International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neklyudov, I.M.; Sytin, V.I.; Voevodin, V.N.
2003-01-01
The researches results of influence of predeformations and annealings on elastic and plastic characteristics of vacuum melting and yttrium doped copper are given. The interrelation between elastic and plastic characteristics has been shown. It is shown that the yield stress and modulus of elongation essentially depend on predeformations and annealings and they are the structurally sensitive characteristics
Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie; Liu, Zhan-Wei
2018-01-01
The relations between the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts and the two-particle energy spectrum in the elongated box are established. We studied the cases with both the periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition in the center of mass frame. The framework is also extended to the system of nonzero total momentum with periodic boundary condition in the moving frame. Moreover, we discussed the sensitivity functions σ (q ) that represent the sensitivity of higher scattering phases. Our analytical results will be helpful to extract the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts in the continuum from lattice QCD data by using elongated boxes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettersson, K.; Stany, W.; Hellstrand, E.
1979-03-01
Irradiated zircaloy samples with different textures and heat treatments have been tested concerning stress corrosion. Irradiated samples of Zr-1Nb, pure Zr and beta quenched zircaloy have also been investigated. Stress-relieve annealled zircaloy is even after irradiation more sensitive to stress corrosion than recrystallized zircaloy. Zr-1Nb and beta quenched zircaloy are much more sinsitive to stress corrosion than the samples with different textures. As a rule irradiated zircaloy is sensitive to stress corrosion at stresses far below the yield point. The breaking stress decreases with the elongation rate. The extension of cracks is much faster in irradiated zircaloy than in unirradiated zircaloy. There is no simple failure criterium for irradiated zircaloy. However for a certain stress and a certain elongation rate the probability for a failure before this stress is reached with a constant elongation rate can be given. (E.R.)
Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, M.M.
1979-01-01
An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee
Elastic stresses in u-shaped bellows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janzen, P.
1980-05-01
This report presents relations describing the meridional and circumferential elastic stress levels at the root and crown due to external pressure and axial deflection of U-shaped bellows. The derivation is based on a statistical analysis of theoretical data obtained from a finite element analysis of selected bellows configurations. The mathematical formulations and various graphical representations are proposed as aids to bellows design and analysis. (auth)
Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.
2013-04-01
Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.
An Actomyosin-Arf-GEF Negative Feedback Loop for Tissue Elongation under Stress.
West, Junior J; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Maier, Janna A; Lee, Donghoon M; Bruce, Ashley E E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Harris, Tony J C
2017-08-07
In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly. In Drosophila, protein localization, laser ablation, and genetic interaction studies indicate that the cytohesin Steppke reduces tissue tension by inhibiting actomyosin activity at adherens junctions. Without Steppke, embryogenesis fails, with epidermal distortions and tears resulting from myosin misregulation. Remarkably, actomyosin network assembly is necessary and sufficient for local Steppke accumulation, where live imaging shows Steppke recruitment within minutes. This rapid negative feedback loop provides a molecular mechanism for attenuating the main tension generator of animal tissues. Such attenuation relaxes tissues and allows orderly elongation under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calculation of elastic-plastic strain ranges for fatigue analysis based on linear elastic stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauer, G.
1998-01-01
Fatigue analysis requires that the maximum strain ranges be known. These strain ranges are generally computed from linear elastic analysis. The elastic strain ranges are enhanced by a factor K e to obtain the total elastic-plastic strain range. The reliability of the fatigue analysis depends on the quality of this factor. Formulae for calculating the K e factor are proposed. A beam is introduced as a computational model for determining the elastic-plastic strains. The beam is loaded by the elastic stresses of the real structure. The elastic-plastic strains of the beam are compared with the beam's elastic strains. This comparison furnishes explicit expressions for the K e factor. The K e factor is tested by means of seven examples. (orig.)
Stress relaxation of entangled polystyrene solution after constant-rate, uniaxial elongation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsumiya, Yumi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi
For an entangled solution of linear polystyrene (PS 545k; M = 545k) in dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the stress relaxation after constant-rate uniaxial elongation was examined with an extensional viscosity fixture mounted on ARES (TA Instruments). The PS concentration, c = 52 wt%, was chosen in a way...... that the entanglement density M/Me of the solution coincided with that of PS 290k melt (M = 290k). After the elongation at the Rouse-based Weissenberg number Wi(R) ~ 3 up to the Hencky strain of 3, the short time stress relaxation of the solution was accelerated by a factor of ~4, which was less significant compared...... and the lack of monotonic thinning observed for the semidilute solutions. Results for less concentrated solutions will be also presented on site....
Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
waves is truly longitudinal. Longitudinal wave in an anisotropic elastic medium is defined as the wave motion in which the particle motion (i.e., the. Keywords. General anisotropy; elastic stiffness; pre-stress; group velocity; ray direction; longitudinal waves; polarization. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 677– ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, Holley E; Shane Hutson, M; Veldhuis, Jim; Wayne Brodland, G
2014-01-01
The morphogenetic process of germ band retraction in Drosophila embryos involves coordinated movements of two epithelial tissues—germ band and amnioserosa. The germ band shortens along its rostral–caudal or head-to-tail axis, widens along its perpendicular dorsal-ventral axis, and uncurls from an initial ‘U’ shape. The amnioserosa mechanically assists this process by pulling on the crook of the U-shaped germ band. The amnioserosa may also provide biochemical signals that drive germ band cells to change shape in a mechanically autonomous fashion. Here, we use a finite-element model to investigate how these two contributions reshape the germ band. We do so by modeling the response to laser-induced wounds in each of the germ band’s spatially distinct segments (T1–T3, A1–A9) during the middle of retraction when segments T1–A3 form the ventral arm of the ‘U’, A4–A7 form its crook, and A8–A9 complete the dorsal arm. We explore these responses under a range of externally applied stresses and internal anisotropy of cell edge tensions—akin to a planar cell polarity that can drive elongation of cells in a direction parallel to the minimum edge tension—and identify regions of parameter space (edge-tension anisotropy versus stress anisotropy) that best match previous experiments for each germ band segment. All but three germ band segments are best fit when the applied stress anisotropy and the edge-tension anisotropy work against one another—i.e., when the isolated effects would elongate cells in perpendicular directions. Segments in the crook of the germ band (A4–A7) have cells that elongate in the direction of maximum external stress, i.e., external stress anisotropy is dominant. In most other segments, the dominant factor is internal edge-tension anisotropy. These results are consistent with models in which the amnioserosa pulls on the crook of the germ band to mechanically assist retraction. In addition, they suggest a mechanical cue for
Stressed-deformed state of mountain rocks in elastic stage and between elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samedov A.M.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The problems of the stress-strain state of rocks in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limits, and the ways of schematizing the tension and compression diagrams were reviewed in the article. To simplify calculations outside the elastic range, the tension (compression diagrams are usually schematized, i.e. are replaced by curved smooth lines having a fairly simple mathematical expression and at the same time well coinciding with the experimentally obtained diagrams. When diagram is to be schematized, it is necessary to take a constant temperature of superheated water steam if a rock test is planned in a relaxed form. Note that when the diagram is schematizing, the difference between the limits of proportionality and fluidity is erased. This allows the limit of proportionality to be considered the limit of fluidity. Schematicization can be carried out in the area where the tensile strength (compression is planned to be destroyed with the established weakening of rocks by exposure to water steam or chemical reagents. Samples of rocks in natural form were tested and weakened by means of superheated water steam (220 °C and more and chemical reagents for tension and compression. The data are obtained, the diagrams of deformation are constructed and schematized in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limit. Based on the schematic diagrams of deformation, the components of stress and strain were composed in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limit. It is established in the publication that rocks under compression and stretching deform, both within the elastic stage, and beyond the limits of elasticity. This could be seen when the samples, both in natural and in weakened state, with superheated water steam (more than 220 °C or chemical reagents were tested. In their natural form, they are mainly deformed within the elastic stage and are destroyed as a brittle material, and in a weakened form they can deform beyond the elastic stage and
Tsubota, Ken-Ichi; Wada, Shigeo; Liu, Hao
2014-08-01
Direct numerical simulations of the mechanics of a single red blood cell (RBC) were performed by considering the nonuniform natural state of the elastic membrane. A RBC was modeled as an incompressible viscous fluid encapsulated by an elastic membrane. The in-plane shear and area dilatation deformations of the membrane were modeled by Skalak constitutive equation, while out-of-plane bending deformation was formulated by the spring model. The natural state of the membrane with respect to in-plane shear deformation was modeled as a sphere ([Formula: see text]), biconcave disk shape ([Formula: see text]) and their intermediate shapes ([Formula: see text]) with the nonuniformity parameter [Formula: see text], while the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation was modeled as a flat plane. According to the numerical simulations, at an experimentally measured in-plane shear modulus of [Formula: see text] and an out-of-plane bending rigidity of [Formula: see text] of the cell membrane, the following results were obtained. (i) The RBC shape at equilibrium was biconcave discoid for [Formula: see text] and cupped otherwise; (ii) the experimentally measured fluid shear stress at the transition between tumbling and tank-treading motions under shear flow was reproduced for [Formula: see text]; (iii) the elongation deformation of the RBC during tank-treading motion from the simulation was consistent with that from in vitro experiments, irrespective of the [Formula: see text] value. Based on our RBC modeling, the three phenomena (i), (ii), and (iii) were mechanically consistent for [Formula: see text]. The condition [Formula: see text] precludes a biconcave discoid shape at equilibrium (i); however, it gives appropriate fluid shear stress at the motion transition under shear flow (ii), suggesting that a combined effect of [Formula: see text] and the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation is necessary for understanding details of the
Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2014-01-01
Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...
Ribosomal elongation factor 4 promotes cell death associated with lethal stress.
Li, Liping; Hong, Yuzhi; Luan, Gan; Mosel, Michael; Malik, Muhammad; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin
2014-12-09
Ribosomal elongation factor 4 (EF4) is highly conserved among bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. However, the EF4-encoding gene, lepA, is nonessential and its deficiency shows no growth or fitness defect. In purified systems, EF4 back-translocates stalled, posttranslational ribosomes for efficient protein synthesis; consequently, EF4 has a protective role during moderate stress. We were surprised to find that EF4 also has a detrimental role during severe stress: deletion of lepA increased Escherichia coli survival following treatment with several antimicrobials. EF4 contributed to stress-mediated lethality through reactive oxygen species (ROS) because (i) the protective effect of a ΔlepA mutation against lethal antimicrobials was eliminated by anaerobic growth or by agents that block hydroxyl radical accumulation and (ii) the ΔlepA mutation decreased ROS levels stimulated by antimicrobial stress. Epistasis experiments showed that EF4 functions in the same genetic pathway as the MazF toxin, a stress response factor implicated in ROS-mediated cell death. The detrimental action of EF4 required transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA, which tags truncated proteins for degradation and is known to be inhibited by EF4) and the ClpP protease. Inhibition of a protective, tmRNA/ClpP-mediated degradative activity would allow truncated proteins to indirectly perturb the respiratory chain and thereby provide a potential link between EF4 and ROS. The connection among EF4, MazF, tmRNA, and ROS expands a pathway leading from harsh stress to bacterial self-destruction. The destructive aspect of EF4 plus the protective properties described previously make EF4 a bifunctional factor in a stress response that promotes survival or death, depending on the severity of stress. Translation elongation factor 4 (EF4) is one of the most conserved proteins in nature, but it is dispensable. Lack of strong phenotypes for its genetic knockout has made EF4 an enigma. Recent biochemical work has
Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.
1978-01-01
The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)
Diffraction stress analysis of thin films; investigating elastic grain interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, A.
2005-12-01
This work is dedicated to the investigation of specimens exhibiting anisotropic microstructures (and thus macroscopic elastic anisotropy) and/or inhomogeneous microstructures, as met near surfaces and in textured materials. The following aspects are covered: (i) Analysis of specimens with direction-dependent (anisotropic) elastic grain-interaction. Elastic grain-interaction determines the distribution of stresses and strains over the (crystallographically) differently oriented grains of a mechanically stressed polycrystal and the mechanical and diffraction (X-ray) elastic constants (relating (diffraction) lattice strains to mechanical stresses). Grain interaction models that allow for anisotropic, direction-dependent grain interaction have been developed very recently. The notion 'direction-dependent' grain-interaction signifies that different grain-interaction constraints prevail along different directions in a specimen. Practical examples of direction-dependent grain interaction are the occurrence of surface anisotropy in thin films and the surface regions of bulk polycrystals and the occurrence of grain-shape (morphological) texture. In this work, for the first time, stress analyses of thin films have been performed on the basis of these newly developed grain-interaction models. It has also been demonstrated that the identification of the (dominant) source of direction-dependent grain interaction is possible. The results for the grain interaction have been discussed in the light of microstructural investigations of the specimens by microscopic techniques. (ii) Analysis of specimens with depth gradients: Diffraction stress analysis can be hindered if gradients of the stress state, the composition or the microstructure occur in the specimen under investigation, as the so-called information depth varies in the course of a traditional stress measurement: Ambiguous results are thus generally obtained. In this work, a strategy for stress measurements at fixed
Fundamental topics for thermo-elastic stress analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biermann, M.
1989-01-01
This paper delivers a consistent collection of theoretical fundamentals needed to perform rather sound experimental stress analyses on thermo-elastic materials. An exposition of important concepts of symmetry and so-called peer groups, yielding the very base for a rational description of materials, goes ahead and is followed by an introduction to the constitutive theory of simple materials. Neat distinction is made between stress contributions determined by deformational and thermal impressions, on the one part, and stress constraints not accessible to strain gauging, on the other part. The mathematical formalism required for establishing constitutive equations is coherently developed from scratch and aided, albeit not subrogated, by intuition. The main intention goes to turning some of the recent advances in the nonlinear field theories of thermomechanics to practical account. A full success therein, obviously, results under the restriction to thermo-elasticity. In adverting to more particular subjects, the elementary static effects of nonlinear isotropic elasticity are pointed out. Due allowance is made for thermal effects likely to occur in heat conducting materials also beyond the isothermal or isentropic limit cases. Linearization of the constitutive equations for anisotropic thermo-elastic materials is then shown to entail the formulas of the classical theory. (orig./MM) [de
Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated
Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caponi, S., E-mail: silvia.caponi@cnr.it, E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM) - Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia I-06100 (Italy); Corezzi, S., E-mail: silvia.caponi@cnr.it, E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); CNR-ISC (Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi), c/o Università di Roma “LaSapienza,” Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Mattarelli, M. [NiPS Laboratory, Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Fioretto, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy)
2014-12-07
Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.
Effect of T-stress on crack growth along an interface between ductile and elastic solids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo
2003-01-01
For crack growth along an interface joining an elastic-plastic solid to an elastic substrate the effect of a non-singular stress component in the crack growth direction in the elastic-plastic solid is investigated. Conditions of small scale yielding are assumed, and due to the mismatch of elastic...
Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks
Manson, S S
1947-01-01
A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.
Strength conditions for the elastic structures with a stress error
Matveev, A. D.
2017-10-01
As is known, the constraints (strength conditions) for the safety factor of elastic structures and design details of a particular class, e.g. aviation structures are established, i.e. the safety factor values of such structures should be within the given range. It should be noted that the constraints are set for the safety factors corresponding to analytical (exact) solutions of elasticity problems represented for the structures. Developing the analytical solutions for most structures, especially irregular shape ones, is associated with great difficulties. Approximate approaches to solve the elasticity problems, e.g. the technical theories of deformation of homogeneous and composite plates, beams and shells, are widely used for a great number of structures. Technical theories based on the hypotheses give rise to approximate (technical) solutions with an irreducible error, with the exact value being difficult to be determined. In static calculations of the structural strength with a specified small range for the safety factors application of technical (by the Theory of Strength of Materials) solutions is difficult. However, there are some numerical methods for developing the approximate solutions of elasticity problems with arbitrarily small errors. In present paper, the adjusted reference (specified) strength conditions for the structural safety factor corresponding to approximate solution of the elasticity problem have been proposed. The stress error estimation is taken into account using the proposed strength conditions. It has been shown that, to fulfill the specified strength conditions for the safety factor of the given structure corresponding to an exact solution, the adjusted strength conditions for the structural safety factor corresponding to an approximate solution are required. The stress error estimation which is the basis for developing the adjusted strength conditions has been determined for the specified strength conditions. The adjusted strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tan Kai Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nitrile gloves are widely used in the medical and automobile field due to its superiority in hypo-allergic component and chemical resistance over natural latex gloves. However, poor elastic recovery of nitrile glove to compressive force also creates an aesthetic issue for customers with high levels of wrinkling after removing from glove box. This paper demonstrates the preliminary study on the varies chemical composition such as crosslinking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, the accelerator agent added during curing process, and the rubber filler Titanium Dioxide, on the elastic recovery and stress relaxation in nitrile gloves manufacturing. These chemical were studied at different concentration level comparing the high and low level versus the normal production range. Due to the inconsistency in the analysis technique on the surface imaging, the elastic recovery result was unable to be quantified and was not conclusive at this point. The cross linking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, and the accelerator agent, played a significant role in the mechanical strength of the gloves. Increment of these chemicals result in higher tensile strength, but a reduction in the elasticity of the materials in which causes a lesser elongation at break percentage for the gloves. Both cross-linkers demonstrate different behaviour where higher sulphur content, provide higher stress relaxation (SR% yet zinc oxide shows otherwise.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausing, Emanuel; Mayer, Andreas; Chanarat, Sittinan
2010-01-01
Multiple DNA-associated processes such as DNA repair, replication, and recombination are crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. Here, we show a novel interaction between the transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 and replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA......-binding protein with functions in DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Bur1 interacted via its C-terminal domain with RPA, and bur1-¿C mutants showed a deregulated DNA damage response accompanied by increased sensitivity to DNA damage and replication stress as well as increased levels of persisting Rad52...... foci. Interestingly, the DNA damage sensitivity of an rfa1 mutant was suppressed by bur1 mutation, further underscoring a functional link between these two protein complexes. The transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 interacts with RPA and maintains genome integrity during DNA replication stress....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Lei; Lejček, Pavel; Song, Shenhua; Schmitz, Guido; Meng, Ye
2015-01-01
Grain boundary (GB) segregation of P in 2.25Cr1Mo steel induced by elastic stress shows that the P equilibrium concentration, after reaching the non-equilibrium concentration maximum at critical time, returns to its initial thermal equilibrium level. This finding confirms the interesting phenomenon that the effect of elastic stress on GB segregation of P is significant in kinetics while slight in thermodynamics. Through extending the “pressure” in classical theory of chemical potential to the “elastic stress”, the thermodynamic effect of elastic stress on GB segregation is studied, and the relationship between elastic stress and segregation Gibbs energy is formulated. The formulas reveal that the difference in the segregation Gibbs energy between the elastically-stressed and non-stressed states depends on the excess molar volume of GB segregation and the magnitude of elastic stress. Model calculations in segregation Gibbs energy confirm that the effect of elastic stress on the thermodynamics of equilibrium GB segregation is slight, and the theoretical analyses considerably agree with the experimental results. The confirmation indicates that the nature of the thermodynamic effect is well captured. - Highlights: • GB segregation of P after stress aging returns to its initial thermal equilibrium level. • Relationship between elastic stress and segregation energy is formulated. • Thermodynamic effect relies on excess molar volume and magnitude of elastic stress. • Effect of elastic stress on Gibbs energy of GB segregation is estimated to be slight. • Complete theory of the effect of elastic stress on grain boundary segregation is setup
Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiferl, S.K.
1985-02-01
The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs
Structural changes in elastically stressed crystallites under irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zolnikov, K.P., E-mail: kost@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Korchuganov, A.V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kryzhevich, D.S. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, 5a Rogova St., Moscow (Russian Federation); Psakhie, S.G. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Novaya St., Skolkovo (Russian Federation)
2015-06-01
The response of elastically stressed iron and vanadium crystallites to atomic displacement cascades was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Interatomic interaction in vanadium was described by a many-body potential calculated in the Finnis–Sinclair approximation of the embedded atom method. Interatomic interaction in iron was described by a many-body potential constructed in the approximation of valence-electron gas. The crystallite temperature in the calculations was varied from 100 to 600 K. The elastically stressed state in the crystallites was formed through uniaxial tension by 4–8% such that their volume remained unchanged. The energy of a primary knock-on atom was varied from 0.5 to 50 keV. It is shown that the lower the temperature and the higher the strain degree of an initial crystallite, the lower the threshold primary knock-on atom energy for plastic deformation generation in the crystallite. The structural rearrangements induced in the crystallites by an atomic displacement cascade are similar to those induced by mechanical loading. It is found that the rearrangements are realized through twinning.
Structural changes in elastically stressed crystallites under irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zolnikov, K.P.; Korchuganov, A.V.; Kryzhevich, D.S.; Chernov, V.M.; Psakhie, S.G.
2015-01-01
The response of elastically stressed iron and vanadium crystallites to atomic displacement cascades was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Interatomic interaction in vanadium was described by a many-body potential calculated in the Finnis–Sinclair approximation of the embedded atom method. Interatomic interaction in iron was described by a many-body potential constructed in the approximation of valence-electron gas. The crystallite temperature in the calculations was varied from 100 to 600 K. The elastically stressed state in the crystallites was formed through uniaxial tension by 4–8% such that their volume remained unchanged. The energy of a primary knock-on atom was varied from 0.5 to 50 keV. It is shown that the lower the temperature and the higher the strain degree of an initial crystallite, the lower the threshold primary knock-on atom energy for plastic deformation generation in the crystallite. The structural rearrangements induced in the crystallites by an atomic displacement cascade are similar to those induced by mechanical loading. It is found that the rearrangements are realized through twinning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Mortensen, Kell; Bach, Anders
2012-01-01
We use small-angle neutron scattering to measure the molecular stretching in polystyrene melts undergoing steady elongational flow at large stretch rates. The radius of gyration of the central segment of a partly deuterated polystyrene molecule is, in the stretching direction, increasing...... exhibited by the linear polystyrene melt....
Xu, Xing-Wang; Peters, Stephen; Liang, Guang-He; Zhang, Bao-Lin
2016-01-01
We report on a new mechanical principle, which suggests that a confined liquid in the elastic lithosphere has the potential to transmit a maximum applied compressive stress. This stress can be transmitted to the internal contacts between rock and liquid and would then be transformed into a normal compressive stress with tangential tensile stress components. During this process, both effective compressive normal stress and tensile tangential stresses arise along the liquid–rock contact. The minimum effective tensile tangential stress causes the surrounding rock to rupture. Liquid-driven fracture initiates at the point along the rock–liquid boundary where the maximum compressive stress is applied and propagates along a plane that is perpendicular to the minimum effective tensile tangential stress and also is perpendicular to the minimum principal stress.
Defect-dependent elasticity: Nanoindentation as a probe of stress state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarausch, K. F.; Kiely, J. D.; Houston, J. E.; Russell, P. E.
2000-01-01
Using an interfacial force microscope, the measured elastic response of 100-nm-thick Au films was found to be strongly correlated with the films' stress state and thermal history. Large, reversible variations (2x) of indentation modulus were recorded as a function of applied stress. Low-temperature annealing caused permanent changes in the films' measured elastic properties. The measured elastic response was also found to vary in close proximity to grain boundaries in thin films and near surface steps on single-crystal surfaces. These results demonstrate a complex interdependence of stress state, defect structure, and elastic properties in thin metallic films. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-01-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...
ELASTIC-PLASTIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN ALUMINUM DISC UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Numan Behlül BEKTAŞ
2004-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with elastic-plastic stress analysis of a thin aluminum disc under internal pressures. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying elastic-plastic stress-strain relations and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The Von-Mises Criterion is used as a yield criterion, and elastic perfectly plastic material is assumed. Elastic-plastic and residual stress distributions are obtained from inner radius to outer radius, and they are presented in tables and figures. All radial stress components, ?r, are compressive, and they are highest at the inner radius. All tangential stress components, ??, are tensile, and they are highest where the plastic deformation begins. Magnitude of the tangential residual stresses is higher than those the radial residual stresses.
On elastic waves in an thinly-layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stress
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P. Pal Roy
1988-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is concerned with a simple transformation rule in finding out the composite elastic coefficients of a thinly layered laminated medium whose bulk properties are strongly anisotropic with a microelastic bending rigidity. These elastic coefficients which were not known completely for a layered laminated structure, are obtained suitably in terms of initial stress components and Lame's constants λi, μi of initially isotropic solids. The explicit solutions of the dynamical equations for a prestressed thinly layered laminated medium under horizontal compression in a gravity field are derived. The results are discussed specifying the effects of hydrostatic, deviatoric and couple stresses upon the characteristic propagation velocities of shear and compression wave modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomas Grousl
Full Text Available In response to severe environmental stresses eukaryotic cells shut down translation and accumulate components of the translational machinery in stress granules (SGs. Since they contain mainly mRNA, translation initiation factors and 40S ribosomal subunits, they have been referred to as dominant accumulations of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Here we present evidence that the robust heat shock-induced SGs of S. cerevisiae also contain translation elongation factors eEF3 (Yef3p and eEF1Bγ2 (Tef4p as well as translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45p and eRF3 (Sup35p. Despite the presence of the yeast prion protein Sup35 in heat shock-induced SGs, we found out that its prion-like domain is not involved in the SGs assembly. Factors eEF3, eEF1Bγ2 and eRF1 were accumulated and co-localized with Dcp2 foci even upon a milder heat shock at 42°C independently of P-bodies scaffolding proteins. We also show that eEF3 accumulations at 42°C determine sites of the genuine SGs assembly at 46°C. We suggest that identification of translation elongation and termination factors in SGs might help to understand the mechanism of the eIF2α factor phosphorylation-independent repression of translation and SGs assembly.
Kudo, Madoka; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Mizoi, Junya; Todaka, Daisuke; Fernie, Alisdair R; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko
2017-04-01
Although a variety of transgenic plants that are tolerant to drought stress have been generated, many of these plants show growth retardation. To improve drought tolerance and plant growth, we applied a gene-stacking approach using two transcription factor genes: DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING 1A (DREB1A) and rice PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR-LIKE 1 (OsPIL1). The overexpression of DREB1A has been reported to improve drought stress tolerance in various crops, although it also causes a severe dwarf phenotype. OsPIL1 is a rice homologue of Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), and it enhances cell elongation by activating cell wall-related gene expression. We found that the OsPIL1 protein was more stable than PIF4 under light conditions in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Transactivation analyses revealed that DREB1A and OsPIL1 did not negatively affect each other's transcriptional activities. The transgenic plants overexpressing both OsPIL1 and DREB1A showed the improved drought stress tolerance similar to that of DREB1A overexpressors. Furthermore, double overexpressors showed the enhanced hypocotyl elongation and floral induction compared with the DREB1A overexpressors. Metabolome analyses indicated that compatible solutes, such as sugars and amino acids, accumulated in the double overexpressors, which was similar to the observations of the DREB1A overexpressors. Transcriptome analyses showed an increased expression of abiotic stress-inducible DREB1A downstream genes and cell elongation-related OsPIL1 downstream genes in the double overexpressors, which suggests that these two transcription factors function independently in the transgenic plants despite the trade-offs required to balance plant growth and stress tolerance. Our study provides a basis for plant genetic engineering designed to overcome growth retardation in drought-tolerant transgenic plants. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology
[Mediating effect of mental elasticity on occupational stress and depression in female nurses].
Wang, Y W; Liu, G Z; Zhou, X T; Sheng, P J; Cui, F F; Shi, T
2017-06-20
Objective: To investigate the interaction between mental elasticityand occupational stress and depressionin female nurses and the mediating effect of mental elasticity, as well as the functioning way of mental elasticity in occupational stress-depression. Methods: From August to October, 2015, cluster sampling was used to select 122 female nurses in a county-level medical institution as study subjects. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) , Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) , and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to collect the data on mental elasticity, occupational stress, and depression and analyze their correlation and mediating effect. Results: The 122 female nurses had a mean mental elasticity score of 62.4±15.1, which was significantly lower than the Chinese norm (65.4±13.9) ( P occupational stress and depression ( r =-0.559 and -0.559, both P Occupational stress and the two subscales mental stress reaction and physical stress reaction were positively correlated with depression ( r =0.774, 0.734, and 0.725, all P occupational stress had a positive predictive effect on depression ( β =0.744, P occupational stress on depression and a significant mediating effect of mental elasticity ( a =-0.527, b =-0.227, c =0.744, c '=0.627; all P occupational stress and depression and can alleviate the adverse effect of occupational stress and reduce the development of depression.
Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model
Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong
2018-04-01
A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.
Stress energy of elastic globe in curved space and a slip-out force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1990-01-01
The energy of stresses in an elastic globe in the flat space and in curved space is expressed through scalar invariants of the curved space. This energy creates an additional force acting on elastic bodies in a gravitational field. 4 refs
Diameter effect on stress-wave evaluation of modulus of elasticity of logs
Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; John Punches; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Roy E. Pellerin
2004-01-01
Recent studies on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of logs have shown that a longitudinal stress-wave method can be used to nondestructively evaluate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. A strong relationship has been found between stress-wave MOE and static MOE of logs, but a significant deviation was observed between stress-wave and static values. The objective of...
Stress Distribution in Layered Elastic Creeping Array with a Vertical Cylindrical Shaft
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Bobyleva Tatiana
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Construction should be taking into account the influence of time factor on the stability of the structures. In the paper hereditary creep and homogenization theories are used to determine stresses in the layered elastic creeping array with a vertical shaft. Volterra correspondence principle was applied. As a result, the reduction of a time-dependent elastic creeping problem to a corresponding elastic problem became possible. The method proposes a way to determine average (effective elastic creeping properties and homogenized stress field from known properties of the layers’ components. Creep kernels are of a convolution type and are taken in the exponential form. The problem of heterogeneous elastic creeping environment is reduced to a problem of homogeneous transversely isotropic medium. Different boundary conditions on the cylindrical shaft’s surface were considered. An analytical solution was obtained. These explicit expressions can be useful for the necessary calculations in the construction practice.
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-07-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.
Elastic stresses at reinforced nozzles in spherical shells with pressure and moment loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.D.
