase transformations.

  20. Generalized stress field in granular soils heap with Rayleigh–Ritz method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stress field in granular soils heap (including piled coal will have a non-negligible impact on the settlement of the underlying soils. It is usually obtained by measurements and numerical simulations. Because the former method is not reliable as pressure cells instrumented on the interface between piled coal and the underlying soft soil do not work well, results from numerical methods alone are necessary to be doubly checked with one more method before they are extended to more complex cases. The generalized stress field in granular soils heap is analyzed with Rayleigh–Ritz method. The problem is divided into two cases: case A without horizontal constraint on the base and case B with horizontal constraint on the base. In both cases, the displacement functions u(x, y and v(x, y are assumed to be cubic polynomials with 12 undetermined parameters, which will satisfy the Cauchy's partial differential equations, generalized Hooke's law and boundary equations. A function is built with the Rayleigh–Ritz method according to the principle of minimum potential energy, and the problem is converted into solving two undetermined parameters through the variation of the function, while the other parameters are expressed in terms of these two parameters. By comparison of results from the Rayleigh–Ritz method and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that the Rayleigh–Ritz method is feasible to study the generalized stress field in granular soils heap. Solutions from numerical methods are verified before being extended to more complicated cases.

  1. Model calculations of stresses and deformations in rock salt in the near field of heated borehols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudewills, A.

    1984-08-01

    With the help of the finite element computer code ADINA thermally induced borehole closure and stress distribution in the salt were investigated by the example of the 'Temperature Test 3' performed in the Asse mine during which the temperature and the borehole closure were measured. The aim of the calculations has been the assessment of the capabilities of the ADINA code to solve complex thermomechanical problems and to verify the available thermomechanical material laws for rock salt. In these computations the modulus of elasticity and the creep law of salt were varied in order to assess the influence exerted by these material parameters. The computed borehole closures are in good agreement with the measured data. In second part the model computations of thermomechanical phenomena around a 300 m deep borehole are presented for a HLW repository with and without brine, respectively. The finite element investigations are carried out for a periodical and symmetrical disposal field configuration with an equivalent radius of 28 m of the cylindrical unit cell. The initial state of stress was assumed to be lithostatic. A hydrostatic fluid pressure of 12 MPa was chosen for the case of accidental flooding of the repository field shortly after emplacement of the waste canisters. The essential results of this thermomechanical analysis are the borehole closure and the stresses in rock salt in the near field of the repository borehole. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong

    2018-04-01

    A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.

  3. Microearthquake Study of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California: Evidence of Stress Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Austin A.

    2002-01-01

    A digital network of 24 seismograph stations was operated from September 15, 1987 to September 30, 1988, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Unocal as part of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project to study seismicity related to tectonics and geothermal activity near the drilling site. More than 2001 microearthquakes were relocated in this study in order to image any pervasive structures that may exist within the Salton Sea geothermal field. First, detailed velocity models were obtained through standard 1-D inversion techniques. These velocity models were then used to relocate events using both single event methods and Double-Differencing, a joint hypocenter location method. An anisotropic velocity model was built from anisotropy estimates obtained from well logs within the study area. During the study period, the Superstition Hills sequence occurred with two moderate earthquakes of MS 6.2 and MS 6.6. These moderate earthquakes caused a rotation of the stress field as observed from the inversion of first motion data from microearthquakes at the Salton Sea geothermal field. Coulomb failure analysis also indicates that microearthquakes occurring after the Superstition Hills sequence are located within a region of stress increase suggesting stress triggering caused by the moderate earthquakes

  4. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  5. A simplified method to calculate the stresses in straight pipes due to laminar flow of a stratified medium with two different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutrim, J.H.; Kizivat, V.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified method to calculate the stresses in straight pipes due to laminar flow of a stratified medium with two different temperatures is presented. It is based on the equilibrium equations and conservative assumptions as usual in practice. Numerical results are obtained for the 'banana' and 'pera' modes of deformation due to thermal stratification; the former case appears to be most important. In order to be able to perform such a fatigue damage analysis in practice under several complex load conditions, an existing program for fatigue damage analysis was provided with more substantial details. All the assumptions crucial for the use of ASME code were retained. The inclusion of stresses due to stratifications in the fatigue damage analysis is completed through extension of ASME NB 3650. (Author) [pt

  6. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress and estradiol on open field activity, spatial memory, and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R E; Ferguson, D; Luine, V N

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one days of chronic restraint stress impairs male rat performance on the radial arm maze [Luine et al. (1994) Brain Res. 639, 167-170], but enhances female rat performance [Bowman et al. (2001) Brain Res. 904, 279-289]. To assess possible ovarian hormone mechanisms underlying this sexually dimorphic response to stress, we examined chronic stress effects in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats received Silastic capsule implants containing cholesterol or estradiol and were assigned to a daily restraint stress (21 days, 6 h/day) or non-stress group. Following the stress period, subjects were tested for open field activity and radial arm maze performance. Stress and estradiol treatment affected open field activity. All stressed animals, with or without estradiol treatment, made fewer total outer sector crossings. In contrast, estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, made more inner sector visits, an indication that estradiol decreased anxious behavior on the open field across time. As measured by the total number of visits required to complete the task, stress did not affect radial arm maze performance in ovariectomized rats, but estradiol-treated animals, with or without stress, performed better than non-treated animals on the radial arm maze. Stressed subjects receiving estradiol showed the best radial arm maze performance. Following killing, tissue samples were obtained from various brain regions known to contribute to learning and memory, and monoamine and metabolite levels were measured. Several changes were observed in response to both stress and estradiol. Most noteworthy, stress treatment decreased homovanillic acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, an effect not previously observed in stressed intact females. Estradiol treatment increased norepinephrine levels in CA3 region of the hippocampus, mitigating stress-dependent changes. Both stress and estradiol decreased dentate gyrus levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. In summary, the current

  8. Vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a 2D-gravity field and loop amplitudes for strings of noncritical dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that, in the theory of free noncritical strings, there are no modular-invariant partition functions on surfaces of higher genus. This is due to the fact that the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor is singular in the fundamental region on the complex plane in which Riemann surfaces are mapped. The above singularity is associated with a nonzero vacuum expectation value of the 2D-gravity field. 15 refs

  9. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  10. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  11. Stress-induced grey matter loss determined by MRI is primarily due to loss of dendrites and their synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mustafa S; Lagopoulos, Jim; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Price, William S; Chohan, Tariq W; Arnold, Jonathon C; Hatton, Sean N; Bennett, Maxwell R

    2013-04-01

    Stress, unaccompanied by signs of post-traumatic stress disorder, is known to decrease grey matter volume (GMV) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus but not the amygdala in humans. We sought to determine if this was the case in stressed mice using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify the cellular constituents of the grey matter that quantitatively give rise to such changes. Stressed mice showed grey matter losses of 10 and 15 % in the ACC and hippocampus, respectively but not in the amygdala or the retrosplenial granular area (RSG). Concurrently, no changes in the number or volumes of the somas of neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were detected. A loss of synaptic spine density of up to 60 % occurred on different-order dendrites in the ACC and hippocampus (CA1) but not in the amygdala or RSG. The loss of spines was accompanied by decreases in cumulative dendritic length of neurons of over 40 % in the ACC and hippocampus (CA1) giving rise to decreases in volume of dendrites of 2.6 mm(3) for the former and 0.6 mm(3) for the latter, with no change in the amygdala or RSG. These values are similar to the MRI-determined loss of GMV following stress of 3.0 and 0.8 mm(3) in ACC and hippocampus, respectively, with no changes in the amygdala or RSG. This quantitative study is the first to relate GMV changes in the cortex measured with MRI to volume changes in cellular constituents of the grey matter.

