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  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to other adrenal hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with chronic inflammatory disease: role of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Lehle, Karin; Herfarth, Hans; Weber, Markus; Falk, Werner; Preuner, Jurgen; Scholmerich, Jurgen

    2002-03-01

    Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) are low in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the reasons are unexplained. Furthermore, the behaviour of serum levels of these hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state is not well known. In this study in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state (13 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery) and patients with chronic inflammation (61 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)) vs. 120 controls, we aimed to investigate adrenal hormone shifts looking at serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. Furthermore, we tested the predictive role of serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) for a change of serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEA/androstenedione (ASD) was increased in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was decreased in patients with chronic inflammation. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA was reduced during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was increased in patients with chronic inflammation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEA/ASD in all groups (for IL-6 in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state only), and, similarly, elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA only in IBD (for IL-6 only in healthy subjects). This study indicates that changes of serum levels of DHEA in relation to serum levels of other adrenal hormones are completely different in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with patients with chronic inflammation. The decrease of serum levels of DHEAS and DHEA is typical for chronic inflammation and TNF and IL-6 play a predictive role for these changes.

  2. Risk factors for stress fractures.

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    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  3. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed. Copyright

  4. Risk factors and outcomes of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and stress-induced cardiomyopathy in sepsis or septic shock: A comparative retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Lee, Tae Hyub; Bang, Cho Hee; Kim, Jong-Ho; Hong, Soon Jun

    2018-03-01

    While both sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SICMP) are common in patients with sepsis, the pathogenesis of the 2 diseases is different, and they require different treatment strategies. Thus, we aimed to investigate risk factors and outcomes between the 2 diseases.This retrospective study enrolled patients diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock, admitted to intensive care unit via emergency department in Korea University Anam Hospital, and who underwent transthoracic echocardiography within the first 24 hours of admission.In all, 25 patients with SIMD and 27 patients with SICMP were enrolled. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of heart failure (HF) were more prevalent in both the SIMD and SICMP groups than in the control group. In the SIMD and SICMP groups, levels of inflammatory cytokines were similar. Serum troponin level was significantly elevated in the SICMP and SIMD group compared to the control group. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) level was significantly elevated in the SIMD group compared to the SICMP group or control group. The in-hospital mortality rate in the SIMD and SICMP group was about 40%, showing increased trends compared with the control group. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly increased in SIMD group with EFshock.

  5. Predictive factors that influence treatment outcomes of innovative single incision sling: comparing TVT-Secur to an established transobturator sling for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eugene; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lim, Jae Sung; Song, Ki Hak; Sul, Chong Koo; Na, Yong Gil

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to identify independent risk factors for treatment failure of tension-free vaginal tape TVT-Secur (TVT-S) compared to that of the well-established transobturator tape. Of a total of 175 consecutive patients with urodynamically confirmed stress urinary incontinence (SUI) identified between July 2007 and March 2010, 89 patients underwent TVT-S, and 86 underwent TOT. Cure was defined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory as no urinary leakage during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing as reported by patients during a telephone survey. To identify predictors of treatment failure, multivariable logistic regression models were used, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using variables identified during univariate analysis. There were more patients with cystocele ≥ grade 2 in the TVT-S group (p = 0.031); otherwise the groups were well matched. After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 12-44 months), the overall cure rate was 80.6%; it was 70.8% for those treated with TVT-S and 90.7% for those treated with TOT (p = 0.001). In a multivariate model, previous incontinence surgery (OR 27.1, p = 0.005) and a cystocele ≥ grade 2 (OR 3.0, p = 0.020) were independent risk factors influencing the outcome of TVT-S procedures. For the TOT procedures, detrusor overactivity was an independent risk factor in a multivariate model (OR 8.6, p = 0.033). TVT-S could be performed for selected patients, but conventional TOT procedures are still superior to the novel TVT-S device.

  6. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  7. Comparative inter-institutional study of stress among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Radillo, Blanca E; Galván-Ramírez, Ma Luz; Pando, Manuel; Carrión, Ma De los Angeles; González, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry is considered to be a stressful profession due to different factors caused by work, representing a threat to dentists'health. The objectives of this work were to identify and compare chronic stress in dentists among the different health institutions and the association of stress with risk factors. The study in question is observational, transversal and comparative; 256 dentists were included, distributed among five public health institutions in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, namely: the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), the Ministry of Health (SS), the Integral Development of the Family (DIF), the Social Security Services Institute for the Workers (ISSSTE) and the University of Guadalajara (U. de G) Data were obtained by means of the census technique. Stress was identified using the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the statistical analysis was performed using the Odds Ratio (O.R.) and the chi-square statistic. From the total population studied, 219 subjects presented high levels of chronic stress and 37, low levels. In the results of comparative analysis, significant differences were found between IMSS and U. de G and likewise between IMSS and SS. However, in the analysis of association, only U. de G was found to be associated with the high level of chronic stress.

  8. The Comparative Effectiveness of Levels of Training and Years of Work Experience in Firefighters as Determining Factors in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melva W.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been known by other names and not well studied prior to returning Vietnam veterans who suffered psychological dysfunction. However, the term PTSD became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in 1981. Since that time PTSD has been researched extensively in veterans. However,…

  9. Estimation of stress intensity factors for circumferential cracked pipes under welding residual stress filed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Young Jin; Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yong Beum; Oh, Young Jin; Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yong Beum

    2012-01-01

    Recently, stress corrosion cracking(SCC) have been found in dissimilar metal welds of nozzles in some pressurized water reactors and on low carbon stainless steel piping systems of boiling water reactors. The important factor of SCC is the residual stress field caused by weld. For the evaluation of crack growth analysis due to SCC, stress intensity factor under a residual stress field should be estimated. Several solutions for stress intensity factor under residual stress field were recommended in flaw assessment codes such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI, R6, American Petroleum Institute (API579). Some relevant works have been studied. Dong et al. evaluated stress intensity factors in welded structures. Miyazaki et al. estimated stress intensity factors of surface crack in simple stress fields. This paper presents a simple method to estimate stress intensity factors in welding residual stress field. For general application, results of structure integrity assessment codes KI solutions were compared Finite element analyses of welding simulation and cracked pipes are described. Comparison results of KI solutions and proposed simplified solution are presented in the works

  10. Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity Factor with U-notch and Crack in the Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bo Seong; Lee, Kwang Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The stress concentration factors and stress intensity factors for a simple beam and a cantilever are analyzed by using finite element method and photoelasticity. Using the analyzed results, the estimated graphs on stress concentration factors and stress intensity factors are obtained. To analyze stress concentration factors of notch, the dimensionless notch length H(height of specimen)/h=1.1-2 and dimensionless gap space r(radius at the notch tip)/h=0.1~0.5 are used, where h=H-c and c is the notch length. As the notch gap length increases and the gap decreases, the stress concentration factors increase. Stress concentration factors of a simple beam are greater than those of a cantilever beam. However, actually, the maximum stress values under a load, a notch length and a gap occur more greatly in the cantilever beam than in the simple beam. To analyze stress intensity factors, the normalized crack length α(crack length)/H=0.2~0.5 is used. As the length of the crack increases, the normalized stress intensity factors increase. The stress intensity factors under a constant load and a crack length occur more greatly in the cantilever beam than in the simple beam.

  11. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

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    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  12. Stress indices and flexibility factors in thin elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, M.N.; Carbonnier, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Usually piping calculations are done with a beam model. Ovalisation in elbows is taken into account by the means of flexibility factors and stress indices. This paper compares results from a beam model calculation with results from a 3 D shell model calculation. (codes TEDEL and TRICO from the CEA-SEMT System). The aim of this comparison is to study the validity of the stress indices and flexibility factors used in the beam model for several kinds of loading

  13. Stress concentration factor and stress intensity factor on hard metals in connection with the wear characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawihl, W.; Altmeyer, G.

    1977-01-01

    Description of a method to determine stress intensity factors on hard metals by lapping in notches of different diameter. Dependence of the values of the stress intensity factors on the size of the notch base diameter. For tungsten carbide hard metals with 6% Co, determination of a final value of 250 Nmm -3 / 2 . Characterisation of the stress intensity factor governed by the surface roughness which is decisive for the assessment of the wear-resistant behaviour. (orig.) [de

  14. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  15. NUR TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN STRESS AND ADDICTION

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    Danae eCampos-Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nur transcription factors Nur77 (NGFI-B, NR4A1, Nurr1 (NR4A2 and Nor-1 (NR4A3 are a sub-family of orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. These transcription factors are products of immediate early genes, whose expression is rapidly and transiently induced in the central nervous system by several types of stimuli. Nur factors are present throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis where are prominently induced in response to stress. Drugs of abuse and stress also induce the expression of Nur factors in nuclei of the motivation/reward circuit of the brain, indicating their participation in the process of drug addiction and in non-hypothalamic responses to stress. Repeated use of addictive drugs and chronic stress induce long-lasting dysregulation of the brain motivation/reward circuit, due to reprogramming of gene expression and enduring alterations in neuronal function. Here, we review the data supporting that Nur transcription factors are key players in the molecular basis of the dysregulation of neuronal circuits involved in chronic stress and addiction.

  16. Stress intensity factors and constant stress terms for interface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.; Rizzi, G.

    2004-01-01

    In bi-material joints cracks can propagate along the interface or kink into one of the two materials. Whereas the energy release rate can be applied for interface cracks in the same way as usual for homogeneous materials, the computation of stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip is significantly more complicated. In order to assess crack kinking, it is necessary to know the mixed-mode stress intensity factor contributions K I and K II as well as the constant stress terms in the two materials. Whereas the stress intensity factors are available for a large number of infinite and semi-infinite bodies, there is experimental interest in practically used test specimens. This especially holds for the constant x-stress terms. Finite element computations are performed for the special case of a disappearing second Dundurs parameter, i.e. β=0. The fracture mechanics parameters K I , K II , σ 0 for the interface crack are reported in the form of diagrams and approximate relations. (orig.)

  17. Occupational stress and related factors among surgical residents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sanghee; Jo, Hye Sung; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-11-01

    The application rate for surgical residents in Korea has continuously decreased over the past few years. The demanding workload and the occupational stress of surgical training are likely causes of this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational stress and its related factors in Korean surgical residents. With the support of the Korean Surgical Society, we conducted an electronic survey of Korean surgical residents related to occupational stress. We used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) to measure occupational stress. We analyzed the data focused on the stress level and the factors associated with occupational stress. The mean KOSS score of the surgical residents was 55.39, which was significantly higher than that of practicing surgeons (48.16, P occupation rate and exercise were all significantly associated with KOSS score. Surgical residents have high occupational stress compared to practicing surgeons and other professionals. Their mean number of assigned patients, resident recruitment rate and exercise were all significantly associated with occupational stress for surgical residents.

  18. PREDICTION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    consider the effect of brace spacing on strengths of tubular K joints without consideration of same effect on square section K Joints. This lack of studies design strengths of gapped square section K joints makes availability of information on stress concentration factors in same joints scarce. However, information on 'Hot Spot' ...

  19. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of “a significant decline in market share by the middle of the 20th century as travelers and shippers turned increasingly to airlines, trucks, and...1995). Intercity passenger rail: Financial and operating conditions threaten Amtrak’s long-term viability (GAO-95-71). Washington, DC: U.S...I. (1980). Retrenchment and flexibility in public organizations. Fiscal Stress and Public Policy, 159–178. Scheinberg, P. F. (1998). Intercity

  20. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels of EAP promotion and worksite activities were associated with greater likelihood of service use. Greater focus on wellness/prevention and unusual and significant stress were associated with lower likelihood of service use. Results provide stakeholders with insights on approaches to increasing utilization of EAP services.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Shoots and Roots of TNG67 and TCN1 Rice Seedlings under Cold Stress and Following Subsequent Recovery: Insights into Metabolic Pathways, Phytohormones, and Transcription Factors.

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    Yun-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Cold stress affects rice growth, quality and yield. The investigation of genome-wide gene expression is important for understanding cold stress tolerance in rice. We performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the shoots and roots of 2 rice seedlings (TNG67, cold-tolerant; and TCN1, cold-sensitive in response to low temperatures and restoration of normal temperatures following cold exposure. TNG67 tolerated cold stress via rapid alterations in gene expression and the re-establishment of homeostasis, whereas the opposite was observed in TCN1, especially after subsequent recovery. Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed that cold stress substantially regulated the expression of genes involved in protein metabolism, modification, translation, stress responses, and cell death. TNG67 takes advantage of energy-saving and recycling resources to more efficiently synthesize metabolites compared with TCN1 during adjustment to cold stress. During recovery, expression of OsRR4 type-A response regulators was upregulated in TNG67 shoots, whereas that of genes involved in oxidative stress, chemical stimuli and carbohydrate metabolic processes was downregulated in TCN1. Expression of genes related to protein metabolism, modification, folding and defense responses was upregulated in TNG67 but not in TCN1 roots. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA-, polyamine-, auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA-related genes were preferentially regulated in TNG67 shoots and roots and were closely associated with cold stress tolerance. The TFs AP2/ERF were predominantly expressed in the shoots and roots of both TNG67 and TCN1. The TNG67-preferred TFs which express in shoot or root, such as OsIAA23, SNAC2, OsWRKY1v2, 24, 53, 71, HMGB, OsbHLH and OsMyb, may be good candidates for cold stress tolerance-related genes in rice. Our findings highlight important alterations in the expression of cold-tolerant genes, metabolic pathways, and hormone-related and TF-encoding genes in TNG67 rice

  2. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  3. Factor analysis for exercise stress radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Yasuda, Mitsutaka; Oku, Hisao; Ikuno, Yoshiyasu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Tadanao; Ochi, Hironobu

    1987-01-01

    Using factor analysis, a new image processing in exercise stress radionuclide ventriculography, changes in factors associated with exercise were evaluated in 14 patients with angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction. The patients were imaged in the left anterior oblique projection, and three factor images were presented on a color coded scale. Abnormal factors (AF) were observed in 6 patients before exercise, 13 during exercise, and 4 after exercise. In 7 patients, the occurrence of AF was associated with exercise. Five of them became free from AF after exercise. Three patients showing AF before exercise had aggravation of AF during exercise. Overall, the occurrence or aggravation of AF was associated with exercise in ten (71 %) of the patients. The other three patients, however, had disappearance of AF during exercise. In the last patient, none of the AF was observed throughout the study. In view of a high incidence of AF associated with exercise, the factor analysis may have the potential in evaluating cardiac reverse from the viewpoint of left ventricular wall motion abnormality. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Factors causing stress among Pakistani working women

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    Ahmed Arif

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are traditionally considered to be confined within the four walls of their houses in the developing countries. They are still unable to play an active role in the development of society. They are striving to make their identity as an integral part of the society. Being a member of conservative developing society, women are still facing many hindrances, causing stressful situation for them, which prohibits them to participate actively in the economic development. This paper attempts to explore the critical factors creating stress among Pakistani working women. Based on literature review, the key stressors were identified to be as work life balance, gender discrimination, peers behaviour, lack of promotional opportunities and sexual harassment. These factors were found to be creating physiological, behavioural and psychological problems. The target of this study was the women working in secretarial and administrative positions in Pakistani organisations. Regression analysis was conducted to find out the impact of these stressors on working women. The results revealed that sexual harassment, peers behaviour and lack of promotional opportunities were the most dominant stressors.

  5. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  6. Factors Associated with Urinary Stress Incontinence in Primiparas

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Ling Chou; Fang-Ping Chen; Li-Fen Teng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obstetric and maternal risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in primiparas. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to August 2002, 378 primiparas were interviewed about stress urinary incontinence 1 year after delivery. The association between symptoms of urinary stress incontinence and obstetric factors was assessed. Results: Twenty-four (6%) primiparas had urinary stress incontinence after delivery. Maternal age was positively associated with urinary st...

  7. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

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    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research

  8. Stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Tagata, Kazunori.

    1983-11-01

    The stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in various three-dimensional structures were performed using the finite element computer program EPAS-J1. The results obtained by EPAS-J1 were compared with other finite element solutions or results obtained by the simplified estimation methods. Among the simplified estimation methods, the equations proposed by Newman and Raju give the distributions of the stress intensity factor along a crack front, which were compared with the result obtained by EPAS-J1. It was confirmed by comparing the results that EPAS-J1 gives reasonable stress intensity factors of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures. (author)

  9. Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily; Dennis, Paul A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Kirby, Angela C.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor “dysphoria” model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Results indicated that the Elhai 5-factor model (re-experiencing, active avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal) provided the best fit to the data, although substantial support was demonstrated for the DSM-5 4-factor model. Low factor loadings were noted for two of the symptoms in the DSM-5 model (psychogenic amnesia and reckless/self-destructive behavior), which raises questions regarding the adequacy of fit of these symptoms with other core features of the disorder. Overall, the findings from the present research suggest the DSM-5 model of PTSD is a significant improvement over the previous DSM-IV model of PTSD. PMID:26366290

  10. Use of frozen stress in extracting stress intensity factor distributions in three dimensional cracked body problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation of the frozen stress photoelastic method to the determination of the distribution of stress intensity factors in three dimensional problems is briefly reviewed. The method is then applied to several engineering problems of practical significance.

  11. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  12. Effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Miyazaki, Yuji; Hashikura, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for stress corrosion crack (K ISCC ) of stainless steel were studied. Tensile overload was applied to a wedge opening loaded (WOL) specimen of SUS316. Then, SCC tests were carried out to determine the resultant K ISCC . As a result, the apparent value of K ISCC increases as increasing a stress intensity factor by tensile overload (K OV ). The effects of tensile overload on K ISCC and the threshold stress intensity factor range for fatigue (ΔK th ) were compared. It was found that the effects of tensile overload on K ISCC were larger than that on ΔK th . (author)

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liang; Ren, Huadong; Li, Sheng; Gao, Ming; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Wei, Yuan; Yao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  14. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  15. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  16. Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Sampaio de Brito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. DESIGN AND SETTING : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. METHODS :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. RESULTS : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P < 0.05 and had a marginal trend toward significance with more advanced phases of stress (OR 4.7; CI: 0.99-22.51; P = 0.053. CONCLUSION :Stress and coping strategies may have implications for understanding and managing nonadherent behavior among transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.

  17. The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.

  18. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  19. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF STRESS IN ACCOUNTING AND CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stager

    2017-01-01

    Stress in accounting is popular in the area of research for many researchers in the fields of Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Health and Medicine. A significant part of empirical research has been focused on the analysis of the relationships between different individual and organizational stress factors on the job, including the effects of stress on the job. In the paper, we are showing an overview of the key concepts in the field of stress in accounting, covering organizational and pers...

  1. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses for circumferential cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Beum

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of existing methods to estimate stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses, comparisons with finite element (FE) solutions are made for two types of generic welding residual stress profiles, generated by simulating repair welds. It is found that fitting residual stresses over the crack depth using third-order polynomials gives good estimates of stress intensity factors but fitting over the entire thickness can result in inaccurate estimates even with fourth-order polynomials. Noting that welding residual stresses are often determined from FE analyses, linearization of residual stresses to estimate stress intensity factors is proposed. Comparison with FE solutions shows good agreements. -- Highlights: ► Applicability of K estimation methods is investigated for welding residual stresses. ► Two types of generic residual stress profiles with repair welds are considered. ► Fitting residual stresses over the crack depth gives good estimates of K. ► A method to estimate K by linearising residual stress profiles is proposed

  3. Chronic stress as a factor in aircraft mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkov, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Naval aviation is an unusually stressful career because of the inherent demands of the work. Stress is recognized as a cause of mishaps which involve pilot error. A questionnaire was adapted from Rahe and Homes' list of stressful life events in order to determine the relationship between pilot behavioral, personality, and life change factors on the one hand and responsibility for accidents on the other. A number of factors regarding interpersonal relationships, changes in personal behavior, personality factors, and life changes were found to discriminate between pilots who were and were not at fault in accidents.

  4. Stress factors for the deformation systems of zirconium under multiaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Calculation of the resolved shear stresses (rss) that act on various deformation systems in metals and, in particular, the determination of those systems subjected to the highest rss by a given set of multiaxial stresses is of importance in the study of texture development, yielding and plastic flow. This study examines the geometrical influences of any stress state on the deformation modes of zirconium. One slip mode and three twinning modes, comprising twenty-one deformation systems, are considered. Stress factors computed for these systems are shown on a coordinate system that allows specimen orientation, most highly stressed deformation system, and stress factor to be shown without ambiguity. The information in this report allows the determination of the rss that results from any multiaxial stress state; this information also allows the prediction of the deformation modes that might operate for any specimen orientation in that strss state

  5. Factors causing stress among Pakistani working women

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Ahmed; Naveed, Shaheryar; Aslam, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Women are traditionally considered to be confined within the four walls of their houses in the developing countries. They are still unable to play an active role in the development of society. They are striving to make their identity as an integral part of the society. Being a member of conservative developing society, women are still facing many hindrances, causing stressful situation for them, which prohibits them to participate actively in the economic development. This paper attempts to e...

  6. Factor associated with stress among parents of children with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahida, S.; Khurshid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)

  7. Calculation of mixed mode stress intensity factors using an alternating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, mixed mode stress intensity factors (K I and K II ) of a square plate with a notch were calculated using a finite element alternating method. The obtained results were compared with the ones by a finite element method, and it was shown that the finite element alternating method can accurately estimate mixed mode stress intensity factors. Then, using this finite element alternating method, mixed mode stress intensity factors were calculated as changing the size and position of the notch, and its simplified equations were proposed. (author)

  8. Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high level of work stress has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study examined the effect of work stress on a cluster of metabolic and hemostatic risk factors. Blood was collected three times, on

  9. Numerical Determination of Crack Opening and Closure Stress Intensity Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows the numerical determination of fatigue crack opening and closure stress intensity factors of a C(T) specimen under variable amplitude loading using a finite element method. A half compact tension C(T) specimen, assuming plane stress constraint was used by finite element...

  10. A Factor Analytic Study of the Teaching Events Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Livingston; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine if definitive factors emerge from the responses of teachers to the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI). In a series of three studies during the years 1980 to 1982, data were collected to assess the levels and sources of stress experienced by 660 teachers in central and western Kentucky. The subjects…

  11. Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrinsic factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes: A large case-control study. ... Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most common lower-leg injury in athletes, and is thought to be caused by ... from 32 Countries:.

  12. Subjective stress factors in centrifuge training for military aircrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Wang, Jenhung; Li, Shih-Chin

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates stress-influence factors perceived by military aircrews undergoing centrifuge training, which lowers the incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) for the crews of high-performance combat aircrafts. We used questionnaires to assess the subjective stress-influence factors of crews undergoing centrifuge training. Professionals in aviation physiology identified attributes measuring the perceived stress induced by centrifuge training, which were segmented into three constructs by factor analysis, theory lecture, centrifuge equipment, and physical fitness. Considerable interpenetration was discernible between these factors and military rank, age, length of service, flight hours accrued, and type of aircraft piloted. Identifying and quantifying the perceived stressors experienced in human-use centrifuge training enables aviators, astronauts, and air forces of the world to determine which constructs perceptibly increase or alleviate the perceived stress undergone by trainees when partaking in centrifuge training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Daniela Cristina Sampaio de; Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi Dos Santos; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2016-01-01

    : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.

  14. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita; Jastreboff, Ania M

    2013-05-01

    Stress is associated with obesity, and the neurobiology of stress overlaps significantly with that of appetite and energy regulation. This review will discuss stress, allostasis, the neurobiology of stress and its overlap with neural regulation of appetite, and energy homeostasis. Stress is a key risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse. High levels of stress changes eating patterns and augments consumption of highly palatable (HP) foods, which in turn increases incentive salience of HP foods and allostatic load. The neurobiological mechanisms by which stress affects reward pathways to potentiate motivation and consumption of HP foods as well as addictive drugs is discussed. With enhanced incentive salience of HP foods and overconsumption of these foods, there are adaptations in stress and reward circuits that promote stress-related and HP food-related motivation as well as concomitant metabolic adaptations, including alterations in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other hormones related to energy homeostasis. These metabolic changes in turn might also affect dopaminergic activity to influence food motivation and intake of HP foods. An integrative heuristic model is proposed, wherein repeated high levels of stress alter the biology of stress and appetite/energy regulation, with both components directly affecting neural mechanisms contributing to stress-induced and food cue-induced HP food motivation and engagement in overeating of such foods to enhance risk of weight gain and obesity. Future directions in research are identified to increase understanding of the mechanisms by which stress might increase risk of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Appraisal of occupational stress and its influential factors in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Wang, Mian-zhen; Lan, Ya-jia

    2004-04-01

    To assess the occupational stress and its influential factors in nurses. A test of occupational stress, its influential factors, work ability were carried out for 248 nurses and 319 controls with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index (WAI). The scores of personal cope resource (131.266 +/- 17.176) and work ability index (32.581 +/- 3.158) in nurse group were significantly higher than those in control group (126.931 +/- 19.108, 31.840 +/- 4.069) (P < 0.05). The main occupational stressors scores (role insufficiency, role clash, and responsibility) in nurses were higher than those in controls (P < 0.05). The stress response of interpersonal relationship in nurses was also higher. The items of personal cope resource, such as recreation, self-care and social support of nurses were superior to those of controls (P < 0.05). Stress response was positively correlated with occupational role (r = 0.512, P < 0.01), and negatively correlated with the personal cope resource (r = -0.475, P < 0.01). The primary influential factors of personal stress were recreation, social support, rational conduct, role insufficiency, role clash, responsibility, and poor work environment. To strengthen social support, to improve work condition for nurses, so as to reduce the occupational stress and to enhance the work ability of nurses are important task in occupational health field.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students’ Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A.; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Tieman, Jami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors. PMID:27402985

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students' Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.

  19. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational stress and cardiovascular risk factors in high-ranking government officials and office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Taheri, Mahmoud; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Saadati Kanafi, Ali; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual's ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them. We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared. High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials. The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers.

  1. [Psychosomatic stress factors in compensated and decompensated tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobik, Corinna; Weber, Rainer K; Münte, Thomas F; Frommer, Jörg

    2003-08-01

    In modern medical practice, chronic decompensated tinnitus is defined as a complex psychosomatic process in which mental and social factors are considered to have a determining effect on the patient's subjective response to the impairment of otological or other somatic functions attributed to tinnitus. What is still largely unknown is the interaction of the individual factors and their impact on the patient's ability to cope with tinnitus. The impact of psycho-social and somatic factors on the subjective experience of patients with compensated and decompensated tinnitus is evaluated. 53 patients with chronic tinnitus were divided into two groups, compensated and decompensated, on the basis of their subjective experience of the disorder, established according to the tinnitus questionnaire published by Goebel and Hiller. Self-assessment instruments and a survey of symptoms of somatic stress disorders were used to compare the two groups in terms of differences in the patients' mental and psycho-social behaviour, in their strategies for coping with tinnitus and in the incidence of co-morbidity. The patients with decompensated tinnitus suffered from more pronounced mental and social disabilities, were more prone to depression and used less effective techniques to cope with their illness. The principal difference between the two groups, however, appeared to lie in a significantly higher degree of somatic multi-morbidity, where a particularly strong correlation was found between tinnitus and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and hypacusis. 81 percent of the total sample of patients suffered from impaired hearing. Patients with decompensated tinnitus experienced greater communication difficulties as a result of their auditory impairment. In the diagnosis and therapy of tinnitus, in addition to psychic and psycho-social aspects greater attention ought to be paid to somatic factors, influencing the patient's ability to cope with the disorder.

  2. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    The load transfer within agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). Measurements of stress in soil are needed to evaluate model calculations, but may...

  3. Determination of Stress Intensity Factor K1 from Two Fringe Orders by Fringe Multiplication and Sharpening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Stress intensity factor is one of the most important parameters in fracture mechanics. Both the stress field distribution and the crack propagation are closely related to these parameters. Due to the complexity of actual engineering problems, it is difficult to calculate the stress intensity factor by theoretical formulation, so photoelasticity method is a good choice. In this paper, modified two parameter method is employed to calculate stress intensity factor for opening mode by using data from more than one photoelastic fringe loop. For getting accurate experiment results, the initial fringes are doubled and sharpened by digital image programs from the fringe patterns obtained by a CCD camera. Photoelastic results are compared with those obtained by the use of empirical equation and FEM. Good agreement shows that the methods utilized in experiments are considerably reliable. The photoelastic experiment can be used for bench mark in theoretical study and other experiments

  4. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  5. A comparative study between Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri on tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two very closely related invasive ant species; however, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. Physiological tolerance to abiotic stress has been hypothesized to be important to the success of an invasive species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that S. invicta is more tolerant to heat and desiccation stress than S. richteri. The data strongly support our hypothesis. S. invicta was found to be significantly less vulnerable than S. richteri to both heat and desiccation stress. Despite S. richteri having significantly higher body water content, S. invicta was less sensitive to desiccation stress due to its significantly lower water loss rate (higher desiccation resistance. After the cuticular lipid was removed, S. invicta still had a significantly lower water loss rate than S. richteri, indicating that cuticular lipids were not the only factors accounting for difference in the desiccation resistance between these two species. Since multiple biological and/or ecological traits can contribute to the invasion success of a particular species, whether the observed difference in tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses is indeed associated with the variation in invasion success between these two species can only be confirmed by further extensive comparative study.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  7. [The role of environmental factors in managing labour stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Melinda; Mészáros, Judit

    2017-07-01

    Emotional, cognitive and behavioural aspects of birth and labour stress are strongly associated with the underlying physiological processes. To study the factors of physical security and social support, the administration of synthetic oxytocin, and how they relate to perceived stress during childbirth. Women's experienced physical security, social support and oxytocin administration was measured with targeted questions, and their perceived stress with the short and modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale. A strong negative association was found between perceived stress and physical and social security. The group of women experiencing low physical and social security perceived significantly higher stress, while those given synthetic oxytocin perceived higher stress, and lower physical and social security. Since physiological, psychological processes and behaviours are strongly intertwined, the support of natural physiological birth without interventions is recommended, which considers not only short-term but long-term health consequences for mother and child. The contribution of calming physical surroundings, minimal interventions and empowering support of caregivers to safe and satisfying birth is demonstrated in a model. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1149-1156.

  8. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of preterm birth may be explained by various factors, and previous studies are limited in examining the role of institutional racism. This study focused on the following questions: what is the association between preterm birth and institutional racism as measured by residential racial segregation (geographic separation by race) and redlining (black-white disparity in mortgage loan denial); and what is the association between preterm birth and reported stress, discrimination, and neighborhood quality. We used data from a clinic-based sample of pregnant women (n = 3462) participating in a stress and pregnancy study conducted from 1999 to 2004 in Philadelphia, PA (USA). We linked data from the 2000 US Census and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1999 to 2004 and developed measures of residential redlining and segregation. Among the entire population, there was an increased risk for preterm birth among women who were older, unmarried, tobacco users, higher number of previous births, high levels of experiences of everyday discrimination, owned their homes, lived in nonredlined areas, and areas with high levels of segregation measured by the isolation index. Among black women, living in a redlined area (where blacks were more likely to be denied mortgage loans compared to whites) was moderately associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (aRR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.99). Residential redlining as a form institutional racism and neighborhood characteristic may be important for understanding racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy and preterm birth.

  9. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  10. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  11. Risk factors for stress in children after parental stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the

  12. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  13. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  14. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  15. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  16. Problem-solving skills and hardiness as protective factors against stress in Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2014-02-01

    Nursing is a stressful occupation, even when compared with other health professions; therefore, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the protective factors that can help reduce stress among nurses. The present study sought to investigate the associations among problem-solving skills and hardiness with perceived stress in nurses. The participants, 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Problem-Solving Inventory. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, greater hardiness was associated with low levels of perceived stress, and nurses low in perceived stress were more likely to be considered approachable, have a style that relied on their own sense of internal personal control, and demonstrate effective problem-solving confidence. These findings reinforce the importance of hardiness and problem-solving skills as protective factors against perceived stress among nurses, and could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness ability and problem-solving skills can be imparted, allowing nurses to have more ability to control their perceived stress.

  17. NAC Transcription Factors in Stress Responses and Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte

    Plant-specific NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC) transcription factors have recently received considerable attention due to their significant roles in plant development and stress signalling. This interest has resulted in a number of physiological, genetic and cell biological studies of their functions. Some...... of these studies have also revealed emerging gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction networks. However, structural studies relating structure to function are lagging behind. Structure-function analysis of the NAC transcription factors has therefore been the main focus of this PhD thesis...... not involve significant folding-upon-binding but fuzziness or an extended ANAC046 region. The ANAC046 regulatory domain functions as an entropic chain with a bait for interactions with for example RCD1. RCD1 interacts with transcription factors from several different families, and the large stress...

  18. Stress concentration factors for pressurized elliptic crossbores in blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Elie A.