1976-01-01
Calculated elastic stresses at reinforced nozzles in spherical shells with pressure and moment loading are presented. The models used in the calculations represent a wide variety of reinforced shapes; all meeting Code requirements. The results show Code stress indices for pressure loading for nozzles with local reinforcement are acceptable with some modification in coverage. Simple equations for stress indices for moment loading are developed. Potential application of the moment-loading stress indices is discussed. Several recommendations for Code changes are included
Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaya, Masayuki
2002-01-01
The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)
Effect of elastic anisotropy of crystal grain on stress intensity factor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamaya, Masayuki [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)
2002-09-01
The stress intensity factor (SIF) is used widely for evaluating integrity of cracked components. Usually, the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions is used for the evaluations. Although, macroscopic elastic behaviors of polycrystal materials can be considered isotropic, each crystal has anisotropic elastic properties. This implies that if the crack size is small and the influence of anisotropic elastic properties on the stress around cracks is significant, the SIF evaluated under anisotropic elastic conditions may differ from the SIF obtained under isotropic elastic conditions. In the present study, the effect of anisotropic elasticity on the SIF was evaluated by using the finite element analysis (FEA). First, the SIF of semi-circular cracks located in a single crystal was evaluated. It was found that the SIF is affected crystal orientation. Secondly, FEA using a polycrystal model was performed. It was found that the change in the SIF was caused by crack tip crystal orientation as well as the deformation constraint from neighboring crystals. Finally, the statistical tendency of change in the SIF caused by the anisotropic elastic properties and the relationship with crack size were examined. The influence of the local SIF on crack growth behavior is also discussed. (author)
Appraisal of elastic follow up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.L.
1981-08-01
The aim of this paper is to provide indications to choose what fraction of a self limiting stress can be considered as secondary. At first, considerations are given to a simple structure which could be called ''creep relaxation tensile test''. A bar (with constant cross section) is loaded by an elastic spring in order to obtain a given elongation of the assembly. The stress evolution is studied. Then the creep damage is computed, and compared to the damage corresponding to the elastic computed stress. This comparison gives the fraction of the self limiting stress which must be considered as primary. This involve the structural parameter 0 which is the initial value of the ratio of elastic energy to dissipating power. Extension of the rule is made with the help of KACHANOV approximation. As a conclusion a procedure is described which determines what fraction of a self limiting stress must be considered as primary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Liu, Yongquan; Su, Xianyue
2012-01-01
In the present Letter, the multiple scattering theory (MST) for calculating the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) is extended to include the interface/surface stress effect at the nanoscale. The interface/surface elasticity theory is employed to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions at the interface/surface and the elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect is derived. Using this extended MST, the authors investigate the interface/surface stress effect on the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional PCs, which is demonstrated to be significant when the characteristic size reduces to nanometers. -- Highlights: ► Multiple scattering theory including the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface elasticity theory to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions. ► Elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface stress effect would be significant at the nanoscale.
Diffraction plane dependency of elastic constants in ferritic steel in neutron stress measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, M.; Ishiwata, M.; Minakawa, N.; Funahashi, S.
1993-01-01
Neutron diffraction measurements have been made to investigate the elastic properties of the ferritic steel obtained from socket weld. The Kroner elastic model is found to account for the [hkl]-dependence of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material. Maps of residual stress are later to be made by measuring lattice strain from shifts in the (112) diffraction peak, for which the diffraction elastic constants the herein found to be E=243±5GPa and ν=0.28±0.01. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hadi Jalali
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic stress analysis of rotating variable thickness annular disk made of functionally graded material (FGM is presented. Elasticity modulus, density, and thickness of the disk are assumed to vary radially according to a power-law function. Radial stress, circumferential stress, and radial deformation of the rotating FG annular disk of variable thickness with clamped-clamped (C-C, clamped-free (C-F, and free-free (F-F boundary conditions are obtained using the numerical finite difference method, and the effects of the graded index, thickness variation, and rotating speed on the stresses and deformation are evaluated. It is shown that using FG material could decrease the value of radial stress and increase the radial displacement in a rotating thin disk. It is also demonstrated that increasing the rotating speed can strongly increase the stress in the FG annular disk.
Effect of interfacial stresses in an elastic body with a nanoinclusion
Vakaeva, Aleksandra B.; Grekov, Mikhail A.
2018-05-01
The 2-D problem of an infinite elastic solid with a nanoinclusion of a different from circular shape is solved. The interfacial stresses are acting at the interface. Contact of the inclusion with the matrix satisfies the ideal conditions of cohesion. The generalized Laplace - Young law defines conditions at the interface. To solve the problem, Gurtin - Murdoch surface elasticity model, Goursat - Kolosov complex potentials and the boundary perturbation method are used. The problem is reduced to the solution of two independent Riemann - Hilbert's boundary problems. For the circular inclusion, hypersingular integral equation in an unknown interfacial stress is derived. The algorithm of solving this equation is constructed. The influence of the interfacial stress and the dimension of the circular inclusion on the stress distribution and stress concentration at the interface are analyzed.
The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai
2010-01-01
This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack......, the T-stress is not positive with increasing the extension length until a threshold is exceeded. Based on directional stability criterion with respect to the sign of the T-stress, this result implies that for a straight crack with a positive T-stress, the crack extension path will not turn immediately...
Study on elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igari, Toshihide; Setoguchi, Katsuya; Yamauchi, Masafumi
1983-01-01
This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve with an intention to apply this method for predicting the low-cycle fatigue life. Uniaxial plastic cycling tests were performed on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to investigate the correspondence between the cyclic stress-strain curve and the hysteresis loop, and also to determine what mathematical model should be used for analysis of deformation at stress reversal. Furthermore, a cyclic in-plane bending test was performed on a flat plate to clarify the validity of the cyclic stress-strain curve-based theoretical analysis. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The cyclic stress-strain curve corresponds nearly to the ascending curve of hysteresis loop scaled by a factor of 1/2 for both stress and strain. Therefore, the cyclic stress-strain curve can be determined from the shape of hysteresis loop, for simplicity. (2) To perform the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using the cyclic stress-strain curve is both practical and effective for predicting the cyclic elastic-plastic deformation of structures at the stage of advanced cycles. And Masing model can serve as a suitable mathematical model for such a deformation analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aihara, S.; Atsumi, K.; Ujiie, K.; Satoh, S.
1981-01-01
Self-restraining stresses generate not only moments but also axial forces. Therefore the moment and force equilibriums of cross section are considered simultaneously, in combination with other external forces. Thus, under this theory, two computer programs are prepared for. Using these programs, the design procedures which considered the reduction of self-restraining stress, become easy if the elastic design stresses, which are separated normal stresses and self-restraining stresses, are given. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the simplified elastic-plastic analysis and to study its effectiveness. First this method is applied to analyze an upper shielding wall in MARK-2 type's Reactor building. The results are compared with those obtained by the elastic-plastic analysis of Finite Element Method. From this comparison it was confirmed that the method described, had adequate accuracy for re-bar design. As a second example, Mat slab of Reactor building is analyzed. The quantity of re-bars calculated by this method, comes to about two third of re-bars less than those required when self-restraining stress is considered as normal stress. Also, the self-restraining stress reduction factor is about 0.5. (orig./HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert, Olivier; Daniel, Laurent
2011-01-01
A main limitation of most models describing the effect of stress on the magnetic behavior is that they are restricted to uniaxial - tensile or compressive - stress. Nevertheless, stress is multiaxial in most of industrial applications. An idea to overcome the strong limitation of models is to define a fictive uniaxial stress, the equivalent stress, that would change the magnetic behavior in a similar manner than a multiaxial stress. A first definition of equivalent stress, called the deviatoric equivalent stress, is proposed. It is based on an equivalence in magneto-elastic energy. This formulation is first derived for isotropic materials under specific assumptions. An extension to orthotropic media under disoriented magneto-mechanical loading is made. A new equivalent stress expression, called generalized equivalent stress, is then proposed. It is based on an equivalence in magnetization. Inverse identification of equivalent stress is made possible thanks to a strong simplification of the description of the material seen as an assembly of elementary magnetic domains. It is shown that this second proposal is a generalization of the deviatoric expression. Equivalent stress proposals are compared to former proposals and validated using experimental results carried out on an iron-cobalt sheet submitted to biaxial mechanical loading. These results are compared to the predictions obtained thanks to the equivalent stress formulations. The generalized equivalent stress is shown to be a tool able to foresee the magnetic behavior of a large panel of materials submitted to multiaxial stress. - Research highlights: → Classical magneto-elastic models restricted to uniaxial stress. → Stress demonstrated multiaxial in most of industrial applications. → Proposals of deviatoric and generalized equivalent stresses - multidomain modeling. → Experimental validation using iron-cobalt sheet submitted to biaxial loading. → Generalization of former proposals and modeling of
Stress field of a near-surface basal screw dislocation in elastically anisotropic hexagonal crystals
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Valeri S. Harutyunyan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this study, we derive and analyze the analytical expressions for stress components of the dislocation elastic field induced by a near-surface basal screw dislocation in a semi-infinite elastically anisotropic material with hexagonal crystal lattice. The variation of above stress components depending on “free surface–dislocation” distance (i.e., free surface effect is studied by means of plotting the stress distribution maps for elastically anisotropic crystals of GaN and TiB2 that exhibit different degrees of elastic anisotropy. The dependence both of the image force on a screw dislocation and the force of interaction between two neighboring basal screw dislocations on the “free surface–dislocation” distance is analyzed as well. The influence of elastic anisotropy on the latter force is numerically analyzed for GaN and TiB2 and also for crystals of such highly elastically-anisotropic materials as Ti, Zn, Cd, and graphite. The comparatively stronger effect of the elastic anisotropy on dislocation-induced stress distribution quantified for TiB2 is attributed to the higher degree of elastic anisotropy of this compound in comparison to that of the GaN. For GaN and TiB2, the dislocation stress distribution maps are highly influenced by the free surface effect at “free surface–dislocation” distances roughly smaller than ≈15 and ≈50 nm, respectively. It is found that, for above indicated materials, the relative decrease of the force of interaction between near-surface screw dislocations due to free surface effect is in the order Ti > GaN > TiB2 > Zn > Cd > Graphite that results from increase of the specific shear anisotropy parameter in the reverse order Ti < GaN < TiB2 < Zn < Cd < Graphite. The results obtained in this study are also applicable to the case when a screw dislocation is situated in the “thin film–substrate” system at a (0001 basal interface between the film and substrate provided that the elastic constants
Elastic-plastic and creep analyses by assumed stress finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pian, T.H.H.; Spilker, R.L.; Lee, S.W.
1975-01-01
A formulation is presented of incremental finite element solutions for both initial stress and initial strain problems based on modified complementary energy principle with relaxed inter-element continuity requirement. The corresponding finite element model is the assumed stress hybrid model which has stress parameters in the interior of each element and displacements at the individual nodes as unknowns. The formulation includes an important consideration that the states of stress and strain and the beginning of each increment may not satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility equations. These imbalance and mismatch conditions all lead to correction terms for the equivalent nodal forces of the matrix equations. The initial stress method is applied to elastic-plastic analysis of structures. In this case the stress parameters for the individual elements can be eliminated resulting to a system of equations with only nodal displacements as unknowns. Two different complementary energy principles can be formulated, in one of which the equilibrium of the final state of stress is maintained while in the other the equilibrium of the stress increments is maintained. Each of these two different formulations can be combined with different iterative schemes to be used at each incremental steps of the elastic-plastic analysis. It is also indicated clearly that for the initial stress method the state of stress at the beginning of each increments is in general, not in equilibrium and an imbalance correction is needed. Results of a comprehensive evaluation of various solution procedures by the initial stress method using the assumed stress hybrid elements are presented. The example used is the static response of a thick wall cylinder of elastic-perfectly plastic material under internal pressure. Solid of revolution elements with rectangular cross sections are used
Approximate stresses in 2-D flat elastic contact fretting problems
Urban, Michael Rene
Fatigue results from the cyclic loading of a solid body. If the body subject to fatigue is in contact with another body and relative sliding motion occurs between these two bodies, then rubbing surface damage can accelerate fatigue failure. The acceleration of fatigue failure is especially important if the relative motion between the two bodies results in surface damage without excessive surface removal via wear. The situation just described is referred to as fretting fatigue. Understanding of fretting fatigue is greatly enhanced if the stress state associated with fretting can be characterized. For Hertzian contact, this can readily be done. Unfortunately, simple stress formulae are not available for flat body contact. The primary result of the present research is the development of a new, reasonably accurate, approximate closed form expression for 2-dimensional contact stresses which has been verified using finite element modeling. This expression is also combined with fracture mechanics to provide a simple method of determining when a crack is long enough to no longer be affected by the contact stress field. Lower bounds on fatigue life can then easily be calculated using fracture mechanics. This closed form expression can also be used to calculate crack propagation within the contact stress field. The problem of determining the cycles required to generate an initial crack and what to choose as an initial crack size is unresolved as it is in non-fretting fatigue.
A Low-Stress, Elastic, and Improved Hardness Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Film
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films with fullerene-like microstructure was investigated with a different proportion of hydrogen supply in deposition. The results showed at hydrogen flow rate of 50 sccm, the deposited films showed a lower compressive stress (lower 48.6%, higher elastic recovery (higher 19.6%, near elastic recovery rate 90%, and higher hardness (higher 7.4% compared with the films deposited without hydrogen introduction. Structural analysis showed that the films with relatively high sp2 content and low bonded hydrogen content possessed high hardness, elastic recovery rate, and low compressive stress. It was attributed to the curved graphite microstructure, which can form three-dimensional covalently bonded network.
On residual stresses and homeostasis: an elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter.
Ciarletta, P; Destrade, M; Gower, A L
2016-04-26
Living matter can functionally adapt to external physical factors by developing internal tensions, easily revealed by cutting experiments. Nonetheless, residual stresses intrinsically have a complex spatial distribution, and destructive techniques cannot be used to identify a natural stress-free configuration. This work proposes a novel elastic theory of pre-stressed materials. Imposing physical compatibility and symmetry arguments, we define a new class of free energies explicitly depending on the internal stresses. This theory is finally applied to the study of arterial remodelling, proving its potential for the non-destructive determination of the residual tensions within biological materials.
Sadeghian, H.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Bossche, A.; Van Keulen, F.
2009-01-01
In this letter, the dominant role of surface stress and surface elasticity on the overall elastic behavior of ultrathin cantilever plates is studied. A general framework based on two-dimensional plane-stress analysis is presented. Because of either surface reconstruction or molecular adsorption,
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zheng, L.; Lejček, Pavel; Song, S.; Schmitz, G.; Meng, Y.
2015-01-01
Roč. 647, Oct (2015), s. 172-178 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundaries * segregation * elastic stress * thermodynamics * chemical potential * molar volume Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, T.R.; Bertels, A.W.M.; Banerjee, S.; Harrison, W.C.
1976-07-01
This report presents the theoretical basis for a transient thermal elastic-plastic stress analysis of a nuclear reactor fuel element subject to severe transient thermo-mechanical loading. A finite element formulation is used for both the non-linear stress analysis and thermal analysis. These two major components are linked together to form an integrated program capable of predicting fuel element transient behaviour in two dimensions. Specific case studies are presented to illustrate capabilities of the analysis. (author)
Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Modiﬁed Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation deﬁne the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...
Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The extent of fracturing in a region of a bore- hole is a vital factor in the extraction of oil and of geothermal heat. The observations of scat- tered waves provide the chief means of identi- fication of the extent and nature of fractures. Involving initial stress, the changes monitored in reservoir evolution during hydrocarbon pro-.
A method of solution of the elastic-plastic thermal stress problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafalski, P.
1975-01-01
The purpose of the work is an improvement of the numerical technique for calculating the thermal stress distribution in an elastic-plastic structural element. The work consists of two parts. In the first a new method of solution of the thermal stress problem for the elastic-plastic body is presented. In the second a particular numerical technique, based on the above method, for calculating the stress and strain fields is proposed. A new mathematical approach consists in treating the stress and strain fields as mathematical objects defined in the space-time domain. The methods commonly applied use the stress and strain fields defined in the space domain and establish the relations between them at a given instant t. They reduce the problem to the system of ordinary differential equations with respect to time, which are usually solved with a step-by-step technique. The new method reduces the problem to the system of nonlinear algebraic equations. In the work the Hilbert space of admissible tensor fields is constructed. This space is the orthogonal sum of two subspaces: of statically admissible and kinematically admissible fields. Two alternative orthogonality conditions, which correspond to the equilibrium and compatibility equations with the appropriate boundary conditions, are derived. The results of the work are to be used for construction of the computer program for calculation the stress and strain fields in the elastic-plastic body with a prescribed temperature field in the interior and appropriate displacement and force conditions on the boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahdid, M.
2014-01-01
In order to investigate the responses of leaf elongation rate (LER), turgor and osmotic adjustment (OA) during a short-term stress (7 hours) imposed by PEG6000 and a recovery phase, three durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties (Inrat; MBB; and OZ ) were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Turgor was estimated using a cell pressure probe; osmotic potential as well as total sugars and potassium (K+) concentrations were estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone. Growth recovered rapidly and then stabilised at a lower value. A significant difference was found in % recovery of LER between the varieties. The cessation of growth after stress coincided with a decrease in turgor followed by a recovery period reaching control values in MBB and Inrat. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.83) between the reduction in turgor (turgor) and % recovery of LER was found at 7 hours after stress. The difference in the partial recovery of LER between varieties was thus related to the capacity of partial turgor recovery. Partial turgor recovery is associated with sugar or K+ based OA which indicates its importance in maintaining high LER values under water deficit. (author)
Elasticity of Tantalum to 105 Gpa using a stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cynn, H; Yoo, C S
1999-01-01
Determining the mechanical properties such as elastic constants of metals at Mbar pressures has been a difficult task in experiment. Following the development of anisotropic elastic theory by Singh et al.[l], Mao et a1.[2] have recently developed a novel experimental technique to determine the elastic constants of Fe by using the stress and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (SEX). In this paper, we present an improved complementary technique, stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (SAX), which we have applied to determine the elastic constants of tantalum to 105 GPa. The extrapolation of the tantalum elastic data shows an excellent agreement with the low-pressure ultrasonic data[3]. We also discuss the improvement of this SAX method over the previous SEX.[elastic constant, anisotropic elastic theory, angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction, mechanical properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouetsu Itou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Stresses around two parallel cracks of equal length in an infinite elastic medium are evaluated based on the linearized couple-stress theory under uniform tension normal to the cracks. Fourier transformations are used to reduce the boundary conditions with respect to the upper crack to dual integral equations. In order to solve these equations, the differences in the displacements and in the rotation at the upper crack are expanded through a series of functions that are zero valued outside the crack. The unknown coefficients in each series are solved in order to satisfy the boundary conditions inside the crack using the Schmidt method. The stresses are expressed in terms of infinite integrals, and the stress intensity factors can be determined using the characteristics of the integrands for an infinite value of the variable of integration. Numerical calculations are carried out for selected crack configurations, and the effect of the couple stresses on the stress intensity factors is revealed.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1998-01-01
1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...
Cai, Tao; Guo, Songtao; Li, Yongzeng; Peng, Di; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yingzheng
2018-04-01
The mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor is a newly developed non-invasive technique for stress/strain measurement. However, its application has been mostly restricted to qualitative measurement due to the lack of a well-defined relationship between ML intensity and stress. To achieve accurate stress measurement, an intensity ratio model was proposed in this study to establish a quantitative relationship between the stress condition and its ML intensity in elastic deformation. To verify the proposed model, experiments were carried out on a ML measurement system using resin samples mixed with the sensor material SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+. The ML intensity ratio was found to be dependent on the applied stress and strain rate, and the relationship acquired from the experimental results agreed well with the proposed model. The current study provided a physical explanation for the relationship between ML intensity and its stress condition. The proposed model was applicable in various SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+-based ML measurement in elastic deformation, and could provide a useful reference for quantitative stress measurement using the ML sensor in general.
Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare
2010-01-01
Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…
Dependence of Some Mechanical Properties of Elastic Bands on the Length and Load Time
Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.
2012-01-01
We present a study of the maximum stress supported by elastics bands of nitrile as a function of the natural length and the load time. The maximum tension of rupture and the corresponding variation in length were found by measuring the elongation of an elastic band when a mass is suspended from its free end until it reaches the breaking point. The…
Meserve, Justin
Cold drawn AISI 4140 beams were LASER surface hardened with a 2 kW CO2 LASER. Specimens were treated in the free state and while restrained in a bending fixture inducing surface tensile stresses of 94 and 230 MPa. Knoop hardness indentation was used to evaluate the through thickness hardness distribution, and a layer removal methodology was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution. Results showed the maximum surface hardness attained was not affected by pre-stress during hardening, and ranged from 513 to 676 kg/mm2. The depth of effective hardening varied at different magnitudes of pre-stress, but did not vary proportionately to the pre-stress. The surface residual stress, coinciding with the maximum compressive residual stress, increased as pre-stress was increased, from 1040 MPa for the nominally treated specimens to 1270 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. The maximum tensile residual stress observed in the specimens decreased from 1060 MPa in the nominally treated specimens to 760 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. Similarly, thickness of the compressive residual stress region increased and the depth at which maximum tensile residual stress occurred increased as the pre-stress during treatment was increased Overall, application of tensile elastic pre-stress during LASER hardening is beneficial to the development of compressive residual stress in AISI 4140, with minimal impact to the hardness attained from the treatment. The newly developed approach for LASER hardening may support efforts to increase both the wear and fatigue resistance of parts made from hardenable steels.
Plastic incompatibility stresses and stored elastic energy in plastically deformed copper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baczmanski, A. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: baczman@ftj.agh.edu.pl; Hfaiedh, N.; Francois, M. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 11 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Wierzbanowski, K. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2009-02-15
The X-ray diffraction method and theoretical model of elastoplastic deformation were used to examine the residual stresses in polycrystalline copper. To this end, the {l_brace}2 2 0{r_brace} strain pole figures were determined for samples subjected to different magnitudes of tensile deformation. Using diffraction data and the self-consistent model, the tensor of plastic incompatibility stress was found for each orientation of a polycrystalline grain. Crystallographic textures, macroscopic and second-order residual stresses were considered in the analysis. As a result, the distributions of elastic stored energy and von Mises equivalent stress were presented in Euler space and correlated with the preferred orientations of grains. Moreover, using the model prediction, the variation of the critical resolved shear stress with grain orientation was determined.
Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.
Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P
2015-07-28
The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by
Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza
2014-10-01
There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaccaro, F.P.; Hehemann, R.F.; Troiano, A.R.
1979-08-01
The influence of elastic (stress) and plastic (cold work) strains on the stress corrosion cracking of a transformable austenitic stainless steel was studied in several aqueous chloride environments. Initial polarization behavior was active for all deformation conditions as well as for the annealed state. Visual observation, potential-time, and current-time curves indicated the development of a pseudo-passive (flawed) film leading to localized corrosion, occluded cells and SCC. SCC did not initiate during active corrosion regardless of the state of strain unless severe low temperature deformation produced a high percentage of martensite. Both elastic and plastic deformation increased the sensitivity to SCC when examined on the basis of percent yield strength. The corrosion potential, the critical cracking potential, and the potential at which the current changes from anodic to cathodic were essentially unaffected by deformation. It is apparent that the basic electrochemical parameters are independent of the bulk properties of the alloy and totally controlled by surface phenomena
Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P
2013-01-16
We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.
Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model
Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.
1992-01-01
Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.
Mkhitaryan, S. M.
2018-04-01
A class of mixed boundary-value problems of mathematical theory of elasticity dealing with interaction between stress concentrators of different types (such as cracks, absolutely rigid thin inclusions, punches, and stringers) and an elastic semi-infinite plate is considered. The method of Mellin integral transformation is used to reduce solving these problems to solving singular integral equations (SIE). After the governing SIE are solved, the following characteristics of the problem are determined: tangential contact stresses under stringers, dislocation density on the crack edges, breaking stresses outside the cracks on their line of location, the stress intensity factor (SIF), crack openings, jumps of contact stresses on the edges of inclusions.
Mapping residual stresses in PbWO4 crystals using photo-elastic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebeau, M.; Gobbi, L.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.
2005-01-01
Large scintillating crystals are affected by internal stresses induced by the crystal growth temperature gradient remanence. Cutting boules (ingots) into finished crystal shapes allows for a partial tension relaxation but residual stresses remain the main cause of breaking. Quality control of residual stresses is essential in the application of Scintillating Crystals to high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. CMS ECAL at CERN LHC). In this context the industrial process optimisation towards stress reduction is mandatory. We propose a fast technique for testing samples during the production process in order to evaluate the residual stress distribution after the first phases of mechanical processing. We mapped the stress distribution in PbWO 4 slabs cut from the same production boule. The analysis technique is based on the stress intensity determination using the photo-elastic properties of the samples. The stress distribution is mapped in each sample. The analysis shows that there are regions of high residual tension close to the seed position and at the boule periphery. These results should allow for adapting the industrial process to producing crystals with lower residual stresses
Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.
2017-12-01
The paper provides a theoretical analysis of elastic stresses and elastic energy distribution in nanostructured metal materials in the vicinity of nanograin boundaries with a high partial disclination density. The analysis demonstrates the stress field distribution in disclination grain boundary configurations as a function of nanograin size, taking into account the superposition of these stresses in screening the disclination pile-ups. It is found that the principal stress tensor components reach maximum values only in disclination planes P ≈ E/25 and that the stress gradients peak at nodal points ∂P/∂x ≈ 0.08E nm-1. The shear stress components are localized within the physical grain size, and the specific elastic energy distribution for such configurations reveals characteristic local maxima which can be the cause for physical broadening of nanograin boundaries.
From plastic to elastic stress relaxation in highly mismatched SiGe/Si heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isa, Fabio; Salvalaglio, Marco; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Jung, Arik; Isella, Giovanni; Erni, Rolf; Niedermann, Philippe; Gröning, Pierangelo; Montalenti, Francesco; Känel, Hans von
2016-01-01
We present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the epitaxial stress relaxation process in micro-structured compositionally graded alloys. We focus on the pivotal SiGe/Si(001) system employing patterned Si substrates at the micrometre-size scale to address the distribution of threading and misfit dislocations within the heterostructures. SiGe alloys with linearly increasing Ge content were deposited by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition resulting in isolated, tens of micrometre tall 3D crystals. We demonstrate that complete elastic relaxation is achieved by appropriate choice of the Ge compositional grading rate and Si pillar width. We investigate the nature and distribution of dislocations along the [001] growth direction in SiGe crystals by transmission electron microscopy, chemical defect etching and etch pit counting. We show that for 3 μm wide Si pillars and a Ge grading rate of 1.5% μm −1 , only misfit dislocations are present while their fraction is reduced for higher Ge grading rates and larger structures due to dislocation interactions. The experimental results are interpreted with the help of theoretical calculations based on linear elasticity theory describing the competition between purely elastic and plastic stress relaxation with increasing crystal width and Ge compositional grading rate.
McDonald, Christopher; Jovanovic, Goran; Ces, Oscar; Buck, Martin
2015-09-01
Phage shock protein A (PspA), which is responsible for maintaining inner membrane integrity under stress in enterobacteria, and vesicle-inducting protein in plastids 1 (Vipp1), which functions for membrane maintenance and thylakoid biogenesis in cyanobacteria and plants, are similar peripheral membrane-binding proteins. Their homologous N-terminal amphipathic helices are required for membrane binding; however, the membrane features recognized and required for expressing their functionalities have remained largely uncharacterized. Rigorously controlled, in vitro methodologies with lipid vesicles and purified proteins were used in this study and provided the first biochemical and biophysical characterizations of membrane binding by PspA and Vipp1. Both proteins are found to sense stored curvature elastic (SCE) stress and anionic lipids within the membrane. PspA has an enhanced sensitivity for SCE stress and a higher affinity for the membrane than Vipp1. These variations in binding may be crucial for some of the proteins' differing roles in vivo. Assays probing the transcriptional regulatory function of PspA in the presence of vesicles showed that a relief of transcription inhibition occurs in an SCE stress-specific manner. This in vitro recapitulation of membrane stress-dependent transcription control suggests that the Psp response may be mounted in vivo when a cell's inner membrane experiences increased SCE stress. All cell types maintain the integrity of their membrane systems. One widely distributed membrane stress response system in bacteria is the phage shock protein (Psp) system. The central component, peripheral membrane protein PspA, which mitigates inner membrane stress in bacteria, has a counterpart, Vipp1, which functions for membrane maintenance and thylakoid biogenesis in plants and photosynthetic bacteria. Membrane association of both these proteins is accepted as playing a pivotal role in their functions. Here we show that direct membrane binding by
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Cesare Masin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.
Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun
2016-03-01
The dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal formed by periodically repeating of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are studied in this paper. The influences of initial stress on the dispersive relation are considered based on the incremental stress theory. First, the incremental stress theory of elastic solid is extended to the magneto-electro-elasto solid. The governing equations, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions of the incremental stresses in a magneto-electro-elasto solid are derived with consideration of the existence of initial stresses. Then, the transfer matrices of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are formulated, respectively. The total transfer matrix of a single cell in the phononic crystal is obtained by the multiplication of two transfer matrixes related with two adjacent slabs. Furthermore, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the dispersive equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersive equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. The oblique propagation and the normal propagation situations are both considered. In the case of normal propagation of elastic waves, the analytical expressions of the dispersion equation are derived and compared with other literatures. The influences of initial stresses, including the normal initial stresses and shear initial stresses, on the dispersive relations are both discussed based on the numerical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics to thermally stressed welded components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, D.
1981-01-01
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics techniques are applied to components constructed from brittle materials and operating at low or ambient temperatures. It is argued that these techniques can justifiably be applied to components at high temperature provided that stresses are thermally induced, self-equilibrating and cyclic. Such loading conditions occur for example in an LMFBR and a simple welded detail containing a crevice is taken as an example. Theoretical and experimental estimates of crack growth in this component are compared and good agreement is shown. (author)
Suppression of tunnel modes of hydrogen in α-Mn by elastic stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, V.E.; Fedotov, V.K.; Glazkov, V.P.; Somenkov, V.A.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Savenko, B.N.
2002-01-01
By means of inelastic incoherent scattering of neutrons one investigated into behavior of hydrogen tunnel mode in MnH 0.04 and MnH 0.07 under high pressure values in sapphire anvils. Peak of inelastic scattering relevant to hydrogen tunnelling in a two-hole potential was determined to vanish at 0.8 GPa pressure under quasi-hydrostatic mode and to survive with no visible changes under standard hydrostatics. The detected effect of suppression of tunnel modes by inhomogeneous elastic stresses is explained by interruption of levels in neighboring holes by static shifts [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, H.J.
1975-11-01
The report describes the continuation of research into capability for three-dimensional elastic-plastic stress and strain analysis for fracture mechanics. A computer program, MARC-3D, has been completed and was used to analyze a cylindrical pressure vessel with a nozzle insert. A method for generating crack tip elements was developed and a model was created for a cylindrical pressure vessel with a nozzle and an imbedded flaw at the inside nozzle corner. The MARC-3D program was again used to analyze this flawed model. Documentation for the use of the MARC-3D computer program has been included as an appendix
Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong
2008-01-01
Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...
Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.
1972-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surek, T.; Kuon, L.G.; Luton, M.J.; Jones, J.J.
1975-01-01
For the case of linear elastic obstacles, the analysis of experimental plastic flow data is shown to have a particularly simple form when the pre-exponential factor is a single-valued function of the modulus-reduced stress. The analysis permits the separation of the stress and temperature dependence of the strain rate into those of the pre-exponential factor and the activation free energy. As a consequence, the true values of the activation enthalpy, volume and entropy also are obtained. The approach is applied to four sets of experimental data, including Zr, and the results for the pre-exponential term are examined for self-consistency in view of the assumed functional dependence
Superelastic stress-strain behavior in ferrogels with different types of magneto-elastic coupling
Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.
Colloidal magnetic particles embedded in an elastic polymer matrix constitute a smart material called ferrogel. It responds to an applied external magnetic field by changes in elastic properties, which can be exploited for various applications like dampers, vibration absorbers, or actuators. Under appropriate conditions, the stress-strain behavior of a ferrogel can display a fascinating feature: superelasticity, the capability to reversibly deform by a huge amount while barely altering the applied load. In a previous work, using numerical simulations, we investigated this behavior assuming that the magnetic moments carried by the embedded particles can freely reorient to minimize their magnetic interaction energy. Here, we extend the analysis to ferrogels where restoring torques by the surrounding matrix hinder rotations towards a magnetically favored configuration. For example, the particles can be chemically cross-linked into the polymer matrix and the magnetic moments can be fixed to the particle axes. We demonstrate that these systems still feature a superelastic regime. As before, the nonlinear stress-strain behavior can be reversibly tailored during operation by external magnetic fields. Yet, the different coupling of the magnetic moments causes different types of response to external stimuli. For instance, an external magnetic field applied parallel to the stretching axis hardly affects the superelastic regime but stiffens the system beyond it. Other smart materials featuring superelasticity, e.g. metallic shape-memory alloys, have already found widespread applications. Our soft polymer systems offer many additional advantages like a typically higher deformability and enhanced biocompatibility combined with high tunability.
Adsorption stress changes the elasticity of liquid argon confined in a nanopore.
Gor, Gennady Y
2014-11-18
Knowledge of the elastic properties of a fluid is crucial for predicting its flow under high pressure, particularly in porous media. However, when a fluid is confined to a nanopore, many of its thermodynamic properties change as compared to bulk. Here we study the effect of confinement on the bulk modulus of liquid argon adsorbed in mesopores using classical density functional theory. We show that, at pressures lower than the saturation pressure, high adsorption stress in the pore causes the lowering of the fluid bulk modulus, a phenomenon which was recently observed experimentally [ Schappert, K.; Pelster, R. Europhys. Lett. 2014 , 105 , 5600 ]. Furthermore, we find that the pore size has a strong effect on the fluid bulk modulus, so that even at saturation, the elastic properties of nanoconfined fluid differ from the bulk values. We show that this difference is also due to the adsorption stress. Our results provide a basis for a new method for characterization of porous materials and have implications for modeling fluids in nanoporous geological formations, such as coal or shale.
Guerquin, B
2015-09-01
Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganath, S.
1979-01-01
Nuclear pressure vessel components are designed to meet the requirements of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Specifically, the design must satisfy the limits on stress range and fatigue usage prescribed in NB-3200, Section III ASME Code for the various design and operating conditions for the component. The Code requirements assure that the component does not experience gross yielding and that in general, elastic shakedown occurs following cyclic loading. When elastic stress analysis is performed this can be shown by meeting the limits in the Code on Primary and Primary plus Secondary (P+Q) stress intensities. However, when the P+Q limits cannot be met and elastic Shakedown cannot be demonstrated, plastic analysis may be performed to meet the requirements of the Code. This paper describes the elastic-plastic stress analysis of a Boiling Water Reactor Vessel bottom head in-core penetration and illustrates how plastic analysis can be used in ASME Code evaluations to show Code compliance. Details of the thermal analysis, elastic-plastic stress analysis and fatigue evaluation are presented and it is shown that the in-core penetration satisfies the code requirements. 6 refs
Rakitin, M. S.; Mirzoev, A. A.; Mirzaev, D. A.
2018-04-01
Mobile hydrogen, when dissolving in metals, redistributes due to the density gradients and elastic stresses, and enables destruction processes or phase transformations in local volumes of a solvent metal. It is rather important in solid state physics to investigate these interactions. The first-principle calculations performed in terms of the density functional theory, are used for thermodynamic simulation of the elastic stress effect on the energy of hydrogen dissolution in α-Fe crystal lattice. The paper presents investigations of the total energy of Fe-H system depending on the lattice parameter. As a result, the relation is obtained between the hydrogen dissolution energy and stress. A good agreement is shown between the existing data and simulation results. The extended equation is suggested for the chemical potential of hydrogen atom in iron within the local stress field. Two parameters affecting the hydrogen distribution are compared, namely local stress and phase transformations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J; Shen, Y P; Du, J K
2008-01-01
The effect of inhomogeneous initial stress on Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures is investigated in this paper. The coupled magneto-electro-elastic field equations are solved by adopting the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximate approach. Then the phase velocity can be calculated by applying boundary and continuity conditions. A specific example of a structure consisting of a CoFe 2 O 4 layer and a BaTiO 3 substrate is used to illustrate the influence of inhomogeneous initial stress on the phase velocity, corresponding coupled magneto-electric factor and stress fields. The different influence between constant initial stress and inhomogeneous initial stress is discussed and the results are expected to be helpful for the preparation and application of Love wave sensors
Elastic crack-tip stress field in a semi-strip
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Victor Reut
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this article the plain elasticity problem for a semi-strip with a transverse crack is investigated in the different cases of the boundary conditions at the semi-strips end. Unlike many works dedicated to this subject, the fixed singularities in the singular integral equation�s kernel are considered. The integral transformations� method is applied by the generalized scheme to reduce the initial problem to a one-dimensional problem. The one-dimensional problem is formulated as the vector boundary value problem which is solved with the help of matrix differential calculations and Green�s matrix apparatus. The solution of the problem is reduced to the solving of the system of three singular integral equations. Depending on the conditions given on the short edge of the semi-strip, the constructed singular integral equation can have one, or two fixed singularities. A special method is applied to solve this equation in regard of the singularities existence. Hence the system of the singular integral equations (SSIE is solved with the help of the generalized method. The stress intensity factors (SIF are investigated for different lengths of crack. The novelty of this work is in the application of new approach allowing the consideration of the fixed singularities in the problem about a transverse crack in the elastic semi-strip. The comparison of the numerical results� accuracy during the usage of the different approaches to the solving of SSIE is worked out
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, J.H.; Hoeschen, T.; Lindig, S.
2006-01-01
Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated
You, J. H.; Höschen, T.; Lindig, S.
2006-01-01
Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.
On the stress investigation at the edges of the fixed elastic semi-strip
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N. Vaysfeld
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The stress state of the elastic fixed semi-strip with the regarding of the singularities at its edge is investigated in the article. The initial boundary problem is reduced to a vector boundary problem in the transformation’s domain by the use of integral Fourier transformation. The one-dimensional vector boundary problem is solved exactly with the help of matrix differential calculations and Green’s matrix apparatus. The problem’s solving was focused at the solving of the singular integral equation (SIE with the two fixed singularities at the ends of the integration’s interval. The symbol of SIE was constructed and the generalized method of the SIE solving was applied. The stress’ distributions of the semi-strip are investigated
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PEREIRA ADRIANA VARGAS
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the fruit compression behavior aiming to develop new tomato packages. Deformations caused by compression forces were observed inside packages and in individual 'Santa Clara' tomato fruit. The forces applied by a transparent acrylic lever to the fruit surface caused pericarp deformation and the flattened area was proportional to the force magnitude. The deformation was associated to the reduction in the gas volume (Vg, caused by expulsion of the air from the loculus cavity and reduction in the intercellular air volume of the pericarp. As ripening advanced, smaller fractions of the Vg reduced by the compressive force were restored after the stress was relieved. The lack of complete Vg restoration was an indication of permanent plastic deformations of the stressed cells. Vg regeneration (elastic recovery was larger in green fruits than in the red ones. The ratio between the applied force and the flattened area (flattening pressure, which depends on cell turgidity, decreased during ripening. Fruit movements associated with its depth in the container were observed during storage in a transparent glass container (495 x 355 x 220 mm. The downward movement of the fruits was larger in the top layers because these movements seem to be driven by a summation of the deformation of many fruits in all layers.
Brantut, N.; David, E. C.; Héripré, E.; Schubnel, A. J.; Zimmerman, R. W.; Gueguen, Y.
2010-12-01
Dehydration experiments were performed on natural Gypsum polycrystal samples coming from Volterra, Italy in order to study contemporaneously the evolution of P and S elastic wave velocities and acoustic emission (AE) triggering. During these experiments, temperature was slowly raised at 0.15 degrees C per minute under constant stress conditions. Two experiments were realized under quasi-hydrostatic stress (15 and 55 MPa respectively). The third experiment was realized under constant triaxial stress (σ3=45MPa, σ1=75MPa). All three were drained (10MPa constant pore pressure). In each experiments, both P and S wave velocities reduced drastically (as much as approx. 50% in the low confining pressure case) at the onset of dehydration. Importantly, the Vp/Vs ratio also decreased. Shortly after the onset of decrease in P and S wave velocities, the dehydration reaction was also accompanied by bursts of AEs. Time serie locations of the AEs show that they initiated from the pore pressure port, ie from where the pore fluid could easily be drained, and then slowly migrated within the sample. In each experiments, the AE rate could be positively correlated to the reaction rate, inferred from pore volumetry. In such a way, the AE rate reached a peak when the reaction was the fastest. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed they had a large volumetric component in compaction, confirming that AEs were indeed related to pore closure and/or collapse. In addition, the AE rate also increased with confinement, ie when a larger amount of compaction was observed. Interestingly, when under differential stress conditions, AE focal mechanisms were mainly in shear. Additional dehydration experiments performed within an environmental scanning electron microscope under low vacuum highlight that, in drained conditions at least, the reaction seems to take place in two phases. First, cracks are being opened along cleavage planes within a single gypsum crystal, which allows for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S Q; Ye, H Q; Yip, S
2006-01-01
We investigate the stress-strain relationship and elastic stability of zinc-blende GaP, GaN, InP and BN lattices under hydrostatic pressure by first-principles calculation. A simple and direct ab initio implementation for studying the mechanical properties of cubic crystals is developed. The four phases' full-set stress-strain coefficients in wide pressure ranges are theoretically calculated. The fundamental mechanism of elastic stability and the origin of phase transformation under hydrostatic pressure are explored. We found that the abilities for most of these lattices are enhanced to sustain axial strain but weaken to shear strain under higher pressure. The conditions of lattice stability are analysed using both the thermodynamic work-energy criterion and the elastic-stiffness criteria. We show that the lattice collapse of the perfect crystals is caused by the disappearance of their bulk moduli under volume dilation. Lattice defects are considered to be the main reason causing phase transformation under pressure. The correlation between the phonon softening and the variation of elastic coefficients is studied. The pressure dependence of the Kleinman internal strain parameter and its relationship to elastic stability is also explored
Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony
2013-12-31
Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.
Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).
Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M
2002-02-01
We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.
Duan, Yuanyuan; Griggs, Jason A
2015-06-01
Further investigations are required to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of newly developed polymer-matrix composite (PMC) blocks for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elasticity on the stress distribution in dental crowns made of glass-ceramic and PMC materials using finite element (FE) analysis. Elastic constants of two materials were determined by ultrasonic pulse velocity using an acoustic thickness gauge. Three-dimensional solid models of a full-coverage dental crown on a first mandibular molar were generated based on X-ray micro-CT scanning images. A variety of load case-material property combinations were simulated and conducted using FE analysis. The first principal stress distribution in the crown and luting agent was plotted and analyzed. The glass-ceramic crown had stress concentrations on the occlusal surface surrounding the area of loading and the cemented surface underneath the area of loading, while the PMC crown had only stress concentration on the occlusal surface. The PMC crown had lower maximum stress than the glass-ceramic crown in all load cases, but this difference was not substantial when the loading had a lateral component. Eccentric loading did not substantially increase the maximum stress in the prosthesis. Both materials are resistant to fracture with physiological occlusal load. The PMC crown had lower maximum stress than the glass-ceramic crown, but the effect of a lateral loading component was more pronounced for a PMC crown than for a glass-ceramic crown. Knowledge of the stress distribution in dental crowns with low modulus of elasticity will aid clinicians in planning treatments that include such restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Parikin Parikin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Mechanical strengths of materials are widely expected in general constructions of any building. These properties depend on its formation (cold/hot forming during fabrication. This research was carried out on cold-rolled stainless steel (SS 304 plates, which were deformed to 0, 34, 84, and 152% reduction in thickness. The tests were conducted using Vickers method. Ultra micro indentation system (UMIS 2000 was used to determine the mechanical properties of the material, i.e.: hardness, modulus elasticity, and residual stresses. The microstructures showed lengthening outcropping due to stress corrosion cracking for all specimens. It was found that the tensile residual stress in a specimen was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness and minimum; and about 10 MPa for a 196% sample. The quantities showed that the biggest residual stress caused lowering of the proportional limit of material in stress-strain curves. The proportional modulus elasticity varied between 187 GPa and of about 215 GPa and was free from residual stresses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iadicola, Mark A.; Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas H.
2012-01-01
Accurate measurement of stresses by X-ray diffraction requires accurate X-ray elastic constants. Calibration experiments are one method to determine these for a specific material in a specific condition. In this paper, uniaxial tension experiments are used to investigate the variation of these constants after uniaxial and equal-biaxial plastic deformation for an aluminum alloy (AA5754-O) of interest to the automotive industry. These data are critical for accurate measurement of the biaxial mechanical properties of the material using a recent experimental method combining specialized sheet metal forming equipment with portable X-ray diffraction equipment. The measured effective X-ray elastic constants show some minor variation with increased plastic deformation, and this behavior was found to be consistent for both uniaxially and equal-biaxially strained samples. The use of two average values for effective X-ray elastic constants, one in the rolling direction and one transverse to the rolling direction of the sheet material, is shown to be of sufficient accuracy for the combined tests of interest. Comparison of uniaxial data measured using X-ray diffraction and standard methods show good agreement, and biaxial stress–strain results show good repeatability. Additionally, the calibration data show some non-linear behavior, which is analyzed in regards to crystallographic texture and intergranular stress effects. The non-linear behavior is found to be the result of intergranular stresses based on comparison with additional measurements using other X-ray diffraction equipment and neutron diffraction.
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Jan Valíček
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ, especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ.
Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Öchsner, Andreas; Hutyrová, Zuzana; Kušnerová, Milena; Tozan, Hakan; Michenka, Vít; Šepelák, Vladimír; Mitaľ, Dušan; Zajac, Jozef
2015-01-01
The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ. PMID:28793645
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, M.H.; Blanchard, J.P.; Kulcinski, G.L.
1992-01-01
The objective of this work is to understand the factors that govern the adhesion of coatings on fusion reactor first walls which are subjected to neutron irradiation. Radiation damage will be a major key point in the design of the many duplex components in fusion reactors. There is a substantial amount of available data showing that stress plays a major role in the onset, and possibly the rate, of void growth in austenitic stainless steels. There is also strong support models which predict a coupling of swelling and creep through the stress environment. A parametric study for evidence to stress-enhanced swelling and its connection to creep is conducted for a typical fusion power demonstration reactor. Since microstructural changes are known to affect elastic moduli, the impact of stress enhanced swelling on these moduli are also evaluated
Stress fields and energy of disclination-type defects in zones of localized elastic distortions
Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Tyumentsev, Alexander N.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.
2016-11-01
This paper studies theoretically the elastically deformed state and analyzes deformation mechanisms in nanocrystals in the zones of localized elastic distortions and related disclination-type defects, such as dipole, quadrupole and multipole of partial disclinations. Significant differences in the energies of quadrupole and multipole configurations in comparison with nanodipole are revealed. The mechanism of deformation localization in the field of elastic distortions is proposed, which is a quasi-periodic sequence of formation and relaxation of various disclination ensembles with a periodic change in the energy of the defect.
Gorb, Yuliya; Walton, Jay R.
2010-01-01
We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchalet, C.; Riccardella, P.C.
1972-01-01
Residual stresses due to weld deposited cladding on the inside of a typical Westinghouse pressurized water reactor vessel are investigated using an axisymmetric finite element elastic-plastic analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, one head of the weld cladding is assumed to lie on the reactor vessel wall at melting temperature (2600degF), but in the solid phase, while the vessel remains at 300degF (preheat temperature). All material properties used in the calculations are taken as temperature-dependent. Temperature profiles are obtained in the cladding and base metal at several discrete time intervals. These temperatures profiles are used to obtain the stress distribution for the same time intervals. Residual hoop tensile stresses of approximately 25 ksi were found to exist in the cladding. Peak tensile stresses in the hoop direction occur in the base metal near the cladding interface and reach a value of 60 ksi at the end of the transient. The tensile stress decreases very rapidly through the thickness of the base metal and becomes insignificant at about two inches from the inside surface. In order to lower residual stresses, a post-weld heat treatment is performed by uniformly heating the vessel to 1100degF, holding at that temperature for a specified period of time and then cooling slowly. The analysis shows that after this treatment, the peak stresses in the base metal decrease from 60 ksi to 32 ksi, while the stress in the cladding does not change significantly. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshino, Katsumi; Park, Dae-Hee; Miyata, Kiyomi; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Itoh, Minoru; Ichihara, Syouji.
1989-01-01
Electrical and mechanical properties of highly elongated high density polyethylene were investigated in the temperature range between 4.2 K and 400 K from a viewpoint of electrical insulation at low temperature and the following properties have been clarified. (1) The electrical conductivity of samples decreases with increasing draw ratio, and also decreases at cryogenic temperature. (2) Breakdown strength of highly elongated sample is similar to that of non-elongated sample. It is nearby temperature independent below 300 K but at higher temperature it falls steeply. (3) Mechanical breakdown stress and elastic modulus of high density polyethylene increase with increasing draw ratio. Their values at liquid nitrogen temperature are much higher than that at room temperature. On the other hand, strains decreases at liquid nitrogen temperature. (4) Break of the sample develops in the direction of 45deg from the direction of stress both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. (5) The characteristic of mechanical breakdown at liquid nitrogen temperature can be explained by a brittleness fracture process. (6) Toughness of high density polyethylene increases with increasing draw ratio until draw ratio of 5, and it decreased, and increase at higher draw ratio. However at extremely high draw ratio of 10 it again increases. These findings clearly indicate that highly elongated high density polyethylene has good electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature and can be used as the insulating materials at cryogenic temperature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Sung; Oh, Young Jin
2014-01-01
If volumetric flaws such as bearing pad fretting flaws and debris fretting flaws are detected in the pressure tubes of pressurized heavy water reactors during in-service inspection, the initiation of fatigue cracks and delayed hydrogen cracking from the detected volumetric flaws shall be assessed by using elastic stress concentration factors in accordance with CSA N285.8-05. The CSA N285.8-05 presents only an approximate formula based on linear elastic fracture mechanics for the debris fretting flaw. In this study, an engineering formula considering the geometric characteristics of the debris fretting flaw in detail was derived using two-dimensional finite element analysis and Kinectrics, Inc.'s engineering procedure with slight modifications. Comparing the application results obtained using the derived formula with the three-dimensional finite element analysis results, it is found that the results obtained using the derived formula agree well with the results of the finite element analysis
A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok
2009-01-01
Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis
Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules
Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.
2011-01-01
One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.
Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng
2018-06-01
In this paper, two kinds of transient models, the viscoelastic model and the linear elastic model, are established to analyze the curing deformation of the thermosetting resin composites, and are calculated by COMSOL Multiphysics software. The two models consider the complicated coupling between physical and chemical changes during curing process of the composites and the time-variant characteristic of material performance parameters. Subsequently, the two proposed models are implemented respectively in a three-dimensional composite laminate structure, and a simple and convenient method of local coordinate system is used to calculate the development of residual stresses, curing shrinkage and curing deformation for the composite laminate. Researches show that the temperature, degree of curing (DOC) and residual stresses during curing process are consistent with the study in literature, so the curing shrinkage and curing deformation obtained on these basis have a certain referential value. Compared the differences between the two numerical results, it indicates that the residual stress and deformation calculated by the viscoelastic model are more close to the reference value than the linear elastic model.
Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J
2016-06-28
The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Berezovski, A.; Kolman, Radek; Blažek, Jiří; Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : elastic wave propagation * finite element method * isogeometric analysis * finite volume method * stress discontinuities * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/25_Berezovski_Rev1.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rack, H.J.; Knorovsky, G.A.
1978-09-01
Stress-strain data which describes the influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical response of materials presently being used for light water reactor fuel shipping containers have been assembled. Selection of data has been limited to that which is suitable for use in finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers (e.g., they must include complete material history profiles). Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is required to complete the necessary data base
Fast algorithms for evaluating the stress field of dislocation lines in anisotropic elastic media
Chen, C.; Aubry, S.; Oppelstrup, T.; Arsenlis, A.; Darve, E.
2018-06-01
In dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, the most computationally intensive step is the evaluation of the elastic interaction forces among dislocation ensembles. Because the pair-wise interaction between dislocations is long-range, this force calculation step can be significantly accelerated by the fast multipole method (FMM). We implemented and compared four different methods in isotropic and anisotropic elastic media: one based on the Taylor series expansion (Taylor FMM), one based on the spherical harmonics expansion (Spherical FMM), one kernel-independent method based on the Chebyshev interpolation (Chebyshev FMM), and a new kernel-independent method that we call the Lagrange FMM. The Taylor FMM is an existing method, used in ParaDiS, one of the most popular DD simulation softwares. The Spherical FMM employs a more compact multipole representation than the Taylor FMM does and is thus more efficient. However, both the Taylor FMM and the Spherical FMM are difficult to derive in anisotropic elastic media because the interaction force is complex and has no closed analytical formula. The Chebyshev FMM requires only being able to evaluate the interaction between dislocations and thus can be applied easily in anisotropic elastic media. But it has a relatively large memory footprint, which limits its usage. The Lagrange FMM was designed to be a memory-efficient black-box method. Various numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the convergence and the scalability of the four methods.
Meric de Bellefon, G.; van Duysen, J. C.
2018-05-01
A recent finite-element method (FEM)-based study from the present authors quantified the effect of elastic anisotropy of grains on stress intensification at potential intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) initiation sites in austenitic stainless steels. In particular, it showed that the auxetic behavior of grains (negative Poisson's ratio) in some directions plays a very important role in IGSCC initiation, since it can induce local stress intensification factors of about 1.6. A similar effect is expected for other fcc alloys such as Ni-based alloys. The present article confirms those results and paves the way to the definition of an IGSCC susceptibility index by identifying grain configurations that are the most favorable for crack initiation. The index will rely on the probability to get those configurations on surface of specimens.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne
2008-01-01
the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. RESULTS: In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. K. Badalakha
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The article shows the result of solving the problem of stress-strain state of an elastic half-space because of the load action that uniformly distributed over the line, with the use of untraditional linear dependence of deformations on stressed state that is different from the generalized Hooke’s law.
Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies
Bulí ček, Miroslav; Má lek, Josef; Rajagopal, K. R.; Walton, Jay R.
2015-01-01
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.
Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies
Bulíček, Miroslav
2015-04-21
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.
Ghadiri, Majid; Safarpour, Hamed
2016-09-01
In this paper, size-dependent effect of an embedded magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanoshell subjected to thermo-electro-magnetic loadings on free vibration behavior is investigated. Also, the surrounding elastic medium has been considered as the model of Winkler characterized by the spring. The size-dependent MEE nanoshell is investigated on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. Taking attention to the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), the modeled nanoshell and its equations of motion are derived using principle of minimum potential energy. The accuracy of the presented model is validated with some cases in the literature. Finally, using the Navier-type method, an analytical solution of governing equations for vibration behavior of simply supported MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings is presented and the effects of material length scale parameter, temperature changes, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, circumferential wave numbers, constant of spring, shear correction factor and length-to-radius ratio of the nanoshell on natural frequency are identified. Since there has been no research about size-dependent analysis MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings based on FSDT, numerical results are presented to be served as benchmarks for future analysis of MEE nanoshells using the modified couple stress theory.
Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.
2000-08-01
A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.
Representative Stress-Strain Curve by Spherical Indentation on Elastic-Plastic Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Chang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Tensile stress-strain curve of metallic materials can be determined by the representative stress-strain curve from the spherical indentation. Tabor empirically determined the stress constraint factor (stress CF, ψ, and strain constraint factor (strain CF, β, but the choice of value for ψ and β is still under discussion. In this study, a new insight into the relationship between constraint factors of stress and strain is analytically described based on the formation of Tabor’s equation. Experiment tests were performed to evaluate these constraint factors. From the results, representative stress-strain curves using a proposed strain constraint factor can fit better with nominal stress-strain curve than those using Tabor’s constraint factors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ylivaara, Oili M.E.; Liu, Xuwen; Kilpi, Lauri; Lyytinen, Jussi; Schneider, Dieter; Laitinen, Mikko; Julin, Jaakko; Ali, Saima; Sintonen, Sakari; Berdova, Maria; Haimi, Eero; Sajavaara, Timo; Ronkainen, Helena; Lipsanen, Harri
2014-01-01
Use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has increased as ALD enables conformal growth on 3-dimensional structures at relatively low temperatures. For MEMS device design and fabrication, the understanding of stress and mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion of thin film is crucial. In this work a comprehensive characterization of the stress, elastic modulus, hardness and adhesion of ALD aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) films grown at 110–300 °C from trimethylaluminum and water is presented. Film stress was analyzed by wafer curvature measurements, elastic modulus by nanoindentation and surface-acoustic wave measurements, hardness by nanoindentation and adhesion by microscratch test and scanning nanowear. The films were also analyzed by ellipsometry, optical reflectometry, X-ray reflectivity and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection for refractive index, thickness, density and impurities. The ALD Al 2 O 3 films were under tensile stress in the scale of hundreds of MPa. The magnitude of the stress decreased strongly with increasing ALD temperature. The stress was stable during storage in air. Elastic modulus and hardness of ALD Al 2 O 3 saturated to a fairly constant value for growth at 150 to 300 °C, while ALD at 110 °C gave softer films with lower modulus. ALD Al 2 O 3 films adhered strongly on cleaned silicon with SiO x termination. - Highlights: • The residual stress of Al 2 O 3 was tensile and stable during the storage in air. • Elastic modulus of Al 2 O 3 saturated to at 170 GPa for films grown at 150 to 300 °C. • At 110 °C Al 2 O 3 films were softer with high residual hydrogen and lower density. • The Al 2 O 3 adhered strongly on the SiO x -terminated silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyeong Y.; Nikbin, Kamran M.; O'Dowd, Noel P.
2005-01-01
A review of through thickness transverse residual stress distribution measurements in a number of components, manufactured from a range of steels, has been carried out. Residual stresses introduced by welding and mechanical deformation have been considered. The geometries consisted of welded T-plate joints, pipe butt joints, tube-on-plate joints, tubular Y-joints and tubular T-joints as well as cold bent tubes and repair welds. In addition, the collected data cover a range of engineering steels including ferritic, austenitic, C-Mn and Cr-Mo steels. The methods used to measure the residual stresses also varied. These included neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and deep hole drilling techniques. Measured residual stress data, normalised by their respective yield stress have shown an inverse linear correlation versus the normalised depth of the region containing the residual stress (up to 0.5 of the component thickness). A simplified generic residual stress profile based on a linear fit to the data is proposed for the case of a transverse residual tensile stress field. Whereas the profiles in assessment procedures are case specific the proposed linear profile can be varied to produce a combination of membrane and bending stress distributions to give lower or higher levels of conservatism on stress intensity factors, depending on the amount of case specific data available or the degree of safety required
Scattering phaseshift formulas for mesons and baryons in elongated boxes
Lee, Frank X.; Alexandru, Andrei
2018-03-01
We derive Lüscher phaseshift formulas for two-particle states in boxes elongated in one of the dimensions. Such boxes offer a cost-effective way of varying the relative momentum of the particles. Boosted states in the elongated direction, which allow wider access to energies, are also considered. The formulas for the various scenarios (moving and zero-momentum states in cubic and elongated boxes) are compared and relations between them are clarified. The results are applicable to a wide set of meson-meson and meson-baryon elastic scattering processes, with the two-particle system having equal or unequal masses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT (United States); Cassak, Paul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Priest, Eric R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2017-03-20
We present an analysis of the apparent elongation motion of flare ribbons along the polarity inversion line (PIL), as well as the shear of flare loops in several two-ribbon flares. Flare ribbons and loops spread along the PIL at a speed ranging from a few to a hundred km s{sup −1}. The shear measured from conjugate footpoints is consistent with the measurement from flare loops, and both show the decrease of shear toward a potential field as a flare evolves and ribbons and loops spread along the PIL. Flares exhibiting fast bidirectional elongation appear to have a strong shear, which may indicate a large magnetic guide field relative to the reconnection field in the coronal current sheet. We discuss how the analysis of ribbon motion could help infer properties in the corona where reconnection takes place.
Stress-strain state of the elastic strip with nearly rectangular cross section
Minaeva, N. V.
2018-03-01
The article considers behavior of elastic strip in the framework of plane strain under compression. Conditions are formulated in integral form on the boundaries where the forces are imposed. All the boundary conditions are imposed on the boundary of the body in the strained state, which is necessary for investigating the continuous dependence of the solution to the corresponding task on the functions describing the difference between the shape of cross-section of the strip and a rectangle. The study of the analyticity of the problem solution with respect to small near zero parameters is carried out. The solution is found by perturbation method up to the first order of terms.
Wen, Jici; Wei, Yujie; Cheng, Yang-Tse
2018-07-01
Monitoring in real time the stress state in high capacity electrodes during charge-discharge processes is pivotal to the performance assessment and structural optimization of advanced batteries. The wafer curvature measurement technique broadly employed in thin-film industry, together with stress analysis using the Stoney equation, has been successfully adopted to measure in situ the stress in thin film electrodes. How large plastic deformation or interfacial delamination during electrochemical cycles in such electrodes affects the applicability of Stoney equation remains unclear. Here we develop a robust electrochemical-mechanical coupled numerical procedure to investigate the influence of large plastic deformation and interfacial failure on the measured stress in thin film electrodes. We identify how the constitutive behavior of electrode materials and film-substrate interfacial properties affect the measured stress-capacity curves of electrodes, and hence establish the relationship of electrode material parameters with the characteristics of stress-capacity curves. Using Li-ions batteries as examples, we show that plastic deformation and interfacial delamination account for the asymmetric stress-capacity loops seen in in situ stress measurements. The methods used here, along with the finite-element code in the supplementary material, may be used to model the electrode behavior as a function of the state of charge.