  12. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  13. Chronic restraint stress promotes learning and memory impairment due to enhanced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Rong; Hu, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu-Chan; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Wei-Zu

    2015-02-01

    Chronic stress has been implicated in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CRS (over a period of 8 weeks) on learning and memory impairment and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice. The Morris water maze was used to investigate the effects of CRS on learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were also used to determine the expression levels of protein kinase C α (PKCα), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The results revealed that CRS significantly accelerated learning and memory impairment, and induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 region. Moreover, CRS significantly increased the expression of PKCα, CHOP and MANF, and decreased that of GRP78 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that exposure to CRS (for 8 weeks) significantly accelerates learning and memory impairment, and the mechanisms involved may be related to ER stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

  14. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  15. Effect of Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation Due to Laminar Forced Convection Past a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd A. Al-Nimr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow past a horizontal plate was numerically investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as Hartmann number (Ha, Eckert number (Ec, Prandtl number (Pr, Joule heating parameter (R and the free stream temperature parameter (θ∞ on the entropy generation characteristics is analyzed. The dimensionless governing equations in Cartesian coordinate were solved by an implicit finite difference technique. The solutions were carried out for Ha2=0.5-3, Ec=0.01-0.05, Pr=1-5 and θ∞=1.1-2.5. It was found that, the entropy generation increased with increasing Ha, Ec and R. While, increasing the free stream temperature parameter, and Prandtl number tend to decrease the local entropy generation.

  16. Contemporary stress field in the area of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Mariucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We update the last present-day stress map for Italy relatively to the area of 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy taking into account a large number of earthquakes occurred from August 24 to October 3, 2016. In particular in this paper, we discuss the new stress data from crustal earthquake focal mechanisms selecting those with Magnitude ≥ 4.0; at the same time, we revise the borehole data, analyze the stratigraphic profiles and the relative sonic logs in 4 deep wells located close to the Amatrice sequence along the Apennine belt and toward east along the Adriatic foredeep. From these data we consider the P-wave velocity trend with depth and estimate rock density following an empirical relationship. Then we calculate the overburden stress magnitude for each well. The new present-day stress indicators confirm the presence of prevalent normal faulting regime and better define the local stress field in the area, highlighting a slight rotation from NE-SW to ENE-WSW of extension. The analysis evidences that the lithostatic gradient gradually changes from ~26 MPa/km in the belt to less than 23 MPa/km along the Adriatic foredeep. Finally, at a depth of 5 km we estimate the vertical stress magnitude varying from 130 MPa to 114 moving from the Apennine belt to the Adriatic foredeep. Although the wells are very close each other they show different P wave velocities from the belt to the foredeep with values ~7km/s and ~4 km/s at 5 km depth, respectively.

  17. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  18. Beneficial effects of CO2 enrichment to field-grown soybeans under ozone stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mulchi, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Damage from gaseous air pollution [e.g. ozone (O 3 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )] on crops in the US has been estimated to exceed several billion dollars annually. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have increased from about 290 ppm in the late 1800's to current levels of 350 ppm. The combined effects of increased CO 2 and O 3 stress have not been studied under field conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of CO 2 enrichment and O 3 stress on the growth and physiology of 'Clark' soybean, testing the hypothesis that elevated CO 2 will ameliorate the effects of O 3 stress. Experiments with soybeans in open-top field chambers showed that increasing CO 2 levels to 400 parts per million (ppm) negated current ambient ozone harmful effects on soybean yields. When ambient O 3 levels were doubled, it was necessary to increase the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to 500 ppm to negate O 3 damage. Rising CO 2 counteracts O 3 pollution. Reduced stomatal conductance and decreased photosynthesis appear to reverse the CO 2 stimulation

  19. The generalized fracture criteria based on the multi-parameter representation of the crack tip stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the multi-parameter asymptotic description of the stress field near the crack tip of a finite crack in an infinite isotropic elastic plane medium subject to 1) tensile stress; 2) in-plane shear; 3) mixed mode loading for a wide range of mode-mixity situations (Mode I and Mode II). The multi-parameter series expansion of stress tensor components containing higher-order terms is obtained. All the coefficients of the multiparameter series expansion of the stress field are given. The main focus is on the discussion of the influence of considering the higher-order terms of the Williams expansion. The analysis of the higher-order terms in the stress field is performed. It is shown that the larger the distance from the crack tip, the more terms it is necessary to keep in the asymptotic series expansion. Therefore, it can be concluded that several more higher-order terms of the Williams expansion should be used for the stress field description when the distance from the crack tip is not small enough. The crack propagation direction angle is calculated. Two fracture criteria, the maximum tangential stress criterion and the strain energy density criterion, are used. The multi-parameter form of the two commonly used fracture criteria is introduced and tested. Thirty and more terms of the Williams series expansion for the near-crack-tip stress field enable the angle to be calculated more precisely.

  20. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  1. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  2. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  3. Engineering stress in thin films for the field of bistable MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnayake, Dilan; Gowrishetty, Usha R; McNamara, Shamus P; Walsh, Kevin M; Martin, Michael D; Porter, Daniel A; Berfield, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    While stress-free and tensile films are well-suited for released in-plane MEMS designs, compressive films are needed for released out-of-plane MEMS structures such as buckled beams and diaphragms. This study presents a characterization of stress on a variety of sputtered and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD)-deposited films, including titanium tungsten, invar, silicon nitride and amorphous silicon, appropriate for the field of bistable MEMS. Techniques and strategies are presented (including varying substrate bias, pressure, temperature, and frequency multiplexing) for tuning internal stress across the spectrum from highly compressive (−2300 MPa) to highly tensile (1500 MPa). Conditions for obtaining stress-free films are also presented in this work. Under certain conditions during the PECVD deposition of amorphous silicon, interesting ‘micro-bubbles’ formed within the deposited films. Strategies to mitigate their formation are presented, resulting in a dramatic improvement in surface roughness quality from 667 nm root mean square (RMS) to 16 nm RMS. All final deposited films successfully passed the traditional ‘tape test’ for adhesion. (paper)

  4. Study on the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation based on a 3-D fully coupled poroelastic model: An example of the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Zhang, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Shi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With the quick urban development, over-exploitation of groundwater resources becomes more and more intense, which leads to not only widespread groundwater depression cones but also a series of harsh environmental and geological hazards. Among which, the most intuitive phenomenon is the ground subsidence in loose sediments. However, another direct consequence triggered by the groundwater depletion is the substantial crustal deformation and potential modulation of crustal stress underneath the groundwater over-pumping zones. In our previous 3-D viscoelastic finite element model, we found that continuous over-exploitation of groundwater resources in North China Plain during the past 60 years give rise to crustal-scale uplift reaching 4.9cm, with the Coulomb failure stress decreasing by up to 12 kPa, which may inhibit the nucleation of possible big earthquake events. Furthermore, according to the effective pressure principle and lab experiments, the pore pressure may also have changed due to the reduced water level. In order to quantitatively analyze the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation in North China Plain, a three-dimensional fully coupled poroelastic finite element model is developed in this study. The high resolution topography, grounwater level fluctuation, fault parameters and etc, are taken into consideration. Further, the changes of Coulomb Failure Stress, in correspondence to elastic stress and pore pressure changes induced by fluid diffusion are calculated. Meanwhile, the elastic strain energy accumulation in region due to the regional groundwater exploitation is obtained. Finally, we try to analyze the seismic risk of major faults within North China Plain to further discuss the regional seismic activities.

  5. Stress-energy tensors for vector fields outside a static black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, F.A.; Vaz, C.