    2006-01-01

    Intersecting bore geometries are used in a number of industrial applications including heavy-walled pressure vessels containing oil holes for lubrication, ports for valves and fluid ends of reciprocating pumps. The bore intersection location is a stress concentration point where the maximum hoop stress can be many times the fluid pressure in the bores. Intersecting circular holes in heavy-walled cylinders and rectangular blocks have been extensively investigated. Specifically, stress/pressure concentration curves for intersecting circular bores in rectangular blocks were presented by Sorem et al. [Sorem JR, Shadley JR, Tipton SM. Design curves for maximum stresses in blocks containing pressurized bore intersections. ASME J Mech Des 1990; 113: 427-31.]. However, stress/pressure concentrations due to intersecting elliptic bores have not been broadly investigated. With the availability of computer numerical control (CNC) machinery, bores with elliptic crosssection can be produced with relative ease. In this paper, hoop stress concentration ratios are developed for elliptic crossbores in rectangular blocks. Results indicate that introducing elliptic crossbores, rather than circular ones, significantly reduces the hoop stress concentration factor at the crossbore intersection. Also, the presence of intersecting crossbores has a major effect on the fatigue life of pressure vessels [Badr EA, Sorem JR, Jr Tipton SM. Evaluation of the autofrettage effect on fatigue lives of steel blocks with crossbores using a statistical and a strain-based method. ASTM J Test Eval 2000; 28: 181-8.] and the reduction of hoop stress concentration is expected to enhance the fatigue life of pressure vessels containing crossbores

  19. Improved Formula for the Stress Intensity Factor of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Welded Joints under Bending Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yang; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yifu; Dong, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF). An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack, this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression. Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress. PMID:28772527

  20. Transient thermal stresses and stress intensity factors induced by thermal stratification in feedwater lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Pardo, E.

    1985-01-01

    General analytical solutions for the thermal stresses and circumferential crack propagation in piping branches of nuclear power plants, that connect two circuits of the same fluid at different temperatures, are presented in this paper. Under certain conditions, two regions of the fluid possessing both temperatures with a separating layer of small thickness are formed ('flow stratification'). Dimensionless analytical expressions for the steady state temperature distribution in the pipe wall and the corresponding thermal stress are here derived, in terms of the basic geometrical and physical parameters. The position and thickness of the separating layer are considered as data of the model. Stress intensity ranges at any point of the tube wall are then determined. Finally, thermally induced stress intensity factors are calculated for hipothetically inside surface cracks. (orig.)

  1. Stress-related factors in cannabis use and misuse: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Scott M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-06-01

    We examined the role of stress as a risk factor and motivation for cannabis use/misuse. A systematic review of studies gathered from PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases was conducted. Findings suggest that cannabis is commonly used as a stress-coping strategy. Negative life events, trauma, and maladaptive coping were all related to consumption. Cannabis use for stress-coping purposes was most evident when examining chronic as compared with experimental use. Although many individuals may be able to use cannabis without consequences, there appears to be a subset of individuals who experience greater life stress and who may be more likely to use for stress-coping purposes. These individuals may be at greatest risk for addiction. Chronic use may potentiate stress-related motivation to use/abuse cannabis and is associated with decision-making deficits and alterations in brain-stress pathways that may exacerbate compulsive drug seeking and sensitize individuals to stress-related drug use. Overall, stress-coping interventions and harm reduction focused on reducing the amount ingested may facilitate prevention and recovery efforts.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in bosnian war veterans: Analysis of stress events and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, the characteristics of stress-related events, and the risk factors for the development of PTSD. The total patient sample consisted of 100 Bosnian war veterans. Watson’s PTSD module was used in establishing PTSD diagnosis. Patients fulfilled the following questionnaires: personal data form, Posttraumatic Symptom Scale PTSS-10 (Holen, Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Life Event Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory. PTSD was diagnosed in 30% of the examined patients. Larger number of stress-related events, particularly of those regarded as life-threatening, wounding/death of a close person, and material losses were more frequent in persons with PTSD. The risk factors for the development of PTSD in this study were: age (30-40, marital status (married, lower level of education, the front-line combat exposure, neurotic manifestations, family problems in childhood, and neuroticism.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors Protect against Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a principal mediator of signal transduction in the cell, and disruption of its normal function (a mechanism known as ER stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. ER stress has been demonstrated to contribute to onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR by induction of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Recent studies have begun to describe the gene expression profile of ER stress-related genes in DR; moreover, genes that play a protective role against DR have been identified. P58IPK was determined to be able to reduce retinal vascular leakage under high glucose conditions, thus protecting retinal cells. It has also been found by our lab that ER-associated protein degradation factors exhibit significantly different expression patterns in rat retinas under sustained high glucose conditions. Future research based upon these collective genomic findings will contribute to our overall understanding of DR pathogenesis as well as identify potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  5. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-13-1-TS05 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Purpose: Many service members today are married, and many also have children; deployments affect all members of the military family . The purpose of this...conducted. Findings: As deployment factors increased, parenting stress increased for fathers in the reintegration period, with a potential mediation

  7. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Inventory [34]. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress RTO-MP HFM-134 10 - 7 - Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento...17-37. [27] Miguel-Tobal, J. J. and Cano Vindel, A. (1986). Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad. Madrid: Tea Ediciones. (2ª Edic...Psychology, 56, 2, 267-283. [35] Cano Vindel, A. and Miguel-Tobal, J. J. (1992). Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento (IVA). Mimeo: Universidad

  8. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway, life stress, and chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generaal, Ellen; Milaneschi, Yuri; Jansen, Rick; Elzinga, Bernet M; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) disturbances and life stress, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to induce chronic pain. We examined whether (a) the BDNF pathway (val(66)met genotype, gene expression, and serum levels), (b) early and recent life stress, and (c) their interaction are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Cross-sectional data are from 1646 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain were determined using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire. The BDNF val(66)met polymorphism, BDNF gene expression, and BDNF serum levels were measured. Early life stress before the age of 16 was assessed by calculating a childhood trauma index using the Childhood Trauma Interview. Recent life stress was assessed as the number of recent adverse life events using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. Compared to val(66)val, BDNF met carriers more often had chronic pain, whereas no differences were found for BDNF gene expression and serum levels. Higher levels of early and recent stress were both associated with the presence and severity of chronic pain (p stress in the associations with chronic pain presence and severity. This study suggests that the BDNF gene marks vulnerability for chronic pain. Although life stress did not alter the impact of BDNF on chronic pain, it seems an independent factor in the onset and persistence of chronic pain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A study of job stress and burnout and related factors in the hospital personnel of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarghouei, Mohammad Reza; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Abarghouei, Mehdi; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdanpoor, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Job stress has become one of the main factors in reducing efficiency and the loss of human resources that may cause physical and psychological adverse effects in employees. Hospital personnel are facing different stressful events, such as birth, pain and death, in a single day. Hence, identifying the job stress rates and related factors may be effective in offering proper strategies. Therefore, the present research was done to study the rate of job stress and burnout in hospital personnel and compare some of the related factors in hospitals personnel of Yazd, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 306 hospital personnel (Male: 114, Female: 192) in Yazd in 2015–16. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Hospital Stress (HSS-35). SPSS-16 software and Pearson-product moment correlation and independent-samples t-test were used for data analysis. Results The mean job stress score was above average. The mean burnout dimensions that were above average included emotional exhaustion (21.7 ± 7.27), depersonalization (9.61 ± 3.74) and personal accomplishment (26.80 ± 6.17). While Pearson correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between job stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, there was a negative relationship between job stress and personal accomplishment (p hospital personnel is worrying and it has adverse effects on personnel health, effective strategies on physical and mental health, such as employment support and stress management training, seem crucial to enhance physical and psychological health of hospital personnel. PMID:27648189

  10. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Alani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 male wistar rats were divided into Predatory stress groups of 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d, 14d, 30d and a normal control group (N = 10. Rats were subjected to 5 min of predatory stress and then exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM. Serum corticosterone and Insulin-like growth factor-1 level of Hippocampus were measured by ELISA technique. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. Results: Rats spent significantly more time in closed arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM than control group after exposure to stress. Serum levels of corticosterone significantly increased at 2d-3d. The expression of hippocampal IGF-1 was significantly up-regulated at 1d-2d after stress. Both Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 significantly peaked at Predatory stress 2d-14d. Caspase3 was significantly active among 2d-30 compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The activation of caspase-3 in the stress groups indicates that apoptosis may be one of the reasons inducing hippocampus atrophy and play roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Increase in hippocampus levels of IGF-1 during early PTSD might be involved in the early molecular inhibitory mechanism of apoptosis in PTSD.

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, M.B.; Knoester, H.; Bos, AP; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. Methods: Children completed the

  12. Development of guide thimble stress peaking factor calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Ki; Jeon, Sang Youn; Kim, Jae Ik; Jeon, Kyeong Lak; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Assembly for light water reactor which provides for 236 fuel rods consists of guide tubes, spacer grids, top/bottom nozzles. The guide tubes form the main structural components in conjunction with the grids, act as the main load carrying members of fuel assembly and serve as a support structure and a guide path for the control element, neutron sources and incore instruments after they are secured to upper and lower end areas. Top/bottom nozzles make the end parts of fuel assembly. And the spacer girds maintain the fuel rod array by providing positive lateral restraint to the fuel rod to the fuel rod but only frictional restraint to axial fuel rod motion. When the fuel assembly is in reactor, the tensional and compressional forces are applied to guide thimble through the top nozzle. The stresses vary with the location of guide thimble on the top nozzle plate since the different flow plate thickness between center and outer areas causes a different flexibility. The relative stress shall be considered during designing this kind of structure. And it is useful to know a coefficient to represent this relative stress difference and this value is called stress peaking factor

  13. Are plant endogenous factors like ethylene modulators of the early oxidative stress induced by mercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belén eMontero-Palmero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress is one of the quickest symptoms appearing in plants subjected to metal stress. A transcriptional analysis of the early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa seedlings to mercury (Hg; 3 µM for 3, 6 and 24 h showed that up-regulation of genes responding to ethylene were up-regulated, a phytohormone known to mediate in the cellular redox homeostasis. In this mini-review we have compared these quick responses with two other concurrent transcriptomic analysis in Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula and barley (Hordeum vulgare under Hg stress. Besides ethylene, ABA and jasmonate related genes were up-regulated, all of them are endogenous factors known to intervene in oxidative stress responses. The information obtained may target future work to understand the cellular mechanisms triggered by Hg, enabling biotechnological approaches to diminish Hg-induced phytotoxicity.

  14. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  15. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress concentration factors for an internally pressurized circular vessel containing a radial U-notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, E.A. de

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the stress concentration factors for an internally pressurized cylinder containing a radial U-notch along its length. This work studies the cases where the external to internal radius ratio (Ψ) is equal to 1.26, 1.52, 2.00, and 3.00 and the notch radius to internal radius ratio (Φ) is fixed and equal to 0.026. The U-notch depth varies from 0.1 to 0.6 of the wall thickness. Results are also presented for a fixed size semi-circular notch. Hoop stresses at the external wall are presented, showing regions where the stress matches the nominal one and the favourable places to install strain sensors. The finite element method is used to determine the stress concentration factors (K t ) for the above described situations and for a special case where a varying semi-circular notch is present with Ψ=3.00. This notch depth varies from 0.013 to 0.3 of the wall thickness. It is pointed out that even relatively small notches introduce large stress concentrations and disrupt the hoop stress distribution all over the cross section. Results are also compared to an example found in the literature for semi-circular notches and K t curves for both cases present the same shape

  17. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  18. Round robin analysis on stress intensity factor of inner surface cracks in welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Gi; Chang, Yoon Suk [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs) were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  19. Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: Potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Ami; Gavini, Kartheek; Yang, Euitaek; Lyman-Henley, Lani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran

    2017-09-29

    Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus. Results show that stressed mice developed memory deficits when assayed with radial arm maze tasks. However, chronic traumatic stress did not induce anxiety, locomotor hyperactivity or anhedonia. In the hippocampus of stressed mice interleukin-1β protein expression was increased along with decreased corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. Furthermore, there was a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. There were no changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. Gene expression of immediate early genes (Zif268, Arc, C-Fos) as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were also not affected by chronic stress. These data demonstrate that chronic traumatic stress followed by a recovery period might lead to development of resilience resulting in the development of selected, most vulnerable behavioral alterations and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Mostafa Amr; Sabry Hammad

    2010-01-01

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  1. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghilany, A.; Amr, M.; Hammad, S.

    2008-01-01

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)

  2. Determining Factors for Stress Perception Assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) in Spanish and Other European Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Miguel A; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Mañanes, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain). This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1) normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2) how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors. Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R). Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class). The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability. Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.

  3. Determining Factors for Stress Perception Assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4 in Spanish and Other European Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Vallejo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4. Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain. This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1 normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2 how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors.Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R.Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class. The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability.Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.

  4. Differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on left ventricular function using gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Yuka; Chikamori, Taishiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Usui, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Manabu; Yamashina, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Although post-ischemic stunning has emerged as an important marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), differences in stress methods may have different effects on left ventricular (LV) volumes and function. To assess differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on the LV measurements, 99m Tc-sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acquired more than 30 min after stress and at rest was evaluated in 38 patients undergoing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress (ATP group) and 38 age- and sex-matched patients subjected to exercise stress (Ex group) among 268 patients with normal SPECT findings. Coronary risk factors and LV volumetric measurements at baseline were similar in the two groups. Compared with volumetric measurements at rest, end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased (72±21 ml to 74±21 ml; P=0.01), end-systolic volume increased (25±12 ml to 28±13 ml; P=0.001), and ejection fraction (EF) decreased after stress (66%±8% to 63%±9%; P<0.002) in the ATP group. In the Ex group, by contrast, no such change was observed. In addition, changes in EDV (3±6 vs. -1±5 ml; P=0.01) and the stress-to-rest ratio of EDV (1.04±0.09 vs. 0.99±0.08; P<0.02) after stress were greater in the ATP than in the Ex group. Differential effects of stress methods on LV volumes persist more than 30 min after the stress. These findings should be kept in mind when interpreting post-ischemic stunning. (author)

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus flavus isolates under different oxidative stresses and culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in the field are known to be influenced by numerous stress factors, particularly drought and heat stress. However, the purpose of aflatoxin production is unknown. Here, we report transcriptome analyses comprised of 282.6 Gb of sequencing data describing...

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after Exposure to Two Fire Disasters : Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, Nancy E.; van de Schoot, Rens; Faber, Albertus W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn

  7. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  8. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  9. Influence of overelastic loading on the stress intensity factor under thermal fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.; Munz, D.

    1983-10-01

    Thermal shock loading often creates high thermal stresses which may exceed yield strength of the material in a surface layer. In this report the application of the linear elastic ΔK-concept in the case of cyclic thermal loading within the shakedown region is discussed. To this K-factors for an edge crack in a linear elastic - perfectly plastic plate are calculated using the weight function method and are compared with results obtained with the Finite Element Method. It is shown, that rearrangement stresses during plastic flow in the first cycle must be taken into account developing conservative approximation procedures. (orig.) [de

  10. A cross-country comparative study on stress and quality of life in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Edet, Olaide B; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Christos, Kleisiaris F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Rosales, Rheajane A; Cruz, Jonas P; Leocadio, Michael; Lucas, Katherine Vera S

    2017-10-27

    This study was conducted to compare perceptions of stress and quality of life (QoL) among nursing students from three countries (the Philippines, Greece, and Nigeria) and to examine the impact of stress on their QoL. A comparative, cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Data were collected from 547 nursing students from three countries using the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the quality of life evaluation skill (QOLES). Students' perceptions of stress and QoL were different across the three countries. Furthermore, higher stress perceptions were identified from taking care of patients, the clinical environment, and faculty, peer, and staff encounters, which predicted a negative QoL. The findings emphasized the need for empirically tested and culturally tailored interventions to effectively reduce stress and enhance the QoL in nursing students. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Job stress and cardiovascular risk factors in male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Gun; Koh, Sang Baek; Cha, Bong Suk; Park, Jong Ku; Baik, Soon Koo; Chang, Sei Jin

    2005-05-01

    This study examined whether job stress (work demand and decision latitude) is associated with smoking, blood pressure, lipid level (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol), and homocystein as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean male workers. Study subjects of this study were recruited from a sample of 1,071 workers in 20 companies of W city and H counties, and they were grouped into four categories (high strain group, active group, passive group, and low strain group) based on the postulation of Karasek's Job Strain Model. Of them, we invited 160 male workers (40 people each subgroup) using a stratified sampling, and finally, 152 eligible participants were analyzed. In multivariate analyses, we found that decision latitude was associated with cholesterol, triglyceride, and homocystein and that work demand was related to smoking and systolic blood pressure. Job strain (the combination of high work demand with low decision latitude) was significantly related to higher levels of homocystein after controlling for age, BMI, smoking, and social support at workplace. These results indicate that job stress is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and might contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Some considerations for the future research were discussed.

  12. IMPACT OF STRESS FACTORS ON OPTICAL ISOMERISM OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublin, Elżbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Wyszomirska, Elżbieta; Zajaczkowską, Anna; Malanowicz, Ewa; Kaczmarska-Graczyk, Barbara; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2015-01-01

    Benazepril hydrochloride contains two stereogenic centers, but is currently available as single enantiomer (S,S configuration) for the treatment of hypertension. Its enantiomer (R,R configuration) and the diastereoisomeric pair (R,S and S,R) can be regarded as impurities. Stereochemical stability of S,S isomer of benazepril hydrochloride and its potential susceptibility to conversion in the.active substance and in Lisonid tablets were examinated. The separation with the use of the TLC method with the following system: chromatographic plates Chiralplate and a mobile phase: methanol - acetonitrile - 1 mM copper(II) acetate (4 : 2 : 4, v/v/v) with saturation of glacial acetic acid for 1 h and the HPLC method system: Chiral AGP column (150 x 4.0 man x 5 µm) and a mobile phase: phosphate buffer pH = 6.0 - methanol (80 : 20, v/v) were obtained. Active substance - benazepril hydrochloride and Lisonid tablets 20 mg were subjected to the impact of different stress factors. Samples were examined after 1 and 6 weeks. It was found that none of the applied stress factors caused the transformation of the S,S enantiomer of benazepril hydrochloride in the substance and tablets to other identified stereoisomers - only the compound decomposition has occurred.

  13. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  14. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  15. Stress views in the comparative assessment of spondylolytic spondylolithesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelebo, P.; Goeteborg Univ.; Kadziolka, R.; Swaerd, L.; Zachrisson, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis were examined in six different positions to detect segmental instability. The amount of displacement was determined on lateral spot radiographs, taken in recumbent, standing, flexion, extension, axial compression, and traction positions in each patient. An error analysis was also performed. Examination in axial compression - traction was found to be a significantly better method for detection of segmental instability compared with standing - recumbent, or flexion - extension radiographs. In addition, the compression - traction method exhibited a higher sensitivity for identification of instability (73 %) than standing - recumbent (33 %) or flexion - extension (20 %) views. The total error in the determination was small, ± 2.5 % (95 % CL), providing a careful and controlled technique was used. (orig.)

  16. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Agai–Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. AIM: To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. METHODOLOGY: W...

  17. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  18. Exposing women to workplace stress factors as a risk factor for developing arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Iwona; Humeniuk, Ewa; Owoc, Alfred; Wierzba, Waldemar; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the evaluation of women's exposure to stress-inducing factors at work, definition of a scale of the problem, as well as assessment of the impact of professional work on the value of arterial pressure. The research was conducted on four professional groups of women: working in agriculture, working as clerks, seamstresses, as well as those working as medical representative in the period from August- September 2008 in the Lublin region. A total number of 416 women was examined, ages ranging from 30-40, who had not been previously treated due to arterial hypertension. The women under examination had their arterial blood pressure measured twice on a working day at 08:00 and at 14:00. The values of measurements were averaged. The research tool was also the standardised Questionnaire for Subjective Work Evaluation. The raw result was obtained on the basis of summing up all the points, which were afterwards transformed into 10 standard values. The general result was given in 10 standard values, whereas the results of stress factors were quoted as mean results of raw values and were referred to results defined as high for a given factor. The results obtained were statistically analysed on the basis of t-Student test. The significance level adopted was pplace of residence, on the intensification of stress related to a particular factor of work evaluation, was also analysed. Stress experienced by women at a workplace affects not ony their professional life, but also family life and social intercourses. In the women's opinion, an unpleasant workplace is such a workplace where the feeling of mental workload is connected with the lack of rewards (motivation), uncertainty resulting from organisation of daily chores and lack of support from others. The high general level of stress was noted among the group of women working in agriculture, in pharmaceutical companies, as well as among those who perform physical work (seamstresses). The intensification

  19. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, STRESS, AND THEIR ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG CORPS MEMBERS SERVING IN KEBBI STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balami, Ahmed D

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress, are not only health problems by themselves, but also associated with other negative health consequences. The national youth service is usually characterized by a number of new challenges and experiences which may require life style adjustments by the corps member. However, no previous study on psychological factors has been conducted among corps members. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and, stress and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi state. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 corps members from four local government areas of the state. Selection of the local government areas and the individual participants was by simple random sampling. Data was collected from May to June 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test to identify the relationship between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for depression, anxiety and stress each. The response rate was 97%. Most of the respondents were males (63.6%), single (85.5%), and above 20 years of age (71.6%). The overall prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents were 36.4%, 54.5% and 18.2% respectively. The independent factors for depression were; being from the North central (OR = 5.99; 95% CI: 2.194-16.354) or South-south; and the perception of earning enough income (OR = 2.987; 95% CI: 1.062-8.400). For anxiety, male gender (OR = 0.411; 95% CI: 0.169-0.999); and being from the North central were significant risk factors (OR = 3.731; 95% CI: 1.450-9.599). Being above 26 years of age was an independent risk factor for stress (OR = 0.083; 95% CI: 0.018-0.381). Also, those who had ever schooled outside their towns of residence were less likely to be stressed compared to those who had never (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.110-0.855). All other factors did not show any significant association with any of

  20. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  1. Comparing virtual with physical wedge for the transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Kuei-Hua; Lin Jao-Perng; Chu Tieh-Chi; Liu Mu-Tai

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the discrepancies between virtual wedge and physical wedge at the standard wedge angles of 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The dose distributions for virtual wedge and physics wedge were measured by using a commercial multichamber detector array. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge and physical wedge were measured for Siemens PRIMUS 3008 linear accelerator by single ion chamber. These factors were used to set-up the clinical treatment data tables for clinical dosimetry for virtual wedge utilization. The Wellhoefer IC15, 0.13cc chamber was installed on the chamber frame of Wellhoefer water phantom (48x48x40 cm 3 ). The surface of water was at 100 cm SSD. The output factor in water were measured on the central axis of each field at 5 cm depth for 6MV or 10 cm depth for 15MV X-ray on virtual wedge and physical wedge. Comparing virtual wedge with physical wedge for transmission factor as field size range from 4x4 to 25x25 cm 2 . We have measured the dose distributions using the chamber array for 25x25 cm 2 virtual wedge fields and physical wedge fields at wedge angles of 15deg to 60deg. The dose profiles at various depths were also measured using the chamber array. The transmission factors of each physical wedge were slowly increased as field sizes increase, and had different value for each wedge angle. The transmission factors of each virtual wedge were almost constant value as 1.0 for each wedge angle. The results show that the dose profiles including the penumbra dose measured by the chamber array for virtual wedge agree with those measured for the physical wedge. For transmission factors of virtual wedge were constant value as 1.0 for each angles, namely output without wedge is almost equal to output with wedge on the central axis. Virtual wedge has practical and dosimetric advantages over physical wedge. (author)

  2. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under considering loading conditions. As a result distributions of elastic and plastic stress intensity factors along crack front in slot fillet of key of turbine disk depending on surface crack form are defined. An engineering approach to the prediction of carrying capacity of cracked turbine disk which is sensitive to the loading history at maintenance is proposed. The predictions of the rate of crack growth and residual lifetime of steam turbine disk are compared for elastic and elastic-plastic solutions. It is shown that the previously proposed elastic crack growth models provide overestimate the lifetime with respect to the present one. An advantage to use the plastic stress intensity factor to characterize the fracture resistance as the self-dependent unified parameter for a variety of turbine disk configurations rather than the magnitude of the elastic stress intensity factors alone is discussed.

  3. Effect of Couple Stresses on the Stress Intensity Factors for Two Parallel Cracks in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouetsu Itou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stresses around two parallel cracks of equal length in an infinite elastic medium are evaluated based on the linearized couple-stress theory under uniform tension normal to the cracks. Fourier transformations are used to reduce the boundary conditions with respect to the upper crack to dual integral equations. In order to solve these equations, the differences in the displacements and in the rotation at the upper crack are expanded through a series of functions that are zero valued outside the crack. The unknown coefficients in each series are solved in order to satisfy the boundary conditions inside the crack using the Schmidt method. The stresses are expressed in terms of infinite integrals, and the stress intensity factors can be determined using the characteristics of the integrands for an infinite value of the variable of integration. Numerical calculations are carried out for selected crack configurations, and the effect of the couple stresses on the stress intensity factors is revealed.

  4. Comparative Physiological and Molecular Analyses of Two Contrasting Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotypes under Progressive Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crop growth and productivity. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide and its productivity is vulnerable to drought. However, comparative analyses of physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in flue-cured tobacco varieties differing in drought tolerance under long-term drought stress are scarce. In this study, drought stress responses of two flue-cured tobacco varieties, LJ851 and JX6007, were comparatively studied at the physiological and transcriptional levels. After exposing to progressive drought stress, the drought-tolerant LJ851 showed less growth inhibition and chlorophyll reduction than the drought-sensitive JX6007. Moreover, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of H2O2, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and electrolyte leakage after drought stress were found in LJ851 when compared with JX6007. Further analysis showed that LJ851 plants had much less reductions than the JX6007 in the net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance during drought stress; indicating that LJ851 had better photosynthetic performance than JX6007 during drought. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis revealed that LJ851 exhibited significantly increased transcripts of several categories of drought-responsive genes in leaves and roots under drought conditions. Together, these results indicated that LJ851 was more drought-tolerant than JX6007 as evidenced by better photosynthetic performance, more powerful antioxidant system, and higher expression of stress defense genes during drought stress. This study will be valuable for the development of novel flue-cured tobacco varieties with improved drought tolerance by exploitation of natural genetic variations in the future.

  5. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-03-19

    Dehydration stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely influence crop growth and productivity. With the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying dehydration stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a drought tolerant crop, we examined its transcriptome changes at two time points (early and late) of dehydration stress. Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) forward libraries were constructed from 21-day old seedlings of tolerant cv. Prasad at 0.5 and 6h PEG-induced dehydration stress. A total of 327 unique ESTs were identified from both libraries and were classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. The plant response against dehydration stress was complex, representing major transcripts involved in metabolism, stress, signaling, transcription regulation, translation and proteolysis. By Reverse Northern (RN) technique we identified the differential expression pattern of 327 transcripts, 86 (about 26%) of which showed > or = 1.7-fold induction. Further the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to have a comparative expression profiling of randomly chosen 9 up-regulated transcripts (> or =2.5 fold induction) between cv. Prasad (tolerant) and cv. Lepakshi (sensitive) upon dehydration stress. These transcripts showed a differential expression pattern in both cultivars at different time points of stress treatment as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The possible relationship of the identified transcripts with dehydration tolerance mechanism is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Junne; Katrin Ziser; Katrin Elisabeth Giel; Kathrin Schag; Eva Skoda; Isabelle Mack; Andreas Niess; Stephan Zipfel; Martin Teufel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. Methods: N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable ...

  8. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Associated with Urinary Stress Incontinence in Primiparas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Chou

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: For primiparas who underwent vaginal delivery, an increase in age was associated with increased risk of development of stress incontinence. Increased vulnerability of the pelvic floor with age might explain this finding. Pelvic floor exercise had a protective effect against postpartum stress incontinence in primiparas who underwent cesarean section. This reflects the fact that pregnancy per se carries a risk of stress incontinence. We recommend that primiparas perform pelvic floor exercises to prevent the development of postpartum stress incontinence.

  10. Stress Urinary lncontinence : Comparative Study of Perineal Sonography in Erect Position and Chain Cystourethrograpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Paick, Jae Seung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Authors investigated the diagnostic value of perineal sonography in erect position for patients with stress urinary incontinence. Perineal sonography and chain cystourethrography were performed in 18 female patients(mean age 51.2) with stress urinary incontinence. The posterior are throvesical angles in stress and rest states were measured in both studies and compared with each other. Mean posteriorurethrovesical angles({+-}2 standard error) in rest and stress states were 136.3({+-}7.2) .deg. , and 145.9({+-}7.0) .deg. for chain cystourethrography and 131.4({+-}5.6) .deg. and 143.4({+-}5.9) .deg. for perineal sonography, respectively. The data frorm both studies correlated well with cach other. Perineal sonography inerect position is easy,non-invasive technique and may substitute the chain cystourethrography in the evaluation of the patients with stress urinary in continece

  11. Stress Urinary lncontinence : Comparative Study of Perineal Sonography in Erect Position and Chain Cystourethrograpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Paick, Jae Seung

    1995-01-01

    Authors investigated the diagnostic value of perineal sonography in erect position for patients with stress urinary incontinence. Perineal sonography and chain cystourethrography were performed in 18 female patients(mean age 51.2) with stress urinary incontinence. The posterior are throvesical angles in stress and rest states were measured in both studies and compared with each other. Mean posteriorurethrovesical angles(±2 standard error) in rest and stress states were 136.3(±7.2) .deg. , and 145.9(±7.0) .deg. for chain cystourethrography and 131.4(±5.6) .deg. and 143.4(±5.9) .deg. for perineal sonography, respectively. The data frorm both studies correlated well with cach other. Perineal sonography inerect position is easy,non-invasive technique and may substitute the chain cystourethrography in the evaluation of the patients with stress urinary in continece

  12. [Analysis of risk factors about stress urinary incontinence in female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-feng; Lin, Jian; Li, Ya-qin; He, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Hao, Lan; Song, Jian

    2003-12-01

    The aim was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in community dwelling women and to assess the relationship between the various risk factors and this disease. Selecting the community of Gulou at random and sending questionnaires to 6,066 women who living there. The questionnaire was designed to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms, especially urinary incontinence. The questionnaire included some questions such as: age, weight, occupation, the level of education, menopause pregnancy and delivery, delivery through vagina or by cesarean section, the maximum body weight of fetus, chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cough, constipation), operation in abdomen and pelvis, the behaviour of life (smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise), the prevalence and frequency of urinary incontinence, the quality of life and the recognition of this disease. The collecting rate was 92.1% (5,587/6,066). The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 18.1% and the prevalence of SUI was 8.8%. Age (OR: 1.010, 95% CI: 1.001 - 1.025), higher body mass index (OR: 1.092, 95% CI: 1.054 - 1.132), hypertension (OR: 2.342, 95% CI: 1.026 - 5.349), constipation (OR: 1.448, 95% CI: 1.216 - 1.725), multiple abortion (OR: 1.306, 95% CI: 1.113 - 1.533), multipara (OR: 1.205, 95% CI: 1.009 - 1.440), using abdominal pressure in laboring (OR: 1.684, 95% CI: 1.140 - 2.489), straight cutting of perineum (OR: 2.244, 95% CI: 1.162 - 4.334), perineum tear (OR: 2.576, 95% CI: 1.724 - 3.851), infection of perineal incision (OR: 5.988, 95% CI: 1.936 - 18.616) were risk factors of SUI in women. Many risk factors can cause urinary incontinence, among them age, pregnancy and childbirth are most important ones.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao; Zou, Huixi; Pang, Qiuying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival

  15. Hybrid determination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors on discontinuous finite-width plate by finite element and photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Chen, Lei; Hong, Dong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    For isotropic material structure, the stress in the vicinity of crack tip is generally much higher than the stress far away from it. This phenomenon usually leads to stress concentration and fracture of structure. Previous researches and studies show that the stress intensity factor is one of most important parameter for crack growth and propagation. This paper provides a convenient numerical method, which is called hybrid photoelasticity method, to accurately determine the stress field distribution in the vicinity of crack tip and mixed-mode stress intensity factors. The model was simulated by finite element method and isochromatic data along straight lines far away from the crack tip were calculated. By using the isochromatic data obtained from finite element method and a conformal mapping procedure, stress components and photoelastic fringes in the hybrid region were calculated. To easily compare calculated photoelastic fringes with experiment results, the fringe patterns were reconstructed, doubled and sharpened. Good agreement shows that the method presented in this paper is reliable and convenient. This method can then directly be applied to obtain mixed mode stress intensity factors from the experimentally measured isochromatic data along the straight lines

  16. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  17. Maternal Prenatal Stress and Other Developmental Risk Factors for Adolescent Depression: Spotlight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Seth D; Fineberg, Anna M; Drabick, Deborah A; Murphy, Shannon K; Ellman, Lauren M

    2018-02-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct subgroups of offspring based on exposure to maternal prenatal stress and other developmental factors from the prenatal, childhood, and adolescent periods that have been associated with depression and/or maternal prenatal stress. LCA identified subgroups that were compared to determine whether and to what extent they differed on adolescent depressive symptoms. LCA revealed a subgroup of "high-risk" individuals, characterized by maternal factors during pregnancy (higher ambivalence/negativity and lower positivity towards the pregnancy, higher levels of hassles, lower maternal education and higher maternal age at birth, higher pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring developmental factors (decreased cognitive functioning during childhood and adolescence, lower perceived parental support during adolescence, and higher levels of maternal depression during adolescence). High-risk females exhibited elevated conduct symptoms and higher birth order, while high-risk males exhibited decreased internalizing symptoms and lower birth order. Both high-risk males and females reported elevated depressive symptoms during adolescence relative to their "low-risk" counterparts.

  18. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load: risk factors, consequences, and preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, I L; Goudswaard, A; Dhondt, S; van der Grinten, M P; Hildebrandt, V H; van der Poel, E G

    1998-02-01

    Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks, and (c) organisational and environmental variables that facilitate preventive actions. Information was gathered from employers, employees, and employees' representatives. The monitor was used with a nationally representative sample of companies in industry, wholesale trade, and banking and finance, 782 companies in total. The information from the employees, aggregated at the company level, was not found to be correlated with that from the employer from the same companies. Although many employers do recognise risk factors for both physical load and stress as a problem they often seem to underestimate the problem when compared with employees or their representatives. This is particularly the case for psychosocial risk factors. Also, the perception of outcome measures, especially employers who consider emotional exhaustion to be work related, were fewer than the employees' representatives of the same organisation. Preventive measures on physical load are much more popular than measures against stress. It is the responsibility of the employer to take more preventive action of all kinds. They need to recognise risk factors as problems and health outcomes to be related to work. Employees of larger companies should participate with employers to consider effective measures, and more use should be made of support at branch level. For specific preventive measures, specific predictors emerged. Except for measures to prevent work stress, information from employees did not sufficiently contribute to the initiation of preventive measures in the workplace.