Elastic-plastic stress distributions near the endcap of a fuel element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayal, M.; Hallgrimson, K.D.; Sejnoha, R.; Singh, P.N.
1993-06-01
This paper discusses the stress patterns in and near the endcap of a CANDU fuel element from the perspective of stress corrosion cracking. Simulations of out-reactor burst tests suggest that local plastic strains stay comparatively low for internal pressures below 26-30 MPa. Photoelastic measurements as well as analytical assessments show that the reentrant corner at the sheath/endcap junction results in high concentration of stresses and strains. Analytical assessments show that the in-reactor stresses and strains at the reentrant corner are highly multiaxial, and well into the plastic range. The maximum principal stress correlates well with the location and the direction of circumferential endcap cracks observed in fuel that failed in the Bruce reactor. Thus the maximum principal stress appears promising in ranking various geometries of the sheath/endcap junction with respect to their relative susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Design studies suggest that the most effective practical ways of lowering the stresses near the weld, in order of decreasing importance, are to provide a larger interference-free length between the ridge and the endcaps; to increase the pellet/sheath radial gap; to increase the pellet/endcap axial gap; and to keep the gas pressure low. (author). 16 refs., 16 figs
Apu, Md. Jakaria; Islam, Md. Shahidul
2016-07-01
Bi-material joint is often used in many advanced materials and structures. Determination of the bonding strength at the interface is very difficult because of the presence of the stress singularity. In this paper, the displacement and stress fields of a transversely isotropic bi-material joint around an interface edge are determined. Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2015 is used to carry out the numerical computations. Stress and displacement fields demonstrate that the values near the edge of joint where the stress singularity occurs are larger than that at the inner portion. From the numerical results, it is suggested that de-bonding of the interface may occur at the interface edge of the joint due to the higher stress concentration at the free edge.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlaváčová, Marcela; Klem, Karel; Rapantová, Barbora; Novotná, Kateřina; Urban, Otmar; Hlavinka, Petr; Smutná, P.; Horáková, V.; Škarpa, P.; Pohanková, Eva; Wimmerová, Markéta; Orság, Matěj; Jurečka, František; Trnka, Miroslav
2018-01-01
Roč. 221, MAY (2018), s. 182-195 ISSN 0378-4290 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : carbon-isotope discrimination * triticum-aestivum-l. * heat-stress * climate-change * reproductive growth * leaf senescence * gas-exchange * water -stress * durum-wheat * responses * Drought stress * Heat stress * Photosynthesis * Triticum aestivum * Yield formation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2016
Hu, Mingyang; de Jong, Djurre H; Marrink, Siewert J; Deserno, Markus
2013-01-01
We calculate the Gaussian curvature modulus kappa of a systematically coarse-grained (CG) one-component lipid membrane by applying the method recently proposed by Hu et al. [Biophys. J., 2012, 102, 1403] to the MARTINI representation of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). We find the value kappa/kappa = -1.04 +/- 0.03 for the elastic ratio between the Gaussian and the mean curvature modulus and deduce kappa(m)/kappa(m) = -0.98 +/- 0.09 for the monolayer elastic ratio, where the latter is based on plausible assumptions for the distance z0 of the monolayer neutral surface from the bilayer midplane and the spontaneous lipid curvature K(0m). By also analyzing the lateral stress profile sigma0(z) of our system, two other lipid types and pertinent data from the literature, we show that determining K(0m) and kappa through the first and second moment of sigma0(z) gives rise to physically implausible values for these observables. This discrepancy, which we previously observed for a much simpler CG model, suggests that the moment conditions derived from simple continuum assumptions miss the effect of physically important correlations in the lipid bilayer.
Saroj, Pradeep K.; Sahu, S. A.; Chaudhary, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.
2015-10-01
This paper investigates the propagation behavior of Love-type surface waves in three-layered composite structure with initial stress. The composite structure has been taken in such a way that a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer is bonded between initially stressed piezoelectric upper layer and an elastic substrate. Using the method of separation of variables, frequency equation for the considered wave has been established in the form of determinant for electrical open and short cases on free surface. The bisection method iteration technique has been used to find the roots of the dispersion relations which give the modes for electrical open and short cases. The effects of gradient variation of material constant and initial stress on the phase velocity of surface waves are discussed. Dependence of thickness on each parameter of the study has been shown explicitly. Study has been also done to show the existence of cut-off frequency. Graphical representation has been done to exhibit the findings. The obtained results are significant for the investigation and characterization of Love-type waves in FGPM-layered media.
Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Tamagawa, T.; Tezuka, K.; Yabe, Y.; Abe, S.; Ishida, A.; Ogasawara, H.
2017-12-01
When rock is cored at depth by drilling, anisotropic expansion occurs with the relief of anisotropic rock stresses, resulting in a sinusoidal variation of core diameter with a period of 180 deg. in the core roll angle. The circumferential variation of core diameter is given theoretically as a function of rock stresses. These new findings can lead various ideas to estimate the rock stress from circumferential variation of core diameter measured after the core retrieving. In the simplest case when a single core sample is only available, the difference between the maximum and minimum components of rock stress in a plane perpendicular to the drilled hole can be estimated from the maximum and minimum core diameters (see the detail in, Funato and Ito, IJRMMS, 2017). The advantages of this method include, (i) much easier measurement operation than those in other in-situ or in-lab estimation methods, and (ii) applicability in high stress environment where stress measurements need pressure for packers or pumping system for the hydro-fracturing methods higher than their tolerance levels. We have successfully tested the method at deep seismogenic zones in South African gold mines, and we are going to apply it to boreholes collared at 3 km depth and intersecting a M5.5 rupture plane several hundred meters below the mine workings in the ICDP project of "Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines" (DSeis) (e.g., http://www.icdp-online.org/projects/world/africa/orkney-s-africa/details/). If several core samples with different orientation are available, all of three principal components of 3D rock stress can be estimated. To realize this, we should have several boreholes drilled in different directions in a rock mass where the stress field is considered to be uniform. It is commonly carried out to dill boreholes in different directions from a mine gallery. Even in a deep borehole drilled vertically from the ground surface, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayal, M.
1986-10-01
The finite element code ELESTRES models the two-dimensional axisymmetric behaviour of a CANDU fuel element during normal operation. The main focus of the code is to estimate temperatures, fission gas release, and axial variations of deformation/stresses in the pellet and in the sheath. Thus the code is able to predict details like stresses/strains at circumferential ridges. This paper describes the current version of ELESTRES. The emphasis is on a recent addition: multiaxial stresses in the sheath near circumferential ridges. For accuracy in the critical region, a fine mesh is used near the ridge. To keep computing costs low, a coarse mesh is used near the midplane of the pellet. Predictions of ELESTRES show good agreement with abouth 80 measurements of fission-gas-release. In this paper, we also present ELESTRES predictions of hoop strains in sheaths, for two irradiations: element ABS and bundle GB. For both irradiations, predictions, compare favourably with measurements. An illustrative example shows that near circumferential ridges, bending contributes to multiaxial stresses in the sheath. This can have a significant effect on sheath integrity, such as during stress-corrosion-cracking due to power-increases, or during corrosion-assisted-fatigue due to power cycling
Volkov, Sergei S.; Vasiliev, Andrey S.; Aizikovich, Sergei M.; Sadyrin, Evgeniy V.
2018-05-01
Indentation of an elastic half-space with functionally graded coating by a rigid flat punch is studied. The half-plane is additionally subjected to distributed tangential stresses. Tangential stresses are represented in a form of Fourier series. The problem is reduced to the solution of two dual integral equations over even and odd functions describing distribution of unknown normal contact stresses. The solutions of these dual integral equations are constructed by the bilateral asymptotic method. Approximated analytical expressions for contact normal stresses are provided.
A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Stress State on the Elastic Moduli of Sand
1990-01-01
frequency. Drnevich (1967) investigated the effect of strain history on the dynamic properties of a dry Ottawa sand. One finding of his work was that the...2.2) in which jo = effective octahedral normal stress, e = void ratio, H = ambient stress and vibration history , S - de9,ee of saturation, To...zt) = ik[Cei(kz-wt) - De-i(kz+Wt) (3.20) dz I Substituting Eqs. 3.19 and 3.20 into the second boundary condition at z - L yields ikEA [Cei(kL-cot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharmanda, G.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. K. Badalakha
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of solving several problems of a flat deformation of elastic infinitely long massifs of different width and limited thickness. Various cases of conditions at the massif/base contact. The relationships between stressed and strained states previously suggested by the author, which differ from the generalized Hooke’s law, are used in the solutions.
Elastic-plastic potential functionals for rates and increments of stress and strain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feijoo, R.A.; Zouain, N.
1990-03-01
In this work attention is focused in the derivation of variational formulations of the constutive relationship in the form of conjugate potential functionals from which stress and strain rates are derived as elements of the corresponding sub-differential sets. The main result obtained is a pair of potential functionals. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Temperature-dependence of stress and elasticity in wet-transferred graphene membranes
De Alba, Roberto; Abhilash, T. S.; Hui, Aaron; Storch, Isaac R.; Craighead, Harold G.; Parpia, Jeevak M.
2018-03-01
We report measurements of the mechanical properties of two suspended graphene membranes in the temperature range of 80 K to 550 K. For this entire range, the resonant frequency and quality factor of each device were monitored continuously during cooling and heating. Below 300 K, we have additionally measured the resonant frequency's tunability via electrostatic force, and modeled this data to determine graphene's tension and elastic modulus; both of these parameters are found to be strongly temperature-dependent in this range. Above 300 K, we observe a resonant frequency (and therefore tension) minimum near room temperature. This suggests that the thermal expansion coefficient is positive for temperatures below roughly 315 K, and negative for higher temperatures. Lastly, we observe a large, reproducible hysteresis in the resonant frequency as our graphene devices are cycled between 300 K and 550 K. After returning to 300 K, the measured frequency evolves exponentially in time with a time constant of ˜24 h. Our results clash with expectations for pristine graphene membranes, but are consistent with expectations for composite membranes composed of graphene coated by a thin layer of polymer residue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivera, A; Garcia, G; Olivares, J; Crespillo, M L; Agulló-López, F
2011-01-01
The elastic strain/stress fields (halo) around a compressed amorphous nano-track (core) caused by a single high-energy ion impact on LiNbO 3 are calculated. A method is developed to approximately account for the effects of crystal anisotropy of LiNbO 3 (symmetry 3m) on the stress fields for tracks oriented along the crystal axes (X, Y or Z). It only considers the zero-order (axial) harmonic contribution to the displacement field in the perpendicular plane and uses effective Poisson moduli for each particular orientation. The anisotropy is relatively small; however, it accounts for some differential features obtained for irradiations along the crystallographic axes X, Y and Z. In particular, the irradiation-induced disorder (including halo) and the associated surface swelling appear to be higher for irradiations along the X- or Y-axis in comparison with those along the Z-axis. Other irradiation effects can be explained by the model, e.g. fracture patterns or the morphology of pores after chemical etching of tracks. Moreover, it offers interesting predictions on the effect of irradiation on lattice parameters.
Constraints on Stress Components at the Internal Singular Point of an Elastic Compound Structure
Pestrenin, V. M.; Pestrenina, I. V.
2017-03-01
The classical analytical and numerical methods for investigating the stress-strain state (SSS) in the vicinity of a singular point consider the point as a mathematical one (having no linear dimensions). The reliability of the solution obtained by such methods is valid only outside a small vicinity of the singular point, because the macroscopic equations become incorrect and microscopic ones have to be used to describe the SSS in this vicinity. Also, it is impossible to set constraint or to formulate solutions in stress-strain terms for a mathematical point. These problems do not arise if the singular point is identified with the representative volume of material of the structure studied. In authors' opinion, this approach is consistent with the postulates of continuum mechanics. In this case, the formulation of constraints at a singular point and their investigation becomes an independent problem of mechanics for bodies with singularities. This method was used to explore constraints at an internal singular point (representative volume) of a compound wedge and a compound rib. It is shown that, in addition to the constraints given in the classical approach, there are also constraints depending on the macroscopic parameters of constituent materials. These constraints turn the problems of deformable bodies with an internal singular point into nonclassical ones. Combinations of material parameters determine the number of additional constraints and the critical stress state at the singular point. Results of this research can be used in the mechanics of composite materials and fracture mechanics and in studying stress concentrations in composite structural elements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touboul, F.; Ben Jdidia, M.; Acker, D.
1989-01-01
Design rules for class 1 piping components are based on stress indices (B, C, K) and flexibility factors (k). For elbows, adjacent straight parts and internal pressure inhibit ovalization of the cross-section, so reducing the sub-mentioned indices. Published theoretical works and experimental results allow for improvement of coded values. End effect may be represented by a suitable function of the elbow angle. The favourable effect of pressure on C 2 , for fatigue damage evaluation, can be taken into account
Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.
Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe
2016-11-04
Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg Stillfried
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series-elastic
Stillfried, Georg; Stepper, Johannes; Neppl, Hannah; Vogel, Jörn; Höppner, Hannes
2018-01-01
Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts) wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG) for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series-elastic element appears to
Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-07-01
In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-01-01
In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life. (paper)
Wang, Q.
2018-01-31
Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the influence of elastic bending stress on the magnetization depth profile of a La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSMO) epitaxial film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. The elastic bending strain of +/- 0.03% has no obvious effect on the magnetization depth profile at saturation. This result is in stark contrast to that of (La1-xPrx)(1-y),Ca-y,MnO3 (LPCMO) films for which strain of +/- 0.01% produced dramatic changes in the magnetization profile and Curie temperature. We attribute the difference between the influence of strain on the saturation magnetization in LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to a difference in the ability of LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to phase separate. Our observation provides an upper limit of tuning LSMO saturation magnetization via elastic strain effect.
Wang, Q.; Chen, A. P.; Guo, E. J.; Roldan, M. A.; Jia, Q. X.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.
2018-01-01
Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the influence of elastic bending stress on the magnetization depth profile of a L a0.8S r0.2Mn O3 (LSMO) epitaxial film grown on a SrTi O3 substrate. The elastic bending strain of ±0.03 % has no obvious effect on the magnetization depth profile at saturation. This result is in stark contrast to that of (L a1 -xP rx)1 -y C ayMn O3 (LPCMO) films for which strain of ±0.01 % produced dramatic changes in the magnetization profile and Curie temperature. We attribute the difference between the influence of strain on the saturation magnetization in LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to a difference in the ability of LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to phase separate. Our observation provides an upper limit of tuning LSMO saturation magnetization via elastic strain effect.
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Kravchuk Aleksandr Stepanovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available For the first time with the help of the theory of analytic functions and Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formulas the problem of the two-dimensional theory of elasticity for a thickwalled ring with the uneven pressures, acting on its borders, was solved. The pressure on the inner and outer boundaries is represented by Fourier series. The authors represent the two complex functions which solve boundary problem in the form of Laurent series. The logarithmic terms in these series are absent because the boundary problem has the self-balancing loads on each boundary of ring. The coefficients in the Laurent series are calculated by the boundary conditions. Firstly, the equations were obtained in the general form. But the hypothesis about even distributions of pressures at borders of ring was used for constructing an example. It leads to the fact that all coefficients of analytic functions represented in Laurent series have to be only real. As a solving example, the representation of pressures in equivalent hypotrochoids was used. The application of the computer algebra system Mathematica greatly simplifies the calculation of the distribution of stresses and displacements in ring. It does not require manual formal separation of real and imaginary parts in terms of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili to display the distribution of the physical parameters. It separates them only for calculated numbers with the help of built-in functions.
Valls, G.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Lluberas, S.; Craiem, D.; Armentano, Rl
2011-09-01
Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valls, G; Torrado, J; Farro, I; Bia, D; Zocalo, Y; Lluberas, S; Armentano, RL; Craiem, D
2011-01-01
Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.
Moisture Comfort and Antibacterial Properties of Elastic Warp-Knitted Fabrics
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Yu Zhi-Cai
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Multifunction elastic warp-knitted fabrics were fabricated on a crochet machine with the use of metal composite yarns/viscose yarn and bamboo polyester/ crisscross-section polyester hybrid yarns as the front face and back face of the knitted fabric structure, respectively. We investigated the effect of the blend ratio of bamboo charcoal/ crisscross-section polyester multiply yarns on the fabric's moisture comfort properties, such as water vapour transmission (WVT, water evaporation rate (WER, and water absorbency. The results showed that blending ratio significantly influenced WVT and WER. Moreover, antibacterial activity of the elastic warp- knitted fabric was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in accordance with AATCC 90-2011. Finally, the extension- stress value curves were used to analyse the elastic stretching property, and the fabric exhibited greater breaking elongation and lower stress value in the walewise than in the weft direction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stel'makh, V.F.; Suprun-Belevich, Yu.R.; Chelyadinskij, A.R.
1987-01-01
For determination of radiation defects effect on diffusion of the implanted boron in silicon at the pulse annealing, silicon crystals, implanted with boron, preliminary irradiated by silicon ions of different flows for checked defects implantation, were investigated. Silicon crystals additionally implanted by Ge + ions were investigated to research the effect of the incompatibility elastic stresses, emerging in implanted structures due to lattice periods noncoincidence in matrix and alloyed layers, on implanted boron diffusion. It is shown, that abnormally high values of boron diffusion coefficients in silicon at the pulse annealing are explained by silicon interstitial atom participation in redistribution of diffusing boron atoms by two diffusion channels - interstitial and vacation - and by incompatibility elastic stresses effect on diffusion
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Chenji Wei
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Gas transport in shale gas reservoirs is largely affected by rock properties such as permeability. These properties are often sensitive to the in-situ stress state changes. Accurate modeling of shale gas transport in shale reservoir rocks considering the stress sensitive effects on rock petrophysical properties is important for successful shale gas extraction. Nonlinear elasticity in stress sensitive reservoir rocks depicts the nonlinear stress-strain relationship, yet it is not thoroughly studied in previous reservoir modeling works. In this study, an improved coupled flow and geomechanics model that considers nonlinear elasticity is proposed. The model is based on finite element methods, and the nonlinear elasticity in the model is validated with experimental data on shale samples selected from the Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin China. Numerical results indicate that, in stress sensitive shale rocks, nonlinear elasticity affects shale permeability, shale porosity, and distributions of effective stress and pore pressure. Elastic modulus change is dependent on not only in-situ stress state but also stress history path. Without considering nonlinear elasticity, the modeling of shale rock permeability in Longmaxi Formation can overestimate permeability values by 1.6 to 53 times.
Elasticity theory and applications
Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
2013-01-01
Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...
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Yong Cao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Determination of the local interlaminar stress distribution in a laminate with a bolt-filled hole is helpful for optimal bolted joint design, due to the three-dimensional (3D nature of the stress field near the bolt hole. A new interlaminar stress distribution phenomenon induced by the bolt-head and clamp-up load, which occurs in a filled-hole composite laminate, is investigated. In order to efficiently evaluate interlaminar stresses under the complex boundary condition, a calculation strategy that using zero-thickness cohesive interface element is presented and validated. The interface element is based on a linear elastic traction-separation description. It is found that the interlaminar stress concentrations occur at the hole edge, as well as the interior of the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head. In addition, the interlaminar stresses near the periphery of the bolt head increased with an increase in the clamp-up load, and the interlaminar normal and shear stresses are not at the same circular position. Therefore, the clamp-up load cannot improve the interlaminar stress distribution in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, although it can reduce the magnitude of the interlaminar shear stress at the hole edge. Thus, the interlaminar stress distribution phenomena may lead to delamination initiation in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, and should be considered in composite bolted joint design.
Majumdar, S.; Kwasny, R.
1985-01-01
High-cycle fatigue tests using 5-mm-diameter smooth specimens were performed on the single crystal alloy PWA 1480 (001 axis) at 70F (room temperature) in air and at 100F (538C) in vacuum (10 to the -6 power torr). Tests were conducted at zero mean stress as well as at high tensile mean stress. The results indicate that, although a tensile mean stress, in general, reduces life, the reduction in fatigue strength, for a given mean stress at a life of one million cycles, is much less than what is predicted by the usual linear Goodman plot. Further, the material appears to be significantly more resistant to mean stress effects at 1000F than at 70F. Metallographic examinations of failed specimens indicate that failures in all cases are initiated from micropores of sizes of the order of 30 to 40 microns. Since the macroscopic stress-strain response in all cases was observed to be linear elastic, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analyses were carried out to determine the crack growth curves of the material assuming that crack initiation from a micropore (a sub o = 40 microns) occurs very early in life. The results indicate that the calculated crack growth rates at an R (defined as the ratio between minimum stress to maximum stress) value of zero are approximately the same at 70F as at 1000F. However, the calculated crack growth rates at other R ratios, both positive and negative, tend to be higher at 70F than at 1000F. Calculated threshold effects at large R values tend to be independent of temperature in the temperature regime studied. They are relatively constant with increasing R ratio up to a value of about 0.6, beyond which the calculated threshold stress intensity factor range decreases rapidly with increasing R ratios.
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Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy
Full Text Available A numerical computer model, based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM for studying the generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in a rotating functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structure under pulsed laser irradiation is established. An implicit-implicit staggered algorithm was proposed and implemented for use with the DRBEM to get the solution for the temperature, displacement components and thermal stress components through the structure thickness. A comparison of the results for different theories is presented in the presence and absence of rotation. Some numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensson, Ingvar; Seifeddine, Salem; Kotas, Petr
2009-01-01
, related to mechanical properties as elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength and elongation. In the present work, a test case of a complex casting in an aluminium alloy is considered including simulation of the entire casting process with focus on of microstructure formation, related to mechanical...
Osidak, M S; Osidak, E O; Akhmanova, M A; Domogatsky, S P; Domogatskaya, A S
2015-01-01
The ability of a human artery to pass through 150 million liters of blood sustaining 2 billion pulsations of blood pressure with minor deterioration depends on unique construction of the arterial wall. Viscoelastic properties of this construction enable to re-seal the occuring damages apparently without direct immediate participance of the constituent cells. Collagen structures are considered to be the elements that determine the mechanoelastic properties of the wall in parallel with elastin responsible for elasticity and resilience. Collagen scaffold architecture is the function-dependent dynamic arrangement of a dozen different collagen types composing three distinct interacting forms inside the extracellular matrix of the wall. Tightly packed molecules of collagen types I, III, V provide high tensile strength along collagen fibrils but toughness of the collagen scaffold as a whole depends on molecular bonds between distinct fibrils. Apart of other macromolecules in the extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen-specific interlinks involve microfilaments of collagen type VI, meshwork-organized collagen type VIII, and FACIT collagen type XIV. Basement membrane collagen types IV, XV, XVIII and cell-associated collagen XIII enable transmission of mechanical signals between cells and whole artery matrix. Collagen scaffold undergoes continuous remodeling by decomposition promoted with MMPs and reconstitution from newly produced collagen molecules. Pulsatile stress-strain load modulates both collagen synthesis and MMP-dependent collagen degradation. In this way the ECM structure becomes adoptive to mechanical challenges. The mechanoelastic properties of the arterial wall are changed in atherosclerosis concomitantly with collagen turnover both type-specific and dependent on the structure. Improving the feedback could be another approach to restore sufficient blood circulation.
Gorb, Yuliya
2010-11-01
We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaya, Masayuki
2012-01-01
Although the plastic strain induced in materials increases the mechanical strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness. In this study, the change in fracture toughness of SM490 carbon steel due to pre-straining was investigated using a stress-based criterion for ductile crack initiation. The specimens with blunt notch of various radiuses were used in addition to those with conventional fatigue pre-cracking. The degree of applied plastic strain was 5%, 10% or 20%. The fracture toughness was largest when the induced plastic strain was 5%, although it decreased for the plastic strains of 10% and 20%. The stress and strain distributions near the crack tip of fracture toughness test specimens was investigated by elastic-plastic finite element analyses using a well-correlated stress-strain curve for large strain. It was shown that the critical condition at the onset of the ductile crack was better correlated with the equivalent stress than the plastic strain at the crack tip. By using the stress-based criterion, which was represented by the equivalent stress and stress triaxiality, the change in the fracture toughness due to pre-straining could be reasonably explained. Based on these results, it was concluded that the stress-based criterion should be used for predicting the ductile crack initiation. (author)
Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE
Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.
2014-05-01
Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.
Beskopylny, Alexey; Kadomtseva, Elena; Strelnikov, Grigory
2017-10-01
The stress-strain state of a rectangular slab resting on an elastic foundation is considered. The slab material is isotropic. The slab has stiffening ribs that directed parallel to both sides of the plate. Solving equations are obtained for determining the deflection for various mechanical and geometric characteristics of the stiffening ribs which are parallel to different sides of the plate, having different rigidity for bending and torsion. The calculation scheme assumes an orthotropic slab having different cylindrical stiffness in two mutually perpendicular directions parallel to the reinforcing ribs. An elastic foundation is adopted by Winkler model. To determine the deflection the Bubnov-Galerkin method is used. The deflection is taken in the form of an expansion in a series with unknown coefficients by special polynomials, which are a combination of Legendre polynomials.
Monfared, Vahid
2018-03-01
Elastic analysis is analytically presented to predict the behaviors of the stress and displacement components in the cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials. This analysis is based on the complex computation of the stress functions in the complex plane and polar coordinates. Also, suitable boundary conditions are considered and assumed to analyze along with the equilibrium equations and bi-harmonic equation. This method has some important applications in many fields of engineering such as mechanical, civil and material engineering generally. One of the applications of this research work is in composite design and designing the cylindrical devices under various loadings. Finally, it is founded that the convergence and accuracy of the results are suitable and acceptable through comparing the results.
Elastic properties of Gum Metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi
2006-01-01
In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation
Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules
2015-11-01
The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.
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Iakov A. Lyashenko
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the dynamical contact between two atomically flat surfaces separated by an ultrathin lubricant film. Using a thermodynamic approach we describe the second-order phase transition between two structural states of the lubricant which leads to the stick–slip mode of boundary friction. An analytical description and numerical simulation with radial distributions of the order parameter, stress and strain were performed to investigate the spatial inhomogeneity. It is shown that in the case when the driving device is connected to the upper part of the friction block through an elastic spring, the frequency of the melting/solidification phase transitions increases with time.
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BOLSHAKOV V. I.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Summary. Based on the current understanding of the piles work in clayey soils; that is forming during driving process a compacted core (compacted platform in the pile tip plane and transferring the load from the pile (from the piling foundation not through the pile tip but through the pressed core (compacted platform, the stress in the soil mass by the load applied inside the elastic half-space is determined with the change in the calculated scheme of load transferring to the “homogeneous” soil mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowiak, C.
1989-11-01
A simplified model for the elastic-plastic calculations of thin and flexible tubes submitted to thermal stresses is presented. The method is based on beam models and provides satisfactory results concerning the displacement of the whole tube system. These results can be justified by the fact that the modifications of the tube cross sections (from circular to elliptical), the flexibility of the elbow joints and the radial temperature profile are included in the calculations. The thermoplasticity analysis is performed by defining independent and general flow directions and determining the corresponding behavior laws. The model is limited to proportional monotonous charging, however the obtained results are promissing [fr
Orlic, B.; Wassing, B.B.T.
2013-01-01
Geomechanical simulations were conducted to study the effects of reservoir depletion on the stability of internal and boundary faults in gas reservoirs overlain by elastic and viscoelastic salt caprocks. The numerical models were of a disk-shaped gas reservoir with idealized geometry; they mimic the
Arnold, Steven M.; Arya, Vinod K.; Melis, Matthew E.
1990-01-01
High residual stresses within intermetallic and metal matrix composite systems can develop upon cooling from the processing temperature to room temperature due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the fiber and matrix. As a result, within certain composite systems, radial, circumferential, and/or longitudinal cracks have been observed to form at the fiber-matrix interface. The compliant layer concept (insertion of a compensating interface material between the fiber and matrix) was proposed to reduce or eliminate the residual stress buildup during cooling and thus minimize cracking. The viability of the proposed compliant layer concept is investigated both elastically and elastoplastically. A detailed parametric study was conducted using a unit cell model consisting of three concentric cylinders to determine the required character (i.e., thickness and material properties) of the compliant layer as well as its applicability. The unknown compliant layer mechanical properties were expressed as ratios of the corresponding temperature dependent Ti-24Al-11Nb (a/o) matrix properties. The fiber properties taken were those corresponding to SCS-6 (SiC). Results indicate that the compliant layer can be used to reduce, if not eliminate, radial and circumferential residual stresses within the fiber and matrix and therefore also reduce or eliminate the radial cracking. However, with this decrease in in-plane stresses, one obtains an increase in longitudinal stress, thus potentially initiating longitudinal cracking. Guidelines are given for the selection of a specific compliant material, given a perfectly bonded system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachiv, Ivo; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Fang, Te-Hua; Mortet, Vincent
2016-01-01
Measurement of ultrathin film thickness and its basic properties can be highly challenging and time consuming due to necessity of using several very sophisticated devices. Here, we report an easy accessible resonant based method capable to simultaneously determinate the residual stress, elastic modulus, density and thickness of ultrathin film coated on doubly clamped micro-/nanobeam. We show that a general dependency of the resonant frequencies on the axial load is also valid for in-plane vibrations, and the one depends only on the considered vibrational mode. As a result, we found that the film elastic modulus, density and thickness can be evaluated from two measured in-plane and out-plane fundamental resonant frequencies of micro-/nanobeam with and without film under different prestress forces. Whereas, the residual stress can be determined from two out-plane (in-plane) measured consecutive resonant frequencies of beam with film under different prestress forces without necessity of knowing film and substrate properties and dimensions. Moreover, we also reveal that the common uncertainties in force (and thickness) determination have a negligible (and minor) impact on the determined film properties. The application potential of the present method is illustrated on the beam made of silicon and SiO_2 with deposited 20 nm thick AlN and 40 nm thick Au thin films, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno-Flores, Susana; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis; Benitez, Rafael; Vivanco, Maria dM
2010-01-01
In this work we present a unified method to study the mechanical properties of cells using the atomic force microscope. Stress relaxation and creep compliance measurements permitted us to determine, the relaxation times, the Young moduli and the viscosity of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The results show that the mechanical behaviour of MCF-7 cells responds to a two-layered model of similar elasticity but differing viscosity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with an actin-depolymerising agent results in an overall decrease in both cell elasticity and viscosity, however to a different extent for each layer. The layer that undergoes the smaller decrease (36-38%) is assigned to the cell membrane/cortex while the layer that experiences the larger decrease (70-80%) is attributed to the cell cytoplasm. The combination of the method presented in this work, together with the approach based on stress relaxation microscopy (Moreno-Flores et al 2010 J. Biomech. 43 349-54), constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study cell mechanics. This methodology can also be extended to study the mechanical properties of biomaterials in general.
Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?
Smarandache, Florentin
2013-10-01
In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ledbetter, H.M.
1983-01-01
This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites
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Shams Ak
2011-04-01
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Considering the great incidence of implant failures due to high stresses around implant and at bone-implant interfaces, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different implant-macro designs on the quantity and distribution pattern of stresses around implants."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, three types of implants including Biohorizon (4×10.5 mm, Iler (4×10 mm, and Swiss Plus (4.1×10 mm were studied by applying photo-elastic method. The implants were placed within photo-elastic models with dimensions of 50×50×10 mm. Then through open tray impressed method, crowns for each implant were constructed and cemented. Vertical and oblique loads of 100 N and 150 N were applied on the cemented crowns within polariscope machine. Then the photographs were evaluated using Isochromatic Fringe Characteristics table."nResults: Under vertical loads of 100 N and 150 N, the values for Biohorizon, Iler, Swiss Plus fixtures at the cervical region were (2.35, 3.60 N, (2.50, 3.10 N, and (1.39, 2.35 N, respectively; and in apical region the values were (1.63, 2.35 N, (1.82, 2.35 N, and (2.50, 3.10 N. Under oblique loads, the measures at the cervical region were (4.00, 5.00 N, (1.82, 5.00 N, and (5.20, 6.00 N; and in apical region were "n(1.39, 2.00 N, (4.00, 2.35 N, and (2.35, 3.00 N, respectively for mentioned implants."nConclusion: Under vertical loads, the lowest cervical stresses were observed in Swiss Plus fixture and the lowest apical stress values were recorded for Biohorizon fixture. Under oblique loads, the lowest cervical stresses were found in Iler implant and lowest apical stresses were recorded for Bohorizon.
LibHalfSpace: A C++ object-oriented library to study deformation and stress in elastic half-spaces
Ferrari, Claudio; Bonafede, Maurizio; Belardinelli, Maria Elina
2016-11-01
The study of deformation processes in elastic half-spaces is widely employed for many purposes (e.g. didactic, scientific investigation of real processes, inversion of geodetic data, etc.). We present a coherent programming interface containing a set of tools designed to make easier and faster the study of processes in an elastic half-space. LibHalfSpace is presented in the form of an object-oriented library. A set of well known and frequently used source models (Mogi source, penny shaped horizontal crack, inflating spheroid, Okada rectangular dislocation, etc.) are implemented to describe the potential usage and the versatility of the library. The common interface given to library tools enables us to switch easily among the effects produced by different deformation sources that can be monitored at the free surface. Furthermore, the library also offers an interface which simplifies the creation of new source models exploiting the features of object-oriented programming (OOP). These source models can be built as distributions of rectangular boundary elements. In order to better explain how new models can be deployed some examples are included in the library.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.
1975-01-01
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code gives design guidance for nozzles in pressure vessels in the form of ''stress indices.'' These stress indices enable the designer of Class 1 nuclear pressure vessels to quickly determine the magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure loading; a task otherwise requiring an expensive and time-consuming stress analysis. The Code gives stress indices for nozzles in both heads and cylindrical vessels. Results of calculations of stresses in spherical heads or vessels are summarized. The validity of the Code indices for this geometry is examined and, as a result, a few relatively minor changes are recommended. The definitions involved in the use of the Code stress indices are not sufficiently clear and explicit. Accordingly, recommendations for changes in the Code to improve these defintions as well as to correct some obvious errors are presented. These recommendations apply to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and any type of formed head (e.g., spherical, elliptical, torispherical). However, the data presented herein apply only to isolated nozzles in spherical heads or in other heads where the radius of curvature in the vicinity of the nozzle is sphere-like, e.g., as in the center of a torispherical head. (U.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Steady thermal stresses in a rotating disc with shaft having density variation parameter subjected to thermal load have been derived by using Seth's transition theory. Neither the yields criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. Results are depicted graphically. It has been seen that compressible material required higher percentage increased angular speed to become fully-plastic as compare to rotating disc made of incompressible material. Circumferential stresses are maximal at the outer surface of the rotating disc. With the introduction of thermal effect it decreases the value of radial and circumferential stresses at inner and outer surface for fully-plastic state.
Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity
Kostin, Georgy V
2012-01-01
This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gol'dman, E. I.
2006-01-01
Mobile impurities in the form of ions and neutral associations are present in the insulator films that isolate the semiconductor from the metal electrode. If temperatures and the polarizing electric field are sufficiently high, impurities concentrate at the insulator-semiconductor interface where they exchange electrons with the semiconductor. It is shown that the pairwise interaction of particles via the field of elastic stresses caused by the concentration-related expansion of the insulator can give rise to an instability in the impurity distribution that is uniform over the contact. The stationary small-scale ordering of the particles over the contact of the insulator with the semiconductor arises in the solution of point defects, which is accompanied by annular flows of the particles
Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-08-01
Based on the experimental observations for the uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes (Song et al 2015 Smart Mater. Struct. 24 075004) and a new definition of damage variable corresponding to the variation of accumulated dissipation energy, a phenomenological damage model is proposed to describe the damage evolution of the NiTi microtubes during cyclic loading. Then, with a failure criterion of Dc = 1, the fatigue lives of the NiTi microtubes are predicted by the damage-based model, the predicted lives are in good agreement with the experimental ones, and all of the points are located within an error band of 1.5 times.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-01-01
Based on the experimental observations for the uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes (Song et al 2015 Smart Mater. Struct. 24 075004) and a new definition of damage variable corresponding to the variation of accumulated dissipation energy, a phenomenological damage model is proposed to describe the damage evolution of the NiTi microtubes during cyclic loading. Then, with a failure criterion of D c = 1, the fatigue lives of the NiTi microtubes are predicted by the damage-based model, the predicted lives are in good agreement with the experimental ones, and all of the points are located within an error band of 1.5 times. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aschl, H.; Stoeckl, S.
1981-01-01
At the Institut fuer Massivbau of the Technical University of Munich testing machines were built, which allow to test sealed and unsealed cylinders with uniaxial stress state at elevated temperatures till 523 K (250 0 C). With this equipment tests were carried out at predried, unsealed and sealed specimens to study - thermal expansion coefficient - modulus of elasticity - shrinkage and - creep of concrete at elevated temperatures of 353 K (80 0 C) and 393 K (120 0 C) and at a normal temperature of 293 K (20 0 C). In addition the residual strength of all specimens was measured. In the worst case (unsealed, i.e. drying specimens) some showed a maximum decrease in strength up to 60%. (orig.) [de
Ballard, Patrick
2016-12-01
The steady sliding frictional contact problem between a moving rigid indentor of arbitrary shape and an isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space in plane strain is extensively analysed. The case where the friction coefficient is a step function (with respect to the space variable), that is, where there are jumps in the friction coefficient, is considered. The problem is put under the form of a variational inequality which is proved to always have a solution which, in addition, is unique in some cases. The solutions exhibit different kinds of universal singularities that are explicitly given. In particular, it is shown that the nature of the universal stress singularity at a jump of the friction coefficient is different depending on the sign of the jump.
Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues
Goriely, A.; Moulton, D. E.; Vandiver, R.
2010-01-01
Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zheng, L.; Fu, Y.; Lejček, Pavel; Song, S.; Schmitz, G.; Meng, Y.
2016-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), 506-510 ISSN 1438-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundary segregation, * stress effect, * phosphorus, * steel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2016
Reul, A.; Lauhoff, C.; Krooß, P.; Gutmann, M. J.; Kadletz, P. M.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Niendorf, T.; Schmahl, W. W.
2018-02-01
Recent studies demonstrated excellent pseudoelastic behavior and cyclic stability under compressive loads in [001]-oriented Co-Ni-Ga high-temperature shape memory alloys (HT-SMAs). A narrow stress hysteresis was related to suppression of detwinning at RT and low defect formation during phase transformation due to the absence of a favorable slip system. Eventually, this behavior makes Co-Ni-Ga HT-SMAs promising candidates for several industrial applications. However, deformation behavior of Co-Ni-Ga has only been studied in the range of theoretical transformation strain in depth so far. Thus, the current study focuses not only on the activity of elementary deformation mechanisms in the pseudoelastic regime up to maximum theoretical transformation strains but far beyond. It is shown that the martensite phase is able to withstand about 5% elastic strain, which significantly increases the overall deformation capability of this alloy system. In situ neutron diffraction experiments were carried out using a newly installed testing setup on Co-Ni-Ga single crystals in order to reveal the nature of the stress-strain response seen in the deformation curves up to 10% macroscopic strain.
Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara
2011-01-01
While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allam M. N. M.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.
Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region. Mechanical stresses stretching the second brachial arch during fetal development probably induce variable involvement of Reichert’s cartilage in morphogenesis of the styloid process. It is important that clinicians especially dentists and otolaryngologists are aware of the natural variations of the styloid process and do not consider the styloid process with a length of 30 mm as an abnormality or as an anomaly.
Stability of tokamaks with elongated cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, C.H.; Bateman, G.
1978-08-01
Fixed boundary n = 1 MHD instabilities are studied computationally as a function of diamagnetism (β/sub pol/) and current profile in elongated toroidal equilibria (1 2) or a diamagnetic plasma (β/sub pol/ > 1) with only a mildly elongated cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikonen, K.
1993-07-01
The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)
Translational Control of Cell Division by Elongator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fanelie Bauer
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Elongator is required for the synthesis of the mcm5s2 modification found on tRNAs recognizing AA-ending codons. In order to obtain a global picture of the role of Elongator in translation, we used reverse protein arrays to screen the fission yeast proteome for translation defects. Unexpectedly, this revealed that Elongator inactivation mainly affected three specific functional groups including proteins implicated in cell division. The absence of Elongator results in a delay in mitosis onset and cytokinesis defects. We demonstrate that the kinase Cdr2, which is a central regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis, is under translational control by Elongator due to the Lysine codon usage bias of the cdr2 coding sequence. These findings uncover a mechanism by which the codon usage, coupled to tRNA modifications, fundamentally contributes to gene expression and cellular functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leader, Elliot
1991-01-01
With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.
Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M
2011-03-25
To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.
Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....
Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2009-01-01
A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....
Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.
Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon
2015-01-01
Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.
X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malen, K
1974-10-15
The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account
X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malen, K.
1974-10-15
The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account
X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malen, K.
1974-10-01
The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account
Photo-oxidation of LDPE: Effects on elongational viscosity
Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.
2013-04-01
Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, time-deformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.
Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2003-01-01
Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Lee, I-Fang; Xu, Ruqing; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.
2016-01-01
Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure the full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors of low dislocation density regions within the submicrometer grain/subgrain structure of equal-channel angular pressed (ECAP) aluminum alloy AA1050 after 1, 2, and 8 passes using route B C . This is the first time that full tensors were measured in plastically deformed metals at this length scale. The maximum (most tensile or least compressive) principal elastic strain directions for the unloaded 1 pass sample for the grain/subgrain interiors align well with the pressing direction, and are more random for the 2 and 8 pass samples. The measurements reported here indicate that the local stresses and strains become increasingly isotropic (homogenized) with increasing ECAP passes using route B C . The average maximum (in magnitude) LRISs are −0.43 σ a for 1 pass, −0.44 σ a for 2 pass, and 0.14 σ a for the 8 pass sample. These LRISs are larger than those reported previously because those earlier measurements were unable to measure the full stress tensor. Significantly, the measured stresses are inconsistent with the two-component composite model.
Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei
2017-01-01
The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...
Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.
2001-05-01
This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.
Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.
2005-12-01
Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are
Equivalence of Stress and Energy Calculations of Mean Stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L. M.
1977-01-01
Calculations of the mean stress in a plastically deformed matrix containing randomly distributed elastic inclusions are considered. The mean stress for an elastically homogeneous material is calculated on the basis of an energy consideration which completely accounts for elastic interactions....... The result is shown to be identical to that obtained from a stress calculation. The possibility of including elastic interactions in the case of elastic inhomogeneity is discussed....
Zhao, Xin
2013-01-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megata, Masao
1997-01-01
A specific heat treatment process that introduces hoop stress has been developed. This technique can produce zirconium alloy tubing with a residual compressive hoop stress near the inner surface by taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy in hexagonal close-packed zirconium crystal. Since a crystal having its basal pole parallel to the tangential direction of the tubing is easier to exhibit plastic elongation under the hoop stress than that having its basal pole parallel to the radial direction, the plastic and elastic elongation can coexist under a certain set of temperature and hoop stress conditions. The mechanical anisotropy plays a role to extend the coexistent stress range. Thus, residual compressive hoop stress is formed at the inner surface where more plastic elongation occurs during the heat treatment. This process is referred to as expanded heat treatment. Since this is a fundamental crystallographic principle, it has various applications. The application to improve PCI/SCC (pellet cladding interaction/stress corrosion cracking) properties of water reactor fuel cladding is promising. Excellent results were obtained with laboratory-scale heat treatment and an out-reactor iodine SCC test. These results included an extension of the time to SCC failure. (author)
Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiashuo eYang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.
Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, P.D.; Sohn, W.H.; Sibata, C.H.; McCarthy, W.A.
1989-01-01
Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor
Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.
Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe
2012-01-01
Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.
Loss of elongation factor P disrupts bacterial outer membrane integrity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zou, S Betty; Hersch, Steven J; Roy, Hervé
2012-01-01
background ameliorates the detergent, antibiotic, and osmosensitivity phenotypes and restores wild-type permeability to NPN. Our data support a role for EF-P in the translational regulation of a limited number of proteins that, when perturbed, renders the cell susceptible to stress by the adventitious......Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants......, Salmonella strains lacking EF-P display increased susceptibility to hypoosmotic conditions, antibiotics, and detergents and enhanced resistance to the compound S-nitrosoglutathione. The susceptibility phenotypes are largely explained by the enhanced membrane permeability of the efp mutant, which exhibits...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.
1977-01-01
The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects
Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. [Chair of Polymer Engineering/Polymer Physics, Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin), Fasanenstrasse 90, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)
2014-01-15
It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.
Segmentation of elongated structures in medical images
Staal, Jozef Johannes
2004-01-01
The research described in this thesis concerns the automatic detection, recognition and segmentation of elongated structures in medical images. For this purpose techniques have been developed to detect subdimensional pointsets (e.g. ridges, edges) in images of arbitrary dimension. These
Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth
Marbà, N.; Duarte, C.M.
1998-01-01
A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within
Interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription elongation.
Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle
2014-01-01
Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling has been shown to be an important regulator of transcription that is broadly present in the cell. Here we review experimental work which shows that RNA polymerase is a powerful torsional motor that can alter DNA topology and structure, and DNA supercoiling in turn directly affects transcription elongation.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stachiv, Ivo; Kuo, Ch.-Y.; Fang, T.-H.; Mortet, Vincent
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, č. 4 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 045005. ISSN 2158-3226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-13174J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : elastic moduli * thin film structure * vibration resonance * error analysis * materials properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016
Zhao, Xin
2013-05-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.
Vibration of an Elastic Circular Plate on an Elastic Half Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Schmidt, H.
1981-01-01
The axisymmetric problem of a vibrating elastic plate on an elastic half space is solved by a direct method, in which the contact stresses and the normal displacements of the plate are taken as the unknown functions. First, the influence functions that give the displacements in terms...
Asymmetric Vibrations of a Circular Elastic Plate on an Elastic Half Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, H.; Krenk, Steen
1982-01-01
The asymmetric problem of a vibrating circular elastic plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half space is solved by an integral equation method, where the contact stress appears as the unknown function. By a trigonometric expansion, the problem is reduced to a number of uncoupled two...
... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...
Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.
2017-01-01
We introduced nonlocal elastic constitutive laws for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. Additionally, the pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflect the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. Here, the convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.
Sound propagation in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.; Federici, F.; Tosi, M. P.
2006-01-01
We use hydrodynamic equations to study sound propagation in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature inside a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap, with main attention to the transition from the BCS to the unitary regime. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of a cylindrical geometry and then evaluate numerically the effect of the axial confinement in a configuration in which a hole is present in the gas density at the center of the trap. We find that in a strongly elongated trap the speed of sound in both the BCS and the unitary regime differs by a factor √(3/5) from that in a homogeneous three-dimensional superfluid. The predictions of the theory could be tested by measurements of sound-wave propagation in a setup such as that exploited by Andrews et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 553 (1997)] for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate
Discontinuation of orthokeratology on eyeball elongation (DOEE).
Cho, P; Cheung, S W
2017-04-01
To evaluate and compare changes in axial elongation, over a 14-month period, in subjects who discontinued and then resumed ortho-k lens wear with those who continued to wear their lenses or spectacles following a 2-year myopia control study. This single masked, prospective study recruited subjects who had just completed a 2-year myopia control study. Ortho-k subjects were classified as Group OKc, in which subjects continued ortho-k lens wear for the duration of the study; or Group OKd in which subjects discontinued lens wear for seven months and wore single-vision spectacles (Phase I) and then resumed ortho-k lens wear for another seven months (Phase II). Spectacle-wearing control subjects from the initial myopia control study continued wearing spectacles as control subjects. Axial lengths were measured at scheduled visits using the IOLMaster. Thirteen, 16, and 15 Control, OKc, and OKd subjects, aged 8-14 years, respectively completed the study. Significant increase in axial elongation was found in OKd subjects only in Phase I but not in Phase II. On resuming lens wear, in Phase II, the rate of axial elongation was no longer significantly different from those of the Control or OKc subjects. Stopping ortho-k lens wear at or before the age of 14 years led to a more rapid increase in axial length; comparable to those wearing spectacles during the initial 2-year myopia control study, but greater than the Control and OKc group in this study. Axial elongation slowed again with resumed lens wear after six months. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hanabusa
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.
Aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation in tobacco BY-2 cells.
Yasuhara, Hiroki; Kitamoto, Kazuki
2014-05-01
Plant nuclei are known to differentiate into various shapes within a single plant. However, little is known about the mechanisms of nuclear morphogenesis. We found that nuclei of tobacco BY-2 cells were highly elongated on long-term treatment with 5 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear length was correlated with the cell length. During culture in the presence of aphidicolin, the nuclei were elongated in parallel with cell elongation. Nuclear elongation was inhibited by the inhibition of cell elongation with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. However, cell elongation induced in the auxin-depleted medium in the absence of aphidicolin did not cause nuclear elongation, indicating that cell elongation alone is not sufficient for nuclear elongation. Treatment with either latrunculin B or propyzamide inhibited the aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation, indicating that both actin filaments and microtubules (MTs) are required for nuclear elongation. Observations using BY-YTHCLR2 cells, in which actin filaments, MTs and nuclei were simultaneously visualized, revealed that the longitudinally arranged MT bundles associated with the nucleus play an important role in nuclear elongation, and that actin filaments affect the formation of these MT bundles. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear DNA contents of the elongated nuclei exceeded 4C, and the nuclear length was highly correlated with the nuclear DNA content. In cells treated with 50 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, cells were elongated and nucleus-associated longitudinal MT bundles were formed, but the nuclear DNA contents did not exceed 4C and the nuclei did not elongate. These results indicate that an increase in the nuclear DNA content above 4C is also required for nuclear elongation.
Elasticity problems in domains with nonsmooth boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esparza, David
2001-01-01
In the present work we study the behaviour of elastic stress fields in domains with non-regular boundaries. We consider three-dimensional problems in elastic media with thin conical defects (inclusions or cavities) and analyse the stress singularity at their vertices. To construct asymptotic expansions for the stress and displacement fields in terms of a small parameter ε related to the 'thickness' of the defect, we employ a technique based on the work by Kondrat'ev, Maz'ya, Nazarov and Plamenevskii. We first study the stress distribution in an elastic body with a thin conical notch. We derive an asymptotic representation for the stress singularity exponent by reducing the original problem to a spectral problem for a 9x9 matrix. The elements of this matrix are found to depend upon the geometry of the cross-section of the notch and the elastic properties of the medium. We specify the sets of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a circular, elliptical, 'triangular' and 'square' cross-section, and show that the strongest singularity is associated with the 'triangular' cross-section, and is generated by a non-axisymmetric load. We then analyse the stress distribution near a thin conical inclusion which is allowed to slide freely along its axis. We derive the representation for the stress singularity exponent for the case of a circular conical inclusion whose elastic properties differ from those of the medium. In the last chapter we study the stress distribution in the vicinity of a thin 'coated' conical inclusion. We show that a soft thin coating (perfectly bonded to the inclusion and the surrounding material) can be replaced by a so-called linear interface at which the normal displacement is discontinuous, and the stresses are proportional to the 'jump' in the normal displacement across the coating. We analyse the effect of the properties of the coating on the stress singularity exponent and compare the results with those for a perfectly bonded
Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole
2006-01-01
The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...
Heat stress substantially reduces crop productivity worldwide, and will become more severe due to global warming. Identification of proteins involved in heat stress response may help develop varieties for heat tolerance. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a cytosolic, multifunctional protei...
Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert
1996-01-01
Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...... values.We show that the extremal overall elastic response is alwaysachieved by a configuration consisting of a single properlyoriented crystal. This result is compared to results for isotropicpolycrystals....
Dynamics of polymers in elongational flow studied by the neutron spin-echo technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rheinstaedter, Maikel C.; Sattler, Rainer; Haeussler, Wolfgang; Wagner, Christian
2010-01-01
The nanoscale fluctuation dynamics of semidilute high molecular weight polymer solutions of polyethylenoxide (PEO) in D 2 O under non-equilibrium flow conditions were studied by the neutron spin-echo technique. The sample cell was in contraction flow geometry and provided a pressure driven flow with a high elongational component that stretched the polymers most efficiently. Neutron scattering experiments in dilute polymer solutions are challenging because of the low polymer concentration and corresponding small quasi-elastic signals. A relaxation process with relaxation times of about 10 ps was observed, which shows anisotropic dynamics with applied flow.
DNA damage regulates alternative splicing through changes in POL II elongation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz, M.J.; Perez Santangelo, M.S.; De la Mata, M.; Kornblihtt, A.R.
2008-01-01
Many apoptotic genes are regulated via alternative splicing (AS) but little is known about the mechanisms controlling AS in stress situations derived from DNA damage. Here we show that ultraviolet (UV) radiation affects co-transcriptional, but not post transcriptional, AS through a systemic mechanism involving a CDK-9-dependent hyper phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II carboxy terminal domain (CTD) and a subsequent and unprecedented inhibition of transcriptional elongation, estimated in vivo and in real time by FRAP. To mimic this hyper phosphorylation we used CTD mutants with serines 2 or 5 substituted by glutamic acids and found that they not only display lower elongation rates but duplicate the effects of UV light on AS in the absence of irradiation. Consistently, substitution of the serines with alanines prevents the UV effect on splicing. These results represent the first in vivo proof of modulation of elongation in response to an environmental signal, affecting in turn the kinetic coupling between transcription and splicing. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosavlevich, A.Ya.; Shiyachki-Zheravchich; Rogulin, M.Ya.; Milenkovich, V.M.; Prokich-Tsvetkovich, R.M.
1993-01-01
The investigations were conducted on samples of AlMgSi and AlMgSiCu alloys quenched, aged and cold worked with 20, 40, 60 and 85 % reduction in area. Secondary ageing was carried out at 200 and 250 deg C. Residual stresses wee determined by X-ray diffraction method. It was shown that cold deformation effect on hardness and residual stresses is dependent on alloy composition. The hardening due to secondary ageing is more pronounced for AlMgSi alloy at 200 deg C and for AlMgSiCu alloy at 250 deg C. Positive residual stresses increase with secondary ageing temperature
Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Wang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.
Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer
2006-01-01
-Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....
Umehara, Jun; Ikezoe, Tome; Nishishita, Satoru; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2015-12-01
Decreased flexibility of the tensor fasciae latae is one factor that causes iliotibial band syndrome. Stretching has been used to improve flexibility or tightness of the muscle. However, no studies have investigated the effective stretching position for the tensor fasciae latae using an index to quantify muscle elongation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hip rotation and knee angle on tensor fasciae latae elongation during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. The shear elastic modulus of the tensor fasciae latae was calculated using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Stretching was performed at maximal hip adduction and maximal hip extension in 12 different positions with three hip rotation conditions (neutral, internal, and external rotations) and four knee angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant main effect for knee angle, but not for hip rotation. The post-hoc test for knee angle indicated that the shear elastic modulus at 90° and 135° were significantly greater than those at 0° and 45°. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation to the stretching position with hip adduction and extension may have less effect on tensor fasciae latae elongation, and that stretching at >90° of knee flexion may effectively elongate the tensor fasciae latae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Effect of Knitting Parameter and Finishing on Elastic Property of PET/PBT Warp Knitted Fabric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Qing
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the elastic elongation and elastic recovery of the elastic warp knittedfabric made of PET( polyethylene terephthalate and PBT(polybutylene terephthalate filament. Using 50/24F PET and 50D/24F PBT in two threadingbars, the tricot, locknit and satin warp knitted fabrics were produced on the E28 tricot warpknitting machine. The knitting parameters influencing the elastic elongation under 100N wereanalyzed in terms of fabric structure, yarn run-in speed and drawing density set on machine.Besides, dyeing temperature and heat setting temperature/time were also examined in order toretain proper elastic elongation and elastic recovery. The relationship between elastic elongationand knitting parameter and finishing parameter were analyzed. Finally, the elastic recovery ofPET/PBT warp knitted fabric was examined to demonstrate the elastic property of final finishedfabric. This study could help us to further exploit the use of PET/PBT warp knitted fabric in thedevelopment of elastic garment in future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troiano, A.R.
1975-12-01
Homogeneous deformation of type 310 austenitic stainless steel only slightly influenced the corrosion potential in a boiling 3 percent NaCl aqueous environment. The difference in a deaerated solution was of the order of 25 mV and somewhat more for an aerated solution. Elastic strains appeared to have little or no influence on the corrosion potential for fully annealed as well as 10 percent and 25 percent homogeneously deformed 310 steel. Oxygen in the environment shifted the corrosion potential several hundred millivolts in the less active direction. The critical cracking potential in a deaerated 3 percent NaCl solution was approximately the same for the annealed and homogeneously deformed specimens at approximately -125 mV SCE
Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.
1988-09-01
The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs
Elastic creep-fatigue evaluation for ASME code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severud, L.K.; Winkel, B.V.
1987-01-01
Experience with applying the ASME Code Case N-47 rules for evaluation of creep-fatigue with elastic analysis results has been problematic. The new elastic evaluation methods are intended to bound the stress level and strain range values needed for use in employing the code inelastic analysis creep-fatigue damage counting procedures. To account for elastic followup effects, ad hoc rules for stress classification, shakedown, and ratcheting are employed. Because elastic followup, inelastic strain concentration, and stress-time effects are accounted for, the design fatigue curves in Case N-47 for inelastic analysis are used instead of the more conservative elastic analysis curves. Creep damage assessments are made using an envelope stress-time history that treats multiple load events and repeated cycles during elevated temperature service life. (orig./GL)
Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermaz, M.C.
1978-01-01
Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.
Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-20
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy
Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-01
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirbach, David von
2014-01-01
Residual stresses in mechanical components can result in both detrimental but also beneficial effects on the strength and lifetime of the components. The most detailed knowledge of the residual stress state is of advantage or a pre-requisite for the assessment of the component performance. The mechanical methods for residual stress measurement are divided into the groups of non-destructive and destructive methods. Two commonly used mechanical methods for determination of residual stresses are the hole drilling method and the ring core method which can be regarded as semi-destructive methods. In the context of reactor safety research of the German Federal Ministry of Economic and Technology (BMWi) two fundamental and interacting weak points of the hole drilling method as well as of the ring core method, respectively, in order to determine residual stresses are going to be investigated. As a consequence reliability of the methods will be improved in this joint research project. On the one hand there are effects of geometrical boundary conditions of the components and on the other hand there is the influence of plasticity due to notch effects both affecting the released strain field after removing material and after all the calculated residual stresses. The first issue mentioned above is under the responsibility of the Institute of Materials Engineering (Kassel University) and the last one is investigated by Universitaet of Stuttgart-Otto-Graf-Institut - materials testing institute. As a consequence of a successful project the knowledge base will be considerably improved resulting in benefits for various engineering fields. Especially the quantitative consideration of real residual stress states for optimized component designs will be possible and after all the consequences of residual stresses on safety of components which are used in nuclear facilities can be evaluated. The state of art was reground in the first research chapter and the analysed strain gauges where
Shams Ak; Eyvaz ziaee A; Esfahanizadeh G; Ghoseiri R
2011-01-01
"nBackground and Aims: Considering the great incidence of implant failures due to high stresses around implant and at bone-implant interfaces, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different implant-macro designs on the quantity and distribution pattern of stresses around implants."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, three types of implants including Biohorizon (4×10.5 mm), Iler (4×10 mm), and Swiss Plus (4.1×...
... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirbach, David von
2015-01-01
Residual stresses in mechanical components can result in both detrimental but also beneficial effects on the strength and lifetime of the components. The most detailed knowledge of the residual stress state is of advantage or a pre-requisite for the assessment of the component performance. Two commonly used methods for determination of residual stresses are the hole drilling method and the ring core method which can be regarded to the mechanical methods. In the context of reactor safety research of the German Federal Ministry of Economic and Energy (BMWi) two fundamental and interacting weak points of the hole drilling method as well as of the ring core method, respectively, in order to determine residual stresses are going to be investigated. As a consequence reliability of the methods will be improved in this joint research project. On the one hand there are effects of geometrical boundary conditions of the components and on the other hand there is the influence of plasticity due to notch effects both affecting the released strain field after removing material and after all the calculated residual stresses. The first issue mentioned above is under the responsibility of the Institute of Materials Engineering (Kassel University) and the last one is investigated by materials testing institute university Stuttgart. As a consequence of a successful project the knowledge base will be considerably improved resulting in benefits for various engineering fields. Especially the quantitative consideration of real residual stress states for optimized component designs will be possible and after all the consequences of residual stresses on safety of components which are used in nuclear facilities can be evaluated. In this second experimental research chapter (phase 2) the findings of the first numerical and theoretical research chapter (phase 1) where proofed. The developed differential calculation method with the method of adaptive calibration functions were compared with the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markakis Marios
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone. Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream
Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.
1997-01-01
We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs
Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoyuan
Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...
Modelling of the elastic behaviour of metallic powders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riera, M.D.; Prado, J.M.