    1989-01-01

    We obtain new, approximate stress-energy tensors to describe gauge fields in the neighborhood of a Schwarzschild black hole. We assume that the coefficient of ∇ 2 R in the trace anomaly is correctly given by ζ-function regularization. Our approximation differs from that of Page and of Brown and Ottewill and relies upon a new, improved ansatz for the form of the stress-energy tensor in the ultrastatic optical metric of the black hole. The Israel-Hartle-Hawking thermal tensor is constructed to be regular on the horizon and possess the correct asymptotic behavior. Our approximation of Unruh's tensor is likewise constructed to be regular on the future horizon and exhibit a luminosity which agrees with Page's numerically obtained value. Geometric expressions for the approximate tensors are given, and the approximate energy density of the thermal tensor on the horizon is compared with recent numerical estimates

  6. Vacuum stress tensor of a scalar field in a rectangular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.B.; Svaiter, N.F.; Paola, R.D.M. de

    2001-11-01

    Using the heat Kernel method and the analytical continuation of the zeta function, we calculate the canonical and improved vacuum stress tensors, {T μν (vector x)} and {Θ μν (vector x)}, associated with a massless scalar field confined in the interior of an infinity long rectangular waveguide. The local depence of the renormalized energy for two special configurations when the total energy is positive and negative are presented using {T 00 (vector x)} and {Θ 00 (vector x)}. From the stress tensors we obtain the local casimir forces in all walls by introducing a particular external configuration. It is hown that this external configuration cannot give account of the edge divergences of the local forces. The local form of the forces is obtained for three special configurations. (author)

  7. Origin of intense magnetic fields near black holes due to non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven

    2011-01-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects is a challenging problem in astrophysics. Throughout the years, many scientists have suggested that non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling (NMGEC) could be the origin of the ubiquitous astrophysical magnetic fields. We investigate the possible origin of intense magnetic fields by NMGEC near rotating black holes, connected with quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Whereas these intense magnetic fields are difficult to explain astrophysically, we find that they are easily explained by NMGEC.

  8. Full-field fabric stress mapping by micro Raman spectroscopy in a yarn push-out test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z K; Qin, F Y; Fang, Q C; Bai, R X; Qiu, W; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    The full-field stress distribution of a two-dimensional plain fabric was mapped using micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) through a novel yarn push-out test, simulating a quasi-static projectile impact on the fabric. The stress-strain relationship for a single yarn was established using a digital image correlation method in a single-yarn tensile test. The relationship between Raman peak shift and aramid Kevlar 49 yarn stress was established using MRS in a single-yarn tensile test. An out-of-plane loading test was conducted on an aramid Kevlar 49 plain fabric, and the yarn stress was measured using MRS. From the full-field fabric stress distribution, it can be observed that there is a cross-shaped distribution of high yarn stress; this result would be helpful in further studies on load transfer on a fabric during a projectile impact.

  9. Evaluation of the evolving stress field of the Yellowstone volcanic plateau, 1988 to 2010, from earthquake first-motion inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, E.; Waite, G. P.; Tibaldi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Although the last rhyolite eruption occurred around 70 ka ago, the silicic Yellowstone volcanic field is still considered active due to high hydrothermal and seismic activity and possible recent magma intrusions. Geodetic measurements document complex deformation patterns in crustal strain and seismic activity likewise reveal spatial and temporal variations in the stress field. We use earthquake data recorded between 1988 and 2010 to investigate these variations and their possible causes in more detail. Earthquake relocations and a set of 369 well-constrained, double-couple, focal mechanism solutions were computed. Events were grouped according to location and time to investigate trends in faulting. The majority of the events have normal-faulting solutions, subordinate strike-slip kinematics, and very rarely, reverse motions. The dominant direction of extension throughout the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera is nearly ENE, consistent with the perpendicular direction of alignments of volcanic vents within the caldera, but our study also reveals spatial and temporal variations. Stress-field solutions for different areas and time periods were calculated from earthquake focal mechanism inversion. A well-resolved rotation of σ3 was found, from NNE-SSW near the Hebgen Lake fault zone, to ENE-WSW near Norris Junction. In particular, the σ3 direction changed throughout the years around Norris Geyser Basin, from being ENE-WSW, as calculated in the study by Waite and Smith (2004), to NNE-SSW, while the other σ3 directions are mostly unchanged over time. The presence of ;chocolate tablet; structures, with two sets of nearly perpendicular normal faults, was identified in many stages of the deformation history both in the Norris Geyser Basin area and inside the caldera.

  10. Maxwell-Cattaneo Heat Convection and Thermal Stresses Responses of a Semi-Infinite Medium to High-Speed Laser Heating due to High Speed Laser Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Maxwell-Cattaneo convection equation, the thermoelasticity problem is in- vestigated in this paper. The analytic solution of a boundary value problem for a semi- infinite medium with traction free surface heated by a high-speed laser-pulses have Dirac temporal profile is solved. The temperature, the displacement and the stresses distributions are obtained analytically using the Laplace transformation, and discussed at small time duration of the laser pulses. A numerical study for Cu as a target is performed. The results are presented graphically. The obtained results indicate that the small time duration of the laser pulses has no e ect on the finite velocity of the heat con- ductivity, but the behavior of the stress and the displacement distribution are affected due to the pulsed heating process and due to the structure of the governing equations.

  11. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  12. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, stress, and electric field in GaN HEMTs with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R; Moore, Elizabeth A; Badescu, Stefan C; Zhang, Lenan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-11-01

    As semiconductor devices based on silicon reach their intrinsic material limits, compound semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN), are gaining increasing interest for high performance, solid-state transistor applications. Unfortunately, higher voltage, current, and/or power levels in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) often result in elevated device temperatures, degraded performance, and shorter lifetimes. Although micro-Raman spectroscopy has become one of the most popular techniques for measuring localized temperature rise in GaN HEMTs for reliability assessment, decoupling the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and electric field on the optical phonon frequencies measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of temperature rise, inverse piezoelectric stress, thermoelastic stress, and vertical electric field via micro-Raman spectroscopy from the shifts of the E 2 (high), A 1 longitudinal optical (LO), and E 2 (low) optical phonon frequencies in wurtzite GaN. We also validate experimentally that the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference accurately measures the temperature rise by removing the effect of the vertical electric field on the Raman spectrum and that the vertical electric field is approximately the same whether the channel is open or closed. Our experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with a 3D electro-thermo-mechanical model of the HEMT we tested and indicate that the GaN buffer acts as a semi-insulating, p-type material due to the presence of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap. This implementation of micro-Raman spectroscopy offers an exciting opportunity to simultaneously probe thermal, mechanical, and electrical phenomena in semiconductor devices under bias, providing unique insight into the complex physics that describes device behavior and reliability. Although GaN HEMTs have been specifically used in this study to

  14. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, stress, and electric field in GaN HEMTs with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Moore, Elizabeth A.; Badescu, Stefan C.; Zhang, Lenan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-11-01

    As semiconductor devices based on silicon reach their intrinsic material limits, compound semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN), are gaining increasing interest for high performance, solid-state transistor applications. Unfortunately, higher voltage, current, and/or power levels in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) often result in elevated device temperatures, degraded performance, and shorter lifetimes. Although micro-Raman spectroscopy has become one of the most popular techniques for measuring localized temperature rise in GaN HEMTs for reliability assessment, decoupling the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and electric field on the optical phonon frequencies measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of temperature rise, inverse piezoelectric stress, thermoelastic stress, and vertical electric field via micro-Raman spectroscopy from the shifts of the E2 (high), A1 longitudinal optical (LO), and E2 (low) optical phonon frequencies in wurtzite GaN. We also validate experimentally that the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference accurately measures the temperature rise by removing the effect of the vertical electric field on the Raman spectrum and that the vertical electric field is approximately the same whether the channel is open or closed. Our experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with a 3D electro-thermo-mechanical model of the HEMT we tested and indicate that the GaN buffer acts as a semi-insulating, p-type material due to the presence of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap. This implementation of micro-Raman spectroscopy offers an exciting opportunity to simultaneously probe thermal, mechanical, and electrical phenomena in semiconductor devices under bias, providing unique insight into the complex physics that describes device behavior and reliability. Although GaN HEMTs have been specifically used in this study to