  19. Stress intensity factors of corner cracks in two nozzle-cylinder intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, A.S.; Polvanich, N.; Emery, A.F.; Love, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the stress-intensity-magnification factors of a quarter-elliptical surface crack in a quarter-infinite solid and a circular crack approaching a reentry corner in a three-quarter infinite solid. These stress-intensity-magnification factors were used together with a curvature-correction factor to estimate the stress-intensity factor of a corner crack at a nozzle-cylinder intersection. Through appropriate superposition of the above stress-intensity-magnification factors, stress-intensity factors for hypothetical corner cracks at a nozzle-cylinder intersection subjected to internal pressure and transient thermal-stress loadings can be obtained. A description of a computer code based on this procedure as well as its applications in analyzing two corner-crack problems at a nozzle-cylinder intersection are discussed in this paper

  20. Stress intensity factors of corner cracks in two nozzle-cylinder interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, A.S.; Polvanich, N.; Emery, A.F.; Love, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the stress-intensity-magnification factors of a quarter-elliptical surface crack in a quarter-infinite solid and a circular crack approaching a reentry corner in a three-quarter infinite solid. These stress-intensity-magnification factors were used together with a curvature-correction factor to estimate the stress-intensity factor of a corner crack at a nozzle-cylinder interaction. Through appropriate superposition of the above stress-intensity-magnification factors, stress-intensity factors for hypothetical corner cracks at a nozzle-cylinder intersection subjected to internal pressure and transient thermal-stress loadings can be obtained. A description of a computer code based on this procedure as well as its applications in analyzing two corner-crack probems at a nozzle-cylinder intersection are discussed in this paper. (Auth.)

  1. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J; Luippold, R S; Nagy, L; Liese, B; Bigelow, C; Mundt, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.

  2. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  3. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  4. Weight functions for the determination of stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Tan, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the weight functions for the determination of the stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends under complex stress distributions. First, a compliance analysis approach is used to calculate stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge cracks in finite width plates with built-in ends with uniform or linear stress distributions acting on the crack face. The results serve as the reference solutions for the next step in which the approaches of deriving weight functions from reference stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions developed for stress boundary conditions are extended to obtain the corresponding weight functions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends. Finite element analysis is conducted to validate the derived solutions. The weight functions derived are suitable for obtaining stress intensity factors and T-stress solutions under any complex stress field

  5. Fatigue Equivalent Stress State Approach Validation in Non-conservative Criteria: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martial Tsapi Tchoupou

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the fatigue prediction models for estimating the multiaxial fatigue limit. An equivalent loading approach with zero out-of-phase angles intended for fatigue limit evaluation under multiaxial loading is used. Based on experimental data found in literatures, the equivalent stress is validated in Crossland and Sines criteria and predictions compared to the predictions of existing multiaxial fatigue; results over 87 experimental items show that the equivalent stress approach is very efficient.

  6. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  7. Inpatient aggression and work stress: comparing civil and forensic psychiatric nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joyce Yan

    2017-01-01

    In their daily work, psychiatric nurses are subjected to patient-perpetrated verbal and physical aggression. They manage a high level of work stress. As compared to their colleagues working in civil settings, forensic psychiatric nurses may experience different rates of patient aggression and work stress. Such experiences have implications for the mental health and productivity of nursing staff. In inpatient settings, homicide by a patient is a rare event. Representing the most severe f...

  8. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  9. Lifestyle factors in Croatian seafarers as relating to health and stress on board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2017-01-01

    Seafaring is characterized by specific stressors and health risks. The purpose of this article was to compare the prevalence of various lifestyle factors between the shipping and home environments, and in addition to test the relations between lifestyle factors, perceived stress on board, and health in seafarers. A total of 530 Croatian seafarers participated in an on-line survey. The questionnaire contained requests for demographic data and a set of questions relating to lifestyle, stress on board, physical health symptoms, and mental health. The data showed higher sleep deprivation, higher levels of smoking and unhealthier diet at sea than at home, with prevalence of alcohol consumption and physical exercise being more favourable for the shipping environment. Sleep deprivation, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking are shown as negative correlates of various measures of health. Stress on board was associated with sleep deprivation and unhealthy diet, and with more unfavourable physical and mental health. The results give practical implications for promoting health in seafarers. Some of the lifestyle factors tested, such as alcohol use, smoking and physical exercise, fall rather under individual control, but others, such as a healthy, balanced diet on board and sleeping hygiene at sea, should be improved by shipping management.

  10. Factors associated with recurrent fifth metatarsal stress fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-tai; Park, Young-uk; Jegal, Hyuk; Kim, Ki-chun; Young, Ki-won; Kim, Jin-su

    2013-12-01

    Many surgeons agree that fifth metatarsal stress fractures have a tendency toward delayed union, nonunion, and possibly refracture. Difficulty healing seems to be correlated with fracture classification. However, refracture sometimes occurs after low-grade fracture, even long after apparent resolution. The records of 168 consecutive cases of fifth metatarsal stress fracture (163 patients) treated by modified tension band wiring from March 2002 to June 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Mean length of follow-up was 23.6 months (range, 10-112 months). Forty-nine cases classified as Torg III were bone grafted initially also. All enrolled patients were elite athletes. Eleven patients experienced nonunion and 18 refracture. The 11 nonunion cases were bone grafted. The 157 patients (excluding nonunion cases) were allocated to either a refracture group or a union group. Clinical features, such as age, weight, fracture classification, time to union, and reinjury history, were compared. Radiological parameters representing cavus deformity and fifth metatarsal head protrusion were compared to evaluate the influence of structural abnormalities. Mean group weights were significantly different (P = .041), but mean ages (P = .879), fracture grades (P = .216, P = .962), and time from surgery to rehabilitation (P = .539) were similar. No significant intergroup differences were found for talocalcaneal (TC) angle (P = .470), calcaneal pitch (CP) angle (P = .847), or talo-first metatarsal (T-MT1) angle (P = .407) on lateral radiographs; for fifth metatarsal lateral deviation (MT5-LD) angle (P = .623) on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs; or for MT5-LD angle (P = .065) on the 30-degree medial oblique radiographs. However, the mean fourth-fifth intermetatarsal (IMA4-5) angle on AP radiographs was significantly greater in the refracture group, and for Torg II cases, mean weight (P = .042), IMA4-5 angle on AP radiographs (P = .014), and MT5-LD angle (P = .043) on 30-degree medial

  11. Comparing critical success factors for PV between three regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, B.J.; Roosmalen, J.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    As a research method the project team has chosen to survey the opinion of PV experts and persons involved in the implementation of PV. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to about 300 persons spread among 3 regions America, Europe and Asia. The returned questionnaires have been statistical analysed with the software tool SPSS. The used analytical methods can be divided in a comparing method (Mann-Whitney test) and ranking methods (Friedman test and the medal classification test). General conclusions are that there is a significant difference in answers between America and Europe about the significance of 'cost reduction'. Also Asia is significant different from America and Europe for the factor 'technical' reliability. There is a significant difference about the status of financing between America and Europe versus Asia. All the regions have a different opinion about the status of RD and D'. Also the status of 'the PV network' is significant different between Asia and America. America and Europe rank 'financial aspects' and 'cost reduction' as the most significant aspects while Asia rank 'specialist knowledge' and 'the PV network' as the most significant. All regions rank 'specialist knowledge' having the worst status and rank 'environmental merits' and 'technical reliability' having the best status. Finally Europe and Asia differ significant about which aspect is the most important for the factors 'internationalisation and other activities'. Europe finds 'harmonisation of policy' the most important internationalisation aspect and Asia prefers 'development aid'. Asia prefers 'pioneering activities' and Europe prefers 'initiatives by social organisations' as most important other activity. (au)

  12. Stress fracture risk factors in female football players and their clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Creaby, Mark W; Bryant, Adam L; Crossley, Kay M

    2007-08-01

    A stress fracture represents the inability of the skeleton to withstand repetitive bouts of mechanical loading, which results in structural fatigue, and resultant signs and symptoms of localised pain and tenderness. Reports of stress fractures in female football players are not prevalent; however, they are probably under-reported and their importance lies in the morbidity that they cause in terms of time lost from participation. By considering risk factors for stress fractures in female football players it may be possible to reduce the impact of these troublesome injuries. Risk factors for stress fractures in female football players include intrinsic risk factors such as gender, endocrine, nutritional, physical fitness and neuromusculoskeletal factors, as well as extrinsic risk factors such as training programme, equipment and environmental factors. This paper discusses these risk factors and their implications in terms of developing prevention and management strategies for stress fractures in female football players.

  13. Runners with Patellofemoral Pain Exhibit Greater Peak Patella Cartilage Stress Compared to Pain-Free Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tzu-Chieh; Keyak, Joyce H; Powers, Christopher M

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running. Input parameters to the finite element model included subject-specific patellofemoral joint geometry, quadriceps muscle forces, and lower extremity kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes. Tibiofemoral joint kinematics and kinetics were quantified to determine the best predictor of stress using stepwise regression analysis. Compared to the pain-free runners, those with PFP exhibited greater peak hydrostatic pressure (PFP vs. control, 21.2 ± 5.6 MPa vs. 16.5 ± 4.6 MPa) and maximum shear stress (11.3 ± 4.6 MPa vs. 8.7 ± 2.3 MPa). Knee external rotation was the best predictor of peak hydrostatic pressure and peak maximum shear stress (38% and 25% of variances, respectively) followed by the knee extensor moment (21% and 25% of variances, respectively). Runners with PFP exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress during running compared to pain-free individuals. The combination of knee external rotation and a high knee extensor moment best predicted elevated peak stress during running.

  14. Stress intensity factors and weight functions for cracks in front of notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1993-12-01

    The knowledge of stress intensity factors for cracks at notch roots is important for the fracture mechanical treatment of real components. Stress intensity factor solutions are available only for special notches and externally applied loads. For the treatment of more complex loadings as thermal stresses near the notch root the weight function is needed in addition. In the first part of this report weight functions for cracks in front of internal notches are derived from stress intensity factor solutions under external loading available in the literature. The second part deals with cracks in front of edge notches. Limit cases of stress intensity factors are derived which allow to estimate stress intensity factors for cracks in front of internal elliptical notches with arbitrary aspect ratio of the ellipse and for external notches. (orig.) [de

  15. Chronic Stress and Neuropathology: Neurochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The work that constitutes this Final Addendum Report derived from the hypothesis that individual differences in stress reactivity derived from selective breeding generalize to a behavioral phenotype...

  16. A comparative evaluation of crowding stress on muscle HSP90 and myostatin expression in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; McCormick, Stephen; Biga, Peggy R.

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that contributes to poor production and animal welfare concerns in aquaculture. As such, a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in the stress response is imperative to developing strategies to mitigate the negative side effects of stressors, including the impact of high stocking densities on growth. The purpose of this study was to determine how the muscle growth inhibitor, myostatin, and the stress-responsive gene HSP90 are regulated in response to crowding stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). All species exhibited higher cortisol and glucose levels following the handling stress, indicating physiological response to the treatment. Additionally, all species, except rainbow trout, exhibited higher HSP90 levels in muscle after a 48 h crowding stress. Crowding stress resulted in a decrease of myostatin-1ain brook trout white muscle but not red muscle, while, myostatin-1a and -2a levels increased in white muscle and myostatin-1b levels increased in red muscle in Atlantic salmon. In rainbow trout, no significant changes were detected in either muscle type, but myostatin-1awas upregulated in both white and red skeletal muscle in the closely related cutthroat trout. The variation in response to crowding suggests a complex and species-specific interaction between stress and the muscle gene regulation in these salmonids. Only Atlantic salmon and cutthroat trout exhibited increased muscle myostatin transcription, and also exhibited the largest increase in circulating glucose in response to crowding. These results suggest that species-specific farming practices should be carefully examined in order to optimize low stress culture conditions.

  17. Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-02-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2): N=27) individuals with normal weight (NW: BMI<18.5-24.9 kg/m(2): N=21) individuals during exposure to personalized stress, alcohol cue, and neutral-relaxing situations using a validated, autobiographical, script-driven, guided-imagery paradigm. Metabolic factors, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and leptin, were examined for their association with VS activation. Consistent with previous studies, stress and alcohol cue exposure each increased activity in cortico-limbic regions. Compared with NW individuals, OW/OB individuals showed greater VS activation in the neutral-relaxing and stress conditions. FPG was correlated with VS activation. Significant associations between VS activation and metabolic factors during stress and relaxation suggest the involvement of metabolic factors in striatal dysfunction in OW/OB individuals. This relationship may contribute to non-homeostatic feeding in obesity.

  18. Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollenweider, P.; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.

    2005-01-01

    Visible symptoms in the foliage of trees are recorded to monitor the effects of abiotic and biotic stress. Difficulties are reported in diagnosing the origin of stress. The present paper discusses several diagnostic criteria which are usable in different species for a better determination of the stress factor type. A new diagnosis scheme to differentiate between classes of abiotic and biotic stress factors is supplied. Abiotic stress generates gradients of symptoms. The symptom specificity is determined by the degree of interaction between the stress factor and plant defense system. Symptoms caused by abiotic stress and natural autumnal senescence can be morphologically different or undistinguishable according to the stress and plant species. With biotic stress, the class of parasitic is generally recognizable on the basis of the visible symptoms. Structurally and physiologically based explanations of the symptom morphology are still missing for many stress factors. - The morphology and distribution of visible stress symptoms in tree foliage provides diagnostic tools to identify plant defense responses and differentiate stress from natural senescence symptoms

  19. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive factors for acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşan, Aziz; Guzel, Aslan; Tamam, Yusuf; Ozkan, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Since traffic accidents are more common in developing countries than in developed countries, we aimed to investigate the association of several factors with the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traffic accidents. In the study,95 participants with injuries from traffic accidents were evaluated at 4 different times: in the beginning, and after 3, 6 and 12 months. During the first evaluation, 41.1% (39) of our participants had acute stress disorder (ASD). It was found that lower perceived social support (OR = 0.0908, 95% CI = 0.834-0.989, p = 0.027) and higher peritraumatic dissociative experience scores (OR = 1.332, 95% CI = 1.170-1.516, p accident, we found PTSD affected 29.8, 23.1 and 17.9% of the participants, respectively. Although limitations at work and in social life after a traffic accident were not related to PTSD at 3 months (OR = 122.43, 95% CI = 0.000, p = 0.999) or at 6 months (OR = 63.438, 95% CI = 0.529-76.059, p = 0.089), limitations at work and in social life were predictors of PTSD at 12 months (OR = 155.514, 95% CI = 2.321-104.22, p = 0.019). The persistence of PTSD at the 12-month evaluation is related to ASD, limitations in work and social life, and lower social support scores. In developing countries like Turkey, long-term PTSD is commonly seen after traffic accidents. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Stress and Single Professional Women: An Exploration of Causal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Margaret L.; Amatea, Ellen S.

    1992-01-01

    Explored stress, career satisfaction, career commitment, personal resources, and coping strategies for single, single-parent, married, and married-parent academic women (n=141). Results indicated single women had significantly higher levels of stress symptoms than married-parent women. Single women did not differ from multiple-role colleagues in…

  2. Women Superintendents Who Leave: Stress and Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry K.; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on stress in the workplace has demonstrated that it can have not only a current, but lasting effect on a worker's health. The superintendency is a stressful job due to all of the competing demands of running a school system, no matter the size. This exploratory study reexamined qualitative interview transcripts from Robinson's…

  3. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Postpartum stress urinary incontinence and associated obstetric factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-rong; Shi, Jun-xia; Zhai, Gui-rong; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of cesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) on postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic floor muscles strength and to find out the correlated obstetric factors and prevention for postpartum SUI. Totally, 788 women, who visited the antenatal clinics, delivered and had the follow-up at 6-8 weeks after delivery in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in the year of 2008, were enrolled in this study and were divided into 3 groups: CS group (n = 212); normal vaginal delivery (NVD) group (n = 534) and forceps delivery (FD) group (n = 42). Women in the NVD and FD group were merged into one VD group and then divided into SUI and non-SUI group. Information of delivery mode and the correlated obstetric factors were obtained through questionnaires and medical records. Femiscan pelvic floor muscle examine system was applied to measure the pelvic floor muscle strength to understand the relationship between postpartum SUI and pelvic floor muscle strength. (1) Incidence of SUI: the overall proportion of women who complained of urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy was 15.4% (121/788), and it was 15.9% (85/534), 11.9% (5/42) and 14.6% (31/212) in the NVD, FD and CS group, respectively (P > 0.05). The overall incidence of postpartum SUI was 17.1% (135/788), and it was 19.1% (102/534), 26.2% (11/42) and 10.4% (22/212) in the NVD, FD and CS group, respectively, with significant difference between the NVD and FD group, and between the CS and NVD group (all P factors of postpartum SUI: among the VD group, 113 women were in the postpartum SUI group and 463 in the non-SUI group. Univariate analysis and logistic multivariate analysis showed that delivery mode, neonatal birth weight and UI during pregnancy were risk factors of postpartum SUI. CS decreased and higher neonatal birth weight and UI during pregnancy increased the risk of postpartum SUI. In the VD group, neonatal birth weight, forceps delivery and UI during pregnancy

  5. FACTORS CAUSING OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF AMRITSAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to investigate the various factors causing occupational stress experienced by senior secondary school teachers. A sample of 100 teachers (50 science teachers and 50 physical education teachers was randomly selected. They were administered a comprehensive questionnaire which measures various factors of stress. Factor analyses were used to identify underlying factors causing stress. The analysis showed that non cooperation from the colleagues, hastiness to finish the work, unable to perform duty smoothly, unclear instructions and insufficient facilities, unclear expectations of higher authority and having more work load in less time were the significant factors causing occupational stress among the teachers. The monotonous nature of work, ignorance of higher authority and violation of administrative processes and policies were factors also contributing towards occupational stress among teachers

  6. Analytical Solution for Stress Field and Intensity Factor in CSTBD under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Ali Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that rocks fail faster under tensile stress, rock tensile strength is of greatimportance in applications such as blasting, rock fragmentation, slope stability, hydraulic fracturing,caprock integrity, and geothermal energy extraction. There are two direct and indirect methods tomeasure tensile strength. Since direct methods always encompass difficulties in test setup, indirectmethods, specifically the Brazilian test, have often been employed for tensile strength measurement.Tensile failure is technically attributed to crack propagation in rock. Fracture mechanics hassignificant potential for the determination of crack behaviour as well as propagation pattern. To applyBrazilian tests, cracked disc geometry has been suggested by the International Society for RockMechanics ISRM. Accordingly, a comprehensive study is necessary to evaluate stress field and stressintensity factor (SIF around the crack in the centre of the specimen. In this paper, superpositionprinciple is employed to solve the problem of cracked straight-through Brazilian disc (CSTBD, usingtwo methods of dislocation and complex stress function. Stress field and SIF in the vicinity of thecrack tip are then calculated. With the proposed method, the magnitude of critical load for crackinitiation in structures can be predicted. This method is valid for any crack of any arbitrary length andangle. In addition, numerical modelling has been carried out for the Brazilian disc. Finally, theanalytical solution has been compared with numerical modelling results showing the same outcomefor both methods.

  7. Comparative analysis of stress in a new proposal of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Mariana Lima da Costa; de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Macedo, Ana Paula; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, through photoelastic analysis, the stress distribution around conventional and modified external hexagon (EH) and morse taper (MT) dental implant connections. Four photoelastic models were prepared (n=1): Model 1 - conventional EH cylindrical implant (Ø 4.0mm×11mm - Neodent®), Model 2 - modified EH cylindrical implant, Model 3 - conventional MT Conical implant (Ø 4.3mm×10mm - Neodent®) and Model 4 - modified MT conical implant. 100 and 150N axial and oblique loads (30° tilt) were applied in the devices coupled to the implants. A plane transmission polariscope was used in the analysis of fringes and each position of interest was recorded by a digital camera. The Tardy method was used to quantify the fringe order (n), that calculates the maximum shear stress (τ) value in each selected point. The results showed lower stress concentration in the modified cylindrical implant (EH) compared to the conventional model, with application of 150N axial and 100N oblique loads. Lower stress was observed for the modified conical (MT) implant with the application of 100 and 150N oblique loads, which was not observed for the conventional implant model. The comparative analysis of the models showed that the new design proposal generates good stress distribution, especially in the cervical third, suggesting the preservation of bone tissue in the bone crest region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Predisposing Factors on Academic Stress among Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershaanbala Balakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been done on stress among educators. Teachers, lecturers, and tutors all over the world has been brought into attention when it comes to stress related issues. Our purpose was to investigate the level of academic stress among pre-service teachers in a teaching education institution in Perak, Malaysia. Methods: In this study a cross-sectional comparative survey study was conducted on pre-service teachers from a teacher education institution. The variables that was tested and correlated throughout the study are age, gender, and marital status, and medical history, influence of medications, exercise and social lifestyle. Data was collected through questionnaires to find out the outcome. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe the socio-demographic data. Correlation analysis was used to determine the significant relation between the variables. P<0.05 was considered as significant of the study. Results: Majority of the students, 78.4% represent the severe category of distress according to the Kessler scale. The remaining 13.6% were recorded as being under mild and 7.6% (n=19 under moderate category of distress. Regrettably, less than 1% (n=1 of the pre-service teachers were from the well category. Exercise was found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of severe psychological distress. Simple logistic regressions showed that pre-service teachers who exercised had a significant 91% reduced risk for psychological distress (OR=0.09; 95% CI=0.02, 0.35 compared to those who doesn’t exercise. Conclusion: At the end of this study, a better understanding on the predisposing factors of academic stress among pre-service teachers was determined and therefore interventions on coping with stress can be made simple. Various physiotherapy interventions on preventive and corrective measures were suggested with reference to the results.

  9. A comparative study on stress and compliance based structural topology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu Shimels, G.; Dereje Engida, W.; Fakhruldin Mohd, H.

    2017-10-01

    Most of structural topology optimization problems have been formulated and solved to either minimize compliance or weight of a structure under volume or stress constraints, respectively. Even if, a lot of researches are conducted on these two formulation techniques separately, there is no clear comparative study between the two approaches. This paper intends to compare these formulation techniques, so that an end user or designer can choose the best one based on the problems they have. Benchmark problems under the same boundary and loading conditions are defined, solved and results are compared based on these formulations. Simulation results shows that the two formulation techniques are dependent on the type of loading and boundary conditions defined. Maximum stress induced in the design domain is higher when the design domains are formulated using compliance based formulations. Optimal layouts from compliance minimization formulation has complex layout than stress based ones which may lead the manufacturing of the optimal layouts to be challenging. Optimal layouts from compliance based formulations are dependent on the material to be distributed. On the other hand, optimal layouts from stress based formulation are dependent on the type of material used to define the design domain. High computational time for stress based topology optimization is still a challenge because of the definition of stress constraints at element level. Results also shows that adjustment of convergence criterions can be an alternative solution to minimize the maximum stress developed in optimal layouts. Therefore, a designer or end user should choose a method of formulation based on the design domain defined and boundary conditions considered.

  10. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  11. Mother's postnatal stress: an investigation of links to various factors during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2016-12-01

    Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent-child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Inhibition of Ribosome Recruitment Induces Stress Granule Formation Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J.; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2α phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity...

  13. Life stress as potential risk factor for depression and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plieger

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: By considering the influence of life stress it could be demonstrated that depression and burnout are not identical although they share substantial phenotypic variance (r = .46–.61. Most important, the trivariate associations are the same in a representative employee sample and in an inpatient clinical sample suggesting the same underlying mechanisms covering the whole range from normal behavior to psychopathology. However, only longitudinal data can show if burnout necessarily turns into depression with the consequence that the burnout – life stress association approaches the depression – life stress association over time.

  14. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  15. Relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases risk factors in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad

    2016-11-18

    Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p stress were observed in the Ilam's intercity drivers. Occupational stress may have effect on blood glucose levels but the results did not suggest a considerable relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 21 participates in adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress and attenuates obesity-induced hepatic metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Back, Sung Hoon; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone that exhibits anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activity. FGF21 expression is increased in patients with and mouse models of obesity or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the functional role and molecular mechanism of FGF21 induction in obesity or NAFLD are not clear. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered in obesity and NAFLD, we investigated whether ER stress affects FGF21 expression or whether FGF21 induction acts as a mechanism of the unfolded protein response (UPR) adaptation to ER stress induced by chemical stressors or obesity. Hepatocytes or mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in UPR signalling pathways and liver-specific eIF2α mutant mice were employed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of ER stress on FGF21 expression, respectively. The in vivo importance of FGF21 induction by ER stress and obesity was determined using inducible Fgf21-transgenic mice and Fgf21-null mice with or without leptin deficiency. We found that ER stressors induced FGF21 expression, which was dependent on a PKR-like ER kinase-eukaryotic translation factor 2α-activating transcription factor 4 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Fgf21-null mice exhibited increased expression of ER stress marker genes and augmented hepatic lipid accumulation after tunicamycin treatment. However, these changes were attenuated in inducible Fgf21-transgenic mice. We also observed that Fgf21-null mice with leptin deficiency displayed increased hepatic ER stress response and liver injury, accompanied by deteriorated metabolic variables. Our results suggest that FGF21 plays an important role in the adaptive response to ER stress- or obesity-induced hepatic metabolic stress.

  17. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p studies.

  18. Comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were carried out to evaluate the comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet (Viola odorata L.) seedlings. Violet seedlings propagated through tissue culture (direct regeneration) had significantly higher salicylic acid (SA) concentrations from seed and rootstock ...

  19. Application of item response theory to achieve cross-cultural comparability of occupational stress measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsutsumi, A.; Iwata, N.; Watanabe, N.; Jonge, de J.; Pikhart, H.; Férnandez-López, J.A.; Xu, Liying; Peter, R.; Knutsson, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Kawakami, N.; Siegrist, J.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine cross-cultural comparability of standard scales of the Effort-Reward Imbalance occupational stress scales by item response theory (IRT) analyses. Data were from 20,256 Japanese employees, 1464 Dutch nurses and nurses' aides, 2128 representative employees from

  20. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  1. Chronic Stress and Neuropathology: Neurochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    ... to selective breeding in the rat. Genetic differences in stress responsiveness in replicate line 1 were associated with differences in anxiety-like behavior, body weight gain and voluntary intake of sweet solutions and ethanol...

  2. Comparative study of oxidative stress caused by anthracene and alkyl-anthracenes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA] in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1 the same external exposure concentration and 2 the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms in sexually harassed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) factor analytic research to date has not provided a clear consensus on the structure of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Seven hypothesized factor structures were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, a paper-and-pencil measure of posttraumatic stress symptom severity, in a sample of 1,218 women who experienced a broad range of workplace sexual harassment. The model specifying correlated re-experiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal factors provided the best fit to the data. Virtually no support was obtained for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) three-factor model of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal factors. Different patterns of correlations with external variables were found for the avoidance and emotional numbing factors, providing further validation of the supported model.

  4. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of 'obesity-related obesogenic stressors' was hypothesized, including the dimensions, 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction'. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. The five factorial model of 'potentially obesity-related stressors' resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction' as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  6. Recent advances in utilizing transcription factors to improve plant abiotic stress tolerance by transgenic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions.

  7. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  8. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  9. Ownership type and team climate in elderly care facilities: the moderating effect of stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study examining the association between ownership type and perceived team climate among older people care staff. In addition, we examined whether work stress factors (time pressure, resident-related stress, role conflicts and role ambiguity) mediated or moderated the above mentioned association. There has been a trend towards contracting out in older people care facilities in Finland and the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Studies suggest that there may be differences in employee well-being and quality of care according to the ownership type of older people care. Cross-sectional survey data was collected during the autumn of 2007 from 1084 Finnish female older people care staff aged 18-69 years were used. Team Climate Inventory was used to measure team climate. Ownership type was divided into four categories: for-profit sheltered homes, not-for-profit sheltered homes, public sheltered homes and not-for-profit nursing homes. Analyses of covariance were used to examine the associations. Team climate dimensions participative safety, vision and support for innovation were higher in not-for-profit organizations (both sheltered homes and nursing homes) compared to for-profit sheltered homes and public sheltered homes. Stress factors did not account for these associations but acted as moderators in a way that in terms of task orientation and participative safety employees working in for-profit organizations seemed to be slightly more sensitive to work-related stress than others. Our results suggest that for-profit organizations and public organizations may have difficulties in maintaining their team climate. In consequence, these organizations should focus more effort on improving their team climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, J; Wijma, B; Thorbert, G; Wijma, K

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find risk factors in pregnancy for post-traumatic stress and depression 1 month after childbirth. Furthermore, the relation between post-traumatic stress and depression was explored. A prospective longitudinal study. Pregnant women in Linköping and Kalmar, Sweden. A total of 1224 women were assessed in pregnancy, week 12-20 and 32, as well as 1 month postpartum. Post-traumatic stress and depression after delivery were assessed 1 month postpartum. Potential risk factors were assessed in early and late pregnancy. Variables measured during pregnancy were trait anxiety, depression, fear of childbirth, childbirth-related traumatic stress, stress coping capacity, social support, parity, educational level, age, gestation week, parity, educational level, civil status, previous psychological/psychiatric counselling, and previous experience of any traumatic events. Delivery mode was assessed from the medical records. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress (criteria A, B, C, D, E, and F according to DSM-IV) and depression (Beck's depression inventory). One month postpartum, 12 (1.3%) women had post-traumatic stress (met symptom criteria B, C, and D for post-traumatic stress disorder according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]). The most important risk factors in pregnancy were depression in early pregnancy (OR=16.3), severe fear of childbirth (OR=6.2), and 'pre'-traumatic stress (in view of the forthcoming delivery) in late pregnancy (OR=12.5). The prevalence of depression was 5.6%. Post-traumatic stress and depression were positively related 1 month postpartum and were predicted by mainly the same factors. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress and depression after childbirth can be assessed in early pregnancy. Post-traumatic stress and depression also seem to share the same underlying vulnerability factors.

  11. A comparative gender study of the factors affecting motivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to identify the key factors of motivation for professional and paraprofessional library staff based on their gender and to identify how they rate the various motivational factors. The descriptive survey method was employed and five university libraries were selected for the study. The respondents ...

  12. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  13. Comparative study of drought and salt stress effects on germination and seedling growth of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is first critical and the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of plants compromise the seedlings establishment. Salt and drought tolerance testing in initial stages of plant development is of vital importance, because the seed with more rapid germination under salt or water deficit conditions may be expected to achieve a rapid seedling establishment, resulting in higher yields. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pea seed germination and seedling growth were inhibited by the salt toxicity and osmotic effect during the seedling development, and also identification of the sensitive seedling growth parameters in response to those stresses. Based on the obtained results, pea has been presented to be more tolerant to salt than water stress during germination and early embryo growth. Investigated cultivars showed greater susceptibility to both abiotic stresses when it comes growth parameters compared to seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. TR-31022

  14. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state

  15. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides

  16. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lin, Zhongyuan; Tao, Qing; Liang, Mingxiang; Zhao, Gengmao; Yin, Xiangzhen; Fu, Ruixin

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola), each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12) and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12) and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3) were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides insight into

  17. Transient Stress Intensity Factors of Functionally Graded Hollow Cylinders with Internal Circumferential Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Eshraghi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with complete internal circumferential cracks are obtained using the weight function method. The finite difference method is used to calculate the time dependent temperature distribution and thermal stresses along the cylinder thickness. Furthermore, finite element analysis is performed to determine the weight function coefficients and to investigate the accuracy of the predicted stress intensity factors from the weight functions. Variation of the stress intensity factors with time and effects of the material gradation on the results are investigated, as well. It is shown that the proposed technique can be used to accurately predict transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with arbitrary material gradation.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of sweet corn seedlings under low-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by low temperature, which represents a widespread environmental factor, strongly affects maize growth and yield. However, the physiological characteristics and molecular regulatory mechanisms of maize seedlings in response to cold remain poorly understood. In this study, using RNA-seq, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of two sweet corn inbred lines, “Richao” (RC and C5, under cold stress. A total of 357 and 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the RC and C5 lines, respectively, 94 DEGs were detected as common DEGs related to cold response in both genotypes, and a total of 589 DEGs were detected as cold tolerance-associated genes. By combining protein function clustering analysis and significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms analysis, we suggest that transcription factors may play a dominating role in the cold stress response and tolerance of sweet corn. Furthermore, 74 differentially expressed transcription factors were identified, of those many genes involved in the metabolism and regulation of hormones. These results expand our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in chilling tolerance in maize, and provide a set of candidate genes for further genetic analyses.