1998-01-01
In this work the elastic behaviour of metal powders compacted to different densities is studied. The authors apply a model based on the experimental observation that the elastic volumetric strain and the hydrostatic component of the applied stress are exponentially related. While a complete analysis should include both the volumetric and deviatoric components of the elastic strain, we only present here the first one. (Author) 9 refs
Paro, Alberto
2013-01-01
Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java
Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Marinou, Margarita; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Kourea, Kallirhoe; Andreadou, Ioanna; Liarakos, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Tsougos, Elias; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John
2017-07-01
The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. After 3 months of treatment, CO, MDA, PC and Aix were decreased in all subjects (median CO: 25 vs. 6 ppm, MDA: 0.81 vs. 0.63 nmol/L, PC: 0.102, vs. 0.093 nmol/mg protein, Aix: 13% vs. 9%, p smoking (n = 84 out of 188), while the above markers and PWV deteriorated in relapsed smokers (p smoking cessation program using varenicline or NRT for 3 months resulted in a decrease of CO, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and restored endothelial glycocalyx. These effects were more evident after varenicline treatment, likely because of a greater CO reduction, and were maintained after 1 year only in subjects who abstained from smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.
2010-01-01
In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.
Ubiquitylation and degradation of elongating RNA polymerase II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilson, Marcus D; Harreman, Michelle; Svejstrup, Jesper Q
2013-01-01
During its journey across a gene, RNA polymerase II has to contend with a number of obstacles to its progression, including nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, DNA damage, and sequences that are intrinsically difficult to transcribe. Not surprisingly, a large number of elongation factors have....... In this review, we describe the mechanisms and factors responsible for the last resort mechanism of transcriptional elongation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation....
Numerical estimate of fracture parameters under elastic and elastic-plastic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia C.
2003-01-01
The importance of the stress intensity factor K in the elastic fracture analysis is well known. In this work three methods are developed to estimate the parameter K I , corresponding to the normal loading mode, employing the finite elements method. The elastic-plastic condition is also analyzed, where the line integral J is the relevant parameter. Two cases of interest are studied: sample with a crack in its center and tubes with internal pressure. (author)
Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips
Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.
1975-01-01
Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198
Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications
Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B
2013-01-01
The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing i...
Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furnish, Michael D.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.
1998-01-01
Measurements of Kanel et al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. 'Failure' (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study we have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime
Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing
Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.
2014-12-01
For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczyński R.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a manipulator for servicing the elements of water and sewage infrastructure, in particular for installation and dismantling of pressure transducers without the need for earthmoving. To build this device the resilient elements, cold shaped, responsible for centering the manipulator in the technical tube were used. In their construction a method was applied of estimating the value of residual stresses in the cold shaped material, based on measurements of instrumental hardness. The experimental verification of numerical simulation of instrumental hardness measurements of flat springs made of 1.1274 steel is described.
Thermomechanical analysis of Natural Rubber behaviour stressed at room temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chrysochoos A.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Owing to their high molecular mobility, stressed rubber chains can easily change their conformations and get orientated. This phenomena leads to so high reversible draw ratio that this behaviour is called rubber elasticity [1-3]. The analogy with ideal gases leads to an internal energy independent of elongation, the stress being attributed to a so-called configuration entropy. However, this analysis cannot take thermal expansion into account and moreover prohibits predicting standard thermo-elastic effect noticed at small elongations and the thermoelastic inversion effects [4]. This paper aims at : observing and quantifying dissipative and coupling effects associated with deformation energy, generated when Natural Rubber is stretched. re-examine the thermomechanical behaviour model of rubberlike materials, under the generalised standard material concept. From an experimental viewpoint, energy balance is created using infrared and quantitative imaging techniques. Digital Image Correlation (DIC provides in-the-plane displacement fields and, after derivation, strain and strain-rate fields. We have used those techniques to evidence the thermoelastic inversion effect as shown on Figure 1 where different weights have been fixed to warmed specimen and we monitored the sample deformation while it recovers room temperature. But we have also used those techniques to perform energy balance : analysis of the mechanical equilibrium allows estimates of the stress pattern and computation of deformation energy rates under a plane stress hypothesis [5]. Infrared Thermography (IRT gives the surface temperature of the sample. To estimate the distribution of heat sources, image processing with a local heat equation and a minimal set of approximation functions (image filtering was used. The time courses of deformation energy and heat associated with cyclic process are plotted in Figure 2. The time derivatives of both forms of energy are approximately similar. This
Proposed higher order continuum-based models for an elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Three new variants of continuum-based models for an elastic subgrade are proposed. The subgrade is idealized as a homogenous, isotropic elastic layer of thickness H overlying a firm stratum. All components of the stress tensor in the subgrade are taken into account. Reasonable assumptions are made regarding the ...
Elongated Styloid Process and Cervical Spondylosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeliha Unlu MD
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Background Dysphagia, is a significant sign of many different lesions in upper digestive system especially in proximal esophagus. Tumors, gastroesophageal reflux, achalasia and extrinsic compressions are the most common causes that may lead to dysphagia in geriatric population. Cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia, is one of the uncommon reasons of dysphagia, therefore other causes of dysphagia must be excluded to establish the exact diagnosis. Eagle syndrome is one of the considerable reason which may lead to misdiagnosis in patients with cervical osteophytes. In this case report, we represent four patients who had dysphagia due to anteriorly located cervical osteophytes and evaluate the patients with special reference to Eagle syndrome. Material and methods After a detailed anamnesis and ENT examination, cervical plain radiographs in four projections and Towne radiographs were obtained for every patient. After that, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of cervical spine and barium swallowing studies were performed to evaluate the presence of esophageal compression. Results Eagle syndrome was excluded due to absence of other symptoms and physical signs, eventhough unilateral or bilateral elongation of styloid processes was found in all of the patients. Conclusion Cervical osteophytes induced dysphagia is a rare clinical entity, diagnosis should be done by a careful examination, intensive radiologic evaluation. Moreover, all the other causes like Eagle syndrome should be excluded during the diagnosis of cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia.
Mass composition analysis using elongation rate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochilo, Livingstone; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)
2015-07-01
The all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed to flatten at around 5.2 x 10{sup 18} eV where the spectral index changes from γ = 3.2 to γ = 2.6, a feature called the ''ankle'' of the spectrum. Cosmic rays with energy around the ankle and beyond, known as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have a very low flux and reconstruction of their properties from extensive air shower measurements is subject to uncertainties for instance from hadronic interaction models. Since the year 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has recorded a considerable number of UHECR events beyond the ankle. With the greatly improved statistics, the mass composition of the extreme end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum is now being investigated with improved accuracy. The measured composition of UHECR is an important parameter in validating the models used to explain their sources and acceleration mechanisms. In this study, we perform a mass composition analysis using elongation rate (the rate of change of the depth of shower maximum with energy), measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The advantage of this approach is a weak dependence of the results on the choice of the hadronic interaction models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsner, B.A.M.; Müller, S.; Bargmann, S.; Weissmüller, J.
2017-01-01
Predicting the influence of the surface on the effective elastic properties of nanoscale structures and nanomaterials remains a challenge, which we here address on both levels, continuum and atomic. Density Functional Theory (DFT) computation at the atomic level yields the first reliable surface excess elastic parameters for the (111) and (001) surfaces of gold. At the continuum level, we derive closed-form expressions for the effective elastic behavior that can be combined with the DFT-derived excess elastic parameters to obtain the effective axial, torsion, and bending stiffness of circular nanowires with surface excess elasticity. The two approaches use different reference frames, and we emphasize the need for consistent stress definitions and for conversion between the separate stress measures when transferring results between the approaches. We present excess elastic parameters separately for Cauchy and 2 nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses, demonstrating that the conversion substantially modifies their numerical value and may even invert their sign. The results afford an assessment of the contribution of the surface excess elastic parameters to the effective elastic response of nanoscale beams or wires. This assessment sheds doubt on earlier suggestions relating experimental observations of an effective stiffening or softening at small size to the excess elasticity of clean surfaces.
On the concept of elasticity used in some fast reactor accident analysis codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, T.
1975-01-01
The analysis to be presented will restrict attention to the elastic part of the elastic-plastic constitutive equation used in several Fast Reactor Accident Analysis Codes and originally applied by M.L. Wilkins: Calculation of Elastic-Plastic Flow, UCRL-7322, Rev. 1, Jan. 1969. It is shown that the used elasticity concept is within the frame of hypo-elasticity. On the basis of a test found by Bernstein it is proven that the state of stress is generally depending on the path of deformation. Therefore this concept of elasticity is not compatible with finite elasticity. For several simple deformation processes this special hypo-elastic constitutive equation is integrated to give a stress-strain relation. The path-dependence of this relation is demonstrated. Further the phenomenon of hypo-elastic yield under shear deformation is pointed out. The relevance to modelling material behaviour in primary containment analysis is discussed
Surface effects on static bending of nanowires based on non-local elasticity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The surface elasticity and non-local elasticity effects on the elastic behavior of statically bent nanowires are investigated in the present investigation. Explicit solutions are presented to evaluate the surface stress and non-local elasticity effects with various boundary conditions. Compared with the classical Euler beam, a nanowire with surface stress and/or non-local elasticity can be either stiffer or less stiff, depending on the boundary conditions. The concept of surface non-local elasticity was proposed and its physical interpretation discussed to explain the combined effect of surface elasticity and non-local elasticity. The effect of the nanowire size on its elastic bending behavior was investigated. The results obtained herein are helpful to characterize mechanical properties of nanowires and aid nanowire-based devices design.
On the concept of elasticity used in some fast reactor accident analysis codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, T.
1975-01-01
The analysis presented restricts attention to the elastic part of the elastic-plastic equation used in several Fast Reactor Accident Analysis Codes and originally applied by M.L. Wilkins: Calculation of Elastic-Plastic Flow, UCRL-7322, Rev. 1, Jan 1969. It is shown that the used elasticity concept is within the frame of hypo-elasticity. On the basis of a test found by Bernstein it is proven that the state of stress is generally depending on the path of deformation. Therefore this concept of elasticity is not compatible with finite elasticity. For several deformation processes this special hypo-elastic constitutive equation is integrated to give a stress-strain relation. The path-dependence of this relation is demonstrated. Further the phenomenon of hypo-elastic yield under shear deformation is pointed out. The relevance to modelling material behaviour in primary containment analysis is discussed. (Auth.)
On elastic structural elements for nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Povolo, F.
1978-03-01
The in-pile stress-relaxation behaviour of materials usually employed for the elastic structural elements, in nuclear reactors, is critically reviewed and the results are compared with those obtained in commercial zirconium alloys irradiated under similar conditions. Finally, it is shown that, under certain conditions, some zirconium alloys may be used as an alternative material for these structural elements. (orig.) [de
Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert
1997-01-01
Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...
Elastic modulus and fracture of boron carbide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollenberg, G.W.; Walther, G.
1978-12-01
The elastic modulus of hot-pressed boron carbide with 1 to 15% porosity was measured at room temperature. K/sub IC/ values were determined for the same porosity range at 500 0 C by the double torsion technique. The critical stress intensity factor of boron carbide with 8% porosity was evaluated from 25 to 1200 0 C
Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D. J.
1991-01-01
The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.
Paro, Alberto
2015-01-01
If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.
Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Z. Cedric
2005-01-01
One of the principal foundations of mathematical theory of conventional plasticity for rate-independent metals is that there exists a well-defined yield surface in stress space for any material point under deformation. A material point can undergo further plastic deformation if the applied stresses are beyond current yield surface which is generally referred as 'plastic loading'. On the other hand, if the applied stress state falls within or on the yield surface, the metal will deform elastically only and is said to be undergoing 'elastic unloading'. Although it has been always recognized throughout the history of development of plasticity theory that there is indeed inelastic deformation accompanying elastic unloading, which leads to metal's hysteresis behavior, its effects were thought to be negligible and were largely ignored in the mathematical treatment.Recently there have been renewed interests in the study of unloading behavior of sheet metals upon large plastic deformation and its implications on springback prediction. Springback is essentially an elastic recovery process of a formed sheet metal blank when it is released from the forming dies. Its magnitude depends on the stress states and compliances of the deformed sheet metal if no further plastic loading occurs during the relaxation process. Therefore the accurate determination of material compliances during springback and its effective incorporation into simulation software are important aspects for springback calculation. Some of the studies suggest that the unloading curve might deviate from linearity, and suggestions were made that a reduced elastic modulus be used for springback simulation.The aim of this study is NOT to take a position on the debate of whether elastic moduli are changed during sheet metal forming process. Instead we propose an approach of modeling observed psuedoelastic behavior within the context of mathematical theory of plasticity, where elastic moduli are treated to be
Thermal Shock In Periodic Edge-Cracked Plate Supported By Elastic Foundation
Abd El-Fattah A. Rizk
2012-01-01
The study of the transient thermal stress problem for a periodic edge cracks in an elastic plate on an elastic foundations is investigated. This study may also be applied for circumferentially periodic cracked hollow cylinder under transient thermal stresses. Based on previous studies, the cylindrical shell may be modeled by a plate on an elastic foundation. The thermal stresses are generated due to sudden convective cooling on the boundary containing the edge cracks while the other boundary ...
Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa
Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.
2000-01-01
We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.
High n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, C.H.; Bateman, G.
1980-02-01
An analytic study of stability against high n ballooning modes in highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that the local shear plays an important role on the stability of elongated and shifted plasma, and that high elongation deteriorates the stability by decreasing the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation and shift for strongly ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). The computational study of high n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for β/sub p/ less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for β/sub p/ larger than unity
Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies
Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong
2018-06-01
We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.
Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design
Ratner, LW
2003-01-01
In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it
Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity
Dill, Ellis H
2006-01-01
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...
(R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei
2013-01-01
Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has......-(β)-lysyl-EF-P showed 30% increased puromycin reactivity but no differences in dipeptide synthesis rates when compared with the β-lysylated form. Unlike disruption of the other genes required for EF-P modification, deletion of yfcM had no phenotypic consequences in Salmonella. Taken together, our findings indicate...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keller, Hanne Dauer
2015-01-01
Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....
Fledderus, M.
2012-01-01
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.
Prediction of fretting fatigue behavior under elastic-plastic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Ki Su
2009-01-01
Fretting fatigue generally leads to the degradation of the fatigue strength of a material due to cyclic micro-slip between two contacting materials. Fretting fatigue is regarded as an important issue in designing aerospace structures. While many studies have evaluated fretting fatigue behavior under elastic deformation conditions, few have focused on fretting fatigue behavior under elastic-plastic deformation conditions, especially the crack orientation and fatigue life prediction for Ti-6Al-4V. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the fretting fatigue crack initiation behavior in the presence of plasticity. Experimental tests were performed using pad configurations involving elastic-plastic deformations. To calculate stress distributions under elastic-plastic fretting fatigue conditions, FEA was also performed. Several parametric approaches were used to predict fretting fatigue life along with stress distribution resulting from FEA. However, those parameters using surface stresses were unable to establish an equivalence between elastic fretting fatigue data and elastic-plastic fretting fatigue data. Based on this observation, the critical distance methods, which are commonly used in notch analysis, were applied to the fretting fatigue problem. In conclusion, the effective strain range method when used in conjunction with the SMSSR parameter showed a good correlation of data points between the pad configurations involving elastic and elastic plastic deformations
Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo
2017-08-23
Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.
Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R
2015-12-08
Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.
Elastic field of approaching dislocation loop in isotropic bimaterial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Wenwang; Xu, Shucai; Zhang, Jinhuan; Xia, Re; Qian, Guian
2015-01-01
A semi-analytical solution is developed for calculating interface traction stress (ITS) fields due to elastic modulus mismatch across the interface plane of isotropic perfectly bounded bimaterial system. Based on the semi-analytical approaches developed, ITS is used to correct the bulk elastic field of dislocation loop within infinite homogenous medium, and to produce continuous displacement and stress fields across the perfectly-bounded interface. Firstly, calculation examples of dislocation loops in Al–Cu bimaterial system are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed semi-analytical approach; Then, the elastic fields of dislocation loops in twinning Cu and Cu–Nb bimaterial are analyzed; Finally, the effect of modulus mismatch across interface plane on the elastic field of bimaterial system is investigated, it is found that modulus mismatch has a drastic impact on the elastic fields of dislocation loops within bimaterial system. (paper)
Definitive evidence for Ufd2-catalyzed elongation of the ubiquitin chain through Lys48 linkage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeki, Yasushi; Tayama, Yoko; Toh-e, Akio; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi
2004-01-01
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ufd2 is a ubiquitin chain elongation factor in the ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway and functions in stress tolerance. A recent study has suggested that the mammalian Ufd2 homologue UFD2a catalyzes formation of Lys27- and Lys33-linked polyubiquitin chains rather than the Lys48-linked chain, but the linkage type of the polyubiquitin chain formed by yeast Ufd2 remains unclear. To determine the property of Ufd2, we reconstituted the UFD pathway using purified enzymes from yeast. Direct determination of the ubiquitin chain linkage type in polyubiquitinated UFD substrates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Ufd2 catalyzes elongation of the ubiquitin chain through Lys48 linkage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishaan Gupta
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The current understanding of gene expression considers transcription and translation to be independent processes. Challenging this notion, we found that translation efficiency is determined during transcription elongation through the imprinting of mRNAs with Not1, the central scaffold of the Ccr4-Not complex. We determined that another subunit of the complex, Not5, defines Not1 binding to specific mRNAs, particularly those produced from ribosomal protein genes. This imprinting mechanism specifically regulates ribosomal protein gene expression, which in turn determines the translational capacity of cells. We validate our model by SILAC and polysome profiling experiments. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that enhanced translation compensates for transcriptional elongation stress. Taken together, our data indicate that in addition to defining mRNA stability, components of the Ccr4-Not imprinting complex regulate RNA translatability, thus ensuring global gene expression homeostasis.
The correlation between elongation at break and thermal decomposition of aged EPDM cable polymer
Šarac, T.; Devaux, J.; Quiévy, N.; Gusarov, A.; Konstantinović, M. J.
2017-03-01
The effect of simultaneous thermal and gamma irradiation ageing on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of industrial EPDM was investigated. Accelerated ageing, covering a wide range of dose rates, doses and temperatures, was preformed in stagnant air on EPDM polymer samples extracted from the cables in use in the Belgian nuclear power plants. The mechanical properties, ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break, are found to exhibit the strong dependence on the dose, ageing temperature and dose rate. The thermal decomposition of aged polymer is observed to be the dose dependent when thermogravimetry test is performed under air atmosphere. No dose dependence is observed when thermal decomposition is performed under nitrogen atmosphere. The thermal decomposition rates are found to fully mimic the reduction of elongation at break for all dose rates and ageing temperatures. This effect is argued to be the result of thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation process.
ATFL elongation after Brostrom procedure: a biomechanical investigation.
Kirk, Kevin L; Campbell, John T; Guyton, Gregory P; Parks, Brent G; Schon, Lew C
2008-11-01
Elongation of ligaments during early mobilization after reconstruction may be associated with decreased stability. We evaluated elongation of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) before and after lateral ligament reconstruction within a physiologic range of motion with protected and unprotected, isolated dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion. Six fresh frozen cadaver legs were used with the ATFL meticulously dissected. A differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was spaced to span the course of the ATFL using consistent placement points based on previous reports. Elongation was measured in a load frame with protected motion of 30 degrees plantarflexion and 10 degrees dorsiflexion for the intact and sectioned ATFL and for the repaired specimen with and without protected motion. The proximal DVRT anchor point was detached for sectioning and repair of the ATFL and replaced at the same position. Testing was 1000 cycles at 1 Hz for the repaired protected specimen and 10 cycles at 1 Hz for all other stages. Initial elongation in the unprotected, repaired group was significantly higher than initial elongation in the intact (p ankle after lateral ankle ligament reconstruction was not associated with elongation of the ATFL. The ATFL elongated significantly by comparison without protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The study provides biomechanical support for the safety of early protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion after Broström reconstruction.
Statistical mechanics of elasticity
Weiner, JH
2012-01-01
Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.
Elasticity of energy consumption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stam, M.
2004-01-01
Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl
Kuc, Rafal
2013-01-01
A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.
Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2010-01-01
. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using...... difference deviated more from the classical prediction due to the dynamic structures in the material. A modified Lodge model using characteristic parameters from linear viscoelastic measurements gave very good stress predictions at all Deborah numbers used in the quasi-linear regime....
Elastic properties of some transition metal arsenides
Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.; Bisht, P. S.
2018-05-01
The elastic properties of transition metal arsenides (TMAs) have been studied by employing Wien2K package based on density functional theory in the zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) phase treating valance electron scalar relativistically. Further, we have also treated them non-relativistically to find out the relativistic effect. We have calculated the elastic properties by computing the volume conservative stress tensor for small strains, using the method developed by Charpin. The obtained results are discussed in paper. From the obtained results, it is clear that the values of C11 > C12 and C44 for all the compounds. The values of shear moduli of these compounds are also calculated. The internal parameter for these compounds shows that ZB structures of these compounds have high resistance against bond order. We find that the estimated elastic constants are in good agreement with the available data.
On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu, S.; Clausen, B.; Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.
2011-01-01
A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.
On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, S. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: raj@mail.ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)
2011-08-15
A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.
Fledderus, M.
2012-01-01
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.
Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 11. Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the Historical Jantar Mantar Observatory. N Rathnasree. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 11 November 2004 pp 46-55 ...
Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
AJRH Managing Editor
women may not report current vaginal ill health, it is possible that prospective cohort ... Keywords: Labia minora elongation; vaginal practices; Mozambique; survey; cross-sectional studies. ..... had ever had vaginal discharge, which was most.
Nonlinear elastic waves in materials
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J
2014-01-01
The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...
Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.
1985-01-01
The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.
Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keho, T.H.; Wu, R.S.
1987-01-01
Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Kube
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.
1977-01-01
No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)
Data-Driven Problems in Elasticity
Conti, S.; Müller, S.; Ortiz, M.
2018-01-01
We consider a new class of problems in elasticity, referred to as Data-Driven problems, defined on the space of strain-stress field pairs, or phase space. The problem consists of minimizing the distance between a given material data set and the subspace of compatible strain fields and stress fields in equilibrium. We find that the classical solutions are recovered in the case of linear elasticity. We identify conditions for convergence of Data-Driven solutions corresponding to sequences of approximating material data sets. Specialization to constant material data set sequences in turn establishes an appropriate notion of relaxation. We find that relaxation within this Data-Driven framework is fundamentally different from the classical relaxation of energy functions. For instance, we show that in the Data-Driven framework the relaxation of a bistable material leads to material data sets that are not graphs.
Modes of failures: primary and secondary stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.L.
1987-07-01
The paper begins with a reminder that the purpose of stress classification is to ensure suitable margins with respect to failure modes. The distinction between primary stresses and secondary stresses is then examined and a method is given for assessing the degree of elastic follow up in the elastic plastic field. The importance of elastic follow up is then highlighted by an examination of the effect of primary and secondary stresses on crack behavior
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Lai, Yun
2011-06-26
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing
2011-01-01
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Rogozinski, Marek
2014-01-01
This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.
Elastic plastic fracture mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, L.A.
1978-07-01
The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)
Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury.
Liu, H.-S.
1972-01-01
The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.
Chambers, David W
2008-01-01
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.
Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.
1992-01-01
The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques
Inverse problemfor an inhomogeneous elastic beam at a combined strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreev Vladimir Igorevich
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the article the authors describe a method of optimizing the stress state of an elastic beam, subject to the simultaneous action of the central concentrated force and bending moment. The optimization method is based on solving the inverse problem of the strength of materials, consisting in defining the law of changing in elasticity modulus with beam cross-section altitude. With this changing the stress state will be preset. Most problems of the elasticity theory of inhomogeneous bodies are solved in direct formulation, the essence of which is to determine the stress-strain state of a body at the known dependences of the material elastic characteristics from the coordinates. There are also some solutions of the inverse problems of the elasticity theory, in which the dependences of the mechanical characteristics from the coordinates, at which the stress state of a body is preset, are determined. In the paper the authors solve the problem of finding a dependence modulus of elasticity, where the stresses will be constant over the beam’s cross section. We will solve the problem of combined strength (in the case of the central stretching and bending. We will use an iterative method. As the initial solution, we take the solution for a homogeneous material. As the first approximation, we consider the stress state of a beam, when the modulus of elasticity varies linearly. According to the results, it can be stated that three approximations are sufficient in the considered problem. The obtained results allow us to use them in assessing the strength of a beam and its optimization.
Film dosimetry of small elongated electron beams for treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niroomand-Rad, A.
1989-01-01
The characteristics of 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, and 18 Mev electron beams for small elongated fields of dimensions L x W (where L=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm; and W=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm) have been studied. Film dosimetry and parallel-plate ion chamber measurements have been used to obtain various dose parameters. Selective results of a series of systematic measurements for central axis depth dose data, uniformity index, field flatness, and relative output factors of small elongated electron beams are reported. The square-root method is employed to predict the beam data of small elongated electron fields from corresponding small square electron fields using film dosimetry. The single parameter area/perimeter radio A/P is used to characterize the relative output factors of elongated electron beams. It is our conclusion that for clinical treatment planning square-root method may be applied with caution in determining the beam characteristics of small elongated electron fields from film dosimetry. The calculated and estimated relative output factors from square-root method and A/P ratio are in good agreement and show agreement to within 1% with the measured film values
Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.
Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
2010-10-01
We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen Jun Jiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.
Pretko, Michael; Radzihovsky, Leo
2018-05-01
Motivated by recent studies of fractons, we demonstrate that elasticity theory of a two-dimensional quantum crystal is dual to a fracton tensor gauge theory, providing a concrete manifestation of the fracton phenomenon in an ordinary solid. The topological defects of elasticity theory map onto charges of the tensor gauge theory, with disclinations and dislocations corresponding to fractons and dipoles, respectively. The transverse and longitudinal phonons of crystals map onto the two gapless gauge modes of the gauge theory. The restricted dynamics of fractons matches with constraints on the mobility of lattice defects. The duality leads to numerous predictions for phases and phase transitions of the fracton system, such as the existence of gauge theory counterparts to the (commensurate) crystal, supersolid, hexatic, and isotropic fluid phases of elasticity theory. Extensions of this duality to generalized elasticity theories provide a route to the discovery of new fracton models. As a further consequence, the duality implies that fracton phases are relevant to the study of interacting topological crystalline insulators.
Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker
Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe
2017-01-01
International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...
ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Galkin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad
2017-11-06
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves
Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.
On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity
Knowles, James K.
2010-01-01
Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...
Non-linear elastic deformations
Ogden, R W
1997-01-01
Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.
Status of the tube elongation problem as of June 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, W.K.
1976-01-01
It was discovered in May of 1971 that the N Reactor process tubes had apparently increased in length by as much as one inch. Preliminary observations and measurements led to the tentative conclusion that this observed elongation was linear with accumulated tube exposure and also that it was related in some manner to the tube fabrication process. It appeared that the observed elongation was approximately proportional to the degree of cold work retained in the finished tubes. This latter conclusion was based on the observation that those tubes with approximately 17-18 percent cold work had elongated only about half as much as the standard 30-percent-cold-worked tubes. It was immediately recognized that if such elongation was to continue unchecked it could pose a limit to reactor life since total possible tube expansion, from all causes, is limited to 1.75 inches by nozzle design considerations as shown in Figure 1. Thermal and hydraulic expansion were calculated to total approximately 0.75 inches which left only one inch available to accommodate tube growth or creep. Since discovery of this phenomenon, an extensive measurements program has been carried out to evaluate the extent and rate of tube elongation. Two corrective approaches have been developed and a small number of tubes were modified by each method during the 1976 summer outage. During the 1974, 1975 and 1976 Summer Outages, measurements were made on all tubes to determine the clearance remaining between the nozzle keys and the gas packing ring. These readings not only give an overall picture of the extent of elongation, but also provide immediate data indicating which tubes are about out of clearance. The report presents an evaluation of the measurements taken to date
Designing interactively with elastic splines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie
2018-01-01
We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....
Elastic fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.
Kawase, Tetsuaki; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko
2012-10-01
Adaptation to constant vibration (acoustic oscillation) is likely to confer a specific morphology at the bone-tendon and bone-ligament interfaces at the ear ossicles, which therefore represent an exciting target of enthesis research. We histologically examined (i) the bone attachments of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and (ii) the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint obtained from seven elderly donated cadavers. Notably, both aldehyde-fuchsin and elastic-Masson staining demonstrated that the major fibrous component of the entheses was not collagen fibers but mature elastic fibers. The positive controls for elastic fiber staining were the arterial wall elastic laminae included in the temporal bone materials. The elastic fibers were inserted deeply into the type II collagen-poor fibrocartilage covering the ear ossicles. The muscle tendons were composed of an outer thin layer of collagen fibers and an inner thick core of elastic fibers near the malleus or stapes. In the unique elastic fiber-mediated entheses, hyaluronan, versican and fibronectin were expressed strongly along the elastic fibers. The hyaluronan seemed to act as a friction-reducing lubricant for the elastic fibers. Aggrecan was labeled strongly in a disk- or plica-like fibrous mass on the inner side of the elastic fiber-rich ligament, possibly due to compression stress from the ligament. Tenascin-c was not evident in the entheses. The elastic fiber-mediated entheses appeared resistant to tissue destruction in an environment exposed to constant vibration. The morphology was unlikely to be the result of age-related degeneration. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.
Transient Vibrations of an Elastic Cylinder Inserted in the Elastic Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sulym Heorgij
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Using method of Laguerre polynomials we have obtained the solution of the dynamic problem of the theory of elasticity for elastic cylinder inserted into massive body modeled as a space. The source of non-stationary processes in composite is high intensity force load of the inner surface of the cylinder. On the surface separation of materials of space and cylinder the conditions of ideal mechanical contact are satisfied. The solution is obtained as series of Laguerre polynomials, which coefficients are found from recurrent relations. The results of numerical analysis of transient stress-strain state in elastic space with cylindrical insertion might be used for the technological process of hydraulic fracturing during shale gas extraction.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Elastic Constants of Plane Orthotropic Elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1979-01-01
The four independent material parameters of plane orthotropic elasti city are introduced as the effective stiffness, the effective Poisson ratio, the stiffness ratio and the shear parameter. It is proved that stress boundary value problems with zero resulting force on internal contours lead...
Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus
Taneja, Swadhin; Levitan, Benjamin A.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.
2013-01-01
We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advance...
Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.
Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha
2014-04-01
Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were
Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders
2005-01-01
The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vavra, G.
1978-01-01
Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr
The multiple V-shaped double peeling of elastic thin films from elastic soft substrates
Menga, N.; Afferrante, L.; Pugno, N. M.; Carbone, G.