  15. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow, namely a rivulet draining under gravity down a vertical substrate, a rivulet driven by a longitudinal shear stress at its free surface, and a ridge on a horizontal substrate, and find qualitatively similar behaviour for all three problems. We show that, in agreement with previous numerical studies, the free surface profile of an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with pinned contact lines is skewed as the shear stress is increased from zero, and that there is a maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with prescribed semi-width is possible. In practice, one or both of the contact lines will de-pin before this maximum value of the shear stress is reached, and so we consider situations in which the rivulet/ridge de-pins at one or both contact lines. In the case of de-pinning only at the advancing contact line, the rivulet/ridge is flattened and widened as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a second maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with a prescribed advancing contact angle is possible. In contrast, in the case of de-pinning only at the receding contact line, the rivulet/ridge is thickened and narrowed as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a solution with a prescribed receding contact angle for all values of the shear stress. In general, in the case of de-pinning at both contact lines there is a critical "yield" value of the shear stress beyond which no equilibrium solution is possible and the rivulet/ridge will evolve unsteadily. In the Appendix, we show that an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with prescribed flux/area is quasi-statically stable to two-dimensional perturbations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  17. Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie T Celino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogonia are highly tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS attack while advanced-stage germ cells such as spermatozoa are much more susceptible, but the precise reason for this variation in ROS tolerance remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Japanese eel testicular culture system that enables a complete spermatogenesis in vitro, we report that advanced-stage germ cells undergo intense apoptosis and exhibit strong signal for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA damage marker, upon exposure to hypoxanthine-generated ROS while spermatogonia remain unaltered. Activity assay of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Western blot analysis using an anti-Copper/Zinc (Cu/Zn SOD antibody showed a high SOD activity and Cu/Zn SOD protein concentration during early spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemistry showed a strong expression for Cu/Zn SOD in spermatogonia but weak expression in advanced-stage germ cells. Zn deficiency reduced activity of the recombinant eel Cu/Zn SOD protein. Cu/Zn SOD siRNA decreased Cu/Zn SOD expression in spermatogonia and led to increased oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of high levels of Cu/Zn SOD and Zn render spermatogonia resistant to ROS, and consequently protected from oxidative stress. These findings provide the biochemical basis for the high tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress.

  18. Attenuation of Microbial Stress Due to Nano-Ag and Nano-TiO2 Interactions under Dark Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carolyn M; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A

    2016-10-04

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into thousands of commercial products, and their release into environmental systems creates complex mixtures with unknown toxicological outcomes. To explore this scenario, we probe the chemical and toxicological interactions of nanosilver (n-Ag) and nanotitania (n-TiO 2 ) in Lake Michigan water, a natural aqueous medium, under dark conditions. We find that the presence of n-Ag induces a stress response in Escherichia coli, as indicated by a decrease in ATP production observed at low concentrations (in the μg L -1 range), with levels that are environmentally relevant. However, when n-Ag and n-TiO 2 are present together in a mixture, n-TiO 2 attenuates the toxicity of n-Ag at and below 20 μg L -1 by adsorbing Ag + (aq) . We observe, however, that toxic stress cannot be explained by dissolved silver concentrations alone and, therefore, must also depend on silver associated with the nanoscale fraction. Although the attenuating effect of n-TiO 2 on n-Ag's toxicity is limited, this study emphasizes the importance of probing the toxicity of ENM mixtures under environmental conditions to assess how chemical interactions between nanoparticles change the toxicological effects of single ENMs in unexpected ways.

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  20. Modeling of stresses and electric fields in piezoelectric multilayer: Application to multi quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Mishra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exact closed-form expressions have been derived for the stresses and the electric fields induced in piezoelectric multilayers deposited on a substrate with lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The derived formulations can model any number of layers using recursive relations that minimize the computation time. A proper rotation matrix has been utilized to generalize the expressions so that they can be used for various growth orientations with each layer having hexagonal crystal symmetry. As an example, the influence of lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch on the state of electroelastic fields in different layers of GaN multi quantum wells has been examined. A comparison with the finite element analysis results showed very close agreement. The analytical expressions developed herein will be useful in designing optoelectronic devices as well as in predicting defect density in multi quantum wells.

  1. Analysis of residual stresses due to roll-expansion process: Finite element computation and validation by experimental tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufaure, M.; Boudot, R.; Zacharie, G.; Proix, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The steam generator heat exchangers of pressurized water reactors are made of U-shaped tubes, both ends of them being fixed to a plate by roll-expansion. This process consists in increasing the tube section by means of a rotating tool in order to apply its outer side to the surface of the hole through the plate. As reported by de Keroulas (1986), in service cracks appeared on these tubes in the transition from expanded to nonexpanded portions. So we developed a program to compute residual stresses at the surface of the tubes, which caused their cracking, and to endeavour to lower their level by acting on some parameters. This program was validated by experimental tests. (orig.)

  2. Are the different gully morphologies due to different formation processes on the Kaiser dune field on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquon, K.; Gargani, J.; Nachon, M.; Conway, S. J.; Massé, M.; Jouannic, G.; Balme, M. R.; Costard, F.; Vincendon, M.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse gully morphologies are seen on Mars and differences are often neglected for simplification. Here we describe in detail the morphology and present-day activity of two gully-systems on the Kaiser dune field in the southern hemisphere of Mars. We then compare their activity with that of the morphologically distinct linear dune gullies present on the same dunes. The studied gully-systems have large depositional aprons (named "large apron gullies") and occur on dune faces oriented westward. They are active from mid-autumn to late winter (i.e. from Ls 50° to Ls 180°) coinciding with CO2 ice condensation/sublimation cycles. Sandy material collapses from the alcove flanks onto the alcove floor sporadically throughout this period. This accumulated sand is remobilized by punctuated mass flows which we estimate to be up to 7100 m3 in volume. These flows run out on to the apron and occur between Ls 120° and Ls 160°. These mass flow events occur when the number of "digitate flows" is at its seasonal maximum. Digitate flows are characterized by long-narrow zig-zagging low-albedo tracks and do not seem to transport appreciable sediment, and they can number in the hundreds. Small pits appear at their termini or midway along and sometimes these pits are re-deepened by subsequent flows. These events repeat every year and using volume balance calculations we find that the whole system could be built on a timescale of hundreds of martian ears. These large apron gullies differ in morphology and timing from the linear dune gullies. The linear dune gullies are active in late winter, or beginning of spring when the CO2 frost finally sublimates, which occurs after the activity of the large apron gullies. Due to the difference of orientation between large apron gullies and linear dune as well as timing, we infer that insolation, which may influence (i) the depth to ground ice, (ii) the amount of volatiles deposits, is the main cause their differences. Sediment transport by CO2

  3. OCO-2 chlorophyll fluorescence tracks late-summer photosynthesis decrease due to water stress at Missouri Ozark site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Wood, J. D.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimate of the photosynthetic uptake of CO2, denoted gross primary productivity (GPP), is important to understand and quantify the carbon cycles at regional to global scales, and has implications in crop and forest management. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) retrieved from space was found to be strongly correlated with GPP and is now being used as a potential new technique to estimate photosynthetic rates at large scale. We selected the Missouri Ozark Site as a test bed, a well-characterized Eddy Covariance site in deciduous broadleaf forests, to explore the relationships of vegetation indices (VIs) and SIF with GPP and their response to environmental conditions. We find that both GPP fluxes and OCO-2 SIF decreased in late summer at the Ozark Site, directly related to water stress, evidenced by a progressive decrease in soil moisture and concomitant changer in leaf water potential. However, VIs (both NDVI and EVI) stayed stable during the same period. With a focus on this wet-dry transition period, we analyze driving factors of changes in GPP and SIF, which appear to be linearly related even in this period with little reflectance changes. We also used the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE) model to compare observations of SIF and GPP against measurement. The primary motivation is not only to quantify the expected correlations between the GPP and SIF but also to validate performance of SCOPE in reproducing such correlations, which have not been tested against independent observations. This study clearly underlines the potential of SIF measurements to study moderate water stress and its impact on photosynthesis.