  19. Role of Stress and Smoking as Modifiable Risk Factors for Nonpersistent and Persistent Back Pain in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Amy C; Salt, Elizabeth; Wiggins, Amanda; Crofford, Leslie J; Bush, Heather; Mannino, David M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking and stress with nonpersistent and persistent back pain. Participants included 3703 women who took part in the Kentucky Women's Health Registry in 2008 and 2011. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine whether smoking status and stress levels were predictive of nonpersistent and persistent back pain, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Stress level was associated with both nonpersistent and persistent back pain, whereas smoking was associated with only persistent back pain. Current smokers were 1.5 times more likely to report persistent back pain compared with never smokers, controlling for age, race, body mass index, educational attainment, and employment status. Women experiencing large or overwhelming amounts of stress were 1.8 times more likely to have nonpersistent back pain and 1.6 times more likely to report persistent back pain, compared with women experiencing small amounts of stress. This study further substantiates the findings of prior research that describes a significant relationship between back pain, stress, and smoking. Understanding the role of modifiable risk factors (ie, smoking and stress) and their impact on back pain provides an opportunity to offer a comprehensive and tailored treatment plan.

  20. [Compare the occupational stress and work ability among the police-officers, doctors and teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Lan, Ya-jia; Wang, Mian-zhen

    2004-03-01

    To compare the occupational stress and work ability in doctors, police-officers and teachers. Changes in occupational stress work ability were measured with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index (WAI) for 288 doctors, 191 police-officers and 343 teachers, and then comparative and correlation analyses were made. 1. The difference in occupational stress and strain between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01), and the score of the police-officers was higher than that of the doctors and teachers (P < 0.05), but the personal resources of police-officers were lower than those of the doctors and teachers (P < 0.05). 2. Analysis of the 6 items of occupational role questionnaire revealed that the scores of role ambiguity, role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in police-officers than in doctors and teachers, while the scores of role overload and physical environment were higher in teachers (P < 0.05). 3. Analysis of all items of personal strain revealed that the scores of vocational strain, psychological strain, physical strain, but not of interpersonal starin, were significantly higher in police-officers than in doctors and teachers (P < 0.05). 4. As to the personal resource, the results indicated that recreation and self-care of doctors and teachers were superior to those of police-officers. The score of social support was highest in doctors. The score of rational conduct was highest in teachers (P < 0.05). 5. Occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, and both were correlated negatively to the personal resources (P < 0.01). The correlations of work ability, occupational stress and strain, and personal resources were significant in teachers (P < 0.01). For polices-officers, doctors and teachers, different yet relevant measures should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve their work ability.

  1. Job stress and burnout: A comparative study of senior and head nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xiaorong; Wang, Ping; Hou, Wenxiu; Chen, Lili; Lou, Fenglan

    2017-06-01

    Senior nurses can suffer from high job stress and burnout, which can lead to negative patient outcomes and higher turnover rates; however, few studies have examined this topic. We recruited 224 head and senior nurses from September to December 2015 using convenience and cluster sampling, to compare job stress and burnout levels between the two groups. The Nurse Job Stressors Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scales were used to evaluate job stress and burnout, respectively. Results indicated that job stress scores significantly differed between head and senior nurses. The highest scoring subscales in both groups were time allocation and workload problems. Scores for the three burnout dimensions also significantly differed between the groups. Positive correlations between job stress and burnout were stronger among senior nurses than head nurses. Burnout may be higher among senior nurses given head nurses' potential for greater perceived job control. Our findings suggest that measures need to be taken to reduce burnout and turnover rates among senior nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Comparative Metabolomics Approach Detects Stress-Specific Responses during Coral Bleaching in Soft Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Meyer, Achim; Ali, Sara E; Salem, Mohamed A; Giavalisco, Patrick; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a reorganization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Metabolite profiling compared ambient conditions with response to simulated climate change stressors and with the sister species, S. glaucum. Among ∼300 monitored metabolites, 13 metabolites were modulated. Incubation experiments providing four selected upregulated metabolites (alanine, GABA, nicotinic acid, and proline) in the culturing water failed to subside the bleaching response at temperature-induced stress, despite their known ability to mitigate heat stress in plants or animals. Thus, the results hint to metabolite accumulation (marker) during heat stress. This study provides the first detailed map of metabolic pathways transition in corals in response to different environmental stresses, accounting for the superior thermal tolerance of S. ehrenbergi versus S. glaucum, which can ultimately help maintain a viable symbiosis and mitigate against coral bleaching.

  3. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Buixassa, Laia; Milà, Raimon; Mª Aragonès, Josep; Bufill, Enric; Olaya, Beatriz; Arrufat, Francesc Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science), Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms "stress*" AND "multiple sclerosis." Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9) were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14) were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  4. Stress and multiple sclerosis: A systematic review considering potential moderating and mediating factors and methods of assessing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Briones-Buixassa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis has yielded contradictory results. This study aims to systematically review the evidence focusing on two possible causes: the role of stress assessment and potential moderating and mediating factors. The Web of Knowledge (MEDLINE and Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles published from 1900 through December 2014 using the terms “stress*” AND “multiple sclerosis.” Twenty-three articles were included. Studies focused on the effect of stress on multiple sclerosis onset ( n  = 9 were mostly retrospective, and semi-structured interviews and scales yielded the most consistent associations. Studies focused on multiple sclerosis progression ( n  = 14 were mostly prospective, and self-reported diaries yielded the most consistent results. The most important modifying factors were stressor duration, severity, and frequency; cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate; and social support and escitalopram intake. Future studies should consider the use of prospective design with self-reported evaluations and the study of moderators and mediators related to amount of stress and autonomic nervous system reactivity to determine the effects of stress on multiple sclerosis.

  5. The GATA transcription factor egl-27 delays aging by promoting stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    Full Text Available Stress is a fundamental aspect of aging, as accumulated damage from a lifetime of stress can limit lifespan and protective responses to stress can extend lifespan. In this study, we identify a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor, egl-27, that is involved in several stress responses and aging. We found that overexpression of egl-27 extends the lifespan of wild-type animals. Furthermore, egl-27 is required for the pro-longevity effects from impaired insulin/IGF-1 like signaling (IIS, as reduced egl-27 activity fully suppresses the longevity of worms that are mutant for the IIS receptor, daf-2. egl-27 expression is inhibited by daf-2 and activated by pro-longevity factors daf-16/FOXO and elt-3/GATA, suggesting that egl-27 acts at the intersection of IIS and GATA pathways to extend lifespan. Consistent with its role in IIS signaling, we found that egl-27 is involved in stress response pathways. egl-27 expression is induced in the presence of multiple stresses, its targets are significantly enriched for many types of stress genes, and altering levels of egl-27 itself affects survival to heat and oxidative stress. Finally, we found that egl-27 expression increases between young and old animals, suggesting that increased levels of egl-27 in aged animals may act to promote stress resistance. These results identify egl-27 as a novel factor that links stress and aging pathways.

  6. A comparative analysis of foreign direct investment factors

    OpenAIRE

    Miškinis, Algirdas; Juozėnaitė, Ilma

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies factors affecting the foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. It analyzes the determinants of FDI in recent empirical evidence as well as determines differences among FDI factors in Greece, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The determinants being examined are the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, exchange rate, unit labor costs, trade openness as well as inflation. The analyzed period is 1974–2012. Data were collected from the World Bank and the Organization for Econom...

  7. Effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors analysis using machine learning methods in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Rajasekar; Yarrappagaari, Suresh; Thopireddy, Lavanya; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu; Saddala, Rajeswara Reddy

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms underlying stress responses, meta-analysis of transcriptome is made to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their biological, molecular and cellular mechanisms in response to stressors. The present study is aimed at identifying the effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, and it is found that several stress responsive genes are common for both abiotic and biotic stress factors in zebrafish. The meta-analysis of micro-array studies revealed that almost 4.7% i.e., 108 common DEGs are differentially regulated between abiotic and biotic stresses. This shows that there is a global coordination and fine-tuning of gene regulation in response to these two types of challenges. We also performed dimension reduction methods, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis which are able to segregate abiotic and biotic stresses into separate entities. The supervised machine learning model, recursive-support vector machine, could classify abiotic and biotic stresses with 100% accuracy using a subset of DEGs. Beside these methods, the random forests decision tree model classified five out of 8 stress conditions with high accuracy. Finally, Functional enrichment analysis revealed the different gene ontology terms, transcription factors and miRNAs factors in the regulation of stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-10-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether hippocampal volume normalizes with successful treatment of PTSD, or whether a smaller hippocampus is a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and clinical interviews were collected from 47 war veterans with PTSD, 25 healthy war veterans (combat controls) and 25 healthy non-military controls. All veterans were scanned a second time with a 6- to 8-month interval, during which PTSD patients received trauma-focused therapy. Based on post-treatment PTSD symptoms, patients were divided into a PTSD group who was in remission (n = 22) and a group in whom PTSD symptoms persisted (n = 22). MRI data were analysed with Freesurfer. Smaller left hippocampal volume was observed in PTSD patients compared with both control groups. Hippocampal volume of the combat controls did not differ from healthy controls. Second, pre- and post-treatment analyses of the PTSD patients and combat controls revealed reduced (left) hippocampal volume only in the persistent patients at both time points. Importantly, hippocampal volume did not change with treatment. Our findings suggest that a smaller (left) hippocampus is not the result of stress/trauma exposure. Furthermore, hippocampal volume does not increase with successful treatment. Instead, we demonstrate for the first time that a smaller (left) hippocampus constitutes a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD.

  9. Comparing older and younger Japanese primiparae: fatigue, depression and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Emi; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Saeki, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    This cohort study of primiparae was conducted to answer the following questions: Do older (≧ 35 years) and younger (20-29 years) Japanese primiparous mothers differ when comparing biomarkers of stress and measures of fatigue and depression? Are there changes in fatigue, depression and stress biomarkers when comparing older and younger mothers during the postpartum period? The Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administered in a time-series method four times: shortly after birth and monthly afterwards. Assays to measure biomarkers of stress, urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and salivary chromogranin-A, were collected shortly after delivery and at 1 month postpartum in both groups and a third time in older mothers at the 4th month. Statistical testing showed very little difference in fatigue, depression or stress biomarkers between older and younger mothers shortly after birth or 1 month later. Accumulated fatigue and depression scores of older mothers were highest 1 month after delivery. Additional cohort studies are required to characterize physical/psychological well-being of older Japanese primiparae. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Dynamic stress intensity factors for a longitudinal semi-elliptical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elliptical crack in a thick-walled cylinder subjected to transient dynamic stresses. First, the problem of dynamic elasticity in a thick-walled cylinder is solved analytically using the finite Hankel transform. Transient pressure is assumed to act on ...

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... sion Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), along with a pretested Sociodemographic questionnaire. .... sons.26 Most of them live in rural communities and work in ..... ing period.39 Results of other studies in North America also suggest that .... NIMH. National Institute of Mental Health; 2008.

  12. Elevated CSF Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Concentrations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Licinio, Julio; Darnell, Adam; Krystal, John H.; Owens, Michael J.; Southwick, Steven M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and somatostatin both play important roles in mediating responses to acute and chronic stress. The purpose of this study was to measure CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin in patients with chronic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comparison subjects. Method Lumbar punctures for collection of CSF were performed in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N=11) and comparison subjects (N=17). CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin were compared between the two groups. Results CSF concentrations of CRF were higher in the PTSD patients than in the comparison subjects (mean=29.0 pg/ml, SD=7.8, versus mean=21.9 pg/ml, SD=6.0). This group difference remained significant after covariance for age. CSF somatostatin concentrations in PTSD patients were higher than those of the comparison subjects (mean=19.9 pg/ml, SD=5.4, versus mean=13.7 pg/ml, SD=8.0). However, covarying for age reduced the level of significance. Conclusions Higher CSF CRF concentrations in patients with PTSD may reflect alterations in stress-related neurotransmitter systems. The higher CSF CRF concentrations may play a role in disturbances of arousal in patients with PTSD. PMID:9137116

  13. Sex differences in stress responses: a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R

    2018-03-01

    Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depression are higher in women than in men. Another shared feature of these disorders is that dysregulation of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is thought to contribute to their pathophysiology. Therefore, sex differences in responses to CRF could contribute to this sex bias in disease prevalence. Here, we review emerging data from non-human animal models that reveal extensive sex differences in CRF functions ranging from its presynaptic regulation to its postsynaptic efficacy. Specifically, detailed are sex differences in the regulation of CRF-containing neurons and the amount of CRF that they produce. We also describe sex differences in CRF receptor expression, distribution, trafficking, and signaling. Finally, we highlight sex differences in the processes that mitigate the effects of CRF. In most cases, the identified sex differences can lead to increased stress sensitivity in females. Thus, the relevance of these differences for the increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men is also discussed.

  14. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  15. Factors related to teamwork performance and stress of operating room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The effect of Residual Stress on the Stress Intensity Factor of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2008-01-01

    As NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) gets aged, the importance of the pressure boundary integrity increases very much to those who are trying to operate their plant beyond its design life. Not long ago, Boric acid crystal was found at the RPV outlet nozzle of V.C. Summer plant during the visual examination in 2000. After this finding, non-destructive examination was taken to find out what's taken place. As a result of this examination, circumferential and axial cracks were found. With Metallurgical structure examination, it was shown that crack had been developed at the mid-point between Inco-alloy buttering and weld metal. It was turned out that high welding residual stress was the main cause of the cracking. Because of the through wall crack, nozzle and welding parts were replaced. Many other nuclear power plants experienced similar pressure boundary stress corrosion cracks (SCCs). KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has carried out research projects for managing and preventing these kinds of cracks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The titles of these research projects are 'Development of Stress Corrosion Cracking Management Technology and Aging Monitor for NPP Main Components' and 'Development of Analysis Technology for Crack Management of Dissimilar Metal Weld'. Through these projects, residual stress measurement techniques have been exercised at various points in mock-up test specimens to simulate nuclear power plant dissimilar base metal and weldment residual stress. X-ray test and hole drilling method have been reviewed to measure residual stresses of the dissimilar metal welds. This paper shows some point of view in residual stress measurement. Fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to explain the importance of residual stress measurement in association with nuclear power plant safety

  17. Stress-intensity factor equations for cracks in three-dimensional finite bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical stress intensity factor equations are presented for embedded elliptical cracks, semi-elliptical surface cracks, quarter-elliptical corner cracks, semi-elliptical surface cracks at a hole, and quarter-elliptical corner cracks at a hole in finite plates. The plates were subjected to remote tensile loading. Equations give stress intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and where applicable, hole radius. The stress intensity factors used to develop the equations were obtained from three dimensional finite element analyses of these crack configurations.

  18. Numerical evaluation of stress intensity factor for vessel and pipe subjected to thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.W.; Lee, H.Y.; Yoo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal weight function method and the finite element method were employed in the numerical computation of the stress intensity factor for a cracked vessel and the cracked pipe subjected to thermal shock. A wall subjected to thermal shock was analyzed, and it has been shown that the effect of thermal shock on the stress intensity factor is dominant for the crack with small crack length to thickness ratio. Convection at the crack face had an influence on the stress intensity factor in the early stage of thermal shock. (Author)

  19. [Factors Associated with Stress Check Attendance: Possible Effect of Timing of Annual Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.

  20. Revisiting the Role of Plant Transcription Factors in the Battle against Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar-Ali; Li, Meng-Zhan; Wang, Suo-Min; Yin, Hong-Ju

    2018-05-31

    Owing to diverse abiotic stresses and global climate deterioration, the agricultural production worldwide is suffering serious losses. Breeding stress-resilient crops with higher quality and yield against multiple environmental stresses via application of transgenic technologies is currently the most promising approach. Deciphering molecular principles and mining stress-associate genes that govern plant responses against abiotic stresses is one of the prerequisites to develop stress-resistant crop varieties. As molecular switches in controlling stress-responsive genes expression, transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in regulating various abiotic stress responses. Hence, functional analysis of TFs and their interaction partners during abiotic stresses is crucial to perceive their role in diverse signaling cascades that many researchers have continued to undertake. Here, we review current developments in understanding TFs, with particular emphasis on their functions in orchestrating plant abiotic stress responses. Further, we discuss novel molecular mechanisms of their action under abiotic stress conditions. This will provide valuable information for understanding regulatory mechanisms to engineer stress-tolerant crops.

  1. Comparing the Heat Stress Index of HSI and WBGT in BakeryWorkplaces in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdavi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Thermal stress is one of the important issues of physical stress in workplaces. Bakery workers that are one of widely population that under occupation heat stress. In this study, heat stress indexes consist of HSI and WBGT in worker positions in total of 88  bakeries in Hamadan city was assessed.   Methods   In this study 88 bakery workplace was considered. Measuring of air variables to obtain  of HSI and WBGTheat stress indices was performed by axial fan anemometer, WBGTmeter and  hygrometer made in CASELLA CompanyIn this study 88 bakery workplace was considered.   Measuring of air variables to obtain of HSI and WBGTheat stress indices was performed by axial fan anemometer, WBGTmeter and hygrometer made in CASELLACompany.   Results   Results showed that the average HSI index (214.2 ± 43.7 % and the average work experience were (28.57±1.97 C. Analyzing of results showed that Pearson's correlation of coefficient between HSI and WBGT was equal to 0.509. Depending of HSI to air velocity was considerable (r = -0.811 that was not expected.   Conclusion   Values of HSI index had a wide scatter in variances in study fields comparing of  WBGTindex that had a minimal scatter, whereas those are measuring of variables and computing of indexes were same workplaces. Finally, although both heat indexes showed exceeded values form criteria, but calibration between HSI and WBGT in this study, showed that, the HSI index  had any weakness.    

  2. The Influence of Cardiac Risk Factor Burden on Cardiac Stress Test Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jon W; Li, Morgan; Orazulike, Chidubem; Emerman, Charles L

    2011-06-01

    Chest pain is the most common admission diagnosis for observation unit patients. These patients often undergo cardiac stress testing to further risk stratify for coronary artery disease (CAD). The decision of whom to stress is currently based on clinical judgment. We sought to determine the influence of cardiac risk factor burden on cardiac stress test outcome for patients tested from an observation unit, inpatient or outpatient setting. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study for all patients undergoing stress testing in our institution from June 2006 through July 2007. Cardiac risk factors were collected at the time of stress testing. Risk factors were evaluated in a summative fashion using multivariate regression adjusting for age and known coronary artery disease. The model was tested for goodness of fit and collinearity and the c statistic was calculated using the receiver operating curve. A total of 4026 subjects were included for analysis of which 22% had known CAD. The rates of positive outcome were 89 (12.0%), 95 (12.6%), and 343 (16.9%) for the OU, outpatients, and hospitalized patients respectively. While the odds of a positive test outcome increased for additional cardiac risk factors, ROC curve analysis indicates that simply adding the number of risk factors does not add significant diagnostic value. Hospitalized patients were more likely to have a positive stress test, OR 1.41 (1.10 - 1.81). Our study does not support basing the decision to perform a stress test on the number of cardiac risk factors.

  3. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  4. The Role of Trauma-Specific Irrational Beliefs and Sociodemographic Risk Factors in Posttraumatic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...

  5. Impact of management protocols of intrauterine fetal death on perceived stress: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy loss is a distressing problem and retention of dead fetus in utero has its own ill effects on physical, psychological, and social aspects, and hence, it is better to recommend medical induction, provided this can be safely undertaken. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, tolerability, induction-delivery interval, and perceived stress scores between induction methods in late intrauterine fetal death (IUFD with misoprostol alone and mifepristone with misoprostol combination in a rural population of Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted on 125 patients after taking institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients in a time span of 1 year. Group 2 patients received 200 mg of mifepristone per orally and observed for 48 h, followed by 50 μg misoprostol administered in the posterior vaginal fornix, and repeated 6th hourly up to a maximum of four doses. Group 1 received 50 μg misoprostol per vaginally 6 hourly for four doses. Induction-delivery interval was calculated. Perceived stress level was calculated on admission and before discharge. Results: Significantly lower induction-delivery interval was observed in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 with P < 0.001. There was no significant difference of Cohen's perceived stress scores on admission, but the difference was significantly lower in Group 2 on discharge with the value of P = 0.03. Group 1 had significantly lower hospital stay in days as compared to Group 2 of patients with P < 0.001. Conclusions: Patients with IUFD administered misoprostol per vaginally only may require shorter hospital stay as compared to patients administered with oral mifepristone followed by misoprostol vaginally but the delivery induction time increases significantly and may increase perceived stress levels which may have short- and long-term negative psychological impact.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  7. Personal Risk and Resilience Factors in the Context of Daily Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Chui, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role that personal risk and resilience factors play as adults of all ages cope with the stressors encountered in everyday life. Theorists have suggested that researchers should focus on the effects of daily stress and coping rather than focusing exclusively on major life events and chronic stress and have proposed that understanding how adults cope with daily stress is a key aspect of understanding long-term well-being and adaptation in adulthood. After presenting a conceptual model outlining the major components of the daily stress process, the chapter reviews the existing empirical literature on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress. This research clearly suggests that there is no universal generalization that can be made regarding whether chronological age, in and of itself, confers greater vulnerability or resilience onto adults. Instead, we argue that researchers should ask when and under what conditions is age associated with greater vulnerability to daily stress and when and under what conditions is age associated with greater resilience to daily stress. Age differences in reactivity to daily stress are clearly embedded within a complex system of factors—structural, individual, and situational—that influence stress reactivity and stress recovery in several ways. This complexity should not be taken to mean that stress reactivity and recovery cannot be charted or understood. Researchers, however, will need to approach this complexity with a great deal of theoretical, methodological, and statistical rigor to move our understanding of the importance of age in shaping risk and resilience to daily stress forward. The final section of the chapter outlines several directions for future research in the area of aging and resilience. In particular, we argue that a focus on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress, in combination with the application of sophisticated statistical

  8. PWSCC Growth Assessment Model Considering Stress Triaxiality Factor for Primary Alloy 600 Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sung Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC initiation model of Alloy 600 that considers the stress triaxiality factor to apply to finite element analysis. We investigated the correlation between stress triaxiality effects and PWSCC growth behavior in cold-worked Alloy 600 stream generator tubes, and identified an additional stress triaxiality factor that can be added to Garud's PWSCC initiation model. By applying the proposed PWSCC initiation model considering the stress triaxiality factor, PWSCC growth simulations based on the macroscopic phenomenological damage mechanics approach were carried out on the PWSCC growth tests of various cold-worked Alloy 600 steam generator tubes and compact tension specimens. As a result, PWSCC growth behavior results from the finite element prediction are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  11. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  12. Stroke survivors' endorsement of a "stress belief model" of stroke prevention predicts control of risk factors for recurrent stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Tuhrim, Stanley; Kronish, Ian M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions that stress causes and stress-reduction controls hypertension have been associated with poorer blood pressure (BP) control in hypertension populations. The current study investigated these "stress-model perceptions" in stroke survivors regarding prevention of recurrent stroke and the influence of these perceptions on patients' stroke risk factor control. Stroke and transient ischemic attack survivors (N=600) participated in an in-person interview in which they were asked about their beliefs regarding control of future stroke; BP and cholesterol were measured directly after the interview. Counter to expectations, patients who endorsed a "stress-model" but not a "medication-model" of stroke prevention were in better control of their stroke risk factors (BP and cholesterol) than those who endorsed a medication-model but not a stress-model of stroke prevention (OR for poor control=.54, Wald statistic=6.07, p=.01). This result was not explained by between group differences in patients' reported medication adherence. The results have implications for theory and practice, regarding the role of stress belief models and acute cardiac events, compared to chronic hypertension.

  13. Functional role of CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) in stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tie; Lu Luo

    2007-01-01

    CTCF, a nuclear transcriptional factor, is a multifunctional protein and involves regulation of growth factor- and cytokine-induced cell proliferation/differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the role of CTCF in protecting stress-induced apoptosis in various human cell types. We found that UV irradiation and hyper-osmotic stress induced human corneal epithelial (HCE) and hematopoietic myeloid cell apoptosis detected by significantly increased caspase 3 activity and decreased cell viability. The stress-induced apoptotic response in these cells requires down-regulation of CTCF at both mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CTCF may play an important role in downstream events of stress-induced signaling pathways. Inhibition of NFκB activity prevented stress-induced down-regulation of CTCF and increased cell viability against stress-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effect of CTCF was further studied by manipulating CTCF activities in HCE and hematopoietic cells. Transient transfection of cDNAs encoding full-length human CTCF markedly suppressed stress-induced apoptosis in these cells. In contrast, knocking down of CTCF mRNA using siRNA specific to CTCF significantly promoted stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, our results reveal that CTCF is a down stream target of stress-induced signaling cascades and it plays a significant anti-apoptotic role in regulation of stress-induced cellular responses in HCE and hematopoietic myeloid cells

  14. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work Stress in Academia in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila

    2014-01-01

    Work stress has been identified as a common phenomenon in the teaching profession. However, little research has been done to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with work stress among employees in university context in Tanzania and sub-Saharan African countries in general. Using survey design within the quantitative approach, this…

  15. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether

  16. Fasciatherapy and Reflexology compared to Hypnosis and Music Therapy in Daily Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrau, Bernard; Quere, Nadine; Breton, Elisabeth; Payrau, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Patients suffering from stress symptoms due to every-day life who are looking for a non-pharmacological response to their relief expectation are many. Furthermore, early reckoning of the day-to-day stress which may lead to clinical diagnosis is the best way of preventing the stress-related diseases. Among the many alternative medicinal options, there is little evidence that fasciatherapy (Fs) and reflexology (Rf) are effective in this field. assess incidence of fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method (DBM) and of reflexology on patients' stress level in everyday-life, and provide a more informed choice among the numerous mind and body techniques by comparing them with hypnosis (Hp) and music therapy (Mt). Specialized Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) centres for outpatients. 308 individuals (average age = 50.53 SD 14.37, 93 males, 215 females) going to the centres for health care, but free from serious diseases and not heavily medicated respecting the inclusion criteria and providing valid forms. Four armed, non-randomized observational pragmatic trial with pretest-posttest repeated measures, on separate samples of natural groups. According to the centre participants where they used to be treated, they were exposed to a single semi-standardized session of a technique of their choice: Fs, Rf, Hp, Mt. Volunteers had a controlled non-intervention resting (Rt) session. Mean STAI-Y assessing anxiety as reflecting the stress level: MANCOVA and ANCOVA performed with Tukey's HSD. MANCOVA indicates a significant reduction of anxiety ( p stress level in T0 (41.73) and on the mean sumscore of the trait (44.89), Fs (-13.92), Rf (-15.92), and Hp (-15.88) were equally effective on the stress level decrease. Mt (-10.0) and Rt (-6.38) showed the same level of effectiveness. The results suggest fasciatherapy DBM, hypnosis, and reflexology could be used as non-pharmacological and safe interventions in stress management. Though showing a lesser efficiency, music therapy could be

  17. Parent distress in childhood cancer: a comparative evaluation of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Boman, Krister K

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to assess symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress (PTS; cognitive intrusions, avoidance, arousal) related to the child's illness, and generic distress (anxiety, depression) in parents of childhood cancer patients. Outcomes were compared to normative and relevant reference data, and analysed for their dependence on time passed since diagnosis. Swedish parents (266 mothers, 208 fathers) were recruited at two centres. Data from a clinical sample of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and parents of healthy children were used for comparison. The Impact of Events Scale (IES-R) was used for assessing PTS symptoms, and self-report scales for anxiety and depression. Elevated stress and generic distress varied as a function of time from diagnosis. Up to 12% of parents for whom >5 years had passed since diagnosis still reported equally, or more intrusive thoughts, avoidance and arousal when contrasted to patients suffering from PTSD. Parents of recently diagnosed children had more cancer-related intrusive thoughts than those of long-term survivors. Heightened anxiety and depression was most prominent in mothers and fathers up to 2.5 years after diagnosis. In conclusion, severe generic distress characterises the first years after diagnosis, and initially common PTS symptoms are found in a considerable portion of parents years after diagnosis. Clinically, attention should be paid to continuous parent support needs. Individual variation vis-à-vis distress vulnerability should be acknowledged, and presupposed gender differences avoided. When treatment situation asks the most of parents' collaboration, many are under pressure of severe stress.

  18. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism interacts with gender to influence cortisol responses to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Siegler, Ilene C; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Williams, Redford B

    2017-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to stress with gender differences reported, although the findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol was collected for assay immediately before and after each task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that target those at high risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: associations in civilians one year after air attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Knezevic, Goran; Priebe, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate on which risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are more important--personality traits reflecting vulnerability, previous stressful experiences or characteristics of the traumatic event. In this study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and their relationship with personality traits, previous stressful experiences and exposure to stressful events during air attacks in Yugoslavia were investigated. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983), Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSCL-R; Wolfe & Kimerling, 1997), and List of Stressors were administered to a homogeneous group of medical students 1 year after the attacks. In multiple regression analyses, compulsive and passive-aggressive personality traits and a higher level of exposure to stressors during air attacks independently predicted the degree of intrusion symptoms. Avoidance symptoms were predicted by avoidant personality traits and a higher exposure to stressors both previously in life and during the attacks. In the next step, we tested in analyses of variance whether personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and stressful events during attacks as independent variables interact in predicting intrusion and avoidance symptoms. For this, students were clustered into three groups depending on their predominant personality traits. In addition to direct predictive effects, there were significant interaction effects in predicting both intrusion and avoidance. The findings suggest that each of the tested factors, i.e., personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and exposure to traumatic events may have an independent and direct influence on developing posttraumatic stress. However, the effect of these factors cannot just be added up. Rather, the factors interact in their impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Bigger samples and longitudinal designs will be required to

  1. Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, O.; Estrada, D.; Gonzalez, P.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Aviles, P.; Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

  2. FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOCIAL WORKERS’ JOB SATISFACTION, STRESS AND BURNOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calitz, Taetske

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  3. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was de...

  4. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence  and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.

  5. Wall stress on ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms with bicuspid compared with tricuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue; Wang, Zhongjie; Liu, Raymond; Haraldsson, Henrik; Hope, Michael D; Saloner, David A; Guccione, Julius M; Ge, Liang; Tseng, Elaine

    2018-03-08

    Guidelines for repair of bicuspid aortic valve-associated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms have been changing, most recently to the same criteria as tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Rupture/dissection occurs when wall stress exceeds wall strength. Recent studies suggest similar strength of bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms; thus, comparative wall stress may better predict dissection in bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Our aim was to determine whether bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms had higher wall stresses than their tricuspid aortic valve counterparts. Patients with bicuspid aortic valve- and tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (bicuspid aortic valve = 17, tricuspid aortic valve = 19) greater than 4.5 cm underwent electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography. Patient-specific 3-dimensional geometry was reconstructed and loaded to systemic pressure after accounting for prestress geometry. Finite element analyses were performed using the LS-DYNA solver (LSTC Inc, Livermore, Calif) with user-defined fiber-embedded material model to determine ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm wall stress. Bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms 99th-percentile longitudinal stresses were 280 kPa versus 242 kPa (P = .028) for tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in systole. These stresses did not correlate to diameter for bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (r = -0.004) but had better correlation to tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms diameter (r = 0.677). Longitudinal stresses on sinotubular junction were significantly higher in bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms than in tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (405 vs 329 kPa, P = .023). Bicuspid

  6. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dawei, E-mail: dwxue@hznu.edu.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Jiang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Deng, Xiangxiong; Zhang, Xiaoqin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Xu, Xiangbin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Guo, Longbiao, E-mail: guolongbiao@caas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Qian, Qian, E-mail: qianqian188@hotmail.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cd is the most toxic heavy metal and is a major pollutant in rice grains. • The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well demonstrated. • Proteomics analysis is carried out and the verification is implemented by QPCR. • Proteins associated with ROS and photosynthesis showed large variation in expression. - Abstract: Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.

  8. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Pinellia ternata Leaves Exposed to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58% as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%, photosynthesis (13%, chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%, protein degradation (4% and defense (4%. Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI, sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress.

  9. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-09-15

    Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study which involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. Among six categories of factors that generate work related stress (job demands, control, relationships, role, changes and support) control and support had the highest mean scores. Within the control category the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by the following factors - changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions. 141 out of the interviewed teachers (47%) have mentioned changes in terms and conditions without consultation as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) have reported it as stressful. 123 out of interviewed teachers (41%) have stated given responsibility without the authority to take decisions as very stressful, with another 105 (35%) have reported it as stressful. In the category support the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by stress factors - lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. Out of 300 interviewed teachers, 179 (59.67%) have reported lack of funds/resources to do the job as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) as stressful. There is no significant relationship between the stress factor limited or no access to training and demographic and job characteristics. Our findings confirm that

  10. THE DYNAMIC INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN MAN AND ENVIRONMENT, A FACTOR OF STRESS AND ECO STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMIONESCU (BARBU IRINA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reason for writing this paper is the omnipresence but also the impact of stress in our times. In order to explain why stress has gained an important place in modern history, we need to understand the evolution of medical science and technology, which over the last decades, have taken important steps towards establishing the biological links between stress and human behaviour but also the political and cultural contexts that have endowed with meaning and authority the scientific knowledge. In the same time, we must concentrate on the interaction between the individual and his social and physical environment from a holistic perspective, surpassing the interdisciplinary limits. The term ‘stress’ is used as a metaphor for disasters at a macroeconomic level, when national economies are destabilized and recently it has been associated with the idea of environmental damage. All natural disasters are environmental events, and their impact on human beings (from a psychological, physical, economic and social point of view can be seen as a major eco-stress. It’s essential to understand man`s influence on the environment in order to review the attitude of communities that, under the pretext of modernity, continue to exert destructive actions

  11. Study on applicability of stress intensity factor solutions for flaw evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Nagai, Masaki; Takahashi, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Stress intensity factor is the quantity which characterizes the singularity of the stress field near a crack tip in the scheme of the linear elastic fracture mechanics, and is used for fatigue and/or SCC crack propagation evaluation. Stress intensity factor depends on the shape and the size of cracked structures, and is frequently prepared as the tabulated correction factors which are the functions of crack depth ratio, aspect ratio, etc. Some stress intensity factor solutions have been included in the JSME rules on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants. Many of them have been significantly revised on the latest (2012) version of the rules, however, the validation of the revised solutions was not adequate so far. In this study, the implication of the revision was investigated together with its technical basis. A comprehensive comparison was made between available solutions including the 2008 and 2012 version of the rules. It was ascertained that the solutions in the 2012 version provided stress intensity factors consistent with the previous version and the referential stress intensity factors. (author)

  12. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, M. T; Hebert, Norman J

    2007-01-01

    The primary research aims are to examine the early longitudinal course of PTSD symptoms and test hypotheses regarding risk factors for chronic PTSD in military personnel returning from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  13. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Fowler, Susan; Fiedler, Nancy; Osinubi, Omowunmi; Robson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental factors of odor, noise, light, and color and perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The physical work environment may positively or negatively influence nurses' stress, and stress may negatively impact their job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. The research questions were answered using a descriptive, correlational design. The sample (n = 116) consisted of medical-surgical nurses working in acute-care settings. A 36-item questionnaire addressed odor, noise, light, color, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Significant relationships were found between noise and perceived stress, perceived stress and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and perceived stress and turnover intention. Nurses tend to overlook their physical environment and "do their job." Common environmental stressors in the work environment can be stressful to staff and influence job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs. Mitigating or eliminating these environmental factors has the potential to improve staff satisfaction and retention. Stress influences nursing job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs.