2018-04-01
In this paper, a periodic configuration of V-shaped double peeling process is investigated. Specifically, an elastic thin film is detached from a soft elastic material by applying multiple concentrated loads periodically distributed with spatial periodicity λ. The original Kendall's idea is extended to take into account the change in elastic energy occurring in the substrate when the detachment fronts propagate. The symmetric configuration typical of a V-peeling process causes the energy release rate to be sensitive to variations of the elastic energy stored in the soft substrate. This results in an enhancement of the adhesion strength because part of the external work required to trigger the peeling mechanism is converted in substrate elastic energy. A key role is played by both spatial periodicity λ and elasticity ratio E/Eh, between tape and substrate elastic moduli, in determining the conditions of stable adhesion. Indeed, the presence of multiple peeling fronts determines a modification of the mechanism of interaction, because deformations close to each peeling front are also affected by the stresses related to the other fronts. Results show that the energy release rate depends on the detached length of the tape so that conditions can be established which lead to an increase of the supported load compared to the classical peeling on rigid substrates. Finally, we also find that for any given value of the load per unit length, an optimum value of the wavelength λ exists that maximizes the tolerance of the system, before unstable propagation of the peeling front can occur.
Elastic interaction between twins during tensile deformation of austenitic stainless steel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Nicolai Ytterdal; Winther, Grethe; Dale, Darren
2016-01-01
. However, the components of the Type II stress normal to the twin boundary plane exhibit the same large variations as for the grain boundaries. Elastic grain interactions are therefore complex and must involve the entire set of neighbouring grains. The elastic-regime stress along the tensile direction......In austenite, the twin boundary normal is a common elastically stiff direction shared by the two twins, which may induce special interactions. By means of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction this elastic interaction has been analysed and compared to grains separated by conventional grain boundaries...
Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues
Goriely, A.
2010-07-01
Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.
Atomistic calculations of interface elastic properties in noncoherent metallic bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mi Changwen; Jun, Sukky; Kouris, Demitris A.; Kim, Sung Youb
2008-01-01
The paper describes theoretical and computational studies associated with the interface elastic properties of noncoherent metallic bicrystals. Analytical forms of interface energy, interface stresses, and interface elastic constants are derived in terms of interatomic potential functions. Embedded-atom method potentials are then incorporated into the model to compute these excess thermodynamics variables, using energy minimization in a parallel computing environment. The proposed model is validated by calculating surface thermodynamic variables and comparing them with preexisting data. Next, the interface elastic properties of several fcc-fcc bicrystals are computed. The excess energies and stresses of interfaces are smaller than those on free surfaces of the same crystal orientations. In addition, no negative values of interface stresses are observed. Current results can be applied to various heterogeneous materials where interfaces assume a prominent role in the systems' mechanical behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire
1983-01-01
The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.
Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura
2017-01-01
opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...
Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena
2015-01-01
Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microsco...
FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana R. Pereira
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5 expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci.
Visualization of elongation measurements using an SER universal testing platform
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana
2015-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/2342 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : elongational viscosity * Universal Testing Platform (SER) * polymer melts * LDPE Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2015
One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B
1993-01-01
The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...
Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der
2009-01-01
The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.
Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)
2009-10-01
The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.
Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod
Moulton, D.E.
2013-02-01
A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Homogenized Elastic Properties of Graphene for Small Deformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jurica Sorić
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we provide the quantification of the linear and non-linear elastic mechanical properties of graphene based upon the judicious combination of molecular mechanics simulation results and homogenization methods. We clarify the influence on computed results by the main model features, such as specimen size, chirality of microstructure, the effect of chosen boundary conditions (imposed displacement versus force and the corresponding plane stress transformation. The proposed approach is capable of explaining the scatter of the results for computed stresses, energy and stiffness and provides the bounds on graphene elastic properties, which are quite important in modeling and simulation of the virtual experiments on graphene-based devices.
Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod
Moulton, D.E.; Lessinnes, T.; Goriely, A.
2013-01-01
A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth
Goriely, Alain; Moulton, Derek
2011-01-01
This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.
Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth
Goriely, Alain
2011-10-11
This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.
Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaccone, M.A. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Krauss, G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
1993-10-01
Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels, direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr-Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures, and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression and tension testing in the microstrain regime to determine the elastic limits and microplastic response of the microstructures. The retained austenite and matrix carbon content of the intercritically austenized specimens were measured by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elastic limit of the microstructures decreases with increasing amounts of retained austenite. Refining of the austenite distribution increases the elastic limit. Low elastic limits are mainly due to low flow stresses in the austenite and not internal stresses. The elastic limit correlates with the largest austenite free-mean path by a Hall-Petch type equation. The elastic limit increases with decreasing intercritical austenitizing temperature in the SAE 52100 due to a lower carbon content in the matrix reducing the retained austenite levels and retained carbides that refine grain size and, therefore, the austenite distribution in quenched specimens. In the microplastic region, the strain is accommodated by successively smaller austenite regions until the flow strength matches that of the martensite. Reheating and quenching refines the microstructure and renders the austenite unstable in the microplastic regime, causing transformation of the austenite to martensite by a strain-induced mechanism. The transformation of austenite to martensite occurs by a stress-assisted mechanism in medium carbon steels. The low elastic limits in medium carbon steels were due to the inability of the strain from the stress-assisted transformation to balance the plastic strain accumulated in the austenite.
Modeling of stresses at grain boundaries with respect to occurrence of stress corrosion cracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozaczek, K.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sinharoy, A.; Ruud, C.O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McIlree, A.R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The distributions of elastic stresses/strains in the grain boundary regions were studied by the analytical and the finite element models. The grain boundaries represent the sites where stress concentration occurs as a result of discontinuity of elastic properties across the grain boundary and the presence of second phase particles elastically different from the surrounding matrix grains. A quantitative analysis of those stresses for steels and nickel based alloys showed that the stress concentrations in the grain boundary regions are high enough to cause a local microplastic deformation even when the material is in the macroscopic elastic regime. The stress redistribution as a result of such a plastic deformation was discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotas, Petr; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper
2009-01-01
.e. whether the casting is based on cast iron- or aluminium-alloys. The distribution of local properties in a casting might vary substantially which makes it complex to optimize the casting with good accuracy. Often, mechanical simulations of the load situation are based on the assumption that the cast...... in an aluminium alloy is considered including simulation of the entire casting process with emphasis on microstructure formation related to mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength and elongation as well as residual stresses. Subsequently, the casting is subjected to service...... loads and the results of this analysis are discussed in relation to the predicted local properties as well as the residual stresses originating from the casting simulation....
Form finding in elastic gridshells
Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.
2018-01-01
Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.
A Membrane Model from Implicit Elasticity Theory
Freed, A. D.; Liao, J.; Einstein, D. R.
2014-01-01
A Fungean solid is derived for membranous materials as a body defined by isotropic response functions whose mathematical structure is that of a Hookean solid where the elastic constants are replaced by functions of state derived from an implicit, thermodynamic, internal-energy function. The theory utilizes Biot’s (1939) definitions for stress and strain that, in 1-dimension, are the stress/strain measures adopted by Fung (1967) when he postulated what is now known as Fung’s law. Our Fungean membrane model is parameterized against a biaxial data set acquired from a porcine pleural membrane subjected to three, sequential, proportional, planar extensions. These data support an isotropic/deviatoric split in the stress and strain-rate hypothesized by our theory. These data also demonstrate that the material response is highly non-linear but, otherwise, mechanically isotropic. These data are described reasonably well by our otherwise simple, four-parameter, material model. PMID:24282079
Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori......, and this introduces a weight function in the variations of the transverse normal and shear stresses. As a result the coupling between the two-dimensional differential equations is described in terms of a single difference operator. Special attention is given to a truncated system of equations for bending...... of transversely isotropic plates. This theory has three boundary conditions, like Reissner's, but includes the effect of transverse normal strain, essentially through a reinterpretation of the transverse displacement function. Full agreement with general integrals to the homogeneous three-dimensional equations...
Mathematical foundations of elasticity
Marsden, Jerrold E
1994-01-01
This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con
Elastic and viscoplastic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebensohn, R.A.
2015-01-01
In this chapter, we review crystal elasticity and plasticity-based self-consistent theories and apply them to the determination of the effective response of polycrystalline aggregates. These mean-field formulations, which enable the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline aggregates based on the heterogeneous and/or directional properties of their constituent single crystal grains and phases, are ideal tools to establish relationships between microstructure and properties of these materials, ubiquitous among fuels and structural materials for nuclear systems. (author)
Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Victoria Alarcón
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavery, N.P., E-mail: N.P.Lavery@swansea.ac.uk [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Davies, H. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Girling, B.; Sackett, E. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Brown, S.G.R. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom); Sienz, J. [Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EP (United Kingdom)
2017-05-02
The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavery, N.P.; Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S.; Davies, H.; Girling, B.; Sackett, E.; Brown, S.G.R.; Sienz, J.
2017-01-01
The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but lower upper
Emergence of linear elasticity from the atomistic description of matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cakir, Abdullah, E-mail: acakir@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Pica Ciamarra, Massimo [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, CNR–SPIN, Università di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)
2016-08-07
We investigate the emergence of the continuum elastic limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined elastic quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum elastic limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes. The degree of disorder controls the emergence of long-range local shear stress and shear strain correlations, while the length scale influences the amplitude of the fluctuations of the local elastic constants close to the jamming transition.
Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.
Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi
2017-04-28
The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.
Emergence of linear elasticity from the atomistic description of matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cakir, Abdullah; Pica Ciamarra, Massimo
2016-01-01
We investigate the emergence of the continuum elastic limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined elastic quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum elastic limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes. The degree of disorder controls the emergence of long-range local shear stress and shear strain correlations, while the length scale influences the amplitude of the fluctuations of the local elastic constants close to the jamming transition.
Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging
Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Kang, Hyeonbae; Lee, Hyundae; Wahab, Abdul
2015-01-01
This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic...
Pepi, John W.
2017-08-01
Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.
SIMULATION OFTHERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIESOFTHERMALBARRIERCOATINGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M.Ferouani M. Ferouani
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the micro structural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.
Structural aspects of elastic deformation of a metallic glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hufnagel, T. C.; Ott, R. T.; Almer, J.
2006-01-01
We report the use of high-energy x-ray scattering to measure strain in a Zr 57 Ti 5 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 bulk metallic glass in situ during uniaxial compression in the elastic regime up to stresses of approximately 60% of the yield stress. The strains extracted in two ways--directly from the normalized scattering data and from the pair correlation functions--are in good agreement with each other for length scales greater than 4 A. The elastic modulus calculated on the basis of this strain is in good agreement with that reported for closely related amorphous alloys based on macroscopic measurements. The strain measured for atoms in the nearest-neighbor shell, however, is smaller than that for more distant shells, and the effective elastic modulus calculated from the strain on this scale is therefore larger, comparable to crystalline alloys of similar composition. These observations are in agreement with previously proposed models in which the nominally elastic deformation of a metallic glass has a significant anelastic component due to atomic rearrangements in topologically unstable regions of the structure. We also observe that the distribution of the atomic-level stresses in the glass becomes more uniform during loading. This implies that the stiffness of metallic glasses may have an entropic contribution, analogous to the entropic contribution in rubber elasticity
Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2007-11-01
Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.
IHH and FGF8 coregulate elongation of digit primordia.
Zhou, Jian; Meng, Junwei; Guo, Shengzhen; Gao, Bo; Ma, Gang; Zhu, Xuming; Hu, Jianxin; Xiao, Yue; Lin, Chuwen; Wang, Hongsheng; Ding, Lusheng; Feng, Guoyin; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin
2007-11-23
In the developing limb bud, digit pattern arises from anterior-posterior (A-P) positional information which is provided by the concentration gradient of SHH. However, the mechanisms of translating early asymmetry into morphological form are still unclear. Here, we examined the ability of IHH and FGF8 signaling to regulate digital chondrogenesis, by implanting protein-loaded beads in the interdigital space singly and in combination. We found that IHH protein induced an elongated digit and that FGF8 protein blocked the terminal phalange formation. Molecular marker analysis showed that IHH expanded Sox9 expression in mesenchymal cells possibly through up-regulated FGF8 expression. Application of both IHH and FGF8 protein induced a large terminal phalange. These results suggest that both enhanced IHH and FGF8 signaling are required for the development of additional cartilage element in limbs. IHH and FGF8 maybe play different roles and act synergistically to promote chondrogenesis during digit primordia elongation.
Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented
Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.
2007-01-01
Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermaz, M.C.
1984-01-01
Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative
Design guidance for elastic followup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naugle, F.V.
1983-01-01
The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed
Income Elasticity of Environmental Amenities
Daniel Miles; Andrés Pereyra; Máximo Rossi
2000-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with the estimation of income elasticities of environmental amenities. The novelty is the application of econometric methods that take into account the problem of measurement errors when estimating these elasticities, which are common in microeconomic data and are not usually considered in the applied literature related with this issue. Our aim is to discuss whether the measurement error has signi…cant e¤ects on the elasticities. Data from the Expenditure Budget...
Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations
Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.
2018-02-01
The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1983-06-01
The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas.
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1983-01-01
The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas
Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy
2017-05-01
ABSTRACT: This project focuses on the important but under-studied role of the P-TEFb- dependent transcription elongation machinery in human breast...molecule CDK9 inhibitors can be used to halt breast cancer metastasis. 8 experimental groups to test various drug dosage and frequency regimes will...tumor cells, which are said to be ’ addicted ’ to this protein. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 has demonstrated great promise in
Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation
2007-04-11
eukaryotes, such as MAELO (40% identity with yeast Elo2p) that elongates C16-C18 saturated and monounsaturated FAs in the filamentous fungus ...and n-6 FAs have been reported in patients suffering from hypertension [145]. Thus, several PUFA rich oil-producing organisms, including the fungus ...membrane proteome (30), a topological reporter cassette (Suc2p/His4C) was fused at the C-terminus of many membrane proteins, including Tsc13p. The
The life and death of translation elongation factor 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom
2006-01-01
The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. S. Ozsahin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The frictionless contact problem for an elastic layer resting on an elastic half plane is considered. The problem is solved by using the theory of elasticity and integral transformation technique. The compressive loads P and Q (per unit thickness in direction are applied to the layer through three rigid flat punches. The elastic layer is also subjected to uniform vertical body force due to effect of gravity. The contact along the interface between elastic layer and half plane is continuous, if the value of the load factor, λ, is less than a critical value, . In this case, initial separation loads, and initial separation points, are determined. Also the required distance between the punches to avoid any separation between the punches and the elastic layer is studied and the limit distance between punches that ends interaction of punches is investigated for various dimensionless quantities. However, if tensile tractions are not allowed on the interface, for the layer separates from the interface along a certain finite region. Numerical results for distance determining the separation area, vertical displacement in the separation zone, contact stress distribution along the interface between elastic layer and half plane are given for this discontinuous contact case.
Elastic limit at macroscopic deformation of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn single quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ledig, L.; Bartsch, M.; Messerschmidt, U.
2006-01-01
Al 70.5 Pd 21 Mn 8.5 single quasicrystals were plastically deformed between 482 and 821 deg. C. The strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress was measured by stress relaxation tests. At several temperatures, the dislocation structures were imaged by diffraction contrast in a high-voltage electron microscope for determining the dislocation densities. At all temperatures, the plastic deformation starts with a range of very high work-hardening. The transition point between almost elastic and elastic-plastic deformation is called the elastic limit. At low temperatures, the deformation was stopped at about 1.5 GPa to prevent fracture. Above about 580 deg. C, the stress-strain curves bend down and show a yield point effect followed by a range of almost steady state deformation. At low temperatures, the elastic limit is much lower than the steady state flow stress or the maximum stresses reached without fracture. The activation parameters are different for the elastic limit, the range of high work-hardening and steady state deformation. The flow stresses are interpreted by the stress necessary to move individual dislocations and the athermal component due to the elastic interaction between dislocations. At low temperatures, a further component is necessary to explain the very high flow stresses reached by work-hardening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiyoshi Ayada
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a definite causative factor for gastric ulcers (GUs. In the present study we detected a specific antigen of gastric epithelial cells (HGC-27 using cell ELISA, which was recognized by the sera of GU patients (n=20 but not in patients with chronic gastritis (CG; n=20 or in healthy volunteers (HC; n=10. This antigen was over-expressed by a stressful (heat-stressed environment, and was identified as elongation factor 2 kinase (EF-2K by western blotting. The GU patients' lymphocytes stimulated by H. pylori specifically disrupted heat-stressed HGC-27 cells in a cytotoxic assay. In flow cytometry, the effector cells (lymphocytes from GU patients were significantly differentiated to T helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL as opposed to those from CG patients. The target cells (HGC-27 expressed EF-2K and MHC-class I together with costimulatory molecules from heat stress. This antigen specific immune mechanism could have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of GU.
The correlation between elongation at break and thermal decomposition of aged EPDM cable polymer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šarac, T.; Devaux, J.; Quiévy, N.; Gusarov, A.; Konstantinović, M.J.
2017-01-01
The effect of simultaneous thermal and gamma irradiation ageing on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of industrial EPDM was investigated. Accelerated ageing, covering a wide range of dose rates, doses and temperatures, was preformed in stagnant air on EPDM polymer samples extracted from the cables in use in the Belgian nuclear power plants. The mechanical properties, ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break, are found to exhibit the strong dependence on the dose, ageing temperature and dose rate. The thermal decomposition of aged polymer is observed to be the dose dependent when thermogravimetry test is performed under air atmosphere. No dose dependence is observed when thermal decomposition is performed under nitrogen atmosphere. The thermal decomposition rates are found to fully mimic the reduction of elongation at break for all dose rates and ageing temperatures. This effect is argued to be the result of thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation process. - Highlights: • EPDM is aged in a wide range of dose rates and temperatures. • Tensile and thermogravimetry test were performed. • Mechanical parameters are strongly affected by irradiation dose and temperature. • Direct link between the mechanical and physicochemical properties is provided. • Thermal and radiation mediated oxidation degradation is considered to be important.
BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels.
Freire, Patrick; Moreira, Ricardo Neves; Arraiano, Cecília Maria
2009-02-06
The morphogene bolA is a general stress response gene in Escherichia coli that induces a round morphology when overexpressed. Results presented in this report show that increased BolA levels can inhibit cell elongation mechanisms. MreB polymerization is crucial for the bacterial cell cytoskeleton, and this protein is essential for the maintenance of a cellular rod shape. In this report, we demonstrate that bolA overexpression affects the architecture of MreB filaments. An increase in BolA leads to a significant reduction in MreB protein levels and mreB transcripts. BolA affects the mreBCD operon in vivo at the level of transcription. Furthermore, our results show that BolA is a new transcriptional repressor of MreB. The alterations in cell morphology induced by bolA seem to be mediated by a complex pathway that integrates PBP5, PBP6, MreB, and probably other regulators of cell morphology/elongation.
Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in rice.
Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai
2014-11-01
Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.
Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan
2017-08-01
In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supattra Panthai
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro-elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.
Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubarda, V.
1981-01-01
The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt
Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2001-01-01
A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...
Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
2001-03-01
We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)
Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids
Yavari, A.
2013-10-16
We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.
Non-Conventional Thermodynamics and Models of Gradient Elasticity
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Hans-Dieter Alber
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider material bodies exhibiting a response function for free energy, which depends on both the strain and its gradient. Toupin–Mindlin’s gradient elasticity is characterized by Cauchy stress tensors, which are given by space-like Euler–Lagrange derivative of the free energy with respect to the strain. The present paper aims at developing a first version of gradient elasticity of non-Toupin–Mindlin’s type, i.e., a theory employing Cauchy stress tensors, which are not necessarily expressed as Euler–Lagrange derivatives. This is accomplished in the framework of non-conventional thermodynamics. A one-dimensional boundary value problem is solved in detail in order to illustrate the differences of the present theory with Toupin–Mindlin’s gradient elasticity theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexsandro Bayestorff da Cunha
2010-04-01
classification of pieces by means of the dynamic system. The goal of the study was to establish a correlation between the static and dynamic methods of classification of glulam beams. The work was developed with the use of pieces of saw wood of Pinus taeda and adhesive phenol resorcinol formaldehyde. The beam fabrication process concerned the classification of the pieces, correction machining and lamella formation, as well as the assemblage and pressurization of the beams. The assays, nevertheless, involved the determination of the elasticity module by means of the stress wave method and a universal machine of assays. The results were analyzed by means of the regression analysis for the establishment of the equation of adjusting the correlation. The classification system used to select pieces was insufficient to obtain the maximum values of the modulus of elasticity; the correct positioning of lamellas by means of the method of dynamic classification had as a direct consequence the increase of the elasticity module of beam and there was a low correlation between the methods of obtaining the modulus of elasticity of the beams, it is not possible for the development of an appropriate equation of correlation between the methods tested.
A new approach to ultrasonic elasticity imaging
Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.
2016-04-01
Biomechanical properties of soft tissues can provide information regarding the local health status. Often the cells in pathological tissues can be found to form a stiff extracellular environment, which is a sensitive, early diagnostic indicator of disease. Quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging provides a way to image the mechanical properties of tissues. Strain images provide a map of the relative tissue stiffness, but ambiguities and artifacts limit its diagnostic value. Accurately mapping intrinsic mechanical parameters of a region may increase diagnostic specificity. However, the inverse problem, whereby force and displacement estimates are used to estimate a constitutive matrix, is ill conditioned. Our method avoids many of the issues involved with solving the inverse problem, such as unknown boundary conditions and incomplete information about the stress field, by building an empirical model directly from measured data. Surface force and volumetric displacement data gathered during imaging are used in conjunction with the AutoProgressive method to teach artificial neural networks the stress-strain relationship of tissues. The Autoprogressive algorithm has been successfully used in many civil engineering applications and to estimate ocular pressure and corneal stiffness; here, we are expanding its use to any tissues imaged ultrasonically. We show that force-displacement data recorded with an ultrasound probe and displacements estimated at a few points in the imaged region can be used to estimate the full stress and strain vectors throughout an entire model while only assuming conservation laws. We will also demonstrate methods to parameterize the mechanical properties based on the stress-strain response of trained neural networks. This method is a fundamentally new approach to medical elasticity imaging that for the first time provides full stress and strain vectors from one set of observation data.
THE WAVE INTERACTION OF HEAVY BREAKS IN THE WATER WITH ELASTIC BARRIER
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Ivanchenko G.M.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Transformation of underwater shock wave spherical front geometry and chauge of impulse carried by it at interaction witu elastic shield is numerically investigated witu the use of zero approximation of ray technique. It is established, that in the vicinity of spots of total internal reflection in the plane interface between water and elastic body the additional internal stresses tend to infinity.
Engelbrecht, Jüri
2015-01-01
This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.
Response of multiphase magneto-electro-elastic sensors under ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel beam with plane stress assumption is presented in this paper. The beam is subjected to harmonic excitation with a point load at tip and a uniformly distributed load along the bottom surface of the mild steel beam. Numerical ...
Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. I. Theoretical solution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2010-01-01
and provides a simple and rapidly convergent iterative algorithm. The presented numerical data show an accuracy and numerical efficiency of the proposed method and discover the way and extent to which the elastic interaction between the partially debonded inclusions affects the local fields, stress intensity...... factors and the energy release rate at the interface crack tips....
an elasticity solution for simply suported rectangular plates
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MIS
1983-09-01
Sep 1, 1983 ... σx, σy, σz. = direct stresses ξxy, ξxz, ξyz. = shear stresses εy, εy, εz. = direct strains rxy, rxz ryz. = shear strains μ. = Poisson's ratio α = rm /Pb. = nπ/2b. R = 2 ... based on Donnell's5 thick plate theory are examined. 2. BASIC EQUATIONS. The general solution of the equations of elasticity can be expressed in.
Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity
2015-08-13
sufficient conditions for the compatibility of displacement gradient and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. The main...conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS geometric theory for nonlinear elasticity, discrete exterior calculus 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...complex allows one to readily derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the compatibility of displacement gradient and the existence of stress
Petrov-Galerkin mixed formulations for bidimensional elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toledo, E.M.; Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.
1989-10-01
A new formulation for two-dimensional elasticity in stress and displacements is presented. Consistently adding to the Galerkin classical formulation residuals forms of constitutive and equilibrium equations, the original saddle point is transformed into a minimization problem without any restrictions. We also propose a stress post processing technique using both equilibrium and constitutive equations. Numerical analysis error estimates and numerical results are presented confirming the predicted rates of convergence. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
The question is: are fast-moving scales contracted or elongated?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1991-01-01
The traditional definition of the length of a fast-moving scale and the concept of relativistic length are considered from the point of view of the condition of relativistic covariance. It is shown that the latter concept satisfies this condition whereas the traditional definition is in contrast with it ('synchronous length' is not a 4-vector). It is stressed that the light and retarded distances and the relativistic length introduced in fact on their base serve as the basis for the space-time picture of the radar formulation of relativistic theory. The consequence of this approach is lengthening (and not contraction) of longitudinal sizes of relativistic objects. It is noted that the use of radar length (instead of 'instantaneous' one) in the known interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment leads to the elongation formula for a longitudinal arm of the interferometer. 16 refs.; 1 fig
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohei Iio
2017-04-01
Conclusion: The location of the original femoral tunnel was more proximal in patients with elongated grafts than in those with ruptured grafts. Different bone tunnel position from native ACL might lead to graft elongation.
Bond, Andrew R.; Ni, Chih-Wen; Jo, Hanjoong
2010-01-01
Spatial variation in hemodynamic stresses acting on the arterial wall may explain the nonuniform distribution of atherosclerosis. In thoracic aortas of LDL receptor/apolipoprotein E double knockout mice, lesions develop preferentially around the entire circumference of intercostal branch ostia, regardless of age, with the highest prevalence occurring upstream. Additional chevron-shaped lesions occur further upstream of the ostia. This pattern differs from the age-related ones occurring in people and rabbits. In the present study, patterns of near-wall blood flow around intercostal ostia in wild-type mice were estimated from the morphology of endothelial nuclei, which were shown in vitro to elongate in response to elevated shear stress and to align with the flow, and wall structure was assessed from confocal and scanning electron microscopy. A triangular intimal cushion surrounded the upstream part of most ostia. Nuclear length-to-width ratios were lowest over this cushion and highest at the sides of branches, regardless of age. Nuclear orientations were consistent with flow diverging around the branch. The pattern of nuclear morphology differed from the age-related ones observed in rabbits. The intimal cushion and the distribution of shear stress inferred from these observations can partly account for the pattern of lesions observed in knockout mice. Nuclear elongation in nonbranch regions was approximately constant across animals of different size, demonstrating the existence of a mechanism by which endothelial cells compensate for the dependence of mean aortic wall shear stress on body mass. PMID:19933414
Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors
2017-02-01
AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF
Elasticity theory of ultrathin nanofilms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jiangang; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B; Yao, Haiyan
2015-01-01
A self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elastic behavior of ultrathin nanofilms (UTNFs) was proposed. Taking into account the lower symmetry of an UTNF compared to its bulk counterpart, additional elastic and magnetoelastic parameters were introduced to model the elasticity rigorously. The applications of current theory to several elastic and magnetoelastic systems gave excellent agreement with experiments. More importantly, the surface elastic and magnetoelastic parameters used to fit the experimental results are physically reasonable and in close agreement with those obtained from experiment and simulation. This fact suggests that the additional elastic (magnetoelastic) constants due to symmetry breaking are of great importance in theoretical description of the mechanical properties of UTNFs. And we proved that the elasticity of UTNFs should be described by a three-dimensional model just including the intrinsic surface and bulk parameters, but not the effective surface parameters. It is believed that the theory reported here is a universal strategy for elasticity and magnetoelasticity of ultrathin films. (paper)
first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.
1976-01-01
The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr
Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schock, R N [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1970-05-01
Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)
Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schock, R.N.
1970-01-01
Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)
Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function
Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry
2012-01-01
Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423
Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naimish R Patel
Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.
Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.
QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice
Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki
2014-01-01
Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA s...
Methanol as an alternative electron donor in chain elongation for butyrate and caproate formation
Chen, W.S.; Ye, Y.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.
2016-01-01
Chain elongation is an emerging mixed culture biotechnology converting acetate into valuable biochemicals by using ethanol as an external electron donor. In this study we proposed to test another potential electron donor, methanol, in chain elongation. Methanol can be produced through the thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biowaste. Use of methanol in chain elongation integrates the lignocellulosic feedstocks and the thermochemical platform technologies into chain elongation. After ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jai Hak
2009-01-01
SGBEM(Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method)-FEM alternating method has been proposed by Nikishkov, Park and Atluri. In the proposed method, arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional crack problems can be solved by alternating between the crack solution in an infinite body and the finite element solution without a crack. In the previous study, the SGBEM-FEM alternating method was extended further in order to solve elastic-plastic crack problems and to obtain elastic-plastic stress fields. For the elastic-plastic analysis the algorithm developed by Nikishkov et al. is used after modification. In the algorithm, the initial stress method is used to obtain elastic-plastic stress and strain fields. In this paper, elastic-plastic J integrals for three-dimensional cracks are obtained using the method. For that purpose, accurate values of displacement gradients and stresses are necessary on an integration path. In order to improve the accuracy of stress near crack surfaces, coordinate transformation and partitioning of integration domain are used. The coordinate transformation produces a transformation Jacobian, which cancels the singularity of the integrand. Using the developed program, simple three-dimensional crack problems are solved and elastic and elastic-plastic J integrals are obtained. The obtained J integrals are compared with the values obtained using a handbook solution. It is noted that J integrals obtained from the alternating method are close to the values from the handbook
Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters
Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza
2018-04-01
Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.
Elastic properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.W.; Li, S.J.; Obbard, E.G.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.C.; Hao, Y.L.; Yang, R.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The single crystals of Ti2448 alloy with the bcc crystal structure were prepared. → The elastic moduli and constants were measured by several resonant methods. → The crystal shows significant elastic asymmetry in tension and compression. → The crystal exhibits weak nonlinear elasticity with large elastic strain ∼2.5%. → The crystal has weak atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low symmetry. - Abstract: Single crystals of Ti2448 alloy (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) were grown successfully using an optical floating-zone furnace. Several kinds of resonant methods gave consistent Young's moduli of 27.1, 56.3 and 88.1 GPa and shear moduli of 34.8, 11.0 and 14.6 GPa for the , and oriented single crystals, and C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of 57.2, 36.1 and 35.9 GPa respectively. Uniaxial testing revealed asymmetrical elastic behaviors of the crystals: tension caused elastic softening with a large reversible strain of ∼4% and a stress plateau of ∼250 MPa, whereas compression resulted in gradual elastic stiffening with much smaller reversible strain. The crystals exhibited weak nonlinear elasticity with a large elastic strain of ∼2.5% and a high strength, approaching ∼20% and ∼30% of its ideal shear and ideal tensile strength respectively. The crystals showed linear elasticity with a small elastic strain of ∼1%. These elastic deformation characteristics have been interpreted in terms of weakened atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low crystal symmetry under external applied stresses. These results are consistent with the properties of polycrystalline Ti2448, including high strength, low elastic modulus, large recoverable strain and weak strengthening effect due to grain refinement.