  4. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  5. Effects of the stress field induced by a running tyre on the soil pore system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    state in the soil profile beneath the harvester tyre was calculated using the SoilFlex model. Pore continuity index (N) and blocked air-filled porosity (εb) were estimated from the relationship between ka and air-filled porosity (εa) for a range of matric potentials. Calculated and measured stresses...... repeated wheelings were performed by a forage harvester (wheel load 6100 kg; tyre width 80 cm). Mean normal and horizontal stresses were measured with Bolling probes (at 10, 20 and 40 cm depth) and load cells (at 40, 50, 60 cm lateral distance from the centreline of the wheel rut at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth......), respectively. Intact soil cores of 100 cm3 sampled at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth in a soil transcet running from the centreline of the wheel rut to the unwheeled part of the field were used for measurements of water retention and air permeability (ka) at −30, −100 and −300 hPa matric potential. The complete stress...

  6. Temperature field and thermal stress analysis of the HT-7U vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuntao; Yao Damao; Wu Songtao; Weng Peide

    2000-01-01

    The HT-7U vacuum vessel is an all-metal-welded double-wall interconnected with toroidal and poloidal stiffening ribs. The channels formed between the ribs and walls are filled with boride water as a nuclear shielding. On the vessel surface facing the plasma are installed cable-based Ohmic heaters. Prior to plasma operation the vessel is to be baked out and discharge cleaned at about 250 degree C. During baking out the non-uniformity of temperature distribution on the vacuum vessel will bring about serious thermal stress that can damage the vessel. In order to determine and optimize the design of the HT-7U vacuum vessel, a three-dimensional finite element model was performed to analyse its temperature field and thermal stress. the maximal thermal stress appeared on the round of lower vertical port and maximal deformation located just on the region between the upper vertical port and the horizontal port. The results show that the reinforced structure has a good capability of withstanding the thermal loads

  7. How plants cope with water stress in the field. Photosynthesis and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M M; Pereira, J S; Maroco, J; Rodrigues, M L; Ricardo, C P P; Osório, M L; Carvalho, I; Faria, T; Pinheiro, C

    2002-06-01

    Plants are often subjected to periods of soil and atmospheric water deficit during their life cycle. The frequency of such phenomena is likely to increase in the future even outside today's arid/semi-arid regions. Plant responses to water scarcity are complex, involving deleterious and/or adaptive changes, and under field conditions these responses can be synergistically or antagonistically modified by the superimposition of other stresses. This complexity is illustrated using examples of woody and herbaceous species mostly from Mediterranean-type ecosystems, with strategies ranging from drought-avoidance, as in winter/spring annuals or in deep-rooted perennials, to the stress resistance of sclerophylls. Differences among species that can be traced to different capacities for water acquisition, rather than to differences in metabolism at a given water status, are described. Changes in the root : shoot ratio or the temporary accumulation of reserves in the stem are accompanied by alterations in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, the fine regulation of which is still largely unknown. At the leaf level, the dissipation of excitation energy through processes other than photosynthetic C-metabolism is an important defence mechanism under conditions of water stress and is accompanied by down-regulation of photochemistry and, in the longer term, of carbon metabolism.

  8. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both

  9. The effect of visual training for patients with visual field defects due to brain damage : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Lies; Heutink, Joost; Lucas, Cees

    The objective of this review was to evaluate whether systematic visual training leads to ( 1) a restitution of the visual field ( restoration), ( 2) an increase in the visual search field size or an improvement in scanning strategies (compensation) and ( 3) a transfer of training-related

  10. The effect of visual training for patients with visual field defects due to brain damage: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Lies; Heutink, Joost; Lucas, Cees

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate whether systematic visual training leads to (1) a restitution of the visual field (restoration), (2) an increase in the visual search field size or an improvement in scanning strategies (compensation) and (3) a transfer of training-related improvements in

  11. Analysis of fracture patterns and local stress field variations in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Hagen; Drews, Michael; Fremgen, Dominik; Wellmann, J. Florian

    2010-05-01

    A meaningful qualitative evaluation of permeabilities in fractured reservoirs in geothermal or hydrocarbon industry requires the spatial description of the existing discontinuity pattern within the area of interest and an analysis how these fractures might behave under given stress fields. This combined information can then be used for better estimating preferred fluid pathway directions within the reservoir, which is of particular interest for defining potential drilling sites. A description of the spatial fracture pattern mainly includes the orientation of rock discontinuities, spacing relationships between single fractures and their lateral extent. We have examined and quantified fracture patterns in several outcrops of granite at the Costa Brava, Spain, and in the Black Forest, Germany, for describing reservoir characteristics. For our analysis of fracture patterns we have used photogrammetric methods to create high-resolution georeferenced digital 3D images of outcrop walls. The advantage of this approach, compared to conventional methods for fracture analysis, is that it provides a better 3D description of the fracture geometry as the entity of position, extent and orientation of single fractures with respect to their surrounding neighbors is conserved. Hence for instance, the method allows generating fracture density maps, which can be used for a better description of the spatial distribution of discontinuities in a given outcrop. Using photogrammetric techniques also has the advantage to acquire very large data sets providing statistically sound results. To assess whether the recorded discontinuities might act as fluid pathways information on the stress field is needed. A 3D model of the regional tectonic structure was created and the geometry of the faults was put into a mechanical 3D Boundary Element (BE) Model. The model takes into account the elastic material properties of the geological units and the orientation of single fault segments. The

  12. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Dey, Somaditya; Mandal, Supratim; Ghosh, Joydip; Mallick, Suvadip; Hussain, Aabid; Swapana, Ningombam; Ross, Samir Anis; Pal, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zeru...

  13. Structure of chaotic magnetic field lines in IR-T1 tokamak due to ergodic magnetic limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghorannevis, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we have studied an Ergodic Magnetic Limiter (EML) based chaotic magnetic field for transport control in the edge plasma of IR-T1 tokamak. The resonance created by the EML causes perturbation of the equilibrium field line in tokamak and as a result, the field lines are chaotic in the vicinity of the dimerized island chains. Transport barriers are formed in the chaotic field line and actually observe in tokamak with reverse magnetic shear. We used area-preserving non-twist (and twist) Poincaré maps to describe the formation of transport barriers, which are actually features of Hamiltonian systems. This transport barrier is useful in reducing radial diffusion of the field line and thus improving the plasma confinement.

  14. Structure of chaotic magnetic field lines in IR-T1 tokamak due to ergodic magnetic limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied an Ergodic Magnetic Limiter (EML based chaotic magnetic field for transport control in the edge plasma of IR-T1 tokamak. The resonance created by the EML causes perturbation of the equilibrium field line in tokamak and as a result, the field lines are chaotic in the vicinity of the dimerized island chains. Transport barriers are formed in the chaotic field line and actually observe in tokamak with reverse magnetic shear. We used area-preserving non-twist (and twist Poincaré maps to describe the formation of transport barriers, which are actually features of Hamiltonian systems. This transport barrier is useful in reducing radial diffusion of the field line and thus improving the plasma confinement.