  14. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  15. Role stress among first-line nurse managers and registered nurses - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunilla; Sandahl, Christer; Hasson, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Studies show that first-line nurse managers (F-LNMs) experience high psychological job demands and inadequate managerial guidance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether F-LNMs have higher stress levels and show more signs of stress-related ill health than registered nurses (RNs). The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in self-rated health between F-LNMs and RNs on various psychosocial factors (e.g. job demand, job control and managerial support). Data were collected at a university hospital in Sweden. Sixty-four F-LNMs and 908 RNs filled in a web-based questionnaire. Both F-LNMs and RNs reported having good health. Approximately 10-15% of the F-LNMs and RNs showed signs of being at risk for stress-related ill health. Statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney U-test) were found in the distribution between the F-LNMs and the RNs on three indices of job control, job demand and managerial support. Our findings suggest that F-LNMs were able to cope with high-demand job situations because of relatively high control over work. The implication for nursing management shows the needs for a work environment for both F-LNMs and RNs that includes high job control and good managerial support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Nasir, Mohammad Abdel; Kemper, Nicole; Bao, Endong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42˚C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480‑min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB.

  17. Relationships of alcohol use, stress, avoidance coping, and other factors with mental health in a highly educated workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly; Westrup, Darrah; Matano, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    The relationships of drinking, stress, life satisfaction, coping style, and antidepressant use to mental health were examined in a highly educated workforce. This study used a one-time mail-out, mail-back cross-sectional survey design to examine the relationships of mental health with three kinds of stress (life events, work stress, home stress); two kinds of life satisfaction (work and home); use of avoidance coping; and antidepressant use. This study was conducted at a large worksite in northern California in which the workforce was comprised of predominantly highly educated employees. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 10% of 8567 employees, and 504 were completed and returned by participants (59%). Complete data were provided by 460 participants (53%). Respondents completed the Mental Health Index, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of coping style, work and home stress and satisfaction, stressful life events, and antidepressant use. Mean Mental Health Index scores were at the 32nd percentile of the U.S. population-based norms, with low percentile values associated with worse mental health. Using multiple regression analysis, the factors examined in this study were significantly related to Mental Health Index scores as the dependent variable [F(16, 443) = 27.41, p stress at work (p home (p work (p home life (p = .01); engaging in avoidance coping (p stress, home satisfaction and work stress, home satisfaction and avoidance coping, and home satisfaction and use of antidepressants. Mental health status was poorer on average in a highly educated workforce compared with general U.S. norms. Most of the factors that were found to be associated with poorer mental health were ones that are potentially modifiable, such as experiencing more stress and less satisfaction in work and home life and engaging in current hazardous or harmful drinking. The findings that mental health is worse among individual employees who exhibit

  18. An epidemiologic study of occupational stress factors in Mumbai police personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almale, Balaji D; Vankudre, Ashok J; Bansode-Gokhe, Seema S; Pawar, Vrushali K

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress is common to each and every organization at various levels of hierarchy. The police organization is no exception to this. Rather policing is widely recognized as more stressful than any other occupation, nature of work, irregular duty hours, and many more factors, which can trigger stress. The present study was done to highlight some of these stressful factors in Mumbai police. Simple as well as systematic random sampling technique was adopted to get equal representation from each zone as well as region from Mumbai police. Occupational stress index (OSI) questionnaire was prepared, pilot tested, and validated for screening stress. We screened 276 policemen for occupational stress. Seventy-three percent of them were in the 30-50 years age group, and most of them (49%) studied up to H.S.C. Ninety-one percent were married and 56% had reported duty hours 12-16 h/day. Seventy-one percent were addicted to any of the substance. After screening we found 73% moderately stressed, whereas 18% highly stressed policemen. Sociodemographic factors which were age group (50-58 years), duration of service in years (>25 years), duration of duty hours (>16 h/day), addiction habits, and number of monthly holidays (no holiday). We found role ambiguity, under participation, role overload, strenuous working condition, and unprofitability as predominant scales in OSI. So prevention as well as management of stress in policemen is the necessity of the current situation. This stress can be managed at organizational level by adopting right techniques, whereas at individual level by habituating right behavior and attitude.

  19. Job stress and its related factors in accountant employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoeniha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Job stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the capabilities¸ resources ¸and needs. This factor can negatively influence worker’s mental and physical health and also decrease organizations productivity and success. Thus the aim of present study was to investigate the job stress and its related factors in accountant employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 1388.   Methods This study was a descriptive (cross-sectional research in which the sampling population included 80 accountant employees that were selected with census. The severity of job stress and its related factors were determined using a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 36 items that validated by content validity. The reliability was also measured by test-retest (d=0/90 methods. Data was analyzed by descriptive analysis.     ResultsThe severity of job stress in most of accountant employees (%46/25 was in high level .There was a Significant relationship between severity of job stress and employees sex ¸ age and work record (p<0.001 . The higher job stress was experienced by women and employees with thelower age work record . Among different occupational stress variables, the most important factor that caused job stress was workload of the role (M=70/22. Conclusion With regard to the severity of job stress in accountant employees, it is necessary for organizational managers and policy makers to implement a protective strategy for prevention or alleviate longitudinal negative consequences of job stress in employees.

  20. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  1. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  2. Factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, P; Tak-Ying, S A; Wyatt, P A

    2000-06-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated the issues linked to Hong Kong nurses work-related health. The present study investigated factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong. The researchers employed a cross-sectional survey and made within-group comparisons of nurses' stress and coping. Using stratified random sampling the researchers selected nurses from the mailing list of a local professional organization. One hundred and sixty-eight (33.6%) nurses responded. Nurses reported lower stress levels than other workers assessed with the same measure. Paediatric nurses reported the highest stress levels. Nurses at the lower grades reported higher stress levels than nurses at the higher grades. Single nurses had marginally higher stress scores than married nurses and females had slightly higher stress scores than males. However, none of these results were statistically significant. The respondents' major sources of stress were related to nursing issues like too much work, interpersonal relationships, and dealing with hospital administration. The respondents coped with their stresses by seeking support from friends and colleagues, using different cognitive strategies and through leisure activities. There was a statistically significant link between the respondents' stress and sickness levels. The results raise issues about the nature of nurses' working experiences.

  3. Experimental and numerical determination of critical stress intensity factor of aluminum curved thin sheets under tensile stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarvand, Majid; Soltani, Naser; Hajializadeh, Farshid [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We determined the fracture toughness of aluminum curved thin sheets using tensile stress tests and finite element method. We applied Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and Feddersen procedure to evaluate stress intensity factor of the samples with central wire-cut cracks and fatigue cracks with different lengths to investigate the notch radius effect. Special fixture design was utilized to establish uniform stress distribution at the crack zone. Less than 9 % difference was found between the wire-cut and the fatigue cracked samples. Since generating central fatigue crack with different lengths required so much effort, wire-cut cracked samples were used to determine critical stress intensity factor. Finite element analysis was also performed on one-quarter of the specimen using both the singular Borsum elements and the regular isoparametric elements to further investigate fracture toughness of the samples. It was observed that the singular elements presented better results than the isoparametric ones. A slight difference was also found between the results obtained from finite element method using singular elements and the experimental results.

  4. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to high sucrose and oxidative and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Mahmood

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, high light and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis (DFR, ANS/LDOX and positive regulatory (TT8 genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032 compared to wild-type under high light stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9. In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032 produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  5. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, José A; Rothstein, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light (HL) stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, HL and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis ( DFR, ANS/LDOX) and positive regulatory ( TT8) genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032) compared to wild-type under HL stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9 . In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032) produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  6. Stress, coping and burnout among Intensive Care Unit nursing staff: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolhe, Rafaela; Barbosa, Ricardo Luis; Oliveira, Elaine Machado de; Costa, Ana Lúcia Siqueira; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2015-02-01

    Objective To investigate emotional stress, coping and burnout among nursing staff and their association with biosocial factors and characteristics of work in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Method This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in eight ICUs at a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2012. Biosocial data and information about the professionals' work was gathered, and they were given the Scale of Occupational Stress, Scale of Occupational Coping, List of Signs and Symptoms of Stress and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results The study sample consisted of 287 subjects, predominately women, with partners and children. Most professionals presented moderate stress levels and control as a coping strategy (74.47% and 79.93%, respectively), and burnout was present among 12.54%. Factors associated with stress were related to working conditions. The most prevalent protective factors were having a partner, working in the clinical ICU and liking work, while adequate amount of sleep was a protective factor for burnout. Conclusion Control of the working environment and adequate sleep are decisive and protective factors in dealing with situations of occupational stress.

  7. Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR, but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP, and synoviolin(HRD1 were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month.

  8. Female reproductive health in two lamp factories: effects of exposure to inorganic mercury vapour and stress factors.

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosis, F; Anastasio, S P; Selvaggi, L; Beltrame, A; Moriani, G

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the possible influence of mercury vapour on female reproduction, 153 women working in a mercury vapour lamp factory have been compared with 193 women employed in another factory of the same company, where mercury was not used. Both groups of subjects were exposed to stress factors (noise, rhythms of production, and shift work). The production process has been analysed by inspection of the plants and by collective discussions with "homogeneous groups" of workers; a retrospective in...

  9. Depressive disorder and social stress in Pakistan compared to people of Pakistani origin in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Tomenson, Barbara; Jackson, Judy; Gater, Richard; Creed, Francis

    2011-11-01

    Depressive disorder is more common in low to middle than high-income countries, but the reasons for this have not been explicitly defined. We compared the results of two population-based studies of people of Pakistani origin: one living in rural Pakistan and one in UK. Both samples were screened with the self-reporting questionnaire followed by research interview to determine depressive disorders and social stress. Logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence of depressive disorder in the two countries after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and social stress. The estimated prevalence of depression for men was 35.8% (95% CI 16.1-55.5) in Pakistan and 9% (5.0-13.0) in Manchester (pstress (both sexes). 35% of women in Pakistan and 71% of those in UK had received 8 years or more of education. Extremely poor housing and marked poverty were experienced by 36.1% of women in Pakistan and 0.6% of those in Manchester. In Pakistan, housing and poverty predominated as correlates of depression, whereas in Manchester it was marked difficulties in physical health and close relationships. The results suggest that the higher rate of depressive disorder amongst women in Pakistan compared to UK can be attributed to less education and frequent severe social difficulties. These differences have implications for treatment.

  10. Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-08-20

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical complication of alcohol abuse and a common liver disease in western countries. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important etiologic role in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol alone or in combination with high fat is known to cause oxidative injury. The present study therefore aims at evaluating the protective role of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric and a synthetic analog of curcumin (CA) on alcohol and thermally oxidised sunflower oil (DeltaPUFA) induced oxidative stress. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. The liver marker enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the lipid peroxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were used as biomarkers for testing the antioxidant potential of the drugs. The liver marker enzymes and lipid peroxidative indices were increased significantly in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups. Administration of curcumin and CA abrograted this effect. The antioxidant status which was decreased in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups was effectively modulated by both curcumin and CA treatment. However, the reduction in oxidative stress was more pronounced in CA treatment groups compared to curcumin. In conclusion, these observations show that CA exerts its protective effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidant status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant.

  11. Contasure-Needleless compared with transobturator-TVT for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat I Tardiu, Lluís; Martínez Franco, Eva; Laïlla Vicens, Josep Maria

    2011-07-01

    Single-incision devices for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have been introduced in the last few years. We report a comparison between Obturator Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) and Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL). One hundred and fifty-eight women with primary SUI were scheduled to receive TVT-O or C-NDL and follow-up during the first year. Epidemiological information, complications, blood loss, and pain level were recorded. We also analyze stress test and quality of life. Sixty-three (87.5%) C-NDL presented a negative stress test, compared with 54 (90%) of TVT-O (p value 0.015 for non-inferiority test). Sandvik Severity Index was 0 in 75.4% in the C-NDL group and 87.3% in the TVT-O (p TVT-O group. C-NDL provides similar outcomes as TVT-O after 1-year follow-up. It is necessary that long-term data confirm our results.

  12. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health issues are increasing in severity and number on college campuses. Improving adolescent mental well-being remains a challenge for most societies. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to study the prevalence of psychological mood disorders and its association with some factors.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-24

    Oct 24, 2016 ... The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and ... forms are produced by splicing individual non-coding ..... VII and. IX m. RNA. ↑. mBDNF. ↓. (MS). 5. BDNF expression was unch;.

  15. Proteomic and comparative genomic analysis reveals adaptability of Brassica napus to phosphorus-deficient stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuisen; Ding, Guangda; Wang, Zhenhua; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2015-03-18

    Given low solubility and immobility in many soils of the world, phosphorus (P) may be the most widely studied macronutrient for plants. In an attempt to gain an insight into the adaptability of Brassica napus to P deficiency, proteome alterations of roots and leaves in two B. napus contrasting genotypes, P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' and P-inefficient 'B104-2', under long-term low P stress and short-term P-free starvation conditions were investigated, and proteomic combined with comparative genomic analyses were conducted to interpret the interrelation of differential abundance protein species (DAPs) responding to P deficiency with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P deficiency tolerance. P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' had higher dry weight and P content, and showed high tolerance to low P stress compared with P-inefficient 'B104-2'. A total of 146 DAPs were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, which were categorized into several groups including defense and stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, signaling and regulation, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, protein process, biogenesis and cellular component, and function unknown. 94 of 146 DAPs were mapped to a linkage map constructed by a B. napus population derived from a cross between the two genotypes, and 72 DAPs were located in the confidence intervals of QTLs for P efficiency related traits. We conclude that the identification of these DAPs and the co-location of DAPs with QTLs in the B. napus linkage genetic map provide us novel information in understanding the adaptability of B. napus to P deficiency, and helpful to isolate P-efficient genes in B. napus. Low P seriously limits the production and quality of B. napus. Proteomics and genetic linkage map were widely used to study the adaptive strategies of B. napus response to P deficiency, proteomic combined with comparative genetic analysis to investigate the correlations between DAPs and QTLs are scarce. Thus, we herein investigated

  16. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L . ssp. durum ). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum . The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis -regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots

  17. Computer Breakdown as a Stress Factor during Task Completion under Time Pressure: Identifying Gender Differences Based on Skin Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Riedl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, as computers, the Internet, and mobile phones pervade almost every corner of life, the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on humans is dramatic. The use of ICT, however, may also have a negative side. Human interaction with technology may lead to notable stress perceptions, a phenomenon referred to as technostress. An investigation of the literature reveals that computer users’ gender has largely been ignored in technostress research, treating users as “gender-neutral.” To close this significant research gap, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which we investigated users’ physiological reaction to the malfunctioning of technology. Based on theories which explain that men, in contrast to women, are more sensitive to “achievement stress,” we predicted that male users would exhibit higher levels of stress than women in cases of system breakdown during the execution of a human-computer interaction task under time pressure, if compared to a breakdown situation without time pressure. Using skin conductance as a stress indicator, the hypothesis was confirmed. Thus, this study shows that user gender is crucial to better understanding the influence of stress factors such as computer malfunctions on physiological stress reactions.

  18. Stressful situations and factors in students of nursing in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Ofélia Llapa Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the risk factors for stress in undergraduate students of nursing in clinical practice in a public university in the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with 116 students from the fifth to the ninth period. The bilingual KEZKAK questionnaire, validated for Portuguese, was used. Stress was considered to be present when the score was equal or superior to 2. Results. The students with stress in clinical practice were 18 to 22 years old (2.82 ± 0.98, women (2.81 ± 0.96, married (2.80 ± 0.97, and who were permanent contracted employees (2.74 ± 0.94. The factors which were most associated with stress were: Lack of competence (2.99 ± 0.88; Impotence and uncertainty (2.98 ± 0.85; and Patients seeking a closer relationship (2.93 ± 1.01. The students of the sixth period were the most vulnerable to stress (2.85±0.96. Conclusion. The studies showed the main risk factors for stress among students of nursing in their clinical practice. These results could be used in the development of strategies seeking to reduce stress in this context as well as to contribute to promoting mental health.

  19. Stress Factors Associated With Burnout Among Attending Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yurika; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Ito, Makoto; Maeno, Takami; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Burnout in attending physicians is a crucial issue that may negatively impact patient outcomes, as well as affect the quality of training provided to residents. To investigate the association between burnout and stress-coping ability, we conducted a cross-sectional study of attending physicians. From April 2013 to March 2014, we distributed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire to 1,897 attending physicians who attended teaching-related training sessions and workshops. The questionnaire included the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS, Japanese version) to evaluate burnout; the sense of coherence scale (SOC, Japanese version) to measure stress-coping ability, with higher scores indicating higher stress-coping ability; the Brief Scales for Job Stress (BSJS) to assess stress and buffering factors; demographic factors; mean weekly working hours; and factors related to instructing residents. The MBI-GS was used to determine the presence of physician burnout. Subjects were divided into tertiles based on SOC scores. We conducted logistic regression analysis of burnout using the following independent variables: physician experience, sex, mean weekly working hours, SOC group, mental workload, and reward from work. Of the 1,543 (81.3%) attending physicians who responded, 376 did not meet the inclusion criteria and 106 had missing data, thus 1,061 (55.9%) were analyzed. The prevalence of burnout was 17.2%. Physicians with burnout had significantly fewer years of experience as a doctor (P burnout. On the BSJS, the mean score of all stress factors was higher and that of buffering factors was lower in physicians with burnout (P burnout were 35.7%, 12.8%, and 3.2% in the low, middle, and high SOC groups, respectively (P burnout in the low SOC group was 4.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.31 - 9.63) (P burnout among attending physicians was significantly associated with SOC scores after adjustment for stress factors and buffering factors.

  20. Job stress and its related factors in Tehran firefighters in year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdi SM

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Job stress results from a mismatch between job requirements and capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Physiological, psychological and behavioral outcomes caused by job stress not only hurt the person but also impose expensive costs on organizations. Firefighting is a job that exposes workers to job stress. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of job stress and some related factors in firefighters of Tehran safety services and firefighters organization. This cross sectional study includes 155 male firefighters whom had selected randomly. In this research we used Leiden University Questionnaire. Also Karasek Questionnaire is used for classification of workers according to karasek’s model. Collected data were analyzed by spss9 software. The final grade of firefighter’s job stress shows a significant positive relationship with second job and a significant negative relationship with age. The level of job satisfaction have a significant negative relationship with job insecurity and lack of meaningfulness, and a significant positive relationship with skill discretion, social support supervisor and social support co-workers. According to karasek classification this job is grouped in active not in high strain grup. The highest level of job stress was seen in physical exertion and hazardous exposure factors. Also in work and time pressure factor, job stress level is high. But job stress is in a moderate or low level in other factors. The level of job stress in younger firefighters and in individuals with a second job indicate a significant increase. However, in western country’s studies, this job is classified as high-strain but in this research it is classified as active group.

  1. Factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence from pregnancy to 2 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Miren; Diez-Itza, Irene; Ibañez, Larraitz; Paredes, Jone; Murgiondo, Arantzazu; Sarasqueta, Cristina

    2011-12-01

    To identify factors involved in the persistence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. In a longitudinal study at Donostia Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain, 458 primigravid women were recruited from April to October 2007. SUI was diagnosed via the 2002 International Continence Society definition. Severity was assessed via the Incontinence Severity Index, and impact on quality of life via the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. Means (Student t test and analysis of variance) and percentages (χ(2) and Fisher exact tests) were compared, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with variables that were significant or close to significant in a univariate analysis (Ppregnancy. Incontinence severity was slight or moderate in most cases and the impact on quality of life was low. A higher body mass index (BMI) in pregnant women at term was the only factor found to be associated with persistent SUI (odds ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.32). Higher BMI in pregnant women at term was an independent risk factor for the persistence of SUI from pregnancy to 2 years post partum. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses nuclear factor-Y expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yin; Feng, Peiqun; Su, Zhiguang

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity. We first examined the effects of ER stress on the NF-YA expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes; then in ob/ob genetic obesity mice, we tested the effect of chemical chaperones alleviating ER stress on the expression levels of NF-YA. Subsequently, we inhibited the new mRNA synthesis using actinomycin D in 3T3-L1 cells to explore the mechanism modulating NF-YA expression. Finally, we evaluated the involvement of PPARg in the regulation of NF-YA expression by ER stress. We demonstrated that both obesity- and chemical chaperone -induced ER stress suppressed NF-YA expression and alleviation of ER stress by chemical chaperone could recover NF-YA expression in ob/ob mice. Moreover, we showed that ER stress suppressed NF-YA mRNA transcription through the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg). Activation of PPARg ameliorates the ER stress-induced NF-YA suppression. Our findings may point to a possible role of NF-YA in stress conditions that occur in chronic obesity, ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through NF-YA depletion.

  3. Efficient computer program EPAS-J1 for calculating stress intensity factors of three-dimensional surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Yagawa, Genki.

    1982-03-01

    A finite element computer program EPAS-J1 was developed to calculate the stress intensity factors of three-dimensional cracks. In the program, the stress intensity factor is determined by the virtual crack extension method together with the distorted elements allocated along the crack front. This program also includes the connection elements based on the Lagrange multiplier concept to connect such different kinds of elements as the solid and shell elements, or the shell and beam elements. For the structure including three-dimensional surface cracks, the solid elements are employed only at the neighborhood of a surface crack, while the remainder of the structure is modeled by the shell or beam elements due to the reason that the crack singularity is very local. Computer storage and computational time can be highly reduced with the application of the above modeling technique for the calculation of the stress intensity factors of the three-dimensional surface cracks, because the three-dimensional solid elements are required only around the crack front. Several numerical analyses were performed by the EPAS-J1 program. At first, the accuracies of the connection element and the virtual crack extension method were confirmed using the simple structures. Compared with other techniques of connecting different kinds of elements such as the tying method or the method using anisotropic plate element, the present connection element is found to provide better results than the others. It is also found that the virtual crack extension method provides the accurate stress intensity factor. Furthermore, the results are also presented for the stress intensity factor analyses of cylinders with longitudinal or circumferential surface cracks using the combination of the various kinds of elements together with the connection elements. (author)

  4. Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of Early Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life events are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…

  5. Evaluation of Stress-Inducing Factors of Educational Environment in Hamadan Dentistry School’s Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dalband

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction & Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate stressor factors of educational environment in Hamadan dental school’s students in year 2002.Materials & Methods: The study design was descriptive, cross-sectional and it was accomplished using a questionnaire which was taken from DES (dental environment stress questionnaire. According to restricted number of statistical population all members of population (154 students were evaluated as samples and this study was a survey one. Results: The results of this study indicated that most stressfull factors in dental students has been related to class work with mean score 3.18±0.83 and faculty-student relationship with mean score 3.05±0.83. Female students showed more total stress than male students (2.73 vs. 2.44. The fourth-year students had the most stress rate in all students of different years (3.05 and preclinical and clinical factors were the most stress-inducing factors of these students (3.63.Conclusion: It is concluded that the environment of Hamadan dental school and the process of education in the field of dentistry is potentially stressful. Also there is a reverse relationship between level of stress in students and their academic efficiencies.

  6. Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaz, Dekel; Loya, Assaf; Gersner, Roman; Haramati, Sharon; Chen, Alon; Zangen, Abraham

    2011-03-23

    Chronic stress is a trigger for several psychiatric disorders, including depression; however, critical individual differences in resilience to both the behavioral and the neurochemical effects of stress have been reported. A prominent mechanism by which the brain reacts to acute and chronic stress is activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is inhibited by the hippocampus via a polysynaptic circuit. Alterations in secretion of stress hormones and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were implicated in depression and the effects of antidepressant medications. However, the potential role of hippocampal BDNF in behavioral resilience to chronic stress and in the regulation of the HPA axis has not been evaluated. In the present study, Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) to induce depressive-like behaviors after lentiviral vectors were used to induce localized BDNF overexpression or knockdown in the hippocampus. The behavioral outcome was measured during 3 weeks after the CMS procedure, then plasma samples were taken for measurements of corticosterone levels, and finally hippocampal tissue was taken for BDNF measurements. We found that hippocampal BDNF expression plays a critical role in resilience to chronic stress and that reduction of hippocampal BDNF expression in young, but not adult, rats induces prolonged elevations in corticosterone secretion. The present study describes a mechanism for individual differences in responses to chronic stress and implicates hippocampal BDNF in the development of neural circuits that control adequate stress adaptations.

  7. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic mild stress influences nerve growth factor through a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Anna; Detka, Jan; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Papp, Mariusz; Tota, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lason, Wladyslaw; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-04-01

    Stress is generally a beneficial experience that motivates an organism to action to overcome the stressful challenge. In particular situations, when stress becomes chronic might be harmful and devastating. The hypothalamus is a critical coordinator of stress and the metabolic response; therefore, disruptions in this structure may be a significant cause of the hormonal and metabolic disturbances observed in depression. Chronic stress induces adverse changes in the morphology of neural cells that are often associated with a deficiency of neurotrophic factors (NTFs); additionally, many studies indicate that insufficient NTF synthesis may participate in the pathogenesis of depression. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hypothalamus of male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS) or to prenatal stress (PS) and to PS in combination with an acute stress event (AS). It has been found that chronic mild stress, but not prenatal stress, acute stress or a combination of PS with AS, decreased the concentration of the mature form of NGF (m-NGF) in the rat hypothalamus. A discrepancy between an increase in the Ngf mRNA and a decrease in the m-NGF levels suggested that chronic mild stress inhibited NGF maturation or enhanced the degradation of this factor. We have shown that NGF degradation in the hypothalamus of rats subjected to chronic mild stress is matrix metalloproteinase-dependent and related to an increase in the active forms of some metalloproteinases (MMP), including MMP2, MMP3, MMP9 and MMP13, while the NGF maturation process does not seem to be changed. We suggested that activated MMP2 and MMP9 potently cleave the mature but not the pro- form of NGF into biologically inactive products, which is the reason for m-NGF decomposition. In turn, the enhanced expression of Ngf in the hypothalamus of these rats is an attempt to overcome the reduced levels of m-NGF. Additionally, the decreased level of m

  9. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  10. The factor structure of complex posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatized refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nickerson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD has attracted much research attention in previous years, however it has not been systematically evaluated in individuals exposed to persecution and displacement. Given that CPTSD has been proposed as a diagnostic category in the ICD-11, it is important that it be examined in refugee groups. Objective: In the current study, we proposed to test, for the first time, the factor structure of CPTSD proposed for the ICD-11 in a sample of resettled treatment-seeking refugees. Method: The study sample consisted of 134 traumatized refugees from a variety of countries of origin, with approximately 93% of the sample having been exposed to torture. We used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of CPTSD in this sample and examined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power and negative predictive power of individual items in relation to the CPTSD diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that a two-factor higher-order model of CPTSD comprising PTSD and Difficulties in Self-Organization (χ2 (47=57.322, p=0.144, RMSEA=0.041, CFI=0.981, TLI=0.974 evidenced superior fit compared to a one-factor higher-order model of CPTSD (χ2 (48=65.745, p=0.045, RMSEA=0.053, CFI=0.968, TLI=0.956. Overall, items evidenced strong sensitivity and negative predictive power, moderate positive predictive power, and poor specificity. Conclusions: Findings provide preliminary evidence for the validity of the CPTSD construct with highly traumatized treatment-seeking refugees. Highlights of the article:

  11. Role of Stress Factors on the Adhesion of Interfaces in R2R Fabricated Organic Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Rolston, Nicholas; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-01-01

    adhesion properties. Depth profiling analysis on the fractured samples reveals interdiffusion of layers in the structure, which results in the increase of adhesion and change of the debond path. It is shown that through diffusion and intermixing of internal interfaces coupled stresses can increase......The role of the common stress factors such as high temperature, humidity,and UV irradiation on interface adhesion of roll-to-roll fabricated organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is investigated. The samples range from bare front electrodes to complete devices. It is shown that applying single stress...... or combinations of stresses onto the samples variably affect the adhesion properties of the different interfaces in the OPV device. It is revealed that while the exposure of the complete devices to the stresses results in the loss of photovoltaic performance, some interfaces in the devices present improved...

  12. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  13. [Labour factors associated with post-traumatic stress in uniformed workers in Medellín].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Penagos, Catalina; Moreno-Bedoya, Juan P; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy Y; Segura-Cardona, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Determining the labor factors associated with post-traumatic stress in uniformed workers in Medellin. A cross-sectional study was made of 124 uniformed workers aged 20 to 48 years-old. A survey was made using an adults' post-traumatic stress instrument which had been validated in Medellin. Statistical analysis was carried out. Post-traumatic stress disorder risk prevalence was 52.2 %. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest risk situations were those related to previous mental health diagnosis (PR=7.67), working schedule (4.24), violent episodes (PR=3.59) and community relationships (PR=2.73). A person's current labor situation seemed to be a risk factor for developing post-traumatic stress in the target population.

  14. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  15. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  16. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  17. heat shock factor genes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass in response to temperature stress by RNA-Seq analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock factors (Hsfs are important regulators of stress-response in plants. However, our understanding of Hsf genes and their responses to temperature stresses in two Pooideae cool-season grasses, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, is limited. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses of plant leaves exposed to heat or cold stress for 10 h. Approximately, 30% and 25% of the genes expressed in the two species showed significant changes under heat and cold stress respectively, including subsets of Hsfs and their target genes. We uncovered 74 Hsfs in F. arundinacea and 52 Hsfs in L. perenne, and categorized these genes into three subfamilies, HsfA, HsfB, and HsfC based on protein sequence homology to known Hsf members in model organisms. The Hsfs showed a strong response to heat and/or cold stress. The expression of HsfAs was elevated under heat stress, especially in class HsfA2, which exhibited the most dramatic responses. HsfBs were upregulated by the both temperature conditions, and HsfCs mainly showed an increase in expression under cold stress. The target genes of Hsfs, such as heat shock protein (HSP, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS, and galactinol synthase (GOLS1, showed strong and unique responses to different stressors. We comprehensively detected Hsfs and their target genes in F. arundinacea and L. perenne, providing a foundation for future gene function studies and genetic engineering to improve stress tolerance in grasses and other crops.

  18. [Triggering role of emotional stress and childbirth. Unexpected occurrence of Graves' disease compared to 96 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis and 97 cases of thyroid nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-du Pan, R C

    1998-07-01

    98 patients with Graves' disease have been compared to 95 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and to 97 patients with benign thyroid nodules (control group) in order to evaluate the triggering role of major stressors and pregnancy in the occurrence of autoimmune thyroid diseases. A stress factor has been encountered in 11% cases of Graves' disease and in 6% of Hashimoto's and thyroid nodes (chi 2 test, not different). Graves' disease occurred after a pregnancy in 25% of the women in child bearing age versus 10% of the cases of Hashimoto's (p thyroid nodes. The role of stressors, if any, in triggering Graves' disease seems to be weak and dubious compared to the role of pregnancy and post-partum. It is assumed that the decrease of immunosuppressive hormones occurring after stress or delivery could induce a rebound autoimmune reaction responsible for the thyroid disease. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, stress and pregnancies do not seem to have any triggering role.

  19. A Comparative Study Between Strain And Stress Based Forming Limit Analysis By Applying Several Phenomenological Yield Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Vincze, Gabriela T.; Gracio, Jose J.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work aims at analyzing a comparative study between the strain-based forming limit criterion (FLD) and the stress-based forming limit criterion (FLSD), under linear and complex strain paths. The selected material is an AA5182-0 aluminium alloy. Some relevant remarks about stress-based forming limit criterion concept are presented

  20. Relationship between stress factor and periodontal disease in a rural area population in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Rahena; Hannan, MA; Okhubo, R; Morita, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Several studies conducted in Western countries have shown significant associations between stress factors and periodontal disease. However, there have been only a few studies conducted in Asian countries. The present study was designed to identify possible relationship between stress and periodontal disease in residents of a rural area in Japan. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1,089 adults with at least six natural teeth in a typical farming district of Japan. S...

  1. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems: sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...

  2. Body Mass Index, Metabolic Factors, and Striatal Activation During Stressful and Neutral-Relaxing States: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2010-01-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ⩾25 kg/m2: N=27) individuals w...