Applications of super elasticity in vibrational control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soul, H
2005-01-01
In this work, the possibilities of using shape memory alloys (SMA) as passive dampers devices in mechanicals vibrations problems are studied.The property that is exploited is the super elastic effect, by wich strains of the order of 10% can be obtained.The relationship between stress and strain means that this is an inelastic process.Nevertheless when load is removed the material recoveries its original dimension, presenting zero or almost zero permanent strain relative to others common materials, describing in its stress-strain diagram an important hysteretic loop.This features occurs basically because in well suited conditions the SMA can undergo martensitic transformations induced by stress.A series of uniaxial tension tests in commercial NiTi wires are performed, in order to characterize the super elastic behavior of the material.The influence of variables as ambient temperature, strain rate, strain levels and number of tension cycles accumulated are studied paying attention to the dissipative capacity of the material defined by means of the shape of the hysteretic loop.The influence on the damping capacity of the thermal effects associated with the martensitic transformation are evaluated by performing experiments at different transformation rates.Results are rationalized in terms of a model considering the interaction between a source term (heat of transformation), heat convection to the ambient and conduction along the wire.Some numerical results are obtained and discussed. For a performance evaluation in devices applications a simplified model of super elasticity is proposed.Then, the response of an elastic frame structure endowed with SMA tensors is evaluated following the model behavior when seismic movement is imposed at the base.The obtained results verify the possibility of using SMA as kernel elements in vibration control.This conclusion is experimentally verified in a prototype of the structure specially designed and constructed for this work
Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects
Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon
2018-04-01
In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.
Tyumentsev, A. N.; Ditenberg, I. A.; Sukhanov, I. I.
2018-02-01
In the zones of strain localization in the region of elastic distortions and nanodipoles of partial disclinations representing the defects of elastically deformed medium, a theoretical analysis of the elastically stressed state and the energy of these defects, including the cases of their transformation into more complex ensembles of interrelated disclinations, is performed. Using the analytical results, the mechanisms of strain localization are discussed in the stages of nucleation and propagation of the bands of elastic and plastic strain localization formed in these zones (including the cases of nanocrystalline structure formation).
Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks
Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.
2018-01-01
Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.
Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarus, E.A.; Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.
1990-06-01
In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and ell i is decreased that the n = 0 mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior; first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode
Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
2005-01-01
Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....
Permeability and elastic properties of cracked glass under pressure
Ougier-Simonin, A.; GuéGuen, Y.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Bouyer, F.
2011-07-01
Fluid flow in rocks is allowed through networks of cracks and fractures at all scales. In fact, cracks are of high importance in various applications ranging from rock elastic and transport properties to nuclear waste disposal. The present work aims at investigating thermomechanical cracking effects on elastic wave velocities, mechanical strength, and permeability of cracked glass under pressure. We performed the experiments on a triaxial cell at room temperature which allows for independent controls of the confining pressure, the axial stress, and pore pressure. We produced cracks in original borosilicate glass samples with a reproducible method (thermal treatment with a thermal shock of 300°C). The evolution of the elastic and transport properties have been monitored using elastic wave velocity sensors, strain gage, and flow measurements. The results obtained evidence for (1) a crack family with identified average aspect ratio and crack aperture, (2) a very small permeability which decreases as a power (exponential) function of pressure, and depends on (3) the crack aperture cube. We also show that permeability behavior of a cracked elastic brittle solid is reversible and independent of the fluid nature. Two independent methods (permeability and elastic wave velocity measurements) give these consistent results. This study provides data on the mechanical and transport properties of an almost ideal elastic brittle solid in which a crack population has been introduced. Comparisons with similar data on rocks allow for drawing interesting conclusions. Over the timescale of our experiments, our results do not provide any data on stress corrosion, which should be considered in further study.
On generalization uniaxial stress-strain relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahay, C.; Dubey, R.N.
1980-01-01
Different forms of constitutive relations have been advanced for elastic, plastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of materials. It is shown that the various forms of the stress-strain relationship are specialized forms of generalization of a single stress-strain relation. For example, it is shown how the laws of elastic deformation, and the incremental and total deformation relationship for plastic behaviour are derivable from the Ramberg-Osgood relation. (orig.)
O'Keeffe, Grainne; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Doyle, Sean
2013-11-01
The opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is ubiquitous in the environment and predominantly infects immunocompromised patients. The functions of many genes remain unknown despite sequencing of the fungal genome. A putative translation elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ, termed elfA; 750 bp) is expressed, and exhibits glutathione S-transferase activity, in A. fumigatus. Here, we demonstrate the role of ElfA in the oxidative stress response, as well as a possible involvement in translation and actin cytoskeleton organization, respectively. Comparative proteomics, in addition to phenotypic analysis, under basal and oxidative stress conditions, demonstrated a role for A. fumigatus elfA in the oxidative stress response. An elfA-deficient strain (A. fumigatus ΔelfA) was significantly more sensitive to the oxidants H2O2, diamide, and 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) than the wild-type. This was further supported with the identification of differentially expressed proteins of the oxidative stress response, including; mitochondrial peroxiredoxin Prx1, molecular chaperone Hsp70 and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Phenotypic analysis also revealed that A. fumigatus ΔelfA was significantly more tolerant to voriconazole than the wild-type. The differential expression of two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases suggests a role for A. fumigatus elfA in translation, while the identification of actin-bundling protein Sac6 and vacuolar dynamin-like GTPase VpsA link A. fumigatus elfA to the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, this work highlights the diverse roles of A. fumigatus elfA, with respect to translation, oxidative stress and actin cytoskeleton organization. In addition to this, the strategy of combining targeted gene deletion with comparative proteomics for elucidating the role of proteins of unknown function is further revealed. © 2013 The Protein Society.
Fillet Weld Stress Using Finite Element Methods
Lehnhoff, T. F.; Green, G. W.
1985-01-01
Average elastic Von Mises equivalent stresses were calculated along the throat of a single lap fillet weld. The average elastic stresses were compared to initial yield and to plastic instability conditions to modify conventional design formulas is presented. The factor is a linear function of the thicknesses of the parent plates attached by the fillet weld.
Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agust eGudmundsson
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kardashev, B.K.; Nikanorov, S.P.; Kravchenko, V.S.; Malinov, V.I.; Punin, V.T.
2007-01-01
The influence of vibrational deformation amplitude on the dynamic elasticity modulus and internal friction of high-pressure polyethylene samples with different histories is studied. Acoustic measurements are made by a resonance method using the longitudinal vibrations of a composite piezoelectric vibrator at a frequency of ∼ 100 kHz. It is found that the microplasticity remains almost unaffected upon irradiation and aging, while the elasticity modulus and breaking elongation per unit length considerably depend on the history and are clearly correlated with each other. The observed effects are explained by the fact that atom-atom interaction and defects inside polymer macromolecules substantially influence the elastic modulus and breaking strength, while the inelastic microplastic strain is most likely associated with molecule-molecule interaction, which is insignificantly affected by irradiation [ru
bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
2, 3DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ENUGU STATE. ... theory of elasticity and in the case of vertical applied loads, was first ... partial differential equations in bodies having cylindrical symmetry.
Strain fluctuations and elastic constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.
1982-03-01
It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.
High energy elastic hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearnly, T.A.
1986-04-01
The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described
Developing relationships between environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, B.M.; Willits, D.H.
1998-01-01
The main objective of this research was to model the relationships between the environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum with the end-goal of producing a model appropriate for use in the dynamic control of a greenhouse environment. The plants used were Dendranthema grandiflora cv. 'Spice'. The model developed uses Richards' growth equation (Richards, 1969) as its base. Adaptations were made to Richards' growth equation to explicitly include the effects of day and night temperature, daily PPF (photosynthetic photon flux), end-of-day red to far-red ratio, and position of the internode on the stem on internode elongation. The model fit the observed final length data reasonably well (R2 = 0.89). Sensitivity analyses indicated that increasing day temperature had a positive effect on internode length while increasing night temperature had a negative effect, with night temperature having a considerably larger effect than the effect of day temperature. The analyses suggests that both high and low end-of-day red to far-red ratios will produce increased lengths and that increasing daily PPF will produce decreased lengths. The analyses also suggests that internodes which develop later on the plant will generally have larger lengths as reflected by the measured data
Enhanced photoanisotropic response in azopolymer doped with elongated goethite nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedelchev, L; Nazarova, D; Berberova, N; Mateev, G; Kostadinova, D; Mariño-Fernández, R; Salgueiriño, V; Schmool, D
2016-01-01
We present a study of the photoinduced birefringence in nanocomposite films of an azopolymer (PAZO) doped with goethite (a-FeOOH, a characteristic antiferromagnetic material) nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs had an elongated shape with a size 15×150 nm, i.e., a ratio of 1:10. Samples were prepared with different concentrations of the NPs in the azopolymer varying from 0% (undoped azopolymer film) to 15 wt %. An unusual dependence of the birefringence on the concentration was observed - two peaks of enhancement at 1 % and at 10 % concentration. Our previous studies on ZnO and SiO 2 NP have indicated only one peak of increase at low concentrations - 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %, respectively. This effect could be related to the elongated shape of the nanoparticles and the presence of two characteristic NPs sizes - 15 and 150 nm. Moreover, the birefringence increase for the samples with 10 wt % NPs concentration (compared with the non-doped samples) was rather significant - nearly 70%. (paper)
Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.
Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A
2014-03-14
The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.
Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*
Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.
2014-01-01
The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800
Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint
Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.
Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole
2005-01-01
The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...
Swimming of a Sea Butterfly with an Elongated Shell
Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy E.; Murphy, David W.
2017-11-01
Sea butterflies (pteropods) are small, zooplanktonic marine snails which swim by flapping highly flexible parapodia. Previous studies show that the swimming hydrodynamics of Limacina helicina, a polar pteropod with a spiraled shell, is similar to tiny insect flight aerodynamics and that forward-backward pitching is key for lift generation. However, swimming by diverse pteropod species with different shell shapes has not been examined. We present measurements of the swimming of Cuvierina columnella, a warm water species with an elongated non-spiraled shell collected off the coast of Bermuda. With a body length of 9 mm, wing beat frequency of 4-6 Hz and swimming speed of 35 mm/s, these organisms swim at a Reynolds number of approximately 300, larger than that of L. helicina. High speed 3D kinematics acquired via two orthogonal cameras reveals that the elongated shell correlates with reduced body pitching and that the wings bend approximately 180 degrees in each direction, overlapping at the end of each half-stroke. Time resolved 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system reveal leading edge vortices present in both power and recovery strokes. Interactions between the overlapping wings and the shell also likely play a role in lift generation.
Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa
Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.
1999-01-01
Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukamoto, Osami; Li, Z
2007-01-01
The influence of uniaxial tensile stress-strain on the AC loss characteristics of multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape wires was investigated. The uniaxial tensile stress-strain was applied to the sample wire in liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and the AC losses (transport, magnetization and total losses) were measured by an electric method. Two kinds of wire, oxide-dispersion strengthened Ag-alloy sheathed and Ag-alloy sheathed wires, were tested. The stress-strain curves of the tested wires were divided in three regions, i.e. elastic deformation, continuous plastic deformation and serrated-like plastic deformation regions, though the ranges of those regions were different for different kinds of wire. In the elastic and continuous plastic regions, the stress-strain curve was smooth and continuous, and in the serrated-like plastic region, the curve was rough. In the serrated-like plastic region, the wires kept elongating, while increase of the tensile stress was suspended. Dependences of the critical currents on the stress-strain were generally as follows. While decreases of the wire critical currents were in the range of less than 4% of the original values of the no-stress condition, the critical currents of the wires were reversible, that is, the critical currents recovered the original values at zero stress when the stress were released, regardless of whether the wires were in the elastic or continuous plastic region. In the continuous plastic region, the critical currents decreased up to 10%-15% of the original values and the critical currents were irreversible when the degradations of the critical currents exceeded about 4%. In the serrated-like plastic regions, the critical currents were more severely degraded. The AC loss characteristics of the wires are different in those regions. In the elastic and continuous plastic regions, the absolute values of AC losses were dependent on the stress-strain. However, the dependences of those normalized
CONCERNING THE ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC MODEL APPLIED TO WOOD ELASTIC PROPERTIES
Tadeu Mascia,Nilson
2003-01-01
Among the construction materials, wood reveals an orthotropic pattern, because of unique characteristics in its internal structure with three axes of wood biological directions (longitudinal, tangential and radial). elastic symmetry: longitudinal, tangential and radial, reveals an orthotropic pattern. The effect of grain angle orientation onin the elastic modulus constitutes the fundamental cause forof wood anisotropy. It is responsible for the greatest changes in the values of the constituti...
Spectral dimension of elastic Sierpinski gaskets with general elastic forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.
1985-01-01
The spectral dimension is calculated for a Sierpinski gasket with the most general elastic restoring forces allowed by symmetry. The elastic forces consist of bond-stretching and angle-bending components. The spectral dimension is the same as that for the bond-stretching-force (central-force) model. This demonstrates that on the Sierpinski gasket the two types of forces belong to the same universality class
The role of pressure in rubber elasticity.
Bower, A F; Weiner, J H
2004-06-22
We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy epsilon(LJ) and radius sigma(LJ). We calculate the difference stress t(11)-(t(22)+t(33))/2 and mean stress (t(11)+t(22)+t(33))/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x(1) direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density rho(*)=Nsigma(IJ) (3)/nu. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and nu is the cell volume. Results show that for rho(*)rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to rho(*)=1.2. For rho(*)>1, the system is entropic for kT/epsilon(LJ)>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as rho(*) increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for rho(*)=1.2 and kT/epsilon(LJ) approximately 2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution sigma(nbr)>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides sigma(nba) approximately 0, while the covalent bonds provide sigma(b)nbr)0, and Pi(b)nbr)=-APi(nbr)P(2)(theta(b)), sigma(b)=BPi(b)P(2)(theta(b)), where P(2)(theta(b)) is a measure of the anisotropy of the orientation of the covalent bonds, and A and B are coefficients that depend weakly on rho(*) and temperature. For high
Elastic constants of the C15 laves phase compound NbCr2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, F.; He, Y.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.
1995-01-01
Elastic properties of a solid are important because they relate to various fundamental solid-state phenomena such as interatomic potentials, equations of state, and phonon spectra. Elastic properties are also linked thermodynamically with specific heat, thermal expansion, Debye temperature, and Gruneisen parameter. Most important, knowledge of elastic constants is essential for many practical applications related to the mechanical properties of a solid as well: load-deflection, thermoelastic stress, internal strain (residual stress), sound velocities, dislocation core structure, and fracture toughness. In order to understand better the physical properties and deformation behavior of the C15 compound NbCr 2 , the authors have studied its elastic properties in this paper. In Section 2, the experimental methods are described, including the preparation of the sample and the measurement of the elastic constants. In Section 3, the experimental results are presented and the implications of these experimental results are discussed. Conclusions are drawn in Section 4
A simplified approach for ratcheting analysis in structures with elastic follow-up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berton, M.N.; Cabrillat, M.T.
1991-01-01
In the framework of an elastic analysis, the RCC-MR design code uses the concept of the efficiency diagram to assess the behaviour of a structure relatively to ratcheting. This diagram was obtained from a lot of experimental results and allows to cover many reactor situations. However this approach needs to classify stresses between primary and secondary stresses and for a few cases, in particular for structures with significant elastic follow-up, this classification is not obvious. After a recall of elastic follow-up definition and a few considerations on the way to evaluate it, an approach is proposed to take it into account in an elastic analysis verifying the avoidance of ratcheting. An experimental program has been developed to study this interaction between elastic follow-up and ratcheting. The first results are presented together with interpretations with the proposed method. (author)
Elastic dipoles of point defects from atomistic simulations
Varvenne, Céline; Clouet, Emmanuel
2017-12-01
The interaction of point defects with an external stress field or with other structural defects is usually well described within continuum elasticity by the elastic dipole approximation. Extraction of the elastic dipoles from atomistic simulations is therefore a fundamental step to connect an atomistic description of the defect with continuum models. This can be done either by a fitting of the point-defect displacement field, by a summation of the Kanzaki forces, or by a linking equation to the residual stress. We perform here a detailed comparison of these different available methods to extract elastic dipoles, and show that they all lead to the same values when the supercell of the atomistic simulations is large enough and when the anharmonic region around the point defect is correctly handled. But, for small simulation cells compatible with ab initio calculations, only the definition through the residual stress appears tractable. The approach is illustrated by considering various point defects (vacancy, self-interstitial, and hydrogen solute atom) in zirconium, using both empirical potentials and ab initio calculations.
Dislocations, the elastic energy momentum tensor and crack propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lung, Chi-wei
1979-07-01
Based upon dislocation theory, some stress intensity factors can be calculated for practical cases. The results obtained by this method have been found to agree fairly well with the results obtained by the conventional fracture mechanics. The elastic energy momentum tensor has been used to calculate the force acting on the crack tip. A discussion on the kinetics of migration of impurities to the crack tip was given. It seems that the crack tip sometimes may be considered as a singularity in an elastic field and the fundamental law of classical field theory is applicable on the problem in fracture of materials. (author)
Rayleigh waves in elastic medium with double porosity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajneesh KUMAR
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the propagation of Rayleigh waves in isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space with double porosity whose surface is subjected to stress-free boundary conditions. The compact secular equations for elastic solid half-space with voids are deduced as special cases from the present analysis. In order to illustrate the analytical developments, the secular equations have been solved numerically. The computer simulated results for copper materials in respect of Rayleigh wave velocity and attenuation coe¢ cient have been presented graphically.
Simplified method evaluation for piping elastic follow-up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severud, L.K.
1983-05-01
A proposed simplified method for evaluating elastic follow-up effects in high temperature pipelines is presented. The method was evaluated by comparing the simplified analysis results with those obtained from detailed inelastic solutions. Nine different pipelines typical of a nuclear breeder reactor power plant were analyzed; the simplified method is attractive because it appears to give fairly accurate and conservative results. It is easy to apply and inexpensive since it employs iterative elastic solutions for the pipeline coupled with the readily available isochronous stress-strain data provided in the ASME Code
The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal
Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.
2017-12-01
The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.
Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki
2014-10-01
Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Nam Su
2010-01-01
The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters for a surface crack, such as the elastic stress intensity factor or the elastic-plastic J-integral, can be affected significantly by the adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can alter the fracture mechanics assessment parameters significantly. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, the crack shape, and the loading condition, to quantify the crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current assessment codes on crack interaction effects (crack combination rules), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates crack interaction effects by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral of adjacent in-plane surface cracks in a plate through detailed 3-dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The effects on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between two cracks, and the crack shape are investigated systematically. As for the loading condition, an axial tension is considered. Based on the finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks are discussed. The present results can be used to develop more concrete guidance on crack interaction effects for crack shape characterization to evaluate the integrity of defective components
Measurement and analysis of pressure tube elongation in the Douglas Point reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Causey, A.R.; MacEwan, S.R.; Jamieson, H.C.; Mitchell, A.B.
1980-02-01
Elongations of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, which occur as a result of neutron-irradiation-induced creep and growth, have been measured over the past 6 years, and the consequences of thses elongations have recently been analysed. Elongation rates, previously deduced from extensive measurements of elongations of cold-worked Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in the Pickering reactors, have been modified to apply to the pressure tubes in the Douglas Point (DP) reactor by taking into account measured diffences in texture and dislocation density. Using these elongation rates, and structural data unique to the DP reactor, the analysis predicts elongation behaviour which is in good agreement with pressure tube elongations measured during the ten years of reactor operation. (Auth)
Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
1996-02-01
Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...
Astronomical optics and elasticity theory
Lemaitre, Gerard Rene
2008-01-01
Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.
Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity
Knops, Robin John
1971-01-01
The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...
Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells
Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki
2011-01-01
We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells
CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Alan
1989-09-15
Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.
A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?
Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent
2011-01-01
A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...
In Situ elastic property sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olness, D.; Hirschfeld, T.; Kishiyama, K.; Steinhaus, R.
1987-01-01
Elasticity is an important property of many materials. Loss of elasticity can have serious consequences, such as when a gasket deteriorates and permits leakage of an expensive or hazardous material, or when a damping system begins to go awry. Loss of elasticity can also provide information related to an ancillary activity such as degradation of electrical insulation, loss of plasticizer in a plastic, or changes in permeability of a thin film. In fact, the mechanical properties of most organic compounds are altered when the compound degrades. Thus, a sensor for the mechanical properties can be used to monitor associated characteristics as well. A piezoelectric material in contact with an elastomer forms an oscillating system that can provide real-time elasticity monitoring. This combination constitutes a forced harmonic oscillator with damping provided by the elastomer. A ceramic oscillator with a total volume of a few mm 3 was used as an elasticity sensor. It was placed in intimate contact with an elastomer and then monitored remotely with a simple oscillator circuit and standard frequency counting electronics. Resonant frequency shifts and changes in Q value were observed corresponding to changes in ambient temperature and/or changes in pressure applied to the sample. Elastomer samples pretreated with ozone (to simulate aging) showed changes in Q value and frequency response, even though there were no visible changes in the elastic samples
Elastic-plastic transition: A universal law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Zhong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Although the initial stress-strain behavior in a tensile test is often characterized as linear elastic up to a yield stress and nonlinear plastic thereafter, the pre-yield transition region is known to exhibit significant curvature and hysteresis. Hundreds of high-precision loading-unloading-loading tensile tests were performed using 26 commercial sheet alloys exhibiting a wide range of strength, ductility and crystal structure. Analysis of the results reveals the following: 1.There is no significant linear elastic region; the proportional limit is ~0 MPa when measured with sufficient sensitivity. 2.Each of the hundreds of measured transitional stress-strain curves can be characterized by a single parameter, here called the “modulus reduction rate.”The corresponding equation captures ~80% of the observed variation, a factor of 3 to 6 better than a one-parameter linear approximation. 3.Most interestingly, the transitional behavior for all alloys follows a “Universal Law” requiring no fit parameters. The law depends only upon the strength of the material and its Young’s modulus, both of which are can be measured by independent tests or adopted from handbooks. The Universal Law captures ~90% of the variation represented by the one-parameter representation and eliminates the need for mechanical testing to implement and apply. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The results provide a simple path to significantly improving applied constitutive models in the transitional regime. The consistency of the effect for such a wide range of metals and suggests that the origin of the behavior lies in the pile-up and relaxation of dislocation arrays.
A Function for the hnRNP A1/A2 Proteins in Transcription Elongation.
Lemieux, Bruno; Blanchette, Marco; Monette, Anne; Mouland, Andrew J; Wellinger, Raymund J; Chabot, Benoit
2015-01-01
The hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins regulate processes such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA stability. Here, we report that a reduction in the levels of hnRNP A1 and A2 by RNA interference or their cytoplasmic retention by osmotic stress drastically increases the transcription of a reporter gene. Based on previous work, we propose that this effect may be linked to a decrease in the activity of the transcription elongation factor P-TEFb. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transcription of the reporter gene was stimulated when the catalytic component of P-TEFb, CDK9, was inhibited with DRB. While low levels of A1/A2 stimulated the association of RNA polymerase II with the reporter gene, they also increased the association of CDK9 with the repressor 7SK RNA, and compromised the recovery of promoter-distal transcription on the Kitlg gene after the release of pausing. Transcriptome analysis revealed that more than 50% of the genes whose expression was affected by the siRNA-mediated depletion of A1/A2 were also affected by DRB. RNA polymerase II-chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on DRB-treated and A1/A2-depleted cells identified a common set of repressed genes displaying increased occupancy of polymerases at promoter-proximal locations, consistent with pausing. Overall, our results suggest that lowering the levels of hnRNP A1/A2 elicits defective transcription elongation on a fraction of P-TEFb-dependent genes, hence favoring the transcription of P-TEFb-independent genes.
A Function for the hnRNP A1/A2 Proteins in Transcription Elongation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Lemieux
Full Text Available The hnRNP A1 and A2 proteins regulate processes such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA stability. Here, we report that a reduction in the levels of hnRNP A1 and A2 by RNA interference or their cytoplasmic retention by osmotic stress drastically increases the transcription of a reporter gene. Based on previous work, we propose that this effect may be linked to a decrease in the activity of the transcription elongation factor P-TEFb. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transcription of the reporter gene was stimulated when the catalytic component of P-TEFb, CDK9, was inhibited with DRB. While low levels of A1/A2 stimulated the association of RNA polymerase II with the reporter gene, they also increased the association of CDK9 with the repressor 7SK RNA, and compromised the recovery of promoter-distal transcription on the Kitlg gene after the release of pausing. Transcriptome analysis revealed that more than 50% of the genes whose expression was affected by the siRNA-mediated depletion of A1/A2 were also affected by DRB. RNA polymerase II-chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on DRB-treated and A1/A2-depleted cells identified a common set of repressed genes displaying increased occupancy of polymerases at promoter-proximal locations, consistent with pausing. Overall, our results suggest that lowering the levels of hnRNP A1/A2 elicits defective transcription elongation on a fraction of P-TEFb-dependent genes, hence favoring the transcription of P-TEFb-independent genes.
Identification of EloR (Spr1851) as a regulator of cell elongation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Stamsås, Gro Anita; Straume, Daniel; Ruud Winther, Anja; Kjos, Morten; Frantzen, Cyril Alexander; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve
2017-09-01
In a screen for mutations suppressing the lethal loss of PBP2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae we identified Spr1851 (named EloR), a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function whose inactivation removed the requirement for PBP2b as well as RodA. It follows from this that EloR and the two elongasome proteins must be part of the same functional network. This network also includes StkP, as this serine/threonine kinase phosphorylates EloR on threonine 89 (T89). We found that ΔeloR cells, and cells expressing the phosphoablative form of EloR (EloR T89A ), are significantly shorter than wild-type cells. Furthermore, the phosphomimetic form of EloR (EloR T89E ) is not tolerated unless the cell in addition acquires a truncated MreC or non-functional RodZ protein. By itself, truncation of MreC as well as inactivation of RodZ gives rise to less elongated cells, demonstrating that the stress exerted by the phosphomimetic form of EloR is relieved by suppressor mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the elongasome. Of note, it was also found that loss of elongasome activity caused by truncation of MreC elicits increased StkP-mediated phosphorylation of EloR. Together, the results support a model in which phosphorylation of EloR stimulates cell elongation, while dephosphorylation has an inhibitory effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fatigue analysis - computation of the actual strain range using elastic calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roche, R.L.
1987-04-01
The design codes used in nuclear industry do not contain all the same rules allowing to deduce from an elastic calculation the actual deformation variation. Knowledge of strain range is needed for fatigue analysis. Elastic calculation does not give the actual range. The aim of this paper is discussing ways to correct elastic results and proposing a practical method to do it. Two corrections are required. The first one is related to elastic follow up effect when shakedown is not obtained (correction on secondary stress). The second one is related to stress raisers effect (correction on peak stress). It is shown that NEUBER's rule is not convenient for the second correction when shakedown is not fulfilled [fr
Improved measurements of elastic properties at acoustic resonant frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.; Shillinglaw, A.J.
1976-01-01
The choice of specimens of rectangular cross section for determination of dynamic elastic moduli by the resonant bar technique is often dictated by specimen fabrication problems. The specimen of rectangular cross section lends itself to accurate determination of elastic vibration shapes by a method in which a simple noncontacting optical transducer is used. The unequivocal indexing of the various vibration modes obtained in this way more than compensates for the added computational difficulties associated with rectangular geometry. The approximations used in the calculations of Young's modulus and the shear modulus for bars of rectangular cross section are tested experimentally and it is shown that high precision can be obtained. Determinations of changes in dynamic elastic moduli with temperature or stress are also described. (author)
Motion of Knots in DNA Stretched by Elongational Fields
Klotz, Alexander R.; Soh, Beatrice W.; Doyle, Patrick S.
2018-05-01
Knots in DNA occur in biological systems, serve as a model system for polymer entanglement, and affect the efficacy of modern genomics technologies. We study the motion of complex knots in DNA by stretching molecules with a divergent electric field that provides an elongational force. We demonstrate that the motion of knots is nonisotropic and driven towards the closest end of the molecule. We show for the first time experimentally that knots can go from a mobile to a jammed state by varying an applied strain rate, and that this jamming is reversible. We measure the mobility of knots as a function of strain rate, demonstrating the conditions under which knots can be driven towards the ends of the molecule and untied.
Sigmoid Colon Elongation Evaluation by Volume Rendering Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atilla SENAYLI
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Sigmoid colons have various measurements, shapes, and configurations for individuals. In this subject there are rare clinical trials to answer the question of sigmoidal colon maldevelopment predicting a risk for volvulus. Therefore, sigmoid colon measurement may be beneficial to decide for volvulus. In a study, sigmoid colon diameters were evaluated during abdominal surgeries and it was found that median length was 47 cm and median vertical mesocolon length was 13 cm. We report a 14-year-old female patient who has a sigmoidal colon measured as nearly 54 cm. We used tomographic equipments for this evaluation. We know that MRI technique was used for this purpose but, there has not been data for MRI predicting the sigmoidal volvulus. We hope that our findings by this evaluation can contribute to insufficient literature of sigmoidal elongation. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 71-73
A pea chloroplast translation elongation factor that is regulated by abiotic factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, B.N.; Mishra, R.N.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Goswami, Mamta; Nair, Suresh; Sopory, S.K.; Reddy, M.K.
2004-01-01
We report the cloning and characterization of both the cDNA (tufA) and genomic clones encoding for a chloroplast translation elongation factor (EF-Tu) from pea. The analysis of the deduced amino acids of the cDNA clone reveals the presence of putative transit peptide sequence and four GTP binding domains and two EF-Tu signature motifs in the mature polypeptide region. Using in vivo immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy pea EF-Tu was localized to chloroplast. The steady state transcript level of pea tufA was high in leaves and not detectable in roots. The expression of this gene is stimulated by light. The differential expression of this gene in response to various abiotic stresses showed that it is down-regulated in response to salinity and ABA and up-regulated in response to low temperature and salicylic acid treatment. These results indicate that regulation of pea tufA may have an important role in plant adaptation to environmental stresses