  15. Exploratory rearing: a context- and stress-sensitive behavior recorded in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Oliver; Germain, Pierre-Luc; Bohacek, Johannes

    2018-02-16

    Stressful experiences are linked to anxiety disorders in humans. Similar effects are observed in rodent models, where anxiety is often measured in classic conflict tests such as the open-field test. Spontaneous rearing behavior, in which rodents stand on their hind legs to explore, can also be observed in this test yet is often ignored. We define two forms of rearing, supported rearing (in which the animal rears against the walls of the arena) and unsupported rearing (in which the animal rears without contacting the walls of the arena). Using an automated open-field test, we show that both rearing behaviors appear to be strongly context dependent and show clear sex differences, with females rearing less than males. We show that unsupported rearing is sensitive to acute stress, and is reduced under more averse testing conditions. Repeated testing and handling procedures lead to changes in several parameters over varying test sessions, yet unsupported rearing appears to be rather stable within a given animal. Rearing behaviors could therefore provide an additional measure of anxiety in rodents relevant for behavioral studies, as they appear to be highly sensitive to context and may be used in repeated testing designs.

  16. A procedure for temperature-stress fields calculation of WWER-1000 primary circuit in PTS event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, G [Technical Univ., Dept. Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudev, P; Argirov, J [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-09-01

    The paper presents the procedure of an investigation of WWER-1000 primary circuit temperature-stress field by the use of thermohydraulic computation data for a pressurized thermal shock event ``Core overcooling``. The procedure is based on a model of the plane stress state with ideal contact between wall and medium for the calculation. The computation data are calculated on the base of WWER-1000 thermohydraulic model by the RELAP5/MOD3 codes. This model was developed jointly by the Bulgarian and BNL/USA staff to provide an analytical tool for performing safety analysis. As a result of calculations by codes the computation data for temperature field law (linear laws of a few distinguished parts) and pressure of coolant at points on inner surface of WWER-1000 primary circuit equipment are received. Such calculations can be used as a base for determination of all-important load-carrying sections of the primary circuit pipes and vessels, which need further consideration. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  18. Characterization of stress-induced suppression of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 field of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Riki; Togashi, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Machiko; Yamaguchi, Taku; Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2008-08-21

    Several lines of evidence have shown that exposure to stress impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 field of the hippocampus, but the detailed mechanisms for this effect remain to be clarified. The present study elucidated the synaptic mechanism of stress-induced LTP suppression in conscious, freely moving rats using electrophysiological approaches. Open field stress (i.e., novel environment stress) and elevated platform stress (i.e., uncontrollable stress) were employed. Basal synaptic transmission was significantly reduced during exposure to elevated platform stress but not during exposure to open field stress. LTP induction was blocked by elevated platform stress but not influenced by open field stress. Significant increases in serum corticosterone levels were observed in the elevated platform stress group compared with the open field stress group. Furthermore, LTP suppression induced by elevated platform stress was prevented by pretreatment with an anxiolytic drug diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that stress-induced LTP suppression depends on the relative intensity of the stressor. The inhibitory synaptic response induced by an intense psychological stress, such as elevated platform stress, may be attributable to LTP impairment in the CA1 field of the hippocampus.

  19. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  20. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  1. Escalating heat-stress mortality risk due to global warming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2018-08-01

    Climate change will substantially exacerbate extreme temperature and heatwaves. The impacts will be more intense across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a region mostly characterized by hot and arid climate, already intolerable for human beings in many parts. In this study, daily climate data from 17 fine-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are acquired to calculate wet-bulb temperature and investigate the mortality risk for people aged over 65 years caused by excessive heat stress across the MENA region. Spatially adaptive temperature thresholds are implemented for quantifying the mortality risk, and the analysis is conducted for the historical period of 1951-2005 and two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during the 2006-2100 period. Results show that the mortality risk will increase in distant future to 8-20 times higher than that of the historical period if no climate change mitigation is implemented. The coastal regions of the Red sea, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea indicate substantial increase in mortality risk. Nonetheless, the risk ratio will be limited to 3-7 times if global warming is limited to 2 °C. Climate change planning and adaptation is imperative for mitigating heat-related mortality risk across the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of PM Magnetization Field Effects on the Unbalanced Magnetic Forces due to Rotor Eccentricity in BLDC Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdiuon-Rad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates both static and dynamic eccentricities in single phase brushless DC (BLDC motors and analyzes the effect of the PM magnetization field on unbalanced magnetic forces acting on the rotor. Three common types of PM magnetization field patterns including radial, parallel and sinusoidal magnetizations are considered. In both static and dynamic eccentricities, harmonic components of the unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor are extracted and analyzed. Based on simulation results, the magnetization fields that produce the lowest and highest unbalanced magnetic forces are determined in rotor eccentricity conditions.

  3. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  4. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)

  5. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  6. Texture development due to preferential grain growth of Ho--Ba--Cu--O in 1.6-T magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.; McCallum, R.W.; Arrasmith, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that the application of even a relatively weak magnetic field of 1.6-T during sintering of HoBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (hereafter HoBCO) results in a significant degree of grain alignment. The orientation of grains is found to be controlled by the direction and magnitude of a magnetic field. The degree of alignment was monitored by x-ray diffraction measurements on the flat surface of the samples and by metallography. It has been observed that the degree of alignment grows as the magnitude of the field increases between 0 and 1.6 T for a fixed temperature and processing time. The degree of alignment also increases when the processing temperature changes from 930 degree C to 965 degree C for a fixed field and time. It has also been observed that for both a fixed field and processing temperature, the alignment grows when the processing time increases between 16 and 72 hours. Metallography measurements on the flat and cross-sectional parts of the samples showed that the texture propagates into the bulk of the samples. In the presence of a sufficient amount of the liquid phase, the enhancement of the grain growth in the direction favorable to the magnetic field produces rather large single-crystals (0.3 to 0.5 mm linear size) within the sample

  7. Estimating salinity stress in sugarcane fields with spaceborne hyperspectral vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseri, A. A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Mojaradi, B.; Bartholomeus, H. M.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Behzad, M.

    2013-04-01

    The presence of salt in the soil profile negatively affects the growth and development of vegetation. As a result, the spectral reflectance of vegetation canopies varies for different salinity levels. This research was conducted to (1) investigate the capability of satellite-based hyperspectral vegetation indices (VIs) for estimating soil salinity in agricultural fields, (2) evaluate the performance of 21 existing VIs and (3) develop new VIs based on a combination of wavelengths sensitive for multiple stresses and find the best one for estimating soil salinity. For this purpose a Hyperion image of September 2, 2010, and data on soil salinity at 108 locations in sugarcane (Saccharum officina L.) fields were used. Results show that soil salinity could well be estimated by some of these VIs. Indices related to chlorophyll absorption bands or based on a combination of chlorophyll and water absorption bands had the highest correlation with soil salinity. In contrast, indices that are only based on water absorption bands had low to medium correlations, while indices that use only visible bands did not perform well. From the investigated indices the optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) had the strongest relationship (R2 = 0.69) with soil salinity for the training data, but it did not perform well in the validation phase. The validation procedure showed that the new salinity and water stress indices (SWSI) implemented in this study (SWSI-1, SWSI-2, SWSI-3) and the Vogelmann red edge index yielded the best results for estimating soil salinity for independent fields with root mean square errors of 1.14, 1.15, 1.17 and 1.15 dS/m, respectively. Our results show that soil salinity could be estimated by satellite-based hyperspectral VIs, but validation of obtained models for independent data is essential for selecting the best model.