  3. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  4. Stressful situations and factors in students of nursing in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Llapa Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia; Almeida Marques, Daniel; Lopes Neto, David; López Montesinos, María José; Amado de Oliveira, Adriana Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective.To assess the risk factors for stress in undergraduate students of nursing in clinical practice in a public university in the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with 116 students from the fifth to the ninth period. The bilingual KEZKAK questionnaire, validated for Portuguese, was used. Stress was considered to be present when the score was equal or superior to 2. Results. The students with stress in clinical practice were 18 to 22 years old (2.82 ...

  5. Assessment of comparative and non-comparative factors in alternate energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, W D; Oterson, P

    1983-01-01

    The American University Institute for Risk Analysis (AURA) has undertaken a study for the European Economic Community to critically evaluate the methodologies for comparative risk analyses and costs and benefits of alternative energy systems used to generate electricity, principally nuclear, coal, and oil. Other energy systems and related industries with major hazards are also addressed where pertinent. This is particularly true for cases where electrical energy may be an inefficient form for end use as for transportation and space heating. Here, comparison on an end use basis by the most efficient method, electrical or otherwise, is required. The starting point and basis for this evaluation has been the array of existing studies of alternative energy systems already published. These studies, including those already undertaken by the Community, are over 50 in number. The purpose of this study is not to make a comparison of alternative energy systems, but to evaluate what is and what is not useful in existing studies, as well as to provide insight on how meaningful studies can be conducted. There has been considerable criticism and discussion about the conduct and validity of several studies, particularly the Inhaber study and the critiques of Holdren et al. While much of the critiques deal with methods and approaches, substantial criticism and discussion has focused on the motivations of the investigators and how the studies were applied. This latter set of issues is hardly a technological or methodological argument.

  6. Genome wide analysis of stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaiq Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins that bind with a specific sequence C/TTGACT/C known as W-Box found in promoters of genes which are regulated by these WRKYs. From previous studies, 43 different stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana, identified and then categorized in three groups viz., abiotic, biotic and both of these stresses. A comprehensive genome wide analysis including chromosomal localization, gene structure analysis, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and promoter analysis of these WRKY genes was carried out in this study to determine the functional homology in Arabidopsis. This analysis led to the classification of these WRKY family members into 3 major groups and subgroups and showed evolutionary relationship among these groups on the base of their functional WRKY domain, chromosomal localization and intron/exon structure. The proposed groups of these stress responsive WRKY genes and annotation based on their position on chromosomes can also be explored to determine their functional homology in other plant species in relation to different stresses. The result of the present study provides indispensable genomic information for the stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and will pave the way to explain the precise role of various AtWRKYs in plant growth and development under stressed conditions.

  7. Stress, sex, and addiction: potential roles of corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagno, Verónica; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-09-01

    Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Life stresses are not only risk factors for the development of addiction but also are triggers for relapse to drug use. Therefore, it is imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between stress and drug abuse, as an understanding of this may help in the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches to block the clinical manifestations of drug addiction. The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders. Thus, this review aims to summarize (i) the contribution of sex differences to the function of dopamine systems, and (ii) the behavioral, neurochemical, and anatomical changes in brain stress systems.

  8. Comparative transcriptomics indicate changes in cell wall organization and stress response in seedlings during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christina M; Subramanian, Aswati; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Correll, Melanie J; Kiss, John Z

    2017-08-21

    Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part of bioregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on gene expression in plant development. We analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The bioinformatics methods used included RMA (robust multi-array average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5.0), and PLIER (probe logarithmic intensity error estimation). Glycome profiling was used to analyze cell wall composition in the samples. In addition, our results were compared to those of two other groups using the same hardware on the same mission (BRIC-16). In our BRIC-16 experiments, we noted expression changes in genes involved in hypoxia and heat shock responses, DNA repair, and cell wall structure between spaceflight samples compared to the ground controls. In addition, glycome profiling supported our expression analyses in that there was a difference in cell wall components between ground control and spaceflight-grown plants. Comparing our studies to those of the other BRIC-16 experiments demonstrated that, even with the same hardware and similar biological materials, differences in results in gene expression were found among these spaceflight experiments. A common theme from our BRIC-16 space experiments and those of the other two groups was the downregulation of water stress response genes in spaceflight. In addition, all three studies found differential regulation of genes associated with cell wall remodeling and stress responses between spaceflight-grown and ground control plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Prenatal Stress as a Risk-and an Opportunity-Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Freeman, Sara M; Bales, Karen L; Belsky, Jay

    2018-04-01

    Two separate lines of research indicate (a) that prenatal stress is associated with heightened behavioral and physiological reactivity and (b) that these postnatal phenotypes are associated with increased susceptibility to both positive and negative developmental experiences. Therefore, prenatal stress may increase sensitivity to the rearing environment. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating prenatal stress and rearing-environment quality, using a cross-fostering paradigm, in prairie voles. Results showed that prenatally stressed voles, as adults, displayed the highest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to low-contact (i.e., low-quality) rearing but the lowest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to high-contact (i.e., high-quality) rearing; non-prenatally stressed voles showed no effect of rearing condition. Additionally, while neither prenatal stress nor rearing condition affected oxytocin receptor binding, prenatally stressed voles cross-fostered to high-contact rearing showed the highest vasopressin-1a receptor binding in the amygdala. Results indicate that prenatal stress induces greater environmental sensitivity, making it both a risk and an opportunity factor.

  10. Childhood Cancer in Context: Sociodemographic Factors, Stress, and Psychological Distress Among Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Heather; Yarboi, Janet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Desjardins, Leandra; Murphy, Lexa K; Rodriguez, Erin M; Compas, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between sociodemographic factors (single parenthood, family income, education level, race), stress, and psychological distress among pediatric cancer patients and their mothers. Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, general stress, and cancer-related stress within the first year of the child's (ages 5-17 years) cancer diagnosis or relapse. Mothers (N = 318) provided self-reports and parent report of their children; children aged 10-17 years (N = 151) completed self-reports. Each sociodemographic variable demonstrated unique associations with mothers' and children's stress and distress in bivariate analyses. A cumulative sociodemographic risk measure was positively correlated with all stress and distress variables. In regression analyses predicting mothers' and children's distress, independent and cumulative sociodemographic measures were no longer significant when accounting for levels of stress. Findings highlight the need to consider the ecological context of pediatric cancer, particularly the impact of sociodemographic disadvantage on stress and distress in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Factor structure and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS

  12. Analysis of stress intensity factors for a new mechanical corrosion specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, B.; Crouzet, D.; Le Hong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Electricite de France is conducting a research program to determine corrosion cracking rates in the steam generators Alloy 600 tubes of the primary system. The objective is to correlate the cracking rates with the specimen stress intensity factor K I . One of the samples selected for the purpose of this study is the longitudinal notched specimen TEL (TEL: ''Tubulaire a Entailles Longitudinales''). This paper presents the analysis of the stress intensity factor and its experimental validation. The stress intensity factor has been evaluated for different loads using 3D finite element calculations with the Hellen-Parks and G(θ) methods. Both crack initiation and propagation are considered. As an assessment of the method, the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the fatigue crack growth rates measured experimentally for TEL and compact tension (CT) specimens. (authors). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Mid-thickness studies of the stress intensity factor in the bulk of bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims at estimating the stress intensity factor deep inside the bulk from elastic strain data measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Key features affecting the evaluation of the stress intensity factor are the number of terms in the analytical model describing the crack tip field, the extension and position of the area of interest of the experimental data, the effect of the experimental data collected within the plastic zone and the number of elastic strain data points used. Here a parametric study of these features is presented in terms of their influence for the stress intensity factor determination. It was found that 3 or 4 terms in Williams’ expansion is often sufficient; the data should be collected from across the full range of angles around the crack tip; and the number of points/number of terms should be greater than 40.

  14. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ji, Yong-juan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, De-xiang; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Shu-jian; Pan, Fang

    2009-07-05

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F = 6.173, P BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress in both age groups (P BDNF (F = 9.408, P BDNF expression compared to the young stressed group at every testing time point. Stress has age-dependent effects on behavioral responses and hippocampal BDNF expression in rats.

  15. Occupational stress and its related factors among university teachers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2011-01-01

    University teachers in China are expected to suffer serious occupational stress due to the expanding enrollment in universities without a proportional increase in teacher resources and the fact that all promotions for university teachers are determined based on not only teaching but also the outcome of scientific research. This study was designed to assess the occupational stress among university teachers in China and clarify its risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning Province, the centralized area of higher education in Northeast China. Eight universities (2 multidiscipline and 6 specialized) and 10% of academic staff each were randomly sampled. Questionnaires pertaining to occupational stress indicated by the Chinese Version Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) and demographic characteristics, health status, work situations, and personal and social resources were distributed in October 2008. A total of 827 effective respondents (response rate 76.4%) became our participants. The average raw score of PSQ was 91.0 among the university teachers. General linear model analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with the PSQ score were, in standardized estimate (β) sequence, mental health, role overload, role insufficiency, social support, monthly income, role limitations due to physical problems, research finance and self-rated disease with adjustment for age and sex. We concluded that, in comparison to work-related factors and social support, mental health is a prominent risk factor for occupational stress in university teachers in China. Improvement of mental health and organizational climate should be considered to lessen the occupational stress of university teachers.

  16. Empirical research on the influencing factors of the occupational stress for construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LV, Xing; WU, Xiang; CI, Huipeng; LIU, Qing; YAO, Yongzheng

    2017-04-01

    Employee’s occupational stress and safety performance are highly related, which has been generally recognized by the researchers. We did this research to understand the status of the stress for construction workers, and explore the influence factors of pressure source with characteristics of construction industry. Based on the results of previous studies, we designed questionnaire to collect the influence factors on occupational stressors. The study selected workers from certain construction units at the grass-roots level as sample source. According to the results of the questionnaire, we redesigned the interview outline, and did the semi-structured interviews on workers randomly selected. Finally, we developed a scale which combined the characteristics of construction projects in China. Using SPSS software for factor analysis, reliability analysis, and descriptive statistical analysis, the results show that there are six factors affecting the workers’ occupational stress, including The Work Itself, Family-Work, Career Development, Organization Style, Interpersonal Relationship and Role Management Style. The work itself is the main sources of occupational stress. The results can be used by the construction company to provide guidance for workers to control and manage occupational stress.

  17. Stress intensity factors for complete internal and external cracks in spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.J.; Chen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Cracks or flows found in the nuclear structure must be fully evaluated to assure the safety of the plant. The weight function method has been widely used in the determination of stress intensity factors for cracks under stress gradient e.g. for thermal shock loading. The unique features of the weight function method is that once the weight function for a particular cracked geometry is determined the stress intensity factors at the crack tip for any loading applied to the flawed structure can be calculated by a simple integration. In this paper the stress intensity factors of the complete, part-through internal and external cracks in a spherical shell are determined. The finite element method was used to develop the weight functions for the flawed geometry. The approximate crack surface profile was used to derive the weight functions. The stress intensity factors associated with the cracks in spherical shells under internal pressure are determined by both the weight functions and the direct finite element method

  18. Temperature factors effect on occurrence of stress corrosion cracking of main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, M. N.; Akhmetov, R. R.; Krainov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze and compare the data in order to contribute to the formation of an objective opinion on the issue of the growth of stress corrosion defects of the main gas pipeline. According to available data, a histogram of the dependence of defects due to stress corrosion on the distance from the compressor station was constructed, and graphs of the dependence of the accident density due to stress corrosion in the winter and summer were also plotted. Data on activation energy were collected and analyzed in which occurrence of stress corrosion is most likely constructed, a plot of activation energy versus temperature is plotted, and the process of occurrence of stress corrosion by the example of two different grades of steels under the action of different temperatures was analyzed.

  19. Analytic model comparing the cost utility of TVT versus duloxetine in women with urinary stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Paul; Duckett, Jonathan; Renganathan, Arasee

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess cost utility of duloxetine versus tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) as a second-line treatment for urinary stress incontinence. A Markov model was used to compare the cost utility based on a 2-year follow-up period. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimation was performed by assuming a disutility rate of 0.05. Under base-case assumptions, although duloxetine was a cheaper option, TVT gave a considerably higher QALY gain. When a longer follow-up period was considered, TVT had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of pound 7,710 ($12,651) at 10 years. If the QALY gain from cure was 0.09, then the ICER for duloxetine and TVT would both fall within the indicative National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence willingness to pay threshold at 2 years, but TVT would be the cost-effective option having extended dominance over duloxetine. This model suggests that TVT is a cost-effective treatment for stress incontinence.

  20. Somatic diseases in child survivors of the Holocaust with posttraumatic stress disorder: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian; Biermann, Teresa

    2012-05-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in people who survived the Holocaust. In the current study, 80 Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder were examined based on evaluation of their complete record (medical reports, clinical history, medical statements, and handwritten declarations of patients under oath). These survivors were compared with subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder caused by traumata other than the Holocaust. The data were analyzed for the presence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic diseases that developed in the time between the earliest medical report (expert opinion) and the latest expert opinion. Analysis revealed an increase in myocardial infarction, chronic degenerative diseases, and cancerous changes in the second expert opinion. No differences between the groups were seen with regard to sex, age at traumatization, or age at examination. Several implications of the data are discussed, including the implication that the survivors examined in this study may comprise a highly resilient group, inasmuch as they had reached an advanced age.

  1. Risk factors predict post-traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elklit Ask

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About twice as many women as men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, even though men as a group are exposed to more traumatic events. Exposure to different trauma types does not sufficiently explain why women are more vulnerable. Methods The present work examines the effect of age, previous trauma, negative affectivity (NA, anxiety, depression, persistent dissociation, and social support on PTSD separately in men and women. Subjects were exposed to either a series of explosions in a firework factory near a residential area or to a high school stabbing incident. Results Some gender differences were found in the predictive power of well known risk factors for PTSD. Anxiety predicted PTSD in men, but not in women, whereas the opposite was found for depression. Dissociation was a better predictor for PTSD in women than in men in the explosion sample but not in the stabbing sample. Initially, NA predicted PTSD better in women than men in the explosion sample, but when compared only to other significant risk factors, it significantly predicted PTSD for both men and women in both studies. Previous traumatic events and age did not significantly predict PTSD in either gender. Conclusion Gender differences in the predictive value of social support on PTSD appear to be very complex, and no clear conclusions can be made based on the two studies included in this article.

  2. Further studies on stress intensity factors of semi-elliptical cracks in pressurized cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, A.S.; Emery, A.F.; Love, W.J.; Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have used, in the past, the three-dimensional stress intensity magnification factor, Msub(KS), for a semi-elliptical surface crack in a flat plate with a curvature correction factor, Msub(C), to estimate the stress intensity magnification factor, Msub(K) = Msub(C) x Msub(KS), for unpressurized and pressurized inner semi-elliptical cracks and unpressurized outer semi-elliptical cracks in pressurized and thermally shocked cylinders. Recent papers by Atluri/Kathiresan, Welliot/Labbens/Pellissier-Tanon and McGowan/Raymund, however, showed that while this plate analogy with curvature correction provided reasonable estimates of the stress intensity factors at the deepest crack penetration, it underestimated the stress intensity factors at the cylindrical surface. The source of this discrepancy was traced to the curvature correction factor Msub(C), which was re-evaluated for various crack configurations and cylindrical geometries studied. Using the updated Msub(C) together with the previously derived Msub(KS), stress intensity factor magnification factor, Msub(K), was rederived for: (1) Pressurized and unpressurized inner semi-elliptical cracks of two crack aspects ratios of b/a = 0.2 and 0.98 at crack depth of b/(Rsub(o)-Rsub(i)) = 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 in pressurized cylinders with outside-to-inside radius ratios of Rsub(o)/Rsub(i) = 3/2, 5/4, 7/6, and 10/9. (2) Unpressurized outer semi-elliptical cracks of two crack aspect ratios of b/a = 0.2 and 0.98 at crack depths of b/(Rsub(o)-Rsub(i)) = 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 in pressurized cylinders with outside-to-inside radius ratio of Rsub(o)/Rsub(i) = 3/2, 5/4, 7/6, and 10/9. (orig.)

  3. Adaptation of children to the new environment as a stress factor in the work of teachers in nursery school

    OpenAIRE

    Vondrová, Terezie

    2018-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is children's adaptation to the nursery school education as a stress factor for the teachers. The thesis examines five areas which may cause stress to the teachers working with newly come children during the adaptation period and describes strategies teachers employ in order to cope with the stress. The expected stress factors are: children's problematic behavior, school management, colleague and parental pressure exacting fast and smooth adaptation process an...

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yajun; Mao, Shaoshuai; Gao, Yulong; Zhu, Liying; Wu, Daoming; Cui, Yixin; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related QTL regions

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun He

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related

  6. Possible Link Between Stress-related Factors and Altered Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Barnali Ray; Chowdhury, Olivia; Saha, Sudip Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS) and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI), visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations indicate a strong link between the stress marker and alterations in the body composition parameters of PCOS patients participants. Higher prevalence of stress in PCOS patients participants has a critical role in their altered body composition.

  7. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  8. A New Displacement-based Approach to Calculate Stress Intensity Factors With the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 21 and its novel association with oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration. FGF21 is now considered a stress-responsive hormone in humans. The discovery of an essential response element in the FGF21 gene, for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, and its relation with genes such as NRF2, TBP-2, UCP3, SOD2, ERK, and p38, places FGF21 as a key regulator of the oxidative stress cell response. Its role in chronic diseases and its involvement in the treatment and follow-up of these diseases has been recently the target of new studies. The diminished oxidative stress through FGF21 pathways observed with anti-diabetic therapy is another clue of the new insights of this hormone.

  10. Role stress in nurses: review of related factors and strategies for moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther M; Hancock, Karen M; Johnson, Amanda; Daly, John; Jackson, Debra

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on factors related to role stress in nurses, and present strategies for addressing this issue based on the findings of this review while considering potential areas for development and research. Computerized databases were searched as well as hand searching of articles in order to conduct this review. This review identified multiple factors related to the experience of role stress in nurses. Role stress, in particular, work overload, has been reported as one of the main reasons for nurses leaving the workforce. This paper concludes that it is a priority to find new and innovative ways of supporting nurses in their experience of role stress. Some examples discussed in this article include use of stress education and management strategies; team-building strategies; balancing priorities; enhancing social and peer support; flexibility in work hours; protocols to deal with violence; and retention and attraction of nursing staff strategies. These strategies need to be empirically evaluated for their efficacy in reducing role stress.

  11. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  12. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  13. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  14. Testosterone and acute stress are associated with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Nicolaas T; von Känel, Roland; Schutte, Alta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Smith, Wayne; Mels, Carina M; Kruger, Ruan; Meiring, Muriel; van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné

    2013-10-12

    Low testosterone, acute and chronic stress and hypercoagulation are all associated with hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. The interaction between these factors and future risk for coronary artery disease in Africans has not been fully elucidated. In this study, associations of testosterone, acute cardiovascular and coagulation stress responses with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African and Caucasian men in a South African cohort were investigated. Cardiovascular variables were studied by means of beat-to-beat and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Fasting serum-, salivary testosterone and citrate coagulation markers were obtained from venous blood samples. Acute mental stress responses were evoked with the Stroop test. The African group demonstrated a higher cardiovascular risk compared to Caucasian men with elevated blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, chronic hyperglycemia (HbA1c), lower testosterone levels, and elevated von Willebrand factor (VWF) and fibrinogen levels. Blunted testosterone acute mental stress responses were demonstrated in African males. In multiple regression analyses, higher circulating levels of fibrinogen and VWF in Africans were associated with a low T environment (R(2) 0.24-0.28; p≤0.01), but only circulating fibrinogen in Caucasians. Regarding endothelial function, a low testosterone environment and a profile of augmented α-adrenergic acute mental stress responses (diastolic BP, D-dimer and testosterone) were associated with circulating VWF levels in Africans (Adj R(2) 0.24; pstress, salivary testosterone, D-dimer and vascular responses existed in African males in their association with circulating VWF but no interdependence of the independent variables occurred with fibrinogen levels. © 2013.

  15. The stress and stress intensity factors computation by BEM and FEM combination for nozzle junction under pressure and thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Cen, Z.; Zhu, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports linear elastic fracture analysis based upon the stress intensity factor evaluation successfully applied to safety assessments of cracked structures. The nozzle junction are usually subjected to high pressure and thermal loads simultaneously. In validity of linear elastic fracture analysis, K can be decomposed into K P (caused by mechanic loads) and K τ (caused by thermal loads). Under thermal transient loading, explicit analysis (say by the FEM or BEM) of K tracing an entire history respectively for a range of crack depth may be much more time consuming. The techniques of weight function provide efficient means for transforming the problem into the stress computation of the uncracked structure and generation of influence function (for the given structure and size of crack). In this paper, a combination of BE-FEM has been used for the analysis of the cracked nozzle structure by techniques of weight function. The influence functions are obtained by coupled BE-FEM and the uncracked structure stress are computed by finite element methods

  16. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  17. Validating the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ): An exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, Fariba; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shishehgar, Sara; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Hashemi, Seyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Biological, environmental, inter- and intrapersonal changes during the antenatal period can result in anxiety and stress in pregnant women. It is pivotal to identify potential stressors and prevent their foetal and maternal consequences. The present study was conducted to validate and examine the factor structure of the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). In 2015, 502 Iranian healthy pregnant women, referred to selected hospitals in Tehran for prenatal care at 8-39 weeks of pregnancy, were recruited through a randomized cluster sampling. The PWSQ was translated into Farsi, and its validity and reliability were examined using exploratory factor analysis by SPSS version 21. The content validity of items on the PWSQ was between 0.63-1. The content validity index for relevance, clarity and simplicity were 0.92, 0.98, and 0.98, respectively, with a mean of 0.94. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.863. Test-retest reliability showed high internal consistency (α=0.89; p<0.0001). The psychometric evaluation and exploratory factor analysis showed that the translated questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to identify stress in Iranian pregnant women. Application of the questionnaire can facilitate the diagnosis of stress in pregnant women and assist health care providers in providing timely support and minimizing negative outcomes of stress and anxiety in pregnant women and their infants.

  18. Stress, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy: investigating the relationship between psychological factors and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael; Harold, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between psychological factors (anxiety, stress, and depression) and seizures. In this longitudinal cohort study, data on anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and seizure recency (time since last seizure) and frequency were collected at two time points using standard validated questionnaire measures. Empirically based models with psychological factors explaining change in (1) seizure recency and (2) seizure frequency scores across time were specified. We then tested how these psychological factors acted together in predicting seizure recency and frequency. Our data were used to test whether these models were valid for the study population. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Four hundred thirty-three of the 558 individuals who initially consented to participate provided two waves of data for this analysis. Stress (beta=0.25, Panxiety (beta=0.30, Pdepression (beta=0.30, Pdepression that mediated the relationship of both anxiety and stress with modeled change in seizure recency (beta=0.19, PDepression mediates the relationship between stress and anxiety and change in seizure recency and seizure frequency. These findings highlight the importance of depression management in addition to seizure management in the assessment and treatment of epilepsy in an adult population.

  19. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  20. Comparative antistress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pal Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human society has become complex. However, our physiological responses designed to cope with the ever-increasing adverse situations have not evolved appreciably during the past thousand years. The failure of successful adaptation during stressful situations has resulted in stress-related illnesses. Methods: The objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative assessment of anti-stress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats. Long-term exposure to multiple stressors can cause depression. The unpredictable chronic administration of various mild stresses, a procedure known as “unpredictable chronic mild stress”, is one of the best-validated rodent models to study stress in animals, for its good etiological and predictive validity. Result: Diazepam, Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera administration dose dependently reversed the increase in immobility period in stressed rats. In the study of locomotion activity of rats in elevated plus maze apparatus, Stress treated control group rats showed less no of entries in open arm and also less time spent in open arm. Vitis vinifera treated (p<0.0001, Withania somnifera treated (p<0.0001 and Diazepam treated group showed (p<0.0001 no. of entries in open arms which were more than control group and stressed groups. Stressed group produce less average time spent in open arm as compared to treatment groups as Withania somnifera (p<0.05, Vitis vinifera and diazepam. Withania somnifera group showed significant antistress locomotry behaviour in rats. Administration of Vitis vinifera, Withania somnifera and diazepam during stress period restored the ambulatory behaviour of the rats which can be correlated with restoration of plasma corticosterone level. Finally, the results of the present study justified that Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera and diazepam exhibited significant antistress activity in rats.

  1. Ribosomal elongation factor 4 promotes cell death associated with lethal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Hong, Yuzhi; Luan, Gan; Mosel, Michael; Malik, Muhammad; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2014-12-09

    Ribosomal elongation factor 4 (EF4) is highly conserved among bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. However, the EF4-encoding gene, lepA, is nonessential and its deficiency shows no growth or fitness defect. In purified systems, EF4 back-translocates stalled, posttranslational ribosomes for efficient protein synthesis; consequently, EF4 has a protective role during moderate stress. We were surprised to find that EF4 also has a detrimental role during severe stress: deletion of lepA increased Escherichia coli survival following treatment with several antimicrobials. EF4 contributed to stress-mediated lethality through reactive oxygen species (ROS) because (i) the protective effect of a ΔlepA mutation against lethal antimicrobials was eliminated by anaerobic growth or by agents that block hydroxyl radical accumulation and (ii) the ΔlepA mutation decreased ROS levels stimulated by antimicrobial stress. Epistasis experiments showed that EF4 functions in the same genetic pathway as the MazF toxin, a stress response factor implicated in ROS-mediated cell death. The detrimental action of EF4 required transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA, which tags truncated proteins for degradation and is known to be inhibited by EF4) and the ClpP protease. Inhibition of a protective, tmRNA/ClpP-mediated degradative activity would allow truncated proteins to indirectly perturb the respiratory chain and thereby provide a potential link between EF4 and ROS. The connection among EF4, MazF, tmRNA, and ROS expands a pathway leading from harsh stress to bacterial self-destruction. The destructive aspect of EF4 plus the protective properties described previously make EF4 a bifunctional factor in a stress response that promotes survival or death, depending on the severity of stress. Translation elongation factor 4 (EF4) is one of the most conserved proteins in nature, but it is dispensable. Lack of strong phenotypes for its genetic knockout has made EF4 an enigma. Recent biochemical work has

  2. Factors affecting the job stress and job satisfaction of Australian nurses: implications for recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Timothy; Joiner, Therese A; Stanton, Pauline

    2004-10-01

    Against a background of nurse shortages in Australian hospitals, a significant challenge facing the healthcare sector is the recruitment and retention of nurses. The job stress and job satisfaction of nurses have been associated with recruitment and retention. The aim of this study is to consider two factors that may contribute to the job satisfaction and job stress of nurses: social support and empowerment. Using a sample of 157 registered nurses in a private hospital in Melbourne, Australia, we found that social support derived from the nurse's supervisor and work colleagues lowered job stress and at the same time increased job satisfaction. The presence of nurse empowerment, meaning, impact, competence and self-determination, also lowered job stress and increased job satisfaction. Finally, we discuss contributions of this study and implications for recruitment and retention of nurses in the health sector.

  3. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long

    2015-07-07

    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  4. The antioxidative system of Norway spruce: Effects of different stress factors. Das antioxidative System der Fichte: Einfluss von verschiedenen Stressfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, J. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Westphal, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Toder, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Wagner, E. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The effects of different stress factors on the antioxidative system of 6-year-old Norway spruces of the same clone were examined. Flooding and permanent darkness had only minor effects. On the other hand drought, chilling, intense light, and very high ozone concentrations showed strong but distinct consequences. This indicates that the damages by these stress factors are due to different toxic oxygen species, and that the stress factors could produce synergistic damages under natural field conditions. (orig.)

  5. Associations of menopausal symptoms with job-related stress factors in nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kazuyo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Yasui, Toshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    The main objective was to ascertain the typical menopausal symptoms and job-related stress factors in Japanese nurses during the menopausal transition, and the associations of menopausal symptoms with job-related stress. A supplementary objective was to determine whether there were any differences in menopausal symptoms and job-related stress factors among nurses in managerial positions. One thousand seven hundred female registered nurses aged 45-60 years who were working in hospitals in Japan were asked to complete a self-administered survey that included Greene's Climacteric Scale and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The proportions of nurses who reported feelings of tiredness, irritability and difficulty in concentration were higher than the proportions with other menopausal symptoms. The proportions of nurses reporting feeling unhappy or depressed and having crying spells were higher among nurses in managerial positions than among other nurses. Stresses related to 'quantitative overload' on the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire among nurses in managerial positions were significantly greater than among nurses not in managerial positions, while stresses related to 'physical overload', 'job control', 'skill discretion', 'workplace environment' and 'job satisfaction' among nurses not in managerial positions were significantly greater than they were among nurses in managerial positions. Psychological symptoms were significantly correlated with poor job-related interpersonal relationships. Health care practitioners should be aware that menopausal symptoms are associated with job-related stress during the menopausal transition. Information on the differences in these associations between nurses in managerial positions and other nurses is important as it will allow their health care to be managed on a more individual basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for stress fracture among young female cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nieves, Jeri; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, Maryfran; Brown, Byron W; Matheson, Kim A; Crawford, Sybil L; Cobb, Kristin L

    2007-09-01

    To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing bone densitometry, they were followed an average of 1.85 yr. Eighteen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated (Pstress fracture occurrence were one or more previous stress fractures (rate ratio [RR] [95% confidence interval]=6.42 (1.80-22.87), lower whole-body bone mineral content (RR=2.70 [1.26-5.88] per 1-SD [293.2 g] decrease), younger chronologic age (RR=1.42 [1.05-1.92] per 1-yr decrease), lower dietary calcium intake (RR=1.11 [0.98-1.25] per 100-mg decrease), and younger age at menarche (RR=1.92 [1.15-3.23] per 1-yr decrease). Although not statistically significant, a history of irregular menstrual periods was also associated with increased risk (RR=3.41 [0.69-16.91]). Training-related factors did not affect risk. The results of this and other studies indicate that risk factors for stress fracture among young female runners include previous stress fractures, lower bone mass, and, although not statistically significant in this study, menstrual irregularity. More study is needed of the associations between stress fracture and age, calcium intake, and age at menarche. Given the importance of stress fractures to runners, identifying preventive measures is of high priority.

  7. Stress intensity magnification factors for fully circumferential cracks in valve bodies (thick cylinders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The stress intensity solutions presented herein were obtained using an energy method in conjunction with a two-dimensional finite element program in order to explicitly account for curvature effect for fully circumferential cracks. The magnification factors for a specific crack depth were calculated by successively loading the crack surface by a uniform, linear, quadratic, and a cubic loading distribution. The magnification factors can be used to calculate the stress intensity factors by superposition method. The functions for each load condition in terms of radius to thickness ratio (R/t) and a fractional distance in terms of crack depth to thickness ratio (a/t) were developed. The validity of these functions is R/t = 1.5 to 10.0 and for 0.0125 ≤ a/t ≤ 0.8125. The functions agree to within 1% of the finite elements solutions for most magnification factors

  8. Value of stress ultrasound for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability compared to manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Doo Hyung; Song, Hyung Keun; Bang, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Young Uk

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians frequently diagnose chronic ankle instability using the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. However, both examinations can yield incorrect results and do not reveal the extent of ankle instability. Stress ultrasound has been reported to be a new diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of stress ultrasound for chronic ankle instability compared to the manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy and subsequent modified Broström repair for treatment of chronic ankle instability were included. The arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. A standardized physical examination (manual anterior drawer test), stress radiography, MRI, and stress ultrasound were performed to assess the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to operation. Ultrasound images were taken in the resting position and the maximal anterior drawer position. Grade 3 lateral instability was verified arthroscopically in all 28 cases with a clinical diagnosis (100%). Twenty-two cases showed grade III instability on the manual anterior drawer test (78.6%). Twenty-four cases displayed anterior translation exceeding 5 mm on stress radiography (86%), and talar tilt angle exceeded 15° in three cases (11 %). Nineteen cases displayed a partial chronic tear (change in thickness or signal intensity), and nine cases displayed complete tear on MRI (100%). Lax and wavy ATFL was evident on stress ultrasound in all cases (100 %). The mean value of the ATFL length was 2.8 ± 0.3 cm for the stressed condition and 2.1 ± 0.2 cm for the resting condition (p radiography. III.

  9. Burnout and stress factors in special education teachers who provide extra professional support

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik Janežič, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the work of special education teachers, who provide extra professional support to children in need. Limitations and weaknesses of their work are also reviewed. Many factors, including changes in the general system of education, parents’ high expectations, unpleasant classroom circumstances, high amount of work tasks and employment uncertainty are just a few of the factors that lead to higher amounts of work-related stress and burnout syndrome. The purpose of the thes...

  10. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  11. Secondary Traumatic Stress in Public School Teachers: Contributing and Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Stanick, Cameo; Trautman, Ashley; Crosby, Lindsay; Devlin, Mary; Adams, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Although research has examined secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health workers, child welfare workers, and other human service professionals, such examination among public school teachers has only recently begun. This study represents the first investigation to examine the factors that influence STS levels in public School teachers.…

  12. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Frequency and Intensity Ratings Are Associated with Factor Structure Differences in Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Biehn, Tracey L.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Magruder, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined possible differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the basis of whether frequency or intensity symptom response formats were used to assess PTSD. Participants included 669 veterans recruited from an epidemiological study of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers' primary care clinics in the…

  14. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  15. Review and synthesis of stress intensity factor solutions applicable to cracks in bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The available literature for stress intensity factor solutions for cracks in round bars, both threaded and unthreaded, subjected to either tension or bending, is reviewed. The results are synthesized into a form that is appropriate for the analysis of bolts and studs. (author)

  16. Evaluation of stress intensity factor for craks in surface of tubes with internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.; Hellen, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    In this report the authors have examined the different methods for calculation of the stress intensity factor in tubes subject at internal pressure with surface cracks. The analysis includes cracks in 2-D axialsymmetric and 3-D. Moreover the authors have clarified the difference between the ASME Sec.11 and the procedure more rigorous

  17. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  18. Calculations of the stress intensity factor on a specimen for a four-point bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerova, D.