  8. Analysis of stress fields and elastic energies in the vicinity of nanograin boundaries using the disclination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper provides a theoretical analysis of elastic stresses and elastic energy distribution in nanostructured metal materials in the vicinity of nanograin boundaries with a high partial disclination density. The analysis demonstrates the stress field distribution in disclination grain boundary configurations as a function of nanograin size, taking into account the superposition of these stresses in screening the disclination pile-ups. It is found that the principal stress tensor components reach maximum values only in disclination planes P ≈ E/25 and that the stress gradients peak at nodal points ∂P/∂x ≈ 0.08E nm-1. The shear stress components are localized within the physical grain size, and the specific elastic energy distribution for such configurations reveals characteristic local maxima which can be the cause for physical broadening of nanograin boundaries.

  9. Cuticular characteristics in the detection of plant stress due to air pollution - new problems in the use of these cuticular characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The foliar surface, and particularly the cuticle, is the first zone of impact of air pollutants on leaves. At the level of the cuticle, it is mainly studies on the modifications of the physico-chemical properties of the waxes that allow us to detect and estimate plant stress. However, during recent years, with modifications in the nature and level of air pollution (decrease of primary pollutants: SO 2 , HF; increase of secondary pollutants: O 2 , acid deposits; increase of nitrogen deposits; increase of organic micropollutants; appearence of global environmental problems: CO 2 , climatic change), the physiological impact on plants and in particular on the cuticle is different. For this reason, new problems have appeared and use of cuticular characteristics in the detection of plant stress due to air pollutants has recently evolved. Some examples are given, but much remains to be done to understand the effects on the cuticle of these new modifications of the atmospheric environment of plants. (orig.)

  10. Starting solutions for the flow of second grade fluids in a rectangular channel due to an oscillating shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Corina; Rana, Mehwish

    2012-05-01

    The unsteady motion of a second grade fluid between two parallel side walls perpendicular to a plate is studied by means of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Initially, the fluid is at rest and at time t = 0+, the plate applies an oscillating shear to the fluid. The solutions that have been obtained, presented under integral and series form and written as a sum between steady time-periodic and transient solutions can be easily reduced to the similar solutions for Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. They describe the motion of the fluid some time after its initiation. After that time, when the transient solutions disappear, the motion of the fluid is described by the steady time-periodic solutions that are independent of the initial conditions. In the absence of side walls, more exactly when the distance between walls tends to infinity, all solutions reduce to those corresponding to the motion over an infinite plate. As it was to be expected, the steady time-periodic solutions corresponding to sine and cosine oscillations of the shear stress on the boundary differ by a phase shift. Finally, the influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the required time to reach the steady periodic flow, as well as the distance between walls for which the velocity of the fluid in the middle of the channel is unaffected by their presence are established by numerical calculus and graphical illustrations. As expected, the time needed to reach the steady periodic flows is lower in the presence of side walls. It is lower for Newtonian fluids in comparison with second grade fluids and greater for sine oscillations in comparison to the cosine oscillations of the boundary shear.

  11. Multi-parameter approximation of stress field in a cracked specimen using purpose-built Java applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Sopek, J.; Tesař, D.; Frantík, P.; Pail, T.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 33 (2015), s. 120-133 ISSN 1971-8993 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cracked specimen * Near-crack-tip fields * Williams expansion * Higher order terms * Stress field reconstruction * Finite element analysis * Java application Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmania infection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovani infection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.

  13. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  14. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  15. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km 2 from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  16. Estimation of a stress field in the earth`s crust using drilling-induced tensile fractures observed at well WD-1 in the Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda WD-1 sei de kansokusareta drilling induced tensile fracture ni yoru chikaku oryokuba no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, T. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science; Kato, O.; Doi, N.; Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes estimation of a stress field in the earth`s crust in the Kakkonda geothermal field. Formation micro imager (FMI) logging known as a crack detecting logging was performed in the well WD-1. This FMI logging has made observation possible on cracks along well axis thought to indicate size and direction of the crust stress, and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DTF). It was verified that these DTFs are generated initially in an azimuth determined by in-situ stress (an angle up to the DTF as measured counterclockwise with due north as a starting point, expressed in {theta}) in the well`s circumferential direction. It was also confirmed that a large number of cracks incline at a certain angle to the well axis (an angle made by the well axis and the DTF, expressed in {gamma}). The DTF is a crack initially generated on well walls as a result of such tensile stresses as mud pressure and thermal stress acting on the well walls during well excavation, caused by the in-situ stress field. Measurement was made on the {theta} and {gamma} from the FMI logging result, and estimation was given on a three-dimensional stress field. Elucidating the three-dimensional crust stress field in a geothermal reservoir is important in making clear the formation mechanism thereof and the growth of water-permeable cracks. This method can be regarded as an effective method. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Reale

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD, have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a

  18. Risk markers of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension--a prospective cohort study of individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2014-08-07

    Stress-related mental disorders rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension in sickness absentees with stress-related mental disorders. A cohort of 36304 non-retired individuals aged 16-64 years at 31.12.2004 with at-least one sickness absence spell due to stress-related mental disorders (SRMD) initiated in 2005 in Sweden was followed-up with regard to disability pension (2006-2010) by linkage of registers. Uni- and multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% Confidence Intervals, CI, were estimated using Cox regression for several risk markers. During the follow-up period, 2735 individuals (7.5%) were granted a disability pension, predominantly due to mental diagnoses (n = 2004, 73.3%). In the multivariate analyses, female sex, age exceeding 35 years, low educational level, being born in a country outside EU25 and Northern Europe, residing outside big cities, living alone, having had a long duration of the first spell due to SRMD (>90 days); mental disorders necessitating frequent specialised health care as well as comorbid somatic disorders were found to be predictive of granting disability pension. Some different patterns emerged for risk factors related to diagnosis-specific disability pension and for younger and older individuals. Several predictors could be identified as risk markers for disability pension. The variation in the effect of risk markers with regard to age and diagnosis of disability pension speaks in favour of the importance of a person-centered approach in treatment and rehabilitation.

  19. Multiple crossovers between positive and negative magnetoresistance versus field due to fragile spin structure in metallic GdPd3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the phenomenon of magnetoresistance (MR) have produced intriguing and application-oriented outcomes for decades–colossal MR, giant MR and recently discovered extremely large MR of millions of percents in semimetals can be taken as examples. We report here the discovery of novel multiple sign changes versus applied magnetic field of the MR in the cubic intermetallic compound GdPd3. Our study shows that a very strong correlation between magnetic, electrical and magnetotransport properties is present in this compound. The magnetic structure in GdPd3 is highly fragile since applied magnetic fields of moderate strength significantly alter the spin arrangement within the system–a behavior that manifests itself in the oscillating MR. Intriguing magnetotransport characteristics of GdPd3 are appealing for field-sensitive device applications, especially if the MR oscillation could materialize at higher temperature by manipulating the magnetic interaction through perturbations caused by chemical substitutions. PMID:28211520

  20. A stress field in the vortex lattice in the type-II superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruszewski, Bogdan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux can penetrate a type-II superconductor in the form of Abrikosov vortices (also called flux lines, flux tubes, or fluxons, each carrying a quantum of magnetic flux. These tiny vortices of supercurrent tend to arrange themselves in a triangular and/or quadratic flux-line lattice, which is more or less perturbed by material inhomogeneities that pin the flux lines. Pinning is caused by imperfections of the crystal lattice, such as dislocations, point defects, grain boundaries, etc. Hence, a honeycomb-like pattern of the vortex array presents some mechanical properties. If the Lorentz force of interactions between the vortices is much bigger than the pinning force, the vortex lattice behaves elastically. So we assume that the pinning force is negligible in the sequel and we deal with soft vortices. The vortex motion in the vortex lattice and/or creep of the vortices in the vortex fluid is accompanied by energy dissipation. Hence, except for the elastic properties, the vortex field is also of a viscous character. The main aim of the paper is a formulation of a thermoviscoelastic stress - strain constitutive law consisted of coexistence of the ordered and disordered states of the vortex field. Its form describes an auxetic-like thermomechanical (anomalous property of the vortex field.

  1. Inter-Annual Variability of Soil Moisture Stress Function in the Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuraju, V. R.; Ryu, D.; George, B.; Ryu, Y.; Dassanayake, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture content is a key variable that controls the exchange of water and energy fluxes between land and atmosphere. In the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) schemes, the influence of root-zone soil moisture on evapotranspiration (ET) is parameterized by the soil moisture stress function (SSF). Dependence of actual ET: potential ET (fPET) or evaporative fraction to the root-zone soil moisture via SSF can also be used inversely to estimate root-zone soil moisture when fPET is estimated by remotely sensed land surface states. In this work we present fPET versus available soil water (ASW) in the root zone observed in the experimental farm sites in Victoria, Australia in 2012-2013. In the wheat field site, fPET vs ASW exhibited distinct features for different soil depth, net radiation, and crop growth stages. Interestingly, SSF in the wheat field presented contrasting shapes for two cropping years of 2012 and 2013. We argue that different temporal patterns of rainfall (and resulting soil moisture) during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013 are responsible for the distinctive SSFs. SSF of the wheat field was simulated by the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM was able to reproduce the observed fPET vs. ASW. We discuss implications of our findings for existing modeling and (inverse) remote sensing approaches relying on SSF and alternative growth-stage-dependent SSFs.

  2. Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.

    1979-09-01

    It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented

  3. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Zaizen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  4. Evaluation of stress distribution due to shearing in non-oriented electrical steel by using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki, E-mail: y-zaizen@jfe-steel.co.jp; Omura, Takeshi; Senda, Kunihiro [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasakidori 1,Mizushima, Kurashiki,712-8511 (Japan); Fukumura, Masaru [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0855 (Japan); Toda, Hiroaki [Steel Business Planning Dept, JFE Steel Corporation, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The influence of the shearing process on the iron loss of non-oriented electrical steels with grain sizes of 10 μm-150 μm was investigated. The deterioration ratio of iron loss was clearly smaller in sample with small grain sizes. The droop height, reflecting the amount of plastic deformation, displayed a good relationship with the deterioration of iron loss under the effect of the material grain size. To clarify the strain distribution around the sheared edge, the elastic strain in a sheet sample with the thickness of 0.30 mm and grain size of 10 μm was evaluated by using synchrotron radiation. The width of the region of elastic strain due to shearing was two or three times of the material thickness. The results of the plastic strain distribution obtained by the measurements were then used to estimate the iron loss deterioration rate in 5 mm width sheared samples. The estimated loss deteriotation coincided with the actual measured iron loss.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of saturation excess surface runoff in flat fields due to interactions with meso- and microtopography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Noij, I.G.A.M.; Massop, H.T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Surface runoff is the fastest route from field to stream and the main transport route for sediment and adsorbed contaminants, and as such an important cause of surface water contamination in agricultural areas. The goals of the study were to explain differences in measured surface runoff volumes and

  6. Temperature measurement error due to the effects of time varying magnetic fields on thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements (iron, Alumel, Nisil) are used extensively in industry. We have observed the generation of voltage spikes within ferromagnetic wires when the wires are placed in an alternating magnetic field. This effect has implications for thermocouple thermometry, where it was first observed. For example, the voltage generated by this phenomenon will contaminate the thermocouple thermal emf, resulting in temperature measurement error

  7. The future of subsidence modelling: compaction and subsidence due to gas depletion of the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienen-Visser, K. van; Fokker, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Groningen gas field has shown considerable compaction and subsidence since starting production in the early 1960s. The behaviour is understood from the geomechanical response of the reservoir pressure depletion. By integrating surface movement measurements and modelling, the model parameters can

  8. Liver Melanomacrophages and Gluthation S-Transferase Activity in Leptodactylus chaquensis (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Due to Chlorpyrifos Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Huespe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We quantified and compared the hepatic melanomacrophage (MM and glutathione S-transferase (GST enzyme activity (two oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver of Leptodatylus chaquensis adults (Anura, Leptodactylidae collected in a rice field (CA in San Javier department, Santa Fe (Argentina, seven days after the application of chlorpyrifos and in a reference site (SR. The histological analysis revealed a significant amount (p = 0.028 and area occupied by MM (p = 0.017 in livers of CA compared to SR. Furthermore, a significant inhibition of GST activity was recorded in the CA frogs compared to the SR (p = 0.030. The histopathological and enzymatic effects provide evidences of ecotoxicological risk for anurans in rice field with CPF application.

  9. Magnetic field perturbation in proton MR imaging - A study of a contrast agent and of distortions due to metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, M.

    1992-01-01

    Perturbations of the static magnetic field in proton MR imaging (NMR imaging, MRI, MRT) result in image distortion and/or signal loss. An investigation of a superparamagnetic contrast agent for MR imaging has been performed. Magnetite particles were embedded in biodegradable starch spheres with a diameter of one micrometer. Animal experiments showed that the agent was quickly accumulated in the reticulo-endothelial system (RES), causing a decrease in signal intensity in this region. Diffusion within the locally generated magnetic field perturbation is responsible for signal loss in spin-echo images. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of various aneurysm clips were investigated to determine which clips could be used safely in a clinical MR investigation. MR artifacts caused by the metallic clips were studied using a geometric phantom. Non-ferromagnetic clips were concluded to be safe for examinations with medium field (0.3 tesla) MR imaging systems. A comparison study between MR and CT was performed on patients harbouring intracranial, nonferromagnetic aneurysm clips. The artifacts close to the clips were equally serve for MR and CT, but at some distance, the MR images were much less affected than the CT images. Finally, a computer program capable of simulating any realistic MR imaging situation has been developed. Raw data matrices are obtained by solving the Bloch equations. Corrections for intravascular spin behaviour have been implemented together with efficient algorithms. A quantitative investigation of signal displacement and signal loss, caused by small metallic implants, has been performed by computer simulation. An exact expression for the magnetic field outside a homogeneous ellipsoid in an external magnetic field has been derived. Distortions in MR images, caused by perturbing ellipsoids of different shapes and orientations, were studied. (30 refs.) (au)

  10. Vortex configuration in the presence of local magnetic field and locally applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissberg, Shai; Kremen, Anna; Shperber, Yishai; Kalisky, Beena

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss different ways to determine vortex configuration using a scanning SQUID. • We determined the vortex configuration by approaching the sample during cooling. • We observed an accumulation of vortices when contact was made with the sample. • We show how we can manipulate local vortex configuration using contact. - Abstract: Vortex configuration is determined by the repulsive interaction, which becomes dominant with increasing vortex density, by the pinning potential, and by other considerations such as the local magnetic fields, currents flowing in the sample, or as we showed recently, by local stress applied on the sample. In this work we describe different ways to control vortex configuration using scanning SQUID microscopy.

  11. Vortex configuration in the presence of local magnetic field and locally applied stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissberg, Shai; Kremen, Anna; Shperber, Yishai; Kalisky, Beena, E-mail: beena@biu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We discuss different ways to determine vortex configuration using a scanning SQUID. • We determined the vortex configuration by approaching the sample during cooling. • We observed an accumulation of vortices when contact was made with the sample. • We show how we can manipulate local vortex configuration using contact. - Abstract: Vortex configuration is determined by the repulsive interaction, which becomes dominant with increasing vortex density, by the pinning potential, and by other considerations such as the local magnetic fields, currents flowing in the sample, or as we showed recently, by local stress applied on the sample. In this work we describe different ways to control vortex configuration using scanning SQUID microscopy.