    1995-02-01

    The stress intensity factor K I was calculated in dependence on the crack length in a sample for a (non-standard) four-point bend assuming elastic properties of the material. It is shown that the SYSTUS code gives the best results when calculating the K I value from the J-integral. 4 tabs., 12 figs., 4 refs

  19. Modified Weibull theory and stress-concentration factors of polycrystalline graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, F.H.

    1980-12-01

    Stress concentration factors (SCF) due to geometric discontinuities in graphite specimens are observed to be much less than the theoretical SCF in an elastic material. In fact, the experimental SCF is always less than two and sometimes even less than one. A four parameter Weibull theory which recognizes the grain size effect is found to give an adequate explanation of the above observed discrepancies

  20. The Latent Factor Structure of Acute Stress Disorder following Bank Robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Lasgaard, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    of the latent structure of ASD were specified and estimated. METHOD: The analyses were based on a national study of bank robbery victims (N = 450) using the acute stress disorder scale. RESULTS: The results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that the DSM-IV model provided the best fit to the data. Thus...

  1. Women in Higher Education: Exploring Stressful Workplace Factors and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Renique

    2018-01-01

    For women administrators in higher education, workplace factors like managing multiple roles; work bleeding into personal life; issues with leadership; discrimination and marginalization; and role insufficiency (i.e., ambiguity in work roles and reduced sense of control) contribute to increased workplace stress. Individual coping responses are…

  2. Comparative assessment of wheat landraces against polyethylene glycol simulated drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Latif, M.M.; Arif, M.; Ahson, M.; Siddiqui, S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Current investigation reports a comparative assessment and relative performance of 10 wheat accessions including check variety Inqilab-91 against polyethylene glycol (PEG) simulated drought stress at seedling. Wheat genotypes were tested against 0, 19, 21, 23 and 25% solutions of PEG 6000. The young seedlings were observed for germination (%) and root length (cm). In general, a decrease in germination percentage was observed with the increase in PEG concentration. All the investigated wheat genotypes performed better than the check variety Inqilab-91. The wheat accession 18699 that had more than 30% surviving seedlings at the highest concentration of used PEG was rated as the tolerant genotype. On the other hand, 18671 and 18698 appeared to be less tolerant having less than 5% germination at 25% PEG. Similarly, the root length decreased with the increase in PEG concentrations. The mean root length of all the wheat accessions, which were studied, was comparatively less affected than the control (Inqilab-91). The wheat genotypes 18670 and 18671 were the better performers than the rest of genotypes investigated and belonged to rainfed area of the Pothowar region. A detailed investigation of these genotypes in the field conditions is suggested. (author)

  3. Risk-factors for stress-related absence among health care employees: a bio-psychosocial perspective. Associations between self-rated health, working conditions and biological stress hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sophie Hansson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Stress is a major cause of sickness absence and the health care sector appears to be especially at risk. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the risk factors for absence due to self-reported stress among health care employees. Methods: 225 health care employees were categorized into two groups based on presence or not of self-rated sickness absence for stress. Questionnaire data and stress sensitive hormones measurements were used.

    Results: Employees with stress related sick leave experienced worse health, poorer work satisfaction as well as worse social and home situations than those employees without stress-related sick leave. No-significant differences were identified regarding stress-sensitive hormones. The risk for employees, not satisfied at work, of becoming absent due to stress was approximately three fold compared to those who reported being satisfied (OR 2.8, 95% confidence interval; (CI 1.3 - 5.9. For those not satisfied with their social situation, the risk for sickness absence appeared to be somewhat higher (OR 3.2; CI 1.2 - 8.6. Individual factors such as recovery potential and meaning of life as well as work related factors such as skill development and work tempo predicted employee’ s work satisfaction.

    Conclusions: Based on cross sectional data, work-site and individual factors as well as social situations appear to increase the risk for absence due to stress among health care employees. Lower recovery potential, higher work tempo and poor leadership appeared to be related to the high degree of work related exhaustion experienced by employees.

  4. Examination stress at unified state examination: student destabilization or success factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Kostromina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping; Wu Feibo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  7. [Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Dental Students: Prevalence and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Stress-Related Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Rat Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Saruta, Juri

    2012-01-01

    The nerve growth factor (NGF) family comprises NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophins (NTs)-3, -4/5, -6 and -7, all of which are collectively referred to as neurotrophins. However, the expression of neurotrophins other than NGF in the salivary gland has not been described in detail. Through interaction with the TrkB receptor, BDNF plays an important role in long-term potentiation. We found that BDNF expression increased within submandibular gland tissue in response to stress, suggesting that the salivary glands are sensitive to stress. In addition, stress caused increases in plasma BDNF derived from the submandibular gland and in TrkB receptor mRNA in the adrenal medulla. Plasma BDNF might activate TrkB receptors in the adrenal medulla during acute stress. The salivary glands are likely to influence not only oral health, but also systemic organs. This review addressed the relationship between hormone-like effects and stress-related BDNF expression in the rat submandibular gland

  9. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. PMID:28586408

  10. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-06-01

    The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. © FEMS 2017.

  11. [Effects of occupational stress on serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yu, Shan-Fa; Jiang, Kai-You

    2010-12-01

    To explore the effect of occupational stress on serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 and IL-4. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 200 workers from the refrigerator assembly line in Henan province in China. Psychosocial work conditions were measured by using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-4 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay or immunoradiometric assay method respectively. Serum TNF-α concentration was statistically significantly different between workers with higher affective balance level and control groups [(1.947 ± 0.173) and (2.029 ± 0.240) fmol/ml] (P life stress level and control groups [(1.759 ± 0.361) and (1.606 ± 0.381) ng/ml] (P life stress and role ambiguity were the predictors of serum IL-2 (R(2) was 0.040, 0.078 and 0.104, respectively). Reward was the predictor of serum IL-4 (R(2) = 0.030). Unhealthy psychological stress factor might be induce a marked increase in the concentrations of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, as well as IL-4.

  12. Burnout and stress amongst interns in Irish hospitals: contributing factors and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, E; Breslin, N; Doherty, E; McGreal, M; Moneley, D; Offiah, G

    2018-05-01

    The transition from medical school to internship can be daunting for newly qualified doctors. High rates of stress and burnout have been reported, with negative impacts on patient care and physician wellbeing. We surveyed interns in our hospital group to evaluate rates of stress and burnout, as well as identify the causative factors and propose potential solutions to these. A hundred and one interns working in four different hospitals over a 2-year period were invited to participate in an anonymous survey. The survey collected basic demographic details and surveyed aspects of mental health using the burnout scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the stress scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Interns were also asked to rate a variety of workplace factors on a Likert scale based on the degree of stress caused. Finally, they were surveyed on their awareness of support services available to them. Our results showed that 37% of interns met the criteria for psychological distress, high levels of emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and a low sense of personal accomplishment were reported in 55.4, 51.5 and 41.6%, respectively. Inadequate preparation for practice, financial worries, poor role definition and sleep deprivation were reported as significant stressors. Most were unaware of available support services and expressed interest in leaving Ireland after internship. Burnout and stress are significant problems amongst doctors in Irish hospitals. Ensuring better preparation for clinical practice and awareness of support services is vital to tackle this issue.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. Methods Children completed the Dutch Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory at three and nine months after discharge from the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Comparison data were available from 355 children survivors who completed the same questionnaire 10 months after a major fire disaster. Results Thirty-six children aged eight to 17 years completed questionnaires at three month follow-up, nine month follow-up, or both. More than one third (34.5% of the children had subclinical PTSD, while 13.8% were likely to meet criteria for PTSD. Maternal PTSD was the strongest predictor for child PTSD. There were no significant differences in (subclinical PTSD symptoms either over time or compared to symptoms of survivors from the fire disaster. Conclusion This study shows that a considerable number of children have persistent PTSD after PICU treatment. Prevention of PTSD is important to minimize the profound adverse effects that PTSD can have on children's well-being and future development.

  14. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  15. ER stress responses in the absence of apoptosome: a comparative study in CASP9 proficient vs deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gupta, Sanjeev; MacDonald, David C; Samali, Afshin

    2014-08-29

    Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and cell death. In this study we utilized casp9(+/+) and casp9(-/-) MEFs to determine the effect of inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway on ER stress-induced-cell death, UPR and autophagy. We observed prolonged activation of UPR and autophagy in casp9(-/-) cells as compared with casp9(+/+) MEFs, which displayed transient activation of both pathways. Furthermore we showed that while casp9(-/-) MEFs were resistant to ER stress, prolonged exposure led to the activation of a non-canonical, caspase-mediated mode of cell death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  17. Occupational stress in men and women: a comparative study of coping resources

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The ramifications of stress-related illnesses and disorders impact on the individual, the organization that the individual works for and the nation’s economic status as a whole. Coping with occupational stress has thus become the focus of occupational health specialists, organizations and industrial psychologists. South African managers and executives work under constant stress and pressure (Strumpfer, 1983). With the emergence of women into previously male dominated occupations, a gr...

  18. Impact of demographic factors on usage of stress coping strategies chosen by elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Lembas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Old age is a particular time in which people experience plenty of changes – both progressive and regressive. Their social and economic position is changing, and human beings are confronted with a lot of difficult situations, such as the death of a spouse, illness, retirement – which particularly require them to apply a proper strategy of coping with stress. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the demographic factors and strategies of coping with stress used by elderly people. Material and methods . The study was carried out on a group of 296 residents of Szczecin who are over 60 years old. It was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey with the use of the Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Mini-COPE, as well as an original questionnaire form. The statistical analysis was conducted by means of SPSS Statistics 21.0 (p ≤ 0.05. Results . The results have proven the existence of a relationship between the strategies of coping with stress used by individuals over 60 and factors such as gender, level of education, economic status and financial situation. Conclusions . When coping with stress, men and women apply different strategies. In case of individuals over 60, the higher level of education and financial status they declare, the more eager they are to use active strategies of coping with stress. Seniors with a lower level of education and lower economic status have more trouble adapting to difficult situations. They have problems with taking the initiative and actively dealing with stressful events. They also more often use psychoactive substances as part of their coping mechanism.

  19. Perseverative Cognitions and Stress Exposure: Comparing Relationships With Psychological Health Across a Diverse Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-03-29

    Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  1. Stress Intensity Factors of Slanted Cracks in Bi-Material Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Azhar Kamarudin, Kamarul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stress intensity factors (SIF) of slanted cracks in bi-material plates subjected to mode I loading is numerically solved. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of research works are available studying the normal cracks in both similar and dissimilar plates. However, lack of SIF behavior for slanted cracks especially when it is embedded in bi-material plates. The slanted cracks are then modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. Two plates of different in mechanical properties are firmly bonded obliquely and then slanted edge cracks are introduced at the lower inclined edge. Isoparametric singular element is used to model the crack tip and the SIF is determined which is based on the domain integral method. Three mechanical mismatched and four slanted angles are used to model the cracks. According to the present results, the effects of mechanical mismatch on the SIF for normal cracks are not significant. However, it is played an important role when slanted angles are introduced. It is suggested that higher SIF can be obtained when the cracks are inclined comparing with the normal cracks. Consequently, accelerating the crack growth at the interface between two distinct materials.

  2. Genetic variability of interleukin-1 beta as prospective factor from developing post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Lilit; Stepanyan, Ani; Arakelyan, Arsen

    2017-10-01

    Individual susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is conditioned by genetic factors, and association between this disorder and polymorphisms of several genes have been shown. The aim of this study was to explore a potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the IL-1β gene (IL1B) and PTSD. In genomic DNA samples of PTSD-affected and healthy subjects, the rs16944, rs1143634, rs2853550, rs1143643, and rs1143633 SNPs of IL1B gene have been genotyped. The results obtained demonstrated that IL1B rs1143633*C and rs16944*A minor allele frequency were significantly lower in patients than in controls. Our results confirm that IL1B rs1143633 and rs16944 SNPs are negatively associated with PTSD which allows us to consider them as protective variants for PTSD. IL1B rs1143633*C and rs16944*A minor allele frequencies and carriage rates are significantly lower in the PTSD patients as compared to the controls. These results may provide a base to conclude that above-mentioned alleles can be protective against PTSD, and IL1B gene can be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  3. Thermal stress intensity factor for an axial crack in a clad cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, An Yu; Deardorf, A.F.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Many clad pressure vessels have been found to have cracks running through the inside surface cladding and into the base material. Although Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the clad and base materials are about the same for most of the industrial applications, coefficients of thermal expansion of the two dissimilar materials, clad and base materials, are usually quite different. For example, low alloy ferritic steel is a common base material for reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and the vessels are usually clad with austenitic stainless steel. Young's moduli for the low alloy steel and stainless steel at 350 F are 29,000 ksi and 28,000 ksi, respectively, while their coefficients of thermal expansion are 7.47x10 -6 in/in and 9.50x10 -6 in/in-degree F, respectively. The mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion will cause high residual thermal stress even when the entire vessel is at a uniform temperature. This residual stress is one of the primary reasons why so many cracks have been found in the cladded components. In performing reactor pressure vessel integrity evaluation, such as computing probability of brittle fracture of the RPV, it is necessary to calculate stress intensity factors for cracks, which initiate from the clad material and run into the base metal. This paper presents a convenient method of calculating stress intensity factor for an axial crack emanating from the inside surface of a cladded cylinder under thermal loading. A J-integral like line integral was derived and used to calculate the stress intensity factors from finite element stress solutions of the problem

  4. Perceived stress latent factors and the burnout subtypes: a structural model in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Stapinski, Lexine; Gili, Margarita; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Students of health-professions suffer high levels of stress and burnout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between perceived stress latent factors ('tenseness' and 'frustration') and the features ('overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect') of the three burnout subtypes ('frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out', respectively), in a sample of Spanish dental students. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of Spanish dental students (n = 314) completed the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' and the 'Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey'. The associations among variables were observed by means of structural equation modelling using the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Strong associations among perceived stress factors and the burnout characteristics were observed, although a distinct pattern of relations was observed for each burnout subtype. The 'overload' was moderately and positively associated with both 'tenseness' (0.45), and 'frustration' (0.38) dimensions of perceived stress; the 'lack of development' was positively associated with the 'frustration' dimension (0.72), but negatively associated with 'tenseness' (-0.69); the 'neglect' showed a weaker positive associated with 'frustration' (0.41), and a small negative association with 'tenseness' (-0.20). The model was a very good fit to the data (GFI  =  0.96; RSMR  =  0.07; AGFI = 0.96; NFI = 0.95; RFI = 0.95). The stress factors of 'frustration' and 'tenseness' seems to be related in a distinct way to the burnout subtypes in Spanish dental students. This finding suggests that intervention programs specifically tailored to these subtypes may be a promising future direction.

  5. Perceived stress latent factors and the burnout subtypes: a structural model in dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montero-Marín

    Full Text Available Students of health-professions suffer high levels of stress and burnout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between perceived stress latent factors ('tenseness' and 'frustration' and the features ('overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect' of the three burnout subtypes ('frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out', respectively, in a sample of Spanish dental students.The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of Spanish dental students (n = 314 completed the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' and the 'Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey'. The associations among variables were observed by means of structural equation modelling using the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations.Strong associations among perceived stress factors and the burnout characteristics were observed, although a distinct pattern of relations was observed for each burnout subtype. The 'overload' was moderately and positively associated with both 'tenseness' (0.45, and 'frustration' (0.38 dimensions of perceived stress; the 'lack of development' was positively associated with the 'frustration' dimension (0.72, but negatively associated with 'tenseness' (-0.69; the 'neglect' showed a weaker positive associated with 'frustration' (0.41, and a small negative association with 'tenseness' (-0.20. The model was a very good fit to the data (GFI  =  0.96; RSMR  =  0.07; AGFI = 0.96; NFI = 0.95; RFI = 0.95.The stress factors of 'frustration' and 'tenseness' seems to be related in a distinct way to the burnout subtypes in Spanish dental students. This finding suggests that intervention programs specifically tailored to these subtypes may be a promising future direction.

  6. Factors Associated With Callus in Patients with Diabetes, Focused on Plantar Shear Stress During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Masako; Mori, Taketoshi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  8. Comparing usage of a web and app stress management intervention: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne G. Morrison

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Choices in the design and delivery of digital health behaviour interventions may have a direct influence on subsequent usage and engagement. Few studies have been able to make direct, detailed comparisons of differences in usage between interventions that are delivered via web or app. This study compared the usage of two versions of a digital stress management intervention, one delivered via a website (Healthy Paths and the other delivered via an app (Healthy Mind. Design modifications were introduced within Healthy Mind to take account of reported differences in how individuals engage with websites compared to apps and mobile phones. Data were collected as part of an observational study nested within a broader exploratory trial of Healthy Mind. Objective usage of Healthy Paths and Healthy Mind were automatically recorded, including frequency and duration of logins, access to specific components within the intervention and order of page/screen visits. Usage was compared for a two week period following initial registration. In total, 381 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Paths (web and 162 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Mind (app. App users logged in twice as often (Mdn = 2.00 as web users (Mdn = 1.00, U = 13,059.50, p ≤ 0.001, but spent half as much time (Mdn = 5.23 min on the intervention compared to web users (Mdn = 10.52 min, U = 19,740.00, p ≤ 0.001. Visual exploration of usage patterns over time revealed that a significantly higher proportion of app users (n = 126, 82.35% accessed both types of support available within the intervention (i.e. awareness and change-focused tools compared to web users (n = 92, 40.17%, χ2(1, n = 382 = 66.60, p < 0.001. This study suggests that the digital platform used to deliver an intervention (i.e. web versus app and specific design choices (e.g. navigation, length and volume of content may be

  9. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.

  10. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling.

  11. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling. PMID:26635818

  12. [Occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manufacturing service and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t =23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P occupational stress determined by JDC and ERI models than the control group (64.5%/12.7% vs 52.6%/9.9%, χ 2 =182.26 and 23.41, both P 60 hours/week, and sleeping time occupational stress in JDC model; education background of Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeoccupational stress in ERI model, while female sex and a high monthly income reduced the risk of occupational stress in ERI model. Conclusion: Assembly line workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time occupational stress.

  13. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that within the control category, the highest levels of perceived teacher’s work-related stress were caused by changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions, while in the category support, the same was true for stress factors lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. We have also concluded that the lower-grade school teachers, female teachers, teachers for whom this is the first job and teachers with university education perceive more often the lack of authority to take decisions as a very stressful factor than the upper-grade school teachers, male teachers, teachers previously employed in another workplace, and those with high education. The lower-grade school teachers, older teachers and teachers with university education perceive more often changes in education as a very stressful factor than the upper grade school teachers, younger teachers and those with high education.

  14. Are malnutrition and stress risk factors for accelerated cognitive decline? A prisoner of war study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulway, M R; Broe, G A; Creasey, H; Dent, O F; Jorm, A F; Kos, S C; Tennant, C C

    1996-03-01

    We set out to test the hypothesis that severe malnutrition and stress experienced by prisoners of war (POWs) are associated with cognitive deficits later in life. We assessed 101 former Australian POWs of the Japanese and 108 veteran control subjects using a battery of neuropsychological tests, a depression scale, a clinical examination for dementia, and CT. We divided the POWs into high weight loss (>35%) and low weight loss groups (malnutrition is a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline nor the theory that severe stress can lead to hippocampal neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. Cognitive deficits in earlier studies of former POWs may have been associated with concurrent depression.

  15. LUGS, Stress Analysis, Flexibility Factors for Rectangular Attachment on Thin Shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: LUGS calculates stresses, stress indices, and flexibility factors for a rectangular attachment on a cylindrical shell. 2 - Method of solution: The program implements Bijlaard's series solution to the thin-shell equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Caution is recommended in using the code for attachments on very thin shells that have large circumferential dimension and small longitudinal dimension (GAMMA.GE.80, BETA2.LE.0.05, and BETA1.GE.0.3) as series convergence and/or numeric problems seem to exist

  16. Disruptions to women's social identity: a comparative study of workplace stress experienced by women in three geographic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, M A; Joplin, J R; Bell, M P; Lau, T; Oguz, C

    2000-10-01

    Drawing on social identity theory (P. J. Burke, 1991) and the current status of women and equal opportunity legislation, the authors tested several factors associated with distress in working women in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Hong Kong, and the United States. Women in Hong Kong experienced significantly greater levels of life stress than PRC and U.S. women. Reports of negative attitudes toward women, gender evaluation, and avoidance coping were greater for Hong Kong and PRC women than for U.S. women. Hong Kong women reported more use of positive/confrontational coping mechanisms. Negative attitudes toward women had an important influence on life stress across regions. Moderator tests resulted in 2 significant findings: The effect of negative attitudes toward women on life stress was stronger for PRC and Hong Kong women, and the relationship between nervous/self-destructive coping and life stress was stronger for U.S. women.

  17. Welding-induced local maximum residual stress in heat affected zone of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with machined surface layer and its influential factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Ihara, Ryohei; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of work-hardening and pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel on the welding-induced residual stress were experimentally investigated through the use of weld specimens with three different surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished. The high tensile and compressive stresses exist in the work-hardened surface layer of the as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, no stress and work-hardened surface layer exist in the electrolytically-polished specimen. TIG bead-on-plate welding under the same welding heat input conditions was performed to introduce the residual stress into these specimens. Using these welded specimens, the distributions of welding-induced residual stress were measured by the X-ray diffraction method. Similarly, the distributions of hardness in welds were estimated by the Vickers hardness test. And then, these distributions were compared with one another. Based on the results, the residual stress in the weld metal (WM) is completely unaffected by the machined surface layer because the work-hardened surface layer disappears through the processes of melting and solidification during welding. The local maximum longitudinal tensile residual stress in the heat affected zone (HAZ) depends on the work-hardening but not on the existing stress, regardless of whether tensile or compressive, in the machined surface layer before welding. At the base metal far from WM and HAZ, the residual stress is formed by the addition of the welding-induced residual stress to the pre-existing stress in the machined surface layer before welding. The features of the welding-induced residual stress in low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with the machined surface layer and their influential factors were thus clarified. (author)

  18. On the dimensionality of the stress-related growth scale: one, three, or seven factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Rowley, Anthony A; Vaughn, Allison A

    2004-06-01

    We examined the factorial validity and dimensionality of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS; Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996) using a large multiethnic sample (n = 1,070). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a multidimensional representation of the SRGS fit better than a unidimensional representation. Specifically, we cross-validated both a 3-factor model and a 7-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis and were shown to be invariant across gender and ethnic groups. The 3-factor model was represented by global dimensions of growth that included rational/mature thinking, affective/emotional growth, and religious/spiritual growth. We replicated the 7-factor model of Armeli, Gunthert, and Cohen (2001) and it represented more specific components of growth such as Self-Understanding and Treatment of Others. However, some factors of the 7-factor model had questionable internal consistency and were strongly intercorrelated, suggesting redundancy. The findings support the notion that the factor structure of both the original 1-factor and revised 7-factor models are unstable and that the 3-factor model developed in this research has more reliable psychometric properties and structure.

  19. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the english version of the trier inventory for chronic stress (TICS-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Kliem, Sören; Sadler, Michael; Meuret, Alicia E; Ritz, Thomas; Brähler, Elmar

    2018-02-06

    Demands placed on individuals in occupational and social settings, as well as imbalances in personal traits and resources, can lead to chronic stress. The Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS) measures chronic stress while incorporating domain-specific aspects, and has been found to be a highly reliable and valid research tool. The aims of the present study were to confirm the German version TICS factorial structure in an English translation of the instrument (TICS-E) and to report its psychometric properties. A random route sample of healthy participants (N = 483) aged 18-30 years completed the TICS-E. The robust maximum likelihood estimation with a mean-adjusted chi-square test statistic was applied due to the sample's significant deviation from the multivariate normal distribution. Goodness of fit, absolute model fit, and relative model fit were assessed by means of the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI). Reliability estimates (Cronbach's α and adjusted split-half reliability) ranged from .84 to .92. Item-scale correlations ranged from .50 to .85. Measures of fit showed values of .052 for RMSEA (Cl = 0.50-.054) and .067 for SRMR for absolute model fit, and values of .846 (TLI) and .855 (CFI) for relative model-fit. Factor loadings ranged from .55 to .91. The psychometric properties and factor structure of the TICS-E are comparable to the German version of the TICS. The instrument therefore meets quality standards for an adequate measurement of chronic stress.

  20. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the english version of the trier inventory for chronic stress (TICS-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petrowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demands placed on individuals in occupational and social settings, as well as imbalances in personal traits and resources, can lead to chronic stress. The Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS measures chronic stress while incorporating domain-specific aspects, and has been found to be a highly reliable and valid research tool. The aims of the present study were to confirm the German version TICS factorial structure in an English translation of the instrument (TICS-E and to report its psychometric properties. Methods A random route sample of healthy participants (N = 483 aged 18–30 years completed the TICS-E. The robust maximum likelihood estimation with a mean-adjusted chi-square test statistic was applied due to the sample’s significant deviation from the multivariate normal distribution. Goodness of fit, absolute model fit, and relative model fit were assessed by means of the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI and the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI. Results Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s α and adjusted split-half reliability ranged from .84 to .92. Item-scale correlations ranged from .50 to .85. Measures of fit showed values of .052 for RMSEA (Cl = 0.50–.054 and .067 for SRMR for absolute model fit, and values of .846 (TLI and .855 (CFI for relative model-fit. Factor loadings ranged from .55 to .91. Conclusion The psychometric properties and factor structure of the TICS-E are comparable to the German version of the TICS. The instrument therefore meets quality standards for an adequate measurement of chronic stress.

  1. Analysis of the costs of veterinary education and factors associated with financial stress among veterinary students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K P; Matthew, S M; Baguley, J A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the course-related and other costs involved in obtaining a veterinary education in Australia and how these costs are met. The study also aimed to identify sociodemographic and course-related factors associated with increased financial stress. Students from seven Australian veterinary schools were surveyed using an online questionnaire. A total of 443 students participated (response rate 17%). Responses to survey items relating to finances, employment and course-related costs were compared with sociodemographic factors and prior research in the area of student financial stress. Respondents reported spending a median of A$300 per week on living costs and a median of A$2,000 per year on course-related expenses. Over half of respondents received the majority of their income from their parents or Youth Allowance (56%). A similar proportion (55%) reported that they needed to work to meet basic living expenses. Circumstances and sociodemographic factors linked to perceived financial stress included requiring additional finances to meet unexpected costs during the course; sourcing additional finances from external loans; an expected tuition debt at graduation over A$40,000; being 22 years or older; working more than 12 hours per week; living costs above A$300 per week; and being female. The costs involved in obtaining a veterinary education in Australia are high and over half of respondents are reliant on parental or Government income support. Respondents with certain sociodemographic profiles are more prone to financial stress. These findings may have implications for the psychological health, diversity and career plans of veterinary students in Australia. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. An Exploratory Comparative Study of Staff Stress in English and German Comprehensive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1980-01-01

    West German and English teachers completed questionnaires and interviews about stress situations and responses. English teachers identified more stress situations than German staff, who felt more certain of their roles and more involved in school decision-making. Both reported poor staff communications and disruptive pupil behavior as their major…

  3. The membrane tethered transcription factor EcbZIP17 from finger millet promotes plant growth and enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.

  4. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, specific to

  5. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children’s communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children’s communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability. PMID:24753637

  6. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  8. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  9. Correlation of Stress Concentration Factors for T-Welded Connections – Finite Element Simulations and Fatigue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Terán Méndez

    Full Text Available Abstract The stress concentration factors (SCFs in welded connections usually occur at zones with high stress levels. Stress concentrations reduce the fatigue behavior of welded connections in offshore structures and cracking can develop. By using the grinding technique, cracking can be eliminated. Stress concentration factors are defined as a ratio of maximum stress at the intersection to nominal stress on the brace. Defining the stress concentration factor is an important stage in the fatigue behavior of welded connections. Several approaches have evolved for designing structures with the classical S-N approach for estimating total life. This work correlates to the stress concentration factors of T-welded connections and the fatigue behavior. Stress concentration factors were computed with the finite element employing 3D T-welded connections with intact and grinding depth conditions. Then, T-welded connections were constructed with A36 plate steel and welded with E6013 electrodes to obtain the stress-life (S-N approach. The methodology from previous works was used to compute the SCF and fabricate the T-welded connections. The results indicated that the grinding process could restore the fatigue life of the T-welded connections for SCFs values in the range of 1.29. This value can be considered to be a low SCF value in T-welded connection. However, for higher SCF values, the fatigue life decreased, compromising and reducing the structural integrity of the T-welded connections.

  10. [Job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L; Jia, X C; Lu, F; Zhou, W H; Chen, R

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 1500 locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot in Zhengzhou Railway Bureau as respondents.The contents of the investigation included general data and occupational information.A job satisfaction questionnaire was used to investigate the degree of satisfaction, a depression scale was used to investigate the frequency of symptoms, and a daily stress scale was used to investigate the frequency of fatigue and stress. Results: There was a significant difference in depression score between locomotive attendants with different ages, working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendanceat night, monthly numbers of times of attendance,ormonthly attendance times( P job satisfaction score between locomotive attendants with different ages,working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendance at night, monthly attendance times,or ways to work( P job satisfaction( β =1.546)and monthly number of times of attendance,working years,attendance time at night,and degree of education were negatively correlated with job satisfaction( β =-0.185,-0.097,-0.020,and -1.106); monthly number of times of attendance andcommute time were positively correlated with depression( β =0.243 and 0.029); attendance time at night,working situation of spouse,commute time,monthly number of times of attendance,degree of education,and working years were positively correlated with daily stress( β =0.006,0.473,0.010,0.043,0.585, and 0.028). Conclusion: Number of times of attendance, attendance time,working years,and spouse are influencing factors for job stress in locomotive attendants. Improvement in work process and care for their personal life help to reduce

  11. Calculation of stress intensity factors for circumferential semi-elliptical cracks with high aspect ratio in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareei, A.; Nabavi, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, stress intensity factors are calculated at the deepest point of an internal circumferential semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to any arbitrary load. Based on the three dimensional finite element analysis, a weight function is proposed for high aspect ratio semi-elliptical cracks in pipes. An effective expression is developed analytically to evaluate the stress intensity factor using the weight function method. For several crack face stress fields and welding residual stress distributions, the weight function is validated against finite element data and those in the literature. Based on the comparison results, it can be concluded that the solution proposed in this paper is effective in engineering applications. - Highlights: • Analysis of internal circumferential semi-elliptical cracks with high aspect ratio in pipes. • A weight function is proposed for the calculation of the stress intensity factors for the deepest point of the crack. • An effective closed form expression is proposed to evaluate the stress intensity factors. • Prediction of stress intensity factors for any applied stress gradients through the wall thickness without any limitations. • A three-dimensional finite element modeling employs to calculate the stress intensity factors for different geometries.

  12. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanyi, Nora [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)]. E-mail: n.adanyi@cfri.hu; Nemeth, Edina [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Halasz, Anna [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary); Szendro, Istvan [MicroVacuum Ltd., H-1147 Budapest, Kerekgyarto u. 10 (Hungary); Varadi, Maria [Central Food Research Institute, H-1537 Budapest, P.O. Box 393 (Hungary)

    2006-07-28

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method.

  13. Application of electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy for studying the effect of different stress factors on lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adanyi, Nora; Nemeth, Edina; Halasz, Anna; Szendro, Istvan; Varadi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (EC-OWLS) has been developed to combine evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. For bioanalytical sensing, a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high-refractive index waveguide and a conductive electrode. In addition, an electrochemical flow-through fluid cuvette was applied, which incorporated working, reference, and counter electrodes, and was compatible with the constraints of optical sensing. The subject of our study was to monitor how the different stress factors (lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) influence the survival of lactic acid bacteria. The advantage of EC-OWLS technique is that we could carry out kinetic studies on the behaviour of bacteria under stress conditions, and after exposure of lactobacilli to acid and oxidative stress we get faster results about the status of bacteria compared to the traditional quantitative methods. After optimization of the polarization potential used, calibration curve was determined and the sensor response of different rate of living and damaged cells was studied. The bacterial cells were adsorbed in native form on the surface of the sensor by ensuring polarizing potential (1 V) and were exposed to different concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide solution to 1 h, respectively and the behaviour of bacteria was monitored. Results were compared to traditional micro-assay method

  14. A prospective study of musculoskeletal outcomes among manufacturing workers: II. Effects of psychosocial stress and work organization factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, Fredric; Fethke, Nathan B; Anton, Dan; Merlino, Linda; Rosecrance, John; Marcus, Michele; Jones, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize associations between psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Methodological limitations of previous studies of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and musculoskeletal outcomes have produced inconsistent associations. In this prospective epidemiologic study of 386 workers, questionnaires to assess decision latitude ("control") and psychological job demands ("demand") were administered to study participants and were used to classify them into job strain "quadrants". Measures of job stress and job change were collected during each week of follow-up. Incident hand/arm and neck/shoulder symptoms and disorders were ascertained weekly. Associations between exposure measures and musculoskeletal outcomes were estimated with proportional hazard methods. When compared to the low-demand/high-control job strain referent category, large increases in risk of hand/arm disorders were observed for both high-demand/high-control (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 16.4]) and high-demand/low-control job strain categories (HR = 5.18,95% CI = [1.39, 19.4]). Similar associations were observed for hand/arm symptoms. A strong association was also observed between the low-demand/low-control job strain category and neck/shoulder disorders (HR = 6.46, 95% CI = [1.46, 28.6]). Statistically significant associations were also observed between weekly stress level and weekly job change and several musculoskeletal outcomes. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and work organizational factors and musculoskeletal outcomes were large and in the hypothesized direction. Prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders may require attention to psychosocial and work organizational factors in addition to physical factors. Methods to control adverse effects of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors should be explored.

  15. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  16. Coping with stress and cognitive interference in student teachers performance as important factors influencing their achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the relations between student teachers' strategies for coping with stressful situations, cognitive interference factors and successfulness of presentation of student teachers' seminar work. There were 135 student teachers participating in the study. At the beginning of the semester they filled in the Way of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988. After their presentation of seminar theme they reported about the cognitive interference factors during the presentation (distractive factors and intrusive thoughts. Different aspects of their performance were also evaluated by the teacher according to the well-known criteria. The analysis of the results showed significant correlations between certain ways of coping, cognitive interference factors and success of performance. Further statistical analysis showed significant differences in experiencing distractive factors and intrusive thoughts during presentation between students with low, medium and high performance success. The importance of successful strategies for coping with verbal presentation and the implications for student teacher education are discussed.

  17. Gender differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war-exposed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D; Layne, Christopher M; Shevlin, Mark; Duraković-Belko, Elvira; Djapo, Nermin; Pynoos, Robert S

    2011-05-01

    DSM-IV's three-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is rarely empirically supported, whereas other four-factor models (King et al., 1998; Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) have proven to be better representations of PTSD's latent structure. To date, a clear consensus as to which model provides the best representation of PTSD's underlying dimensions has yet to be reached. The current study investigated whether gender is associated with factor structure differences using the King et al. (1998) model of reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal PTSD symptoms. Participants were war-exposed Bosnian secondary/high school boys and girls (N=1572) assessed nearly two years after the 1992-1995 Bosnian conflict. Confirmatory factor analytic tests of measurement invariance across PTSD model parameters revealed many significant sex-linked differences. Implications regarding the potential role of gender as a moderator of the King et al. (1998) model's factor structure are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pipe stress intensity factors and coupled depressurization and dynamic crack propagation. 1976 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, A.F.; Kobayashi, A.S.; Love, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report contains the description of predictive models for the initiation and propagation of cracks in pipes and the numerical results obtained. The initiation of the crack was studied by evaluating stress intensity factors under static conditions for a series of representative flaws. Three-dimensional static stress intensity factors were determined for quarter-elliptical cracks at the corner of a hole in an infinite plate and at the corner of a bore in a rotating disk. Semi-elliptical cracks for plates in bending and in pressurized and thermally stressed hollow cylinders were also evaluated. The stress fields, in the absence of a crack, were used in the ''alternating technique'' to compute the stress intensity factors along the crack front. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of crack thickness, the ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse and the thickness of the cylinders or plates. These parametric results may be used to predict critical flaw sizes for the initiation of the running crack. The initiation and propagation of axial through cracks in pressurized pipes was studied by using an elastic-plastic finite different shell code coupled with a one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code which computed the leakage through the crack opening and the depressurization of the fluid in the pipe. The effects of large deflections and different fluid pressure profiles were investigated. The results showed that the crack opening shape is dependent upon the fracture criterion used and upon the average pressure on the crack flaps, but not upon the specific pressure profile. The consideration of large deflections changed the opening size of the crack and through the coupling with the pipe pressures, strongly affected the crack tip speed. However, for equal crack lengths, there was little difference between calculations made for large and small deflection

  19. Transcription factors and plant response to drought stress: Current understanding and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing vulnerability of plants to a variety of stresses such as drought, salt and extreme temperatures poses a global threat to sustained growth and productivity of major crops. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and development. In view of this, developing staple food cultivars with improved drought tolerance emerges as the most sustainable solution towards improving crop productivity in a scenario of climate change. In parallel, unraveling the genetic architecture and the targeted identification of molecular networks using modern OMICS analyses, that can underpin drought tolerance mechanisms, is urgently required. Importantly, integrated studies intending to elucidate complex mechanisms can bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge about drought stress tolerance in plants. It is now well established that drought tolerance is regulated by several genes, including transcription factors (TFs that enable plants to withstand unfavorable conditions, and these remain potential genomic candidates for their wide application in crop breeding. These TFs represent the key molecular switches orchestrating the regulation of plant developmental processes in response to a variety of stresses. The current review aims to offer a deeper understanding of TFs engaged in regulating plant’s response under drought stress and to devise potential strategies to improve plant tolerance against drought.

  20. A comparative study of different techniques in the stress analysis of a nuclear component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, P.W.; Floyd, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    The inner surface stresses around the corner between the cylindrical wall and end plate of a flat ended pressure vessel have been determined using finite element, boundary element and photoelastic techniques. The results demonstrate severe deficiencies under certain conditions in the performance of the quadrilateral axisymmetric finite element which is commonly used in this type of analysis. The boundary element method is shown to provide an alternative analysis route giving more accurate results. The hybrid formulation finite element is also found to give reasonable results for the analysis of stresses in regions of rapidly varying stress. (orig.)

  1. Inhibition of Ribosome Recruitment Induces Stress Granule Formation Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J.; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2α phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity, an RNA helicase required for the ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, induces SG formation and that this event is not dependent on eIF2α phosphorylation. We also show that inhibition of eIF4A activity does not impair the ability of eIF2α to be phosphorylated under stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed SG assembly upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation after poliovirus infection. We propose that SG modeling can occur via both eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways that target translation initiation. PMID:16870703

  2. Inhibition of ribosome recruitment induces stress granule formation independently of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroui, Rachid; Sukarieh, Rami; Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Kaufman, Randal J; Northcote, Peter; Tanaka, Junichi; Gallouzi, Imed; Pelletier, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Cytoplasmic aggregates known as stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress and contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. These foci are thought to serve as sites of mRNA storage or triage during the cell stress response. SG formation has been shown to require induction of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of other initiation factors in this process and demonstrate that interfering with eIF4A activity, an RNA helicase required for the ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, induces SG formation and that this event is not dependent on eIF2alpha phosphorylation. We also show that inhibition of eIF4A activity does not impair the ability of eIF2alpha to be phosphorylated under stress conditions. Furthermore, we observed SG assembly upon inhibition of cap-dependent translation after poliovirus infection. We propose that SG modeling can occur via both eIF2alpha phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways that target translation initiation.

  3. Possible link between stress-related factors and altered body composition in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Ray Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. Aim: The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. Design: This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Materials and Methods: Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Increased salivary cortisol level and α-amylase activity were seen in the PCOS population as compared to age-matched controls suggesting patients a sustained stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI, visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šagud, Marina; Jakšić, Nenad; Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Lončar, Mladen; Lončar, Ivana; Peleš, Alma Mihaljević; Miličić, Davor; Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition related to severe stress and trauma. There is a mounting evidence about increased prevalence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with PTSD. This review summarizes the current data on possible relations between PTSD and increased risks of CVD, including biological, psychological and behavioral factors. Biological factors refer to increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and homocysteine levels. Peripheral Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) are promising surrogate markers of increased cardiovascular risk. Among psychological factors, some personality traits, such as neuroticism and trait impulsivity/hostility, contribute to the development of PTSD, and are associated with general cardiovascular distress. Recently, type-D (distressed) personality is usually investigated in relation to cardiovascular morbidity, but in populations other than PTSD patients. Behavioral factors refer to unhealthy life-styles, encompassing high smoking rate, drug substances abuse and addiction, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. The relationships among all these factors are complex and yet incompletely taken into consideration. Because of a high prevalence of CVD in patients with PTSD, there is a strong need for a more intensive focus on this vulnerable population in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention as well as in effective treatment possibilities.

  5. Expression of a finger millet transcription factor, EcNAC1, in tobacco confers abiotic stress-tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkategowda Ramegowda

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.

  6. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  7. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  8. Analysis of stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Toshiro; Yoshida, Yuichiro

    1988-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the penetration of surface cracks in a Leak-Before-Break analysis. Because the stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration had not yet been analyzed, the authors carried three-dimensional boundary element analyses in order to obtain them. First, the authors developed the technique of nodal breakdown appropriate for cracks with short ligament length in a two-dimensional boundary element analysis. Next, analyses of stress intensity factor for surface cracks in pre/post penetration were carried out using the technique of nodal breakdown for cracks with short ligament length and the three-dimensional boundary element code BEM 3 D which was designed for a supercomputer. (author)

  9. Effect of different stress factors on IL-6 and leptin expression in HELA cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhenwei; Yang Tao; Wang Luhuan; Hao Xiuhua; Yan Guangtao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of three stress factors high glucose (HG), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the expression of culture supernatant IL-6 (IL-6) and leptin contents of HELA cell line. Methods: HELA cell culture models of severe inflammatory response syndrome were prepared with cultures treated with 50 mmol/L glucose (HG), 4 μg/ ml LPS and 100 μmol/L H 2 O 2 respectively and supernatant contents of IL-6 and leptin were measured with RIA at 1h, 6h and 24h. Results: Generally speaking, the culture supernatant contents of IL-6 gradually increased and leptin contents gradually decreased with significant differences from those in cultures not treated with either stress factor at 6h and 12h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Leptin as a possible anti-inflammatory cytokine might plays an important protective role in severe inflammatory response. (authors)

  10. Stress Intensity Factor for Interface Cracks in Bimaterials Using Complex Variable Meshless Manifold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfen Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the complex variable meshless manifold method (CVMMM to stress intensity factor analyses of structures containing interface cracks between dissimilar materials. A discontinuous function and the near-tip asymptotic displacement functions are added to the CVMMM approximation using the framework of complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS approximation. This enables the domain to be modeled by CVMMM without explicitly meshing the crack surfaces. The enriched crack-tip functions are chosen as those that span the asymptotic displacement fields for an interfacial crack. The complex stress intensity factors for bimaterial interfacial cracks were numerically evaluated using the method. Good agreement between the numerical results and the reference solutions for benchmark interfacial crack problems is realized.

  11. Human Factors Effecting Forensic Decision Making: Workplace Stress and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  14. Depression and work related stress problems, with notes of comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marilisa; Pettinelli, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This paper supplies both a medical and legal analysis of work related stress problems, by going throught the role of prevention in the European legal system. The Authors, after reviewing the negative role that stress has in the management of the employment relationship, describe the main steps that have brought Europe to recognize the importance of the role of prevention, and to recognize the role of well-being in the workplace.

  15. Factors Associated with Occupational Stress among University Teachers in Pakistan and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Naima Akhtar Malik; Kaj Björkqvist; Karin Österman (correspondence author)

    2017-01-01

    The study examines the interplay of psychosocial factors and works conditions on occupational stress among 531 university teachers in Pakistan and Finland with the help of a web-based questionnaire. Results from an MANOVA revealed that good working conditions, social support at work, and promotion and development opportunities were rated as significantly better by the Finnish sample. Workplace bullying occurred considerably less often in Finland than in Pakistan. Male Pakistani teachers repor...

  16. A virtual crack-closure technique for calculating stress intensity factors for cracked three dimensional bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Tan, P. W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional virtual crack-closure technique is presented which calculates the strain energy release rates and the stress intensity factors using only nodal forces and displacements from a standard finite element analysis. The technique is an extension of the Rybicki-Kanninen (1977) method, and it assumes that any continuous function can be approximated by a finite number of straight line segments. Results obtained by the method for surface cracked plates with and without notches agree favorably with previous results.

  17. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). Materials and Methods This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additional...

  18. Effect of Crack Tip Stress Concentration Factor on Fracture Resistance in Vacuum Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    indicate: (1) in all alloys, the fracture resistance is highest for blunt-notches (smaller Kt), and is lowest for fatigue -sharpened precracked...paths are transgranular and the fracture mode is ductile void coalescence in all cases, irrespective of the stress concentration factor. 20-01-2015...because of corrosion and/or various loading conditions such as fatigue , fretting, abrasion, etc. Also, the geometry of the structure may cause an

  19. Comparative transcriptional analysis of clinically relevant heat stress response in Clostridium difficile strain 630.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G Ternan

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. In order to understand more fully the adaptive response of the organism to stressful conditions, we examined transcriptional changes resulting from a clinically relevant heat stress (41 °C versus 37 °C in C. difficile strain 630 and identified 341 differentially expressed genes encompassing multiple cellular functional categories. While the transcriptome was relatively resilient to the applied heat stress, we noted upregulation of classical heat shock genes including the groEL and dnaK operons in addition to other stress-responsive genes. Interestingly, the flagellin gene (fliC was downregulated, yet genes encoding the cell-wall associated flagellar components were upregulated suggesting that while motility may be reduced, adherence--to mucus or epithelial cells--could be enhanced during infection. We also observed that a number of phage associated genes were downregulated, as were genes associated with the conjugative transposon Tn5397 including a group II intron, thus highlighting a potential decrease in retromobility during heat stress. These data suggest that maintenance of lysogeny and genome wide stabilisation of mobile elements could be a global response to heat stress in this pathogen.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Ability of Mimicking Portfolios in Representing the Background Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian, Hossein

    2004-01-01

    Our aim is to give a comparative analysis of ability of different factor mimicking portfolios in representing the background factors. Our analysis contains a cross-sectional regression approach, a time-series regression approach and a portfolio approach for constructing factor mimicking portfolios. The focus of the analysis is the power of mimicking portfolios in the asset pricing models. We conclude that the time series regression approach, with the book-to-market sorted portfolios as the ba...

  1. Double overexpression of DREB and PIF transcription factors improves drought stress tolerance and cell elongation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Madoka; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Mizoi, Junya; Todaka, Daisuke; Fernie, Alisdair R; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2017-04-01

    Although a variety of transgenic plants that are tolerant to drought stress have been generated, many of these plants show growth retardation. To improve drought tolerance and plant growth, we applied a gene-stacking approach using two transcription factor genes: DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING 1A (DREB1A) and rice PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR-LIKE 1 (OsPIL1). The overexpression of DREB1A has been reported to improve drought stress tolerance in various crops, although it also causes a severe dwarf phenotype. OsPIL1 is a rice homologue of Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), and it enhances cell elongation by activating cell wall-related gene expression. We found that the OsPIL1 protein was more stable than PIF4 under light conditions in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Transactivation analyses revealed that DREB1A and OsPIL1 did not negatively affect each other's transcriptional activities. The transgenic plants overexpressing both OsPIL1 and DREB1A showed the improved drought stress tolerance similar to that of DREB1A overexpressors. Furthermore, double overexpressors showed the enhanced hypocotyl elongation and floral induction compared with the DREB1A overexpressors. Metabolome analyses indicated that compatible solutes, such as sugars and amino acids, accumulated in the double overexpressors, which was similar to the observations of the DREB1A overexpressors. Transcriptome analyses showed an increased expression of abiotic stress-inducible DREB1A downstream genes and cell elongation-related OsPIL1 downstream genes in the double overexpressors, which suggests that these two transcription factors function independently in the transgenic plants despite the trade-offs required to balance plant growth and stress tolerance. Our study provides a basis for plant genetic engineering designed to overcome growth retardation in drought-tolerant transgenic plants. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  3. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  4. Study on relationship of performance shaping factor in human error probability with prevalent stress of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Bin Ab; Mohamed, Faizal; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abdul; Fazli Zakaria, Mohd; Sangau Ligam, Alfred; Ramli, Nurhayati Binti

    2018-01-01

    Human factor can be affected by prevalence stress measured using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). From the respondents feedback can be summarized that the main factor causes the highest prevalence stress is due to the working conditions that require operators to handle critical situation and make a prompt critical decisions. The relationship between the prevalence stress and performance shaping factors found that PSFFitness and PSFWork Process showed positive Pearson’s Correlation with the score of .763 and .826 while the level of significance, p = .028 and p = .012. These positive correlations with good significant values between prevalence stress and human performance shaping factor (PSF) related to fitness, work processes and procedures. The higher the stress level of the respondents, the higher the score of selected for the PSFs. This is due to the higher levels of stress lead to deteriorating physical health and cognitive also worsened. In addition, the lack of understanding in the work procedures can also be a factor that causes a growing stress. The higher these values will lead to the higher the probabilities of human error occur. Thus, monitoring the level of stress among operators RTP is important to ensure the safety of RTP.

  5. Depression and Alzheimer's disease: is stress the initiating factor in a common neuropathological cascade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    The existence of a high co-morbidity between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression has been known for a long time. More interesting though are recent studies indicating that depression and number of depressive episodes earlier in life is associated with increased risk of AD development....... This suggests the existence of common neuropathological mechanisms behind depression and AD. Here we propose that the brain changes associated with depressive episodes that compromise the brain's ability to cope with stress may constitute risk factors for development of AD. Furthermore, in individuals...... serotonergic and cholinergic system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain derived neurotrophic factor, and discussed in relation to AD....

  6. Secondary traumatic stress among domestic violence advocates: workplace risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Suzanne M; Goodman, Lisa A

    2009-11-01

    This study identified workplace factors associated with secondary traumatic stress (STS) in a sample of 148 domestic violence advocates working in diverse settings. Findings indicate that coworker support and quality clinical supervision are critical to emotional well-being and that an environment in which there is shared power-that is, respect for diversity, mutuality, and consensual decision making-provides better protection for advocates than more traditional, hierarchical organizational models. Furthermore, shared power emerged as the only workplace variable to significantly predict STS above and beyond individual factors. The discussion includes implications for practice and policy as well as directions for future research.

  7. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Diane; Thomas, Matt; Whiting, Diane; McGrath, Andrew

    To confirm the construct validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) by investigating the fit of published factor structures in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (posttraumatic amnesia > 24 hours). Archival data from 504 patient records at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Australia. Participants were aged between 16 and 71 years and were engaged in a specialist rehabilitation program. The DASS-21. Two of the 6 models had adequate fit using structural equation modeling. The data best fit Henry and Crawford's quadripartite model, which comprised a Depression, Anxiety and Stress factor, as well as a General Distress factor. The data also adequately fit Lovibond and Lovibond's original 3-factor model, and the internal consistencies of each factor were very good (α = 0.82-0.90). This study confirms the structure and construct validity of the DASS-21 and provides support for its use as a screening tool in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

  8. Mechanisms Underlying the Delayed Activation of the Cap1 Transcription Factor in Candida albicans following Combinatorial Oxidative and Cationic Stress Important for Phagocytic Potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Iaroslava; Patterson, Miranda J; Znaidi, Sadri; Kaloriti, Despoina; da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen M; d'Enfert, Christophe; Brown, Alistair J P; Quinn, Janet

    2016-03-29

    Following phagocytosis, microbes are exposed to an array of antimicrobial weapons that include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cationic fluxes. This is significant as combinations of oxidative and cationic stresses are much more potent than the corresponding single stresses, triggering the synergistic killing of the fungal pathogenCandida albicansby "stress pathway interference." Previously we demonstrated that combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress triggers a dramatic increase in intracellular ROS levels compared to oxidative stress alone. Here we show that activation of Cap1, the major regulator of antioxidant gene expression inC. albicans, is significantly delayed in response to combinatorial stress treatments and to high levels of H2O2 Cap1 is normally oxidized in response to H2O2; this masks the nuclear export sequence, resulting in the rapid nuclear accumulation of Cap1 and the induction of Cap1-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that following exposure of cells to combinatorial stress or to high levels of H2O2, Cap1 becomes trapped in a partially oxidized form, Cap1(OX-1) Notably, Cap1-dependent gene expression is not induced when Cap1 is in this partially oxidized form. However, while Cap1(OX-1)readily accumulates in the nucleus and binds to target genes following high-H2O2stress, the nuclear accumulation of Cap1(OX-1)following combinatorial H2O2and NaCl stress is delayed due to a cationic stress-enhanced interaction with the Crm1 nuclear export factor. These findings define novel mechanisms that delay activation of the Cap1 transcription factor, thus preventing the rapid activation of the stress responses vital for the survival ofC. albicanswithin the host. Combinatorial stress-mediated synergistic killing represents a new unchartered area in the field of stress signaling. This phenomenon contrasts starkly with "stress cross-protection," where exposure to one stress protects against subsequent exposure to a different stress. Previously we

  9. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suresh, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants\\' views on stress and stressors.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  11. Various methods of numerical estimation of generalized stress intensity factors of bi-material notches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klusák J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of bi-material notches becomes a topical problem as they can model efficiently geometrical or material discontinuities. When assessing crack initiation conditions in the bi-material notches, the generalized stress intensity factors H have to be calculated. Contrary to the determination of the K-factor for a crack in an isotropic homogeneous medium, for the ascertainment of the H-factor there is no procedure incorporated in the calculation systems. The calculation of these fracture parameters requires experience. Direct methods of estimation of H-factors need choosing usually length parameter entering into calculation. On the other hand the method combining the application of the reciprocal theorem (Ψ-integral and FEM does not require entering any length parameter and is capable to extract the near-tip information directly from the far-field deformation.

  12. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  13. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki's physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff.

  14. A definition and evaluation procedure of generalized stress intensity factors at cracks and multi-material wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    A definition of generalized stress intensity factors is proposed. It is based on a matrix function solution for singular stress fields obtained from the scaled boundary finite-element method. The dimensions of the matrix are equal to the number of singular terms. Not only real and complex power singularities but also power-logarithmic singularities are represented in a unified expression without explicitly determining the type of singularity. The generalized stress intensity factors are evaluated directly from the definition by following standard stress recovery procedures in the finite element method. Numerical examples are presented to valid the definition and evaluation procedure.

  15. A randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of basal insulin and inhaled mealtime insulin on glucose variability and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, S. E.; Kulik, W.; van Lenthe, H.; Mukherjee, R.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect of three times daily mealtime inhaled insulin therapy compared with once daily basal insulin glargine therapy on 72-h glucose profiles, glucose variability and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients. In an inpatient crossover study, 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes were

  16. Comparative proteomics of oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM reveals effects on DNA repair and cysteine de novo synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderini, Elia; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Villarroel, Julia

    2017-01-01

    acidophilus NCFM to H2O2, simulating an oxidative environment. Bacterial growth was monitored by BioScreen and batch cultures were harvested at exponential phase for protein profiling of stress responses by 2D gel-based comparative proteomics. Proteins identified in 19 of 21 spots changing in abundance due...

  17. Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1, a sweet potato transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    IbMYB1, a transcription factor (TF) for R2R3-type MYB TFs, is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis during storage of sweet potatoes. Anthocyanins provide important antioxidants of nutritional value to humans, and also protect plants from oxidative stress. This study aimed to increase transgenic potatoes' (Solanum tuberosum cv. LongShu No.3) tolerance to environmental stress and enhance their nutritional value. Transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1 genes under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter (referred to as SM plants) were successfully generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two representative transgenic SM5 and SM12 lines were evaluated for enhanced tolerance to salinity, UV-B rays, and drought conditions. Following treatment of 100 mM NaCl, seedlings of SM5 and SM12 lines showed less root damage and more shoot growth than control lines expressing only an empty vector. Transgenic potato plants in pots treated with 400 mM NaCl showed high amounts of secondary metabolites, including phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, compared with control plants. After treatment of 400 mM NaCl, transgenic potato plants also showed high DDPH radical scavenging activity and high PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control line. Furthermore, following treatment of NaCl, UV-B, and drought stress, the expression levels of IbMYB1 and several structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis such as CHS, DFR, and ANS in transgenic plants were found to be correlated with plant phenotype. The results suggest that enhanced IbMYB1 expression affects secondary metabolism, which leads to improved tolerance ability in transgenic potatoes.

  18. Comparative evaluation of human heat stress indices on selected hospital admissions in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven

    2017-08-01

    To find appropriate regression model specifications for counts of the daily hospital admissions of a Sydney cohort and determine which human heat stress indices best improve the models' fit. We built parent models of eight daily counts of admission records using weather station observations, census population estimates and public holiday data. We added heat stress indices; models with lower Akaike Information Criterion scores were judged a better fit. Five of the eight parent models demonstrated adequate fit. Daily maximum Simplified Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (sWBGT) consistently improved fit more than most other indices; temperature and heatwave indices also modelled some health outcomes well. Humidity and heat-humidity indices better fit counts of patients who died following admission. Maximum sWBGT is an ideal measure of heat stress for these types of Sydney hospital admissions. Simple temperature indices are a good fallback where a narrower range of conditions is investigated. Implications for public health: This study confirms the importance of selecting appropriate heat stress indices for modelling. Epidemiologists projecting Sydney hospital admissions should use maximum sWBGT as a common measure of heat stress. Health organisations interested in short-range forecasting may prefer simple temperature indices. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Transcriptome-wide identification of Camellia sinensis WRKY transcription factors in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a leaf-type healthy non-alcoholic beverage crop, which has been widely introduced worldwide. Tea is rich in various secondary metabolites, which are important for human health. However, varied climate and complex geography have posed challenges for tea plant survival. The WRKY gene family in plants is a large transcription factor family that is involved in biological processes related to stress defenses, development, and metabolite synthesis. Therefore, identification and analysis of WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant have a profound significance. In the present study, 50 putative C. sinensis WRKY proteins (CsWRKYs) with complete WRKY domain were identified and divided into three Groups (Group I-III) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis results. The distribution of WRKY family transcription factors among plantae, fungi, and protozoa showed that the number of WRKY genes increased in higher plant, whereas the number of these genes did not correspond to the evolutionary relationships of different species. Structural feature and annotation analysis results showed that CsWRKY proteins contained WRKYGQK/WRKYGKK domains and C2H2/C2HC-type zinc-finger structure: D-X18-R-X1-Y-X2-C-X4-7-C-X23-H motif; CsWRKY proteins may be associated with the biological processes of abiotic and biotic stresses, tissue development, and hormone and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Temperature stresses suggested that the candidate CsWRKY genes were involved in responses to extreme temperatures. The current study established an extensive overview of the WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant. This study also provided a global survey of CsWRKY transcription factors and a foundation of future functional identification and molecular breeding.

  20. Genome-wide analysis identifies chickpea (Cicer arietinum) heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) responsive to heat stress at the pod development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tej Kumar; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Kohli, Deshika; Basavarajappa, Santosh Halasabala; Chellapilla, Bharadwaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Jain, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, R

    2018-05-01

    The heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) play a prominent role in thermotolerance and eliciting the heat stress response in plants. Identification and expression analysis of Hsfs gene family members in chickpea would provide valuable information on heat stress responsive Hsfs. A genome-wide analysis of Hsfs gene family resulted in the identification of 22 Hsf genes in chickpea in both desi and kabuli genome. Phylogenetic analysis distinctly separated 12 A, 9 B, and 1 C class Hsfs, respectively. An analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of the genes identified many stress responsive elements such as heat stress elements (HSE), abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) etc. In silico expression analysis showed nine and three Hsfs were also expressed in drought and salinity stresses, respectively. Q-PCR expression analysis of Hsfs under heat stress at pod development and at 15 days old seedling stage showed that CarHsfA2, A6, and B2 were significantly upregulated in both the stages of crop growth and other four Hsfs (CarHsfA2, A6a, A6c, B2a) showed early transcriptional upregulation for heat stress at seedling stage of chickpea. These subclasses of Hsfs identified in this study can be further evaluated as candidate genes in the characterization of heat stress response in chickpea.

  1. Oxidative Stress as an Important Factor in the Pathophysiology of alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Gemelli,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been associated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, which is recognized as the most common form of dementia. In this article, the aim was to review the involvement of oxidative stress on Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is histopathologically characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, the presence of oligomers of amyloid-? peptide and loss of synapses. Moreover, the brain and the nervous system are more prone to oxidative stress and oxidative damage influences the neurodegenerative diseases. However, increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of oxidized aggregated proteins, inflammation, and defects in proteins constitute complex intertwined pathologies that lead to neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial mutations on deoxyribonucleic acid and oxidative stress contribute to aging, affecting different cell signaling systems, as well as the connectivity and neuronal cell death may lead to the largest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease.

  2. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  3. Parental Stress and Related Factors in Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy display prominent motor dysfunction associated with other developmental disorders. Parenting a child with cerebral palsy presents a number of challenges and stresses. The first purpose of this study was to compare parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy to that in parents of children with typical development. The second purpose was to analyze the correlations between parental stress and parents' characteristics, the child's characteristics, the child's earliest age when rehabilitation was first commenced, and weekly frequency of rehabilitation for the child. A convenience sample of 63 parents of children with cerebral palsy (mean age of children, 4.3 ± 1.8 years was recruited. Forty parents of children with typical development were recruited as a comparison group. All parents filled out the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI, which consists of child domain and parent domain scales. The scores reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy in the child domain, parent domain, and PSI total scale were significantly higher than those for parents in the comparison group. The child domain score was significantly correlated to the child's age and severity of motor disability. A significant correlation was also found between the parent domain score and the child's earliest age of commencing rehabilitation. The PSI total scale score was significantly associated with both the child's severity of motor disability and age of commencing rehabilitation. Clinical professionals should be concerned about parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy and provide resources to support such parents. We suggest some strategies to reduce parental stress by strengthening parents' child-care skills.

  4. Posttraumatic stress following pediatric injury: update on diagnosis, risk factors, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L; Hildenbrand, Aimee; Winston, Flaura

    2013-12-01

    After pediatric injury, transient traumatic stress reactions are common, and about 1 in 6 children and their parents develop persistent posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms that are linked to poorer physical and functional recovery. Meta-analytic studies identify risk factors for persistent PTS, including preinjury psychological problems, peritrauma fear and perceived life threat, and posttrauma factors such as low social support, maladaptive coping strategies, and parent PTS symptoms. There is growing prospective data indicating that children's subjective appraisals of the injury and its aftermath influence PTS development. Secondary prevention of injury-related PTS often involves parents and focuses on promoting adaptive child appraisals and coping strategies. Web-based psychoeducation and targeted brief early intervention for injured children and their parents have shown a modest effect, but additional research is needed to refine preventive approaches. There is a strong evidence base for effective psychological treatment of severe and persistent PTS via trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy; evidence is lacking for psychopharmacological treatment. Pediatric clinicians play a key role in preventing injury-related PTS by providing "trauma-informed" pediatric care (ie, recognizing preexisting trauma, addressing acute traumatic stress reactions associated with the injury event, minimizing potentially traumatic aspects of treatment, and identifying children who need additional monitoring or referral).

  5. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Secretion Is Induced by Ionizing Radiation and Oxidative Stress in Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashi Gupta

    Full Text Available The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has been increasingly implicated in cancer development and progression by promoting inflammation, angiogenesis, tumor cell survival and immune suppression. MIF is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumor types in part due to its responsiveness to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF driven transcriptional activation. MIF secretion, however, is a poorly understood process owing to the fact that MIF is a leaderless polypeptide that follows a non-classical secretory pathway. Better understanding of MIF processing and release could have therapeutic implications. Here, we have discovered that ionizing radiation (IR and other DNA damaging stresses can induce robust MIF secretion in several cancer cell lines. MIF secretion by IR appears independent of ABCA1, a cholesterol efflux pump that has been implicated previously in MIF secretion. However, MIF secretion is robustly induced by oxidative stress. Importantly, MIF secretion can be observed both in cell culture models as well as in tumors in mice in vivo. Rapid depletion of MIF from tumor cells observed immunohistochemically is coincident with elevated circulating MIF detected in the blood sera of irradiated mice. Given the robust tumor promoting activities of MIF, our results suggest that an innate host response to genotoxic stress may mitigate the beneficial effects of cancer therapy, and that MIF inhibition may improve therapeutic responses.

  6. [Stress as an occupational risk factor among policemen of road patrol service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, I V; Chernikova, E F

    The hygienic evaluation of occupational factors which characterized working conditions of traffic policemen of road patrol service was performed. The authors found that along with high neuro-emotional occupational stress in traffic policemen, they exposed to unfavorable microclimate, higher level of noise, vibration and their work was classified as heavy. Also, traffic policemen presented subjective complaints about negative impact of polluted air of motorways on their health status. Prevalence of chronic diseases was analyzed in group of 431 traffic policemen. The authors revealed a leading role of the following diseases: musculoskeletal diseases, diseases of connective tissue, digestive diseases, diseases of the nerve system, circulation system; their portion in the morbidity structure was 86.0%. The association of these diseases with occupation was confirmed by the increasing of their incidence with increasing of length of duration of service. Calculation of indices of relative occupational risk showed (that especially important) the increase of the length of service led to the increase in the risk ofpathologies, in which stress played a significant role. In examined group, the authors revealed such diseases as hypertension, autonomous-vascular dystonia, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Risk of the development of these diseases in some age/length of service groups is classified as high and very high. Obtained results provide the evidence that measures aimed to the decrease of the exposure to occupational factors will promote prevention of stress-stipulated diseases among traffic policemen.

  7. Work stress and risk factors for health management trainees in canakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanışman, Beyhan; Cevizci, Sibel; Çelik, Merve; Sevim, Sezgin

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the general mental health situation, work-related stress and risk factors of health management trainees. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Health Management Musters students (N=96) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health Sciences Institute, May-June 2014. A total of 58 students who voluntarily participated in the study were reached (60.42%). Participants completed a 22-question sociodemographic survey form and a 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. The average age of participants was 36.4±6.2 (Min:24-Max:62) years. Thirty five of the participants were female (60.3%), 23 were male (39.7%). The number of people using cigarettes and alcohol were 23 (39.7%) and 9 (15.8%) respectively. In our study group according to GHQ scale 32 people (55.2%) were in the group at risk of depression. Eighty-six percent of participants reported experiencing work stress. The most frequently reported sources of stress were superiors (56.8%), work itself (41.3%), and work colleagues (25.8%). There was no significant difference between those at risk of depression and those